WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Can small institutes address some problems facing biomedical researchers?  

Science.gov (United States)

At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier. One potential solution is to focus efforts on small thematic institutes in the university structure that can provide a stimulating and supportive environment for innovation and exploration. With an open-lab concept, there are economies of scale that can diminish paperwork and costs, while providing greater access to state-of-the-art equipment. Merging multiple disciplines around a common theme can catalyze innovation, and this enables individuals to develop new concepts without giving up the credit they deserve, because it is usually clear who did the work. Small institutes do not solve larger systemic problems but rather enable collective efforts to address the noisome aspects of the system and foster an innovative community effort to address scientific problems. PMID:25360047

Sheetz, Michael P

2014-11-01

2

Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. PMID:22525104

Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

2012-05-01

3

The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO...

Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

2008-01-01

4

A case study in innovative outreach--combining training, research, and technology transfer to address real-world problems.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outreach, training, technology transfer, and research are often treated as programmatically distinct activities. The interdisciplinary and applied aspects of the Superfund Basic Research Program offer an opportunity to explore different models. A case study is presented that describes a collaborative outreach effort that combines all of the above. It involves the University of California's Davis and Berkeley program projects, the University of California Systemwide Toxic Substances Research a...

Chang, D. P.

1998-01-01

5

A case study in innovative outreach--combining training, research, and technology transfer to address real-world problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outreach, training, technology transfer, and research are often treated as programmatically distinct activities. The interdisciplinary and applied aspects of the Superfund Basic Research Program offer an opportunity to explore different models. A case study is presented that describes a collaborative outreach effort that combines all of the above. It involves the University of California's Davis and Berkeley program projects, the University of California Systemwide Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, the U.S. Navy's civilian workforce at the former Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California (MINSY), a Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Education Demonstration Grant program, and the Private Industry Council of Napa and Sonoma counties in California. The effort applied a Superfund-developed technology to a combined waste, radium and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, stemming from a problematic removal action at an installation/restoration site at MINSY. The effort demonstrates that opportunities for similar collaborations are possible at DoD installations. PMID:9703494

Chang, D P

1998-08-01

6

Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

Hanna, S.

2012-01-01

7

Pervasive Sensing: Addressing the Heterogeneity Problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pervasive sensing is characterized by heterogeneity across a number of dimensions. This raises significant problems for those designing, implementing and deploying sensor networks, irrespective of application domain. Such problems include for example, issues of data provenance and integrity, security, and privacy amongst others. Thus engineering a network that is fit-for-purpose represents a significant challenge. In this paper, the issue of heterogeneity is explored from the perspective of those who seek to harness a pervasive sensing element in their applications. A initial solution is proposed based on the middleware construct.

8

Time to address the problems at the neural interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Neural engineers have made significant, if not remarkable, progress in interfacing with the nervous system in the last ten years. In particular, neuromodulation of the brain has generated significant therapeutic benefits [1-5]. EEG electrodes can be used to communicate with patients with locked-in syndrome [6]. In the central nervous system (CNS), electrode arrays placed directly over or within the cortex can record neural signals related to the intent of the subject or patient [7, 8]. A similar technology has allowed paralyzed patients to control an otherwise normal skeletal system with brain signals [9, 10]. This technology has significant potential to restore function in these and other patients with neural disorders such as stroke [11]. Although there are several multichannel arrays described in the literature, the workhorse for these cortical interfaces has been the Utah array [12]. This 100-channel electrode array has been used in most studies on animals and humans since the 1990s and is commercially available. This array and other similar microelectrode arrays can record neural signals with high quality (high signal-to-noise ratio), but these signals fade and disappear after a few months and therefore the current technology is not reliable for extended periods of time. Therefore, despite these major advances in communicating with the brain, clinical translation cannot be implemented. The reasons for this failure are not known but clearly involve the interface between the electrode and the neural tissue. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) as well as other federal funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health have provided significant financial support to investigate this problem without much success. A recent funding program from DARPA was designed to establish the failure modes in order to generate a reliable neural interface technology and again was unsuccessful at producing a robust interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly centered on interfacing with the CNS, it has recently become clear that the peripheral ne

Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

2014-04-01

9

A roadmap of problem frames research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been a decade since Michael Jackson introduced problem frames to the software engineering community. Since then, he has published further work addressing problem frames as well as presenting several keynote addresses. Other authors have researched problem frames, have written about their experiences and have expressed their opinions. It was not until 2004 that an opportunity presented itself for researchers in the field to gather as a community. The first International Workshop on Adva...

Cox, Karl; Hall, Jon G.; Rapanotti, Lucia

2005-01-01

10

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

11

Defining tools to address over-constrained geometric problems in Computer Aided Design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a new tool for decision support to address geometric over-constrained problems in Computer Aided Design (CAD). It concerns the declarative modeling of geometrical problems. The core of the coordinate free solver used to solve the Geometric Constraint Satisfaction Problem (GCSP) was developed previously by the authors. This research proposes a methodology based on Michelucci's witness method to determine whether the structure of the problem is over-constrained. In this case...

Mireille, Moinet; Mandil, Guillaume; Serre?, Philippe

2014-01-01

12

Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks  

CERN Document Server

P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

2010-01-01

13

The problem of causality in cultivation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an up-to-date review of problems in determining causal relationships in cultivation research, and considers the research rationales of various approaches with special reference to causal interpretation. It describes in turn a number of methodologies for addressing the problem and resolving it as far as this is possible. The issue of causal inference arises not only in cultivation research, however, but is basic to all media effects theories and approaches primarily at the ma...

Rossmann, Constanze; Brosius, Hans-bernd

2004-01-01

14

Review: Community-based participatory research approach to address mental health in minority populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods in which they were trained. Moreover, researchers continued to view mental health treatment from a health service perspective. PMID:20464489

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Shattell, Mona M; Coady, Maria; Wiens, Brenda

2011-10-01

15

Asia/Pacific moves to address mountainous waste problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a serious lack of chemical waste treatment units in the Asia/Pacific region. In many countries a lack of infrastructure, coupled with scant or no legislation or enforcement, results in significant amounts of chemical waste being dumped without proper treatment. The exception is Japan, which has substantial incineration, treatment, and landfill capabilities. Japan's chemical industry generates more than 14 million m.t./year of waste, which is reduced to 2.51 million m.t./year after treatment and recycling. Chemical companies operating in Asia/Pacific countries that do not have authorized waste contractors and disposal plants have few options. They can treat wastes inhouse, increase recycling, ship wastes outside for treatment, or store wastes onsite. Some companies, such as Monsanto (St. Louis), claim to have managed to avoid producing any final wastes. The company's farm chemicals plant in Malaysia is one example - even the drums used to transport raw materials to the site have been replaced with returnable containers. Chiba (Basel) also has invested in cutting waste. The Swiss firm's dyestuffs plant at Candra Sari, Indonesia cut primary pollution by 90%, while product output rose 12% - a result of changing operations procedures and capital investment of only $6,500. A number of countries have started to address the industrial waste problem - foremost is Hong Kong, which is currently commissioning one of the first chemical waste treatment centers in the regiomical waste treatment centers in the region. Other countries planning integrated waste treatment facilities include Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, and China

16

Operations research problems statements and solutions  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

2014-01-01

17

Addressing communications between Regulatory Body and TSO: perceptions and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of TSO assistance by the Regulatory Bodies is a way of facing the complexity of the technology and issues to be dealt with in the licensing and controlling process in the nuclear area. Although both TSO and Regulatory Body are well prepared and adjusted, the nature and environment of TSO work is rather different from the regulators. Some of the TSO members act as a consultant, giving expert advice to the regulators in a specific subject, some are in charge of inspections and audits, others do the job together with the regulators. The way that a TSO member perceives the work to be done, however, often creates different perspectives for questions related to the licensing and controlling process. These perceptions are usually a source of problems between the two partners, regulators and TSO members. In this paper some of this kind of problems are raised and suggestions of how to deal with them are proposed for discussion. (author)

18

Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed

19

Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

Morrison, D.L.

1996-12-01

20

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Research Activities Addressing the Fuel Design of Lead Fast Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the end of the 1990s, ENEA Brasimone Research Centre operates several experimental facilities aimed at supporting the research on LBE and lead systems, such as ADS and LFR. The experimental activities are related to thermal- hydraulics, heat exchange, science of materials, and qualification of components. Experimental loops operated at ENEA and an experiment addressing the compatibility of structural materials to withstand with aggressive coolants (i.e. Lead and LBE), at high temperature and high dose rate are described in this paper. These loops have been also operated for supporting the research related to the selection of the cladding materials for ADS and LRF technologies. The paper provides an overview of the recent and future activities devoted to material development. (author)

22

Quantifying the magnitude of environmental exposure misclassification when using imprecise address proxies in public health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spatial epidemiologic and public health research it is common to use spatially aggregated units such as centroids of postal/zip codes, census tracts, dissemination areas, blocks or block groups as proxies for sample unit locations. Few studies, however, address the potential problems associated with using these units as address proxies. The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude of distance errors and accessibility misclassification that result from using several commonly-used address proxies in public health research. The impact of these positional discrepancies for spatial epidemiology is illustrated by examining misclassification of accessibility to several health-related facilities, including hospitals, public recreation spaces, schools, grocery stores, and junk food retailers throughout the City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Positional errors are quantified by multiple neighborhood types, revealing that address proxies are most problematic when used to represent residential locations in small towns and rural areas compared to suburban and urban areas. Findings indicate that the shorter the threshold distance used to measure accessibility between subject population and health-related facility, the greater the proportion of misclassified addresses. Using address proxies based on large aggregated units such as centroids of census tracts or dissemination areas can result in very large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 343 and 2088 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and therefore should be avoided in spatial epidemiologic research. Even smaller, commonly-used, proxies for residential address such as postal code centroids can have large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 109 and 1363 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and are prone to misrepresenting accessibility in small towns and rural Canada; therefore, postal codes should only be used with caution in spatial epidemiologic research. PMID:22469491

Healy, Martin A; Gilliland, Jason A

2012-04-01

23

Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

24

Nuclear pressure boundary materials research problems and proposed solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complete test discusses several important materials problems facing LWR operation and some of the research programs that have been formulated at EPRI to address these problems. The problems include steam generator corrosion damage, BWR pipe cracking, BWR nozzle corner cracking, and radiation induced embrittlement. LWR materials problems are complex and will not easily yield to solution. However, the economic rewards for the solution are great. (Auth.)

25

Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

26

How Often Do Physicians Address Other Medical Problems While Providing Prenatal Care?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE It is unknown to what extent physicians address multiple problems while providing prenatal care. The objective of this study was to determine the percentage of prenatal encounters with 1 or more secondary and tertiary nonobstetric diagnoses and compare rates between family physicians and obstetricians.

Coco, Andrew

2009-01-01

27

Brief report : ethical problems in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

28

No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

Fernando Ornelas Marques

2012-06-01

29

The breast cancer research scandal: addressing the issues.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The three claims put forward by Dr. Roger Poisson to rationalize his enrollment of ineligible subjects in clinical trials do not justify research fraud. None the less, certain lessons for the conduct of clinical research can be learned from the affair: experimental therapies should be made available to technically ineligible subjects when no effective therapy exists for their disease; further research must investigate the possible benefits of clinical-trial participation; broadly based, pragm...

Weijer, C.

1995-01-01

30

The breast cancer research scandal: addressing the issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The three claims put forward by Dr. Roger Poisson to rationalize his enrollment of ineligible subjects in clinical trials do not justify research fraud. None the less, certain lessons for the conduct of clinical research can be learned from the affair: experimental therapies should be made available to technically ineligible subjects when no effective therapy exists for their disease; further research must investigate the possible benefits of clinical-trial participation; broadly based, pragmatic trials must be regarded as the ideal model; and each eligibility criterion in a clinical-trial protocol should be justified. PMID:7736369

Weijer, C

1995-04-15

31

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

Science.gov (United States)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

32

ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to other Universities/Instition/Organisations for case studies. Under the new millennium context resurgence of global interest in web-based Open, distance and e-learning (ODEL has been proved to be potentially useful strategy for human development issues, particularly due to the evolution of fast-growing as well as net-working new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. The study reveals that though ODEL has been found widely used in many reputed and world leading universities in UK for higher studies leading to degrees, diploma and certificates on arts, general & environmental sciences as well the commerce subjects, and trainings for professional developments etc. The application ODEL especially in higher agricultural education and training leading to MScs and PhDs is almost scanty except a few cases of Fisheries and Livestock, the two sections of Agriculture in the Universities like the University of Sterling, University of Edinburgh and the University of London (Royal Veterinary College etc. But in cases of other major areas of Agricultural subjects such as the crop sciences including Agronomy, Soil science, Crop botany, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Genetics & Pl. Breeding, Agric. Extension Education, Agric. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agro forestry, Biotechnology, Seed Sci. & Techno. Farm Structure, Farm Power & Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management, Food Tech. & Rural Farm Industry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable a

. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

2009-10-01

33

Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation provision. Results The studies both demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach of research to action, adopting three pillars of assessment and monitoring; advocacy; and community empowerment. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project study, the participation of managers meant that their support for implementation was increased, although the failure to include nurses and communities in the study was noted as a limitation. The development of a community Water and Sanitation Forum to support the Project had some notable successes, but also experienced some difficulties due to lack of capacity in both the community and the municipality. Conclusion The two very different, but connected projects, demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach, and the importance of involvement of all stakeholders at all stages. The studies also illustrate the potential of a research institution as informed 'outsiders', in influencing policy and practice.

Reagon Gavin

2008-02-01

34

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

35

A computational architecture to address combinatorial and stochastic aspects of process management problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis considers the problem of portfolio selection and task scheduling arising in research and development (R&D) pipeline management, where several projects compete for a limited pool of various resource types. Each project (product) usually involves a precedence-constrained network of testing tasks prior to product commercialization. If the project fails any of these tasks, then all the remaining work on that product is halted and the investment in the previous testing tasks is wasted....

Subramanian, Dharmashankar

2001-01-01

36

BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done?  

Science.gov (United States)

In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

Menter, Ian

2014-01-01

37

Research on Some Smarandache Problems, Vol. 8  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book includes part of the research results about the Smarandache problems written by Chinese scholars at present, and its main purpose is to introduce various results about the Smarandache problems, such as Smarandache function and its asymptotic properties, series convergence, solutions about special equations.

Ma, Rong

2012-01-01

38

Gone… but not away : Addressing the problem of long-term impacts from landfills in LCA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background, aim and scope: Land filling of materials with content of toxic metals or highly persistent organic compounds has posed a problem for life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners for many years. The slow release from the landfill entails a dilution in time, which is dramatic compared to other emissions occurring in the life cycle, and with its focus on the emitted mass, LCA is poorly equipped to handle this difference. As a consequence, the long-term emissions from landfills occurring over thousands of years are often disregarded, which is unacceptable to many stakeholders considering the quantities of toxic substances that can be present. On the other hand, inclusion of all future emissions (over thousands of years) in the inventories potentially dominates all other impacts from the product system. The paper aims to present a pragmatic approach to address this dilemma. Materials and methods: Two new impact categories are introduced representing the stored ecotoxicity and stored human toxicity of thecontaminants remaining in the landfill after a ‘foreseeable’ time period of 100 years. The impact scores are calculated using the normal characterisation factors for the ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories, and they represent the toxicity potentials of what remains in the landfill after 100 years (hence the term ‘stored’ (eco)toxicity). Normalisation references are developed for the stored toxicity categories based on Danish figures to support comparison with indicator scores for the conventional environmental impact categories. In contrast to the scores for the conventional impact categories, it is uncertain to what extent the stored toxicity scores represent emissions, which will occur at all. Guidance is given on how to reflect this uncertainty in the weighting and interpretation of the scores. Results and discussion: In landfills and road constructions used to deposit residuals from incinerators, less than 1% of the content of metals is leached within the first 100 years. The stored toxicityscores are therefore much higher than the conventional impact scores that represent the actual emissions. Several examples are given illustrating the use and potential significance of the stored toxicity categories. Conclusions and perspectives: The methodology to calculate stored human and ecotoxicity is a simple and pragmatic approach to address LCA’s problem of treating the slow´long-term emissions at very low concentrations appropriately. The problem resides in the inventory analysis and the impact assessment, and the methodology circumvents the problem by converting it into a weighting and interpretation issue accommodating the value-based discussion of how to weight potential effects in the far future.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

2008-01-01

39

Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

2014-06-01

40

Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. Theaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

2013-04-01

42

Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

Van Aalsvoort, Joke

2004-01-01

43

Some Problems in International Comparative Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines some problems and difficulties encountered in international comparative research programs in mass communications: comparability of units of analysis; lack of consensus manifested in dichotomization into "conventional" and "critical" approaches; and suitability of exported models, theories, concepts, and methods to Third World conditions.…

Halloran, James D.

1995-01-01

44

Defining Educational Research: A Perspective of/on Presidential Addresses and the Australian Association for Research in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the definition of the field of educational research and the changing and developing role of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) in representing and constituting this field. The evidence for the argument is derived from AARE Presidential Addresses across its 40-year history. The paper documents…

Lingard, Bob; Gale, Trevor

2010-01-01

45

Design Step 2: Research the Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Through Internet research, patent research, standards and codes research, user interviews (if possible) and other techniques (idea web, reverse engineering), students further develop the context for their design challenge. In subsequent activities, the design teams use this body of knowledge about the problem to generate product design ideas. (Note: Conduct this activity in the context of a design project that students are working on, which could be a challenge determined by the teacher, brainstormed with the class, or the example project challenge provided [to design a prosthetic arm that can perform a mechanical function]. This activity is Step 2 in a series of six that guide students through the engineering design loop.)

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

46

A review of community-based participatory research: a promising approach to address depression among Latinos?  

Science.gov (United States)

US Latinos are almost twice as likely as Whites to experience depression in a given year, and to date, there is a gap in understanding how to effectively address depression in this population. This study reviews community-based participatory research (CBPR) publications involving Latinos and depression. The specific aims were to: (1) describe studies using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos, and (2) identify challenges and lessons learned when using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos. Electronic databases and the grey literature were reviewed for publications that included CBPR, Latinos, and depression, published between 1990 and 2008. Although few studies were identified, this review provides a baseline synopsis that can serve mental health researchers when developing studies to test/validate CBPR with this underserved population. PMID:19916809

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

2009-12-01

47

Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

Stewart, Sara

2006-01-01

48

Will REDD+work? The need for interdisciplinary research to address key challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we draw on the contributions to this issue to address the question ‘Will REDD+ work?’. We do so by differentiating between how, where and when REDD+ might work. The article shows how issues of scope, scale and pace of REDD+ are related, and how interdisciplinary research can help to distill the lessons learned from REDD+ efforts currently underway. Important research areas include the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, monitoring, reporting and verification,...

Visseren-hamakers, I. J.; Gupta, A.; Herold, M.; Pen?a Claros, M.; Vijge, M. J.

2012-01-01

49

Critical Event Preparedness and Response: Keynote Address to the 2006 Sloan Research Workshop by Jon Links  

Science.gov (United States)

At the intersection of online education and preparedness, Johns Hopkins University's (JHU) Center for Public Health Preparedness provides all-hazards preparedness and response training for public health and public safety professionals. This report comes from Jonathan Links' keynote address to the Sloan Summer Research Workshop in Baltimore,…

Moore, Janet C.

2008-01-01

50

Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are eager to see the first successful shipment in this programme, continue to assist it every way we can, and look forward to presentations this week on both the Russian RERTR and spent fuel return efforts

51

Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.)

52

DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents. PMID:22165443

Schilling, Stephen H

2011-12-01

53

A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We illustrate how, along with the engagement of other stakeholders, scientific research and management agency actions can interact to develop and implement measures to assist climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests.

Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

2013-12-01

54

2014 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Cautious Optimism for the Future of Research in Music Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the transcript of Peter Webster's 2014 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address. Webster comments on several big ideas in music education: (1) The consideration of teaching as a blend of constructivist approaches and direct instruction that values student-centered work primarily as evidence of learning; (2) The…

Webster, Peter R.

2014-01-01

55

Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

East, Martin

2012-01-01

56

Using mixed methods for addressing researcher’s safety in a conflict area: an innovative use of mixed methods research in Zimbabwe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conducting robust research in a conflict or post-conflict area is complicated by concern for the researcher?s safety and the difficulty of reaching remote areas. In this paper we open a new frontier in mixed methods (MM) research by demonstrating how it can be used to address safety concerns. We used qualitative and quantitative work carried out in and outside the conflict zone to overcome the challenges of conducting Information Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) research in ...

Takavarasha Jr, Sam; Bednar, Peter; Adams, Carl

2011-01-01

57

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

58

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

2012-09-15

59

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

60

RAPD MARKERS AS A MOLECULAR TOOL FOR ADDRESSING THE SPECIES PROBLEM IN CORALS. (R825158)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

 
 
 
 
61

RAPD MARKERS AS A MOLECULAR TOOL FOR ADDRESSING THE SPECIES PROBLEM IN CORALS. (R828008)  

Science.gov (United States)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

62

Prioritization of research addressing management strategies for ductal carcinoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ductal carcinoma in situ is a common finding in women having mammography screening, and there is considerable uncertainty about the balance of harms and benefits of different management options. This article outlines the process for developing a prioritized research agenda for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute as informed by a diverse group of stakeholders on the management of ductal carcinoma in situ. Evidence gaps were identified by reviewing existing literature and engaging diverse stakeholders to refine these gaps. Stakeholders ranked evidence gaps by importance from their perspectives using a forced-ranking prioritization method. PubMed was searched for relevant recent studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for relevant ongoing trials for the 10 highest-ranked evidence gaps. Strengths and limitations of different study designs were assessed to address gaps. Stakeholders prioritized evidence gaps related to incorporation of patient-centered outcomes into future research, development of better methods to predict risk for invasive cancer, evaluation of a strategy of active surveillance, and testing of decision-making tools. The degree to which prioritized evidence gaps may have already been addressed is uncertain because a comprehensive systematic review has not been done. PMID:24567146

Gierisch, Jennifer M; Myers, Evan R; Schmit, Kristine M; Crowley, Matthew J; McCrory, Douglas C; Chatterjee, Ranee; Coeytaux, Remy R; Kendrick, Amy; Sanders, Gillian D

2014-04-01

63

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-03-11

64

The Institutional Design of Open Source Programming: Implications for Addressing Complex Public Policy and Management Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, an exciting approach to solving complex problems has evolved out of computer science, called Open Source programming. In open source software development settings, programmers freely share their intellectual property ? their readable programming source code ? over the Internet. Some open source endeavors have resulted in very complex, high-quality software products, of which the best-known are the Linux operating system and the Apache Web server. A great advantage of an Internet-bas...

Schweik, Charles

2003-01-01

65

Emergency Physicians Research Common Problems in Proportion to their Frequency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM organizations such as the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the Institute of Medicine have called for more clinical research as a way of addressing thescarcity of research in EM. Previous investigations have examined funding and productivity in EM research, but whether EM researchers preferentially concentrate on certain patient-related topics is notknown. We hypothesized that at least part of the scarcity of EM research is from the tendency of EM researchers, like researchers in other fields, to focus on rarer conditions with higher morbidity or mortality instead of on more common conditions with less acuity. This study compared the frequency of specific medical conditions presenting to emergency departments nationwide with the frequency of emergency physician research on those same conditions.Methods: This study is a structured retrospective review and comparison of 2 databases during an 11-year span. Principal diagnoses made by emergency physicians as reported by the National HospitalAmbulatory Medical Care Survey were compared to all first-author publications by emergency physicians as reported in PubMed between 1996 and 2006. Statistics included correlations and linear regression with the number of emergency department (ED visits per diagnosis as the independent variable and the number of articles published as the dependent variable.Results: During the study period, there was significant concordance between the frequency of presenting conditions in the emergency department and the frequency of research being performed onthose conditions, with a high correlation of 0.85 (P,0.01. More common ED diagnoses such as injury/poisoning, symptoms/ill-defined conditions, and diseases of the respiratory system accounted for 60.9% of ED principal diagnoses and 50.2% of the total research published in PubMed.Conclusion: Unlike researchers in other fields, emergency physicians investigate clinical problems in almost the exact proportion as those conditions are encountered in the emergency department. The scarcity of EM research does not have to do with a skewed focus toward less common patient problems.

Michael P. Wilson

2012-09-01

66

Addressing racial disparities in social welfare programs: using social equity analysis to examine the problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) allows states considerable discretion in developing and implementing their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs. Little research so far has compared the implementation of TANF programs across racial groups. Without such analysis, it is difficult to interpret program outcomes. Using client survey data from a large Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) study, the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, this article compares African-American, Hispanic and White Clients' experiences with diversion, case management, sanctioning, exiting welfare, and dispute resolution. Using residual differences analysis, this article identifies significant differences in treatment among racial and ethnic groups. PMID:17255069

Gooden, Susan T

2006-01-01

67

The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches  

Science.gov (United States)

Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

2013-01-01

68

Biomedical research, a tool to address the health issues that affect African populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, biomedical research endeavors in low to middle resources countries have focused on communicable diseases. However, data collected over the past 20 years by the World Health Organization (WHO) show a significant increase in the number of people suffering from non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases). Within the coming years, WHO predicts significant decreases in communicable diseases while non-communicable diseases are expected to double in low and middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The predicted increase in the non-communicable diseases population could be economically burdensome for the basic healthcare infrastructure of countries that lack resources to address this emerging disease burden. Biomedical research could stimulate development of healthcare and biomedical infrastructure. If this development is sustainable, it provides an opportunity to alleviate the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases through diagnosis, prevention and treatment. In this paper, we discuss how research using biomedical technology, especially genomics, has produced data that enhances the understanding and treatment of both communicable and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. We further discuss how scientific development can provide opportunities to pursue research areas responsive to the African populations. We limit our discussion to biomedical research in the areas of genomics due to its substantial impact on the scientific community in recent years however, we also recognize that targeted investments in other scientific disciplines could also foster further development in African countries. PMID:24143865

Peprah, Emmanuel; Wonkam, Ambroise

2013-01-01

69

Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R and D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presentand using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

70

ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL) programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to ot...

Bazlur Rashid, Q. M.; Johnson, Hazel; Clark, Norman

2009-01-01

71

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

2013-03-01

72

Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM architectures on Exascale computing systems.

Bergman, Keren

2014-08-28

73

Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

Uddin, Rizwan

2012-01-01

74

Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and co [...] nflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

S.M.R., Vasconcelos; M.C., Cassimiro; M.F.M., Martins; M., Palacios.

2013-12-02

75

Digital instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technologies: Issues and current research [Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plantwide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology. To respond to technology challenges, roadmaps for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) are being developed. These roadmapping efforts address technology gaps, technology maturity, and technology experience by establishing a comprehensive, systematic approach to meet high-priority technological needs. The first RD and D objective is to identify and eliminate technology gaps that may constrain measurement, monitoring, control, or protection. Tent, monitoring, control, or protection. The second RD and D objective is to ensure technology maturity so that needed methods, tools, equipment, or other products are available with a sound infrastructure. The third RD and D objective is to demonstrate performance and resolve licensing and usage uncertainty. This presentation summarizes the key elements of an ICHMI technology roadmap and discusses current research activities. (author)

76

NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

2006-12-01

77

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

78

"Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

William E. Willmott

2012-09-01

79

The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

80

[Will medical research face a recruitment problem?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Prognoses show that Norwegian medical research will experience a recruitment crisis at the end of this century and approaching the year 2010. Two different prognostic models have been used to estimate the demand for recruitment. The first is based on no growth in the number of research personnel, while the second is based upon a 2% annual growth in personnel. This latter alternative shows that there may be a great demand for research trainee positions within the medical sciences in the higher education sector, especially from the mid 1990s. Today (1991) we have around 550 research trainees. By the year 2000 there will be an additional demand for 100 recruitment positions, and a further 300 positions by the year 2010. In the no growth alternative, the future demand will be lower than the 1991 level for the period 1992 to 2010. For various reasons it will be difficult to fill the demand for research personnel. First, it is necessary to consider the public education policy: From 1981 until today the number of students studying medicine and dentistry has declined. This means that a larger proportion of students must be recruited to research if today's level of medical research education is to be maintained or increased. Second, which disciplines should do medical research? Today many research trainees in medicine are not doctors, and will not be able to fill future research positions at clinics. These are some of the results of a recent study on recruitment to Norwegian medical research, carried out by the Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education. PMID:1557739

Skodvin, O J

1992-02-20

 
 
 
 
81

Battle at the Bridge: Developing Ecological Problem Solvers in Communities Through Participatory Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Land-based communities need problem solvers who can address ecological degradation by bridging gaps between community and outside knowledge systems. Through our experience working for the Watershed Program of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, we have wrestled with the challenge of making ecological research more useful to tribal communities, particularly those that have become highly skeptical of conventional research. Simply importing or exporting knowledge does little to solve long-term ecol...

Long, Jonathan W.; Endfield, B. Delbin; Lupe, Candy; Burnette, Mae

2004-01-01

82

Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social mechanisms linking IPV to alcohol use in community settings, and discusses three social mechanisms relevant to these effects: greater numbers of alcohol outlets within a neighborhood may (1 be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence; (2 promote problem alcohol use among at-risk couples, and; (3 provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of critical public health importance for developing environmental strategies aimed at prevention of IPV, such as changes in zoning, community action and education, and policing.

Carol B. Cunradi

2010-03-01

83

Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

2009-01-01

84

Research approaches to address uncertainties in the risk assessment of arsenic in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs), an environmental drinking water contaminant, is a human toxicant and carcinogen. The public health community has developed recommendations and regulations that limit human exposure to iAs in drinking water. Although there is a vast amount of information available to regulators on the exposure, disposition and the health-related effects of iAs, there is still critical information about the toxicology of this metalloid that is needed. This necessary information includes identification of the chemical species of arsenic that is (are) the active toxicant(s), the mode(s) of action for its various toxicities and information on potentially susceptible populations. Because of these unknown factors, the risk assessment of iAs still incorporates default assumptions, leading to uncertainties in the overall assessment. The characteristics of a scientifically defensible risk assessment for iAs are that it must: (1) quantitatively link exposure and target tissue dose of active metabolites to key events in the mode of action for major health effects and (2) identify sources of variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced health effects and quantitatively evaluate their impact wherever possible. Integration of research to address these goals will better protect the health of iAs-exposed populations

85

Using community-based participatory research to address social determinants of health: lessons learned from Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities (SPHC) is a multidisciplinary collaboration of community agencies, community activists, public health professionals, academics, and health providers who conduct research aimed at improving the health of urban, socioeconomically marginalized Seattle communities. SPHC uses a community-based participatory research approach to address social factors that affect the health of these communities. This article describes three SPHC projects that focus on social determinants of health, particularly the development of social support and improving housing quality. The characteristics of community participation in each of these projects are discussed and show a spectrum of participation. Although projects successfully addressed proximal social factors affecting health, influencing more distal underlying factors was more difficult. Implications for researchers using a community-based participatory research approach and public health practitioners seeking to engage communities in addressing social determinants of health are presented. PMID:12038744

Krieger, James; Allen, Carol; Cheadle, Allen; Ciske, Sandra; Schier, James K; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne

2002-06-01

86

Problem-Solving Research with Computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether analogy or means-ends strategies (heuristics) would be used to solve geometric puzzle-like problems, which were generated by a microcomputer. The subjects in the two-group experiment were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Potsdam College (New York). One group of subjects learned…

Licht, Norman

87

Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although extensive research shows that the social determinants of health influence the distribution and course of chronic diseases, there is little programming in public health that addresses the social determinants as a disease prevention strategy. This paper discusses different types of health promotion initiatives and differentiates them based on whether they attempt to impact intermediate (environmental) determinants of health or structural determinants of health. We argue for the importance of programming targeted at the structural determinants as opposed to programming targeted solely at the immediate environment. Specifically, the former has more potential to create significant improvements in health, contribute to long-term social change and increase health equity. We urge public health leaders to take this distinction into consideration during public health program planning, and to build capacity in the public health workforce to tackle structural mechanisms that lead to poor health and health inequities. PMID:23618119

Gore, Dana M; Kothari, Anita R

2013-01-01

88

Medicina y filosofía: abordaje filosófico de algunos problemas de la medicina actual / Medicine and philosophy: philosophical addressing of some problems of today’s medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El pensamiento médico y el ejercicio de la medicina plantean un cúmulo de problemas filosóficos. Éstos estriban desde la caracterización de la medicina hasta los problemas epistemológicos, lógicos y éticos. Este ensayo abordará filosóficamente seis problemas de la medicina actual: la investigación b [...] iomédica -su evolución actual y las implicancias de las políticas de desarrollo científico-; la medicina basada en evidencias -su caracterización como nuevo paradigma y el análisis de su "verdadero" rol en la práctica médica-; la caracterización de la medicina como saber y praxis -¿qué entendemos por medicina, arte, ciencia o tecnología?-; el problema de la falta de un concepto general de enfermedad; la epistemología personal y sus implicancias en la labor del médico; por último, el examen filosófico sobre la validez de la llamada medicina alternativa. Este ensayo pretende mostrar que el abordaje filosófico de muchos problemas médicos no representa un mero juego intelectual, sino una herramienta eficaz para la investigación y la enseñanza de la medicina, principalmente, para la observación crítica de la problemática en juego. Se pretende mostrar, además, que la filosofía de la medicina no puede resumirse sólo a la parcela de lo ético, lo axiológico o lo histórico. Abstract in english The medical thought and practice pose a number of philosophical problems; these include the characterization of medicine itself, and the epistemological, ethical and logic problems. This essay will philosophically address six current medical problems: The biomedical investigation -evolution today an [...] d the implication of the scientific development policies-; the evidence based medicine -its characterization as new paradigm, and the analysis of its "real" role in medical practice-; the characterization of medicine as knowledge and practice -What do we understand by medicine, art, science or technology?-; the problem of lack of a general disease concept -the personal epistemology and its implications in the physicians’ work-; finally, the philosophical examination on the validity of so named alternative medicine. This essay intends to show that the philosophical addressing of many medical problems does not represent a mere intellectual game, but an effective tool for medical research and teaching, mainly, for the critical observation of problems. We intend to show, furthermore, that the philosophy of medicine cannot be summarized only to the ethical and historical plot.

Adolfo, Peña.

2004-03-01

89

Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

2013-06-01

90

A summary and integration of research concerning single pilot IFR operational problems  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of seven research studies pertaining to Single Pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations was performed. Two studies were based on questionnaire surveys; two based on National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) reports; two were based on Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports, and one report used event analysis and statistics to forecast problems. The results obtained in each study were extracted and integrated. Results were synthesized and key issues pertaining to SPIFR operations problems were identified. The research that was recommended by the studies and that addressed the key issues is catalogued for each key issue.

Chapman, G. C.

1983-01-01

91

Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research : A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem, 4. rely on first-order perspectives to see themselves as perspectives, and 5. be based on other rules than first-order research. Implications: The perspectivist insights of second-order science provide a new way of understanding interdisciplinary research that leads to new polyocular methods and research designs. It also points to more reflexive ways of dealing with scientific expertise in democratic processes. The main challenge is that this is a paradigmatic shift, which demands that the involved disciplines, at least to some degree, subscribe to a perspectivist view. Constructivist content: Our perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce.

AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

2014-01-01

92

Research program with no ''measurement problem''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

93

Software problems in magnetic fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

94

Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum : Research methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the curriculum and a mean to choose cases for further case study (third phase).

Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

95

School Nurses Can Address Existing Gaps in School-Age Sleep Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers,…

Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.

2013-01-01

96

SHAPING A NEW GENERATION OF HISPANIC CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCHERS ADDRESSING MINORITY HEALTH AND HEALTH DISPARITIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effe...

Estape, Estela S.; Segarra, Barbara; Baez, Adriana; Huertas, Aracelis; Diaz, Clemente; Frontera, Walter

2011-01-01

97

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

1991-11-01

98

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

99

CYANOBACTERIA, CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS & USEPA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as th...

100

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environmentthe topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment, in particular one that is likely to find broad international acceptance. In this context, the topic was included as an important element of the Commission's 6th Research Framework Programme with the specific objective of 'establishing a robust conceptual and methodological basis for underpinning sound policy and standards for protection of the environment from radiation'. A contract is currently being negotiated to this purpose - the ERICA project which is expected to make a major contribution in this area. Progress within the ERICA project and initiatives being taken to develop standards in other quarters (e.g. IAEA, ICRP) will determine the need for further supporting RTD. In principle, within the next few years, an adequate scientific basis should be established for underpinning standards, albeit supported by further modest research of a confirmatory nature. The Commission has, at present, no plans to establish explicit standards for protection of the environment from radiation. You may be aware that we had included in the work programme of DG Environment the establishment of an Environmental Action Programme under the EURATOM Treaty (complementary to the 6th EAP under the EC Treaty). A follow-up to the Stakeholders' Conference on Approaches to the Management of Environmental Radioactivity of December 2002 was foreseen for 2004. However, in view of the preparation of this EURATOM EAP it cannot be guaranteed at the moment. But the Commission will continue to monitor developments in environmental radiation protection, in particular the results of its sponsored research and the activities of ICRP and IAEA. Should the need arise for standards at a European level, the Commission would respond in a timely manner. If and when it does, important considerations will be the adoption of a system that is robust, practicable, cost effective and proportionate to the problem at hand. A proper balance will need to be achieved between science and policy. I will end my opening remarks with these last thoughts which I hope will be ke

 
 
 
 
101

Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

102

Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

Turner, Kylan

2012-01-01

103

Addressing Perinatal Disparities in Urban Setting: Using Community Based Participatory Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs targeting needs of the community. The current paper details use of the Perinatal Period of Risk (PPO...

Masho, Saba W.; Keyser-marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B.; Chapman, Derek; Singleton, Rose; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

104

Researching the Problems in the Application of MBO in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the MBO concept and its background, this thesis has researched the present and potential problems of alienation in the application of MBO in China. It has analyzed the background and reasons for these problems and has advanced relevant measures and suggestions for improvement. Moreover, this thesis has insisted that the application of MBO in China demands for further explorations and researches in order to transfer the national capitals from common competitive fields to strategic fields, under the background of national economy’s strategic reorganization and retrenchment.

Jing Xie

2009-06-01

105

CONCEIVING LANGUAGE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM: A PROBLEM FOR SLA RESEARCHERS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the impact of the adoption of a perspective which conceives language as a Complex Adaptive System on the Second Language Acquisition research work. In order to achieve this goal, the text first presents a definition of language as a Complex Adaptive, as opposed to the perspective which traditionally permeates research in the field. Next, the main contributions of such a perspective to Second Language Acquisition are addressed. Finally, the implications of adopting this perspective for research in the field are approached. It is argued that conceiving language as a Complex Adaptive System presupposes a paradigm shift on the view of what this object of study is. As a consequence, researchers need to take into account multiple factors in interaction. Although, at first, this necessity might be faced as a problem for conducting scientific research on the field, it is concluded that this necessity may actually be seen as a motivational factor.

Bruno Moraes Schwartzhaupt

2014-03-01

106

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

107

The Role of the African Languages Research Institute in Addressing Language of Instruction Dilemmas in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.

Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die navorsingsaktiwiteite wat by ALRI plaasvind. Die doel van die artikel is om te toon dat, indien hulle voldoende aandag deur korpusbeplanning ontvang, Afrikatale die vermoë besit om 'n belangrike rol as onderrigmedia oor die hele spektrum van die opvoedingsleerplanne in Zimbabwe en elders te speel. Die artikel sluit met die waarneming dat, indien die pogings van ALRI wil slaag, daar behoefte is aan die same-werking van alle belanghebbendes in die taalpraktyk.

Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKO-GRAFIESE NAVORSING, INHEEMSE AFRIKATALE, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, OPVOEDING, LEERPLAN, ONDERRIGMEDIUM, SJONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

Jesta Masuku

2011-10-01

108

NCI MEDIA AVAILABILITY: Dr. John E. Niederhuber to Address the American Association for Cancer Research on NCI Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

John E. Niederhuber, M.D., director of the NCI, addressed the American Association for Cancer Research 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver Monday, April 20, 2009, during a Special Session. The talk focused on opportunities to hasten our progress against cancer and to conduct exciting new science, made possible, in part, by NCI's nearly three percent budget increase this year.

109

Ionospheric research activities addressing space weather user requirements in the middle and low latitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable ongoing research activity, particularly in the aviation community, with respect to understanding and mitigating the effects of ionospheric variability on technological systems such as GNSS precise positioning and GNSS augmentation. These systems are impacted in the low and middle latitudes under a variety of space weather conditions by a combination of steep ionospheric gradients such as produced at mid latitudes during large geomagnetic storms and at low latitudes by equatorial plasma bubbles and ionospheric scintillation. We review some current research and service development activities related to the ionospheric effects on these systems, and efforts to mitigate these effects, and present some requirements for service provision into the future, with an emphasis on developments in the Asia-Pacific region.

Terkildsen, Michael; Neudegg, Dave

110

Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Priorities for Research and Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One potential mechanism for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of kidney transplants is to enhance minorities’ pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Pursuit of LDKT is influenced by patients’ personal values, their extended social networks, the healthcare system, and the community at large. This review discusses research and interventions promoting LDKT, especially for minorities, including improving education for patients, donors, and providers, utilizing ...

Waterman, Amy D.; Rodrigue, James R.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ladin, Keren; Boulware, L. Ebony

2010-01-01

111

Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social ...

Cunradi, Carol B.

2010-01-01

112

Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

Michael Stauffacher

2012-12-01

113

APPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY.  

Science.gov (United States)

SELECTED RESEARCH ON THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY IS SURVEYED AND DISCUSSED. BROAD TOPICS OF DISCUSSION ARE DEPARTMENTALIZATION, HOMOGENEOUS SECTIONING, INTERCLASS ABILITY SECTIONING, THE EXTENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING DEVELOPMENT, AND PRACTICES THAT MAY INCREASE FLEXIBILITY. AMONG THOSE PRACTICES TO INCREASE FLEXIBILITY ARE TEAM…

SARTAIN, HARRY W.

114

State of the art of fusion research: altainments and problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a short survey of the major research findings of the year 1976, the fundamentals of nuclear fusion, pellet fusion and magnetic confinement of hot plasmas in tokamak devices are dealt with. Problems encountered and non-linear effects are discussed. The author thinks that the fusion conditions required for reactor operation may be realized by 1985. (GG)

115

ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected.

Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

2003-02-27

116

The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship  

CERN Document Server

The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

Djeflat, Abdelkader

2013-01-01

117

METHODS FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TIME OF FLIGHT ON TRANSVERSE AMPLITUTE IN LINEAR NON-SCALING FFAGs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the time of flight in a linear non-scaling FFAG depends on the transverse amplitude, motion in the longitudinal plane will be different for different transverse particle amplitudes. This effect, if not considered, will lead the failure of a substantial portion of the beam to be accelerated. I will first briefly review this effect. Then I will outline some techniques for addressing the problems created by the effect. In particular, I will discuss partially correcting the chromaticity and increasing the energy gain per cell. I will discuss potential problems with another technique, namely the introduction of higher harmonic cavities

118

Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a ?tritium labeling facility? operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ?ordinary? citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though ?discovered? or ?appreciated? only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case?particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators?that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the ?establishment,? as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against ?citizen volunteers,? (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of ?no safe dose? and ?levels below regulatory concern? when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

Harrach, R J; Peterson, S

1999-05-05

119

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

120

Training psychiatrists in social research: problems and prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated program of psychiatric residency training and doctoral studies in social welfare has been conducted by Brandeis University and two Worcester (Mass) clinical institutions over the last five years. Its goal has been to train psychiatrists to conduct psychiatric research using social science concepts and techniques. This article reviews the advantages of such a program, as well as its problems, in the context of current trends in psychiatric education and research. This program is also compared to others with similar goals that use different models of training. PMID:727884

Klerman, L V; Morissey, J P; Goldman, H

1978-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

122

?heoretical analysis researches of problem cultures of health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existing in literature approaches to the problem of health culture is conducted. Are presented the scientific approaches to the determination of essence «Culture of health» concept and terms attended with it on the basis of content-analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical literature. The analysis of modern researches allowed to systematize and estimate factors that influence on the health culture, to differentiate and describe components and principles of culture of health.

Preobrazhenskaya O.?.

2010-02-01

123

The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed...

Eliana Rodríguez; Claudia Piccini; Vanessa Sosa; Pablo Zunino

2012-01-01

124

University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk perceptions and their research problem choices. The results suggest that risk is a useful paradigm to study decision-making in science. In making scientific risk decisions, at times scientists conform to the existing institutional structures. Other times they challenge them, persist through them, or compromise their actions. Bioscientists' risk epistemologies matter to the extent that these allow for more creative ways in which individual scientists can navigate the institutional environments that they are embedded in. Risk perceptions of university bioscientists differ based on the specific dimension of risk under investigation. Several significant relationships between perceived risks and problem choice orientations have emerged through the data analysis. Overall, university bioscientists' risk epistemologies seem to be related to the unique reward structure of science, compelling them to use various risk management techniques while navigating their research environments.

Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

125

Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

2012-01-01

126

The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

Eliana Rodríguez

2012-08-01

127

Update: Health Status of Iranian Victims of Chemical Weapons / Ongoing Research Projects Addressing CW Health Effects in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of chemical weapons against Iran during the 1980s was a horrifying epic in the annals of modern warfare, inflicting enormous suffering during the conflict that continues to the present day in the form of latent illness among survivors. Surviving victims suffer from a diverse range of chronic illnesses placing an enormous strain on the nation's medical infrastructure. To define the scope of this problem, the National Organization for Veteran's Affairs (Janbazan) established a subsidiary research department called Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC). Beginning in 2000 JMERC has conducted epidemiological, clinical and basic scientific studies to characterize disease among chemical attack survivors and develop new therapeutic strategies. The primary JMERC mission has been to identify where resources may be allocated so as to most effectively treat patients with the greatest need - requiring a comprehensive picture of the major medical problems among this population. Accordingly, JMERC's initial task was to define the nature and distribution of serious chronic illness among CW survivors. Therefore epidemiological studies in CW-exposed Iranian populations are currently underway. Ultimately these studies will allow management of illness among CW-exposed populations that is both compassionate and cost-effective. A summary of the above mentioned research projects will be reported in this article. (author)

128

Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The paper has important theory and practice value.
Key words: Integer Linear Programming (ILP, Cutting plane equation, Export Equation
Résumé: Comment résoudre les problèmes ILP est toujours un sujet chaud dans le milieu de la Recherche d’Opération. L’auteur de cet essai, à travers la méthode de démonstration, a analysé les fautes de la Méthode de Coupe Plane utilisée pour résoudre ILP et a proposé un nouveau principe, par exemple : « il est comme une équation de coupe plane qui a plus de restrictions sur un problème donné. ». En même temps, l’auteur indique qu’il y a deux problèmes qui seraient notés au cours de l’utilisation. Cet article revêtit une valeur importante théorique et pratique.
Mots-Clés: ILP( Integer Linear Programming /programmation linéaire du nombre entier, équation de coupe plane, équation d’exportation

Yi-jie XIONG

2006-09-01

129

Adapting a blended motivational interviewing and problem-solving intervention to address risky substance use amongst South Africans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the acceptability and initial substance use outcomes of a blended motivational interviewing (MI) and problem-solving therapy (PST) intervention, delivered by peer counsellors. Twenty people who scored at risk for substance use according to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) received a five session blended MI-PST intervention and were assessed at baseline and at three months. An open-ended semi-structured interview, designed to identify possible factors that may hinder or promote the acceptability of the intervention was also conducted. Fifteen participants completed the intervention and the three-month follow-up. According to ASSIST scores, participants significantly reduced their substance use (p > 0.001) at the three-month follow-up. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of this intervention more rigorously. PMID:24708408

Sorsdahl, Katherine; Myers, Bronwyn; Ward, Catherine L; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mtukushe, Bulelwa; Nicol, Andrew; Cuijpers, Pim; Stein, Dan J

2014-04-01

130

Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation  

CERN Document Server

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

2013-01-01

131

Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

Karen Sobel

2011-01-01

132

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert thelop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

133

Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students constructed dozens of research questions informed by class readings, presentations, and discussions. A technical report is in progress on the resulting research agenda covering: data standards; infrastructure; research context; data reuse; sharing and access; preservation; and conceptual foundations. This presentation will discuss the agenda and its importance for the geosciences, highlighting high priority research questions. It will also introduce the related research to be undertaken by two DCERC doctoral students at NCAR during the 2013-2014 academic year and other data curation research in progress by the doctoral DCERC team.

Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.

2013-12-01

134

Inaugural address  

Science.gov (United States)

From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

Joshi, P. S.

2014-03-01

135

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards would not be enough unless they are understood and applied by all. In order to attain this objective, the IAEA should spare no effort for the provision of training. Thus, Morocco has put at the disposal of the IAEA the National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Science, and Techniques for the organization of a post-graduate training course on radiation safety and the safety of nuclear waste for African French-speaking countries. Morocco has also elaborated, with the assistance of the IAEA, a law aimed at unifying and harmonizing the existing legislation and creating a regulatory body. In addition, Morocco has acquired scientific know-how and technical expertise in the field of nuclear research that allow him to serve as a centre of excellence for Africa

136

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regnd disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

137

Presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

Vohra, U

1993-07-01

138

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive meate unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

139

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

Connell Janice

2012-11-01

140

High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High density EEG (hdEEG during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g. the traveling of slow waves and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g. consciousness and cognitive abilities. Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

CarolineLustenberger

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management. PMID:21877255

Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

2011-10-01

142

The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

143

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In on of the three 'pillars' of the overall IAEA mission, the 'safety pillar', the IAEA seeks to contribute towards a vision of a strong, sustainable and visible global safety regime by pursuing three main objectives: to establish and maintain a set of safety standards that are universally accepted as global standards; to integrate fully these safety standards and the various mechanisms to provide for their application; and to promote self-sustaining regional and global networks of safety knowledge and experience. The purpose of this conference is to foster the exchange of information, but this is not an end in itself. The aim of this conference is to clarify the key issues within the larger global picture and set out a road map for the future direction and priorities for work on safety standards for decommissioning and for applying those standards. The word 'decommissioning' is often treated as though it was synonymous with dismantling nuclear reactors and returning to a 'green field' site, and we quite deliberately intended to challenge that interpretation. The subject of this conference is one that no country can ignore. All countries whether or not they have nuclear power programs or research reactors - make use of at least some applications involving radiation sources or radioactive materials, in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. All of these countries will need to terminate these activities safely. Decommissioning is also a subject that has suffered oning is also a subject that has suffered from being addressed in a piecemeal and sometimes ad hoc fashion.The IAEA must take its share of responsibility for this: IAEA has published safety standards on particular aspects of decommissioning, and more general safety standards on the regulatory control of practices, on operational safety, on occupational radiation protection, on the management of different types of radioactive waste and discharges, and we are developing standards on the management of very low activity wastes and of contaminated areas. Yet, the IAEA has not succeeded in bringing all these elements together into safety standards to cover the entire process of decommissioning and the termination of practices. Similarly, the IAEA has recently been involved in the organization of international conferences on the remediation of contaminated areas and of an international workshop on the regulatory aspects of decommissioning. Within the IAEA, one step towards a more holistic approach to the issue was taken by establishing a Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE)

144

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Sof Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Healt

145

Opening Address  

Science.gov (United States)

Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

Yamada, T.

2014-12-01

146

Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Executive summary 1. Means-end chains are a device used to understand how consumers mentally link products to self-relevant consequences. Means-end chains are usually measured by a method called laddering. 2. Means-end chains may fall short of tapping all relevant aspects of how consumers think about products. Specifically, nonverbal imagery, episodic information, and procedural knowledge are not included in means-end chains. 3. A number of methodological problems can be identified in the collection of means-end chain data. Major problems, which should be addressed in research, are methods to elicit the product attributes the laddering is to start with, the integration of a usage situation in the interview, and the basic decision on how much direct the respondent. 4. Concerning the coding of laddering data, a higher degree of transparency of the coding process would be desirable. 5. Hierarchical value maps, a major graphic device used to visualise results from laddering studies, should take care of possible non-homogeneity of respondents and of the intricacies of aggregation following from it. 6. A catalog of research topics is developed that can guide studies aimed at improving the means-end chains and laddering methodology.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

1995-01-01

147

Synthesizing Evidence-Based Strategies and Community-Engaged Research: A Model to Address Social Determinants of Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Addressing social determinants of health (SDH) requires multileveled intervention designs. Increasingly, organizations and coalitions face pressure to use evidence-based strategies when seeking to address SDH. Evidence-based strategies, however, must be locally relevant and integrated into existing systems to function efficiently. We propose the incorporation of an effective rapid assessment technique, Rapid Assessment, Response, and Evaluation (RARE), with evidence-based strategies, findings...

Hardy, Lisa Jane; Bohan, Kyle David; Trotter, Robert Talbot

2013-01-01

148

Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-08

149

Research on the Problem of Privacy-Preserving Closest Pair  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of closest pair is a basic problem of computational geometry. This problem was studied while considering the privacy and a protocol was proposed to solve it only considering the level of coordinate axis. The protocol ranked the numbers of two parties firstly. After that each party got the orders of his own numbers. Then the...

Cheng Chao; Yonglong Luo; Wenjuan Cheng

2010-01-01

150

Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

2012-11-01

151

The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

152

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the functions of the CSN, as the regulatory authority responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, is the performance of studies, assessments and inspections of all plans, programmes and projects relating to the different phases of radioactive waste management, from production to final disposal. The development of general criteria for the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear and other facilities which, give rise to large volumes of low activity waste, is a priority issue in Spain. In the same context, mention should be made of the importance of having a solid materials declassification process for use during the operating phase of the facilities. This naturally contributes to reducing the waste to be managed in decommissioning and to optimizing overall radioactive waste management. In relation to declassification, a large number of activities have been carried out or are currently under way in Spain, e.g. the systematic approach to the licensing of various common projects for the declassification of materials at nuclear power plants, such as those applied to metallic scrap, spent resins, activated carbon and wood. A general standard for the declassification of materials at medical, research and industrial facilities was recently adopted; this includes general criteria and specific activity values for the radionuclides usually used at such installations. All of the above mentioned declassification initiatives have taken full account of the recoatives have taken full account of the recommendations of the IAEA. To date, one nuclear power plant has been dismantled in Spain and the dismantling of a second nuclear plant is foreseen after the year 2006. A number of nuclear production facilities have been decommissioned and various uranium mine restoration projects have been carried out. In keeping with the lines mapped out in the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Spain possesses an administrative structure, a regulatory framework, an assignment of responsibilities and a financing system that provide assurance that the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste will be carried out safely. Although, to date, no generic regulations have been developed governing the long term management of radioactive waste, the regulatory authorities have defined and approved, upon request, specific criteria applicable to the licensing of individual facilities. Currently standards relating to safety in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste are developed, radioactive waste management plans at the sites of waste production and actions are developed and integrated. They are aimed at improving the general capacity to respond to radiological emergencies in which significant amounts of low activity radioactive waste might be generated. Likewise, several initiatives have been launched for the adoption of general criteria applicable to the release of sites; this includes requirements for institutional surveillance when the sites cannot be released without restrictions. Of special interest is the problem of the management of the long lived low activity waste associated with uranium mining and milling activities, on which the Symposium will include a specific session. Managing TENORM waste arising from the processing of materials contaminated by isotopes of natural origin, which is very much a major issue in Spain at poses a major problem. The new complementary facility at El Cabril for the disposal of very low activity waste was licensed. Work has been carried out jointly with ENRESA during the preparatory phases for the definition of applicable safety and radiation protection criteria. In order to guarantee adequate protection for workers, the public and the environment, and to respond with rigour to the current social demands relating to radioactive waste management, very close collaboration is required between all those involved; this includes the regulatory authorities, the waste producers and, obviously, those responsible for the

153

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vilding of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety' and S for 'security', are indispensable infrastructure for the introduction of nuclear power plants. Japan, therefore, regards these three Ss as a prerequisite when it starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. For the same reason, Japan has extended assistance to countries concerned to develop the necessary infrastructure to assure the three S's. Acknowledging the importance of the Additional Protocol in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation, Japan requests, as a matter of policy, that the Additional Protocol be concluded before Japan starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements. Furthermore, in the framework of NSG, Japan proposes that conclusion of the Additional Protocol be a prerequisite for the export of nuclear related items. As the issue has global implications, Japan considers that the countries of the former Soviet Union deserve high priority attention, and has rendered assistance to these countries as well. Japan has also concluded bilateral agreements and carries out projects on denuclearization with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Japan has also extended assistance to these countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund

154

Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

Jenkins, M.

2012-12-01

155

Special address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The special address was delivered by the Parliamentary Secretary for the Minister of Environment Canada Mr. Serge Marcil. He stated that the forum represents a convergence of experts from the Environment, Energy, Economic sectors. The Prime Minister is determined to augment the energy production efficiency and increase the role of renewable energy. The Government of Canada will work with Quebec and all other provinces to become a global leader in proper energy production. (author)

156

A domain analysis model for eIRB systems: addressing the weak link in clinical research informatics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are a critical component of clinical research and can become a significant bottleneck due to the dramatic increase, in both volume and complexity of clinical research. Despite the interest in developing clinical research informatics (CRI) systems and supporting data standards to increase clinical research efficiency and interoperability, informatics research in the IRB domain has not attracted much attention in the scientific community. The lack of standardized and structured application forms across different IRBs causes inefficient and inconsistent proposal reviews and cumbersome workflows. These issues are even more prominent in multi-institutional clinical research that is rapidly becoming the norm. This paper proposes and evaluates a domain analysis model for electronic IRB (eIRB) systems, paving the way for streamlined clinical research workflow via integration with other CRI systems and improved IRB application throughput via computer-assisted decision support. PMID:24929181

He, Shan; Narus, Scott P; Facelli, Julio C; Lau, Lee Min; Botkin, Jefferey R; Hurdle, John F

2014-12-01

157

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

158

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first keynote address at the 7. Canadian Hydrogen Workshop in Quebec City was presented by the President of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy. A brief history of hydrogen's significant growth as an energy source, beginning with the onset of the the energy crisis to the present, was given. The development of organizations, periodicals, books, visual programs, the use of hydrogen for electric power generation, surface vehicles, naval applications, space programs, aerospace applications, catalytic combustion, and hydride applications were reviewed. The politics and economics surrounding the use of hydrogen were also discussed, including international programs and standards

159

Solving Problems in Social–Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social–ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for re...

Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jo?nsson, K. Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Ska?rba?ck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

2013-01-01

160

President's address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

 
 
 
 
161

[Problems and solutions on transformation of scientific research achievements of acupuncture].  

Science.gov (United States)

With more and more attention and investment on acupuncture scientific researches, considerable outcomes and achievements has been acquired, but the shortcoming of low transformation rate of acupuncture research achievements is gradually exposed. Nowadays there is no related report on this problem, so based on achievement translational research in other areas and practical situation of acupuncture, the existing problems and solutions are analyzed. As a result, the existing problems include (1) the research content is mainly basic research and clinical research but less acupuncture device research, leading to limited transformation efficiency; (2) the evaluation system and transformation pattern are still needed to be perfect. The solutions are (1) to properly evaluate the research achievements of acupuncture, (2) to advocate the concept and method of translational medicine, (3) to reform the policy and system, and (4) to establish valid platforms covering research, outcomes and transformation. PMID:25335269

Guo, Tai-Pin; Ren, Yu-Lan; Li, Ji; Chen, Liang; Shu, Hong-Ping; Liang, Fan-Rong

2014-08-01

162

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) has funded, and continues to fund, research into genetic effects of radiation. Of particular note is the continuation of studies into the apparent excess of leukemia in children in the area around the Bruce Nuclear Power Development, and the apparent deficit of leukemia in children around the Chalk River Laboratories, neither of which appears to be statistically significant. The sponsorship of meetings such as this is another way in which the AECB supports research into radiation effects. (L.L.)

163

Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

Long, Michael H.

2006-01-01

164

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

165

Are changes to the common rule necessary to address evolving areas of research? A case study focusing on the human microbiome project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines ways in which research conducted under the Human Microbiome Project, an effort to establish a "reference catalogue" of the micro-organisms present in the human body and determine how changes in those micro-organisms affect health and disease, raise challenging issues for regulation of human subject research. The article focuses on issues related to subject selection and recruitment, group stigma, and informational risks, and explores whether: (1) the Common Rule or proposed changes to the Rule adequately address these issues and (2) the Common Rule is the most appropriate vehicle to provide regulatory oversight and guidance on these topics. PMID:23802897

Hoffmann, Diane E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Ravel, Jacques

2013-01-01

166

Addressing the Social and Environmental Determinants of Urban Health Equity: Evidence for Action and a Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world’s population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges—economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development c...

Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

167

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

168

Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

169

Welcome address  

Science.gov (United States)

Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a great honour to have the opportunity to say a few words before starting this symposium. First of all, on behalf of all members of the Advanced Science Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, I would like to express our great pleasure in welcoming all of you and in hosting the Third International Symposium on Advanced Science Research. The Advanced Science Research Center was established in 1993. Since then one of the most important functions assigned to this centre has been to promote and initiate basic research activities in atomic energy and related fields, in collaboration with scientists throughout our country as well as abroad. In view of the rapidly advancing frontiers of science and technology, and the increasing importance of international collaboration, I strongly felt that our centre should play a leading role in promoting scientific activities in a worldwide form. This is not only a give-and-take information exchange with the outside world but also we intend to promote harmony between different scientific cultures through the establishment of new programmes at our centre. As one action for the global promotion of our research activities, we have decided to host a series of international symposia on advances in various topics in fields of our interest. This we call the ‘Advance series of symposia’. The first such symposium was held on the subject of ‘neutron scattering research’ and the second, held in November 2001, on ‘heavy element research’, with great success. The present symposium is the third of this series. The size and format of each symposium will be chosen flexibly considering the nature of its topic. However, in all cases, in addition to promoting exchange of expert insights, we would like to encourage particularly young scientists to present papers in each symposium on their new results from the frontiers of science and technology, and to help them to get an overview of fields they are involved in. The topic of the present symposium is ‘advances in f-electron phenomena’. I will not go into detail about the importance of this field, because the Chairman of the organizing committee, Professor Russ Walstedt will tell you the outline later. Nevertheless, let me emphasize that the scientific subjects discussed at this symposium, namely the fundamental properties of f-electrons, are playing a crucial role in understanding the exotic effects of rare earth and actinide compounds such as magnetic and multi polar ordering, quantum critical phenomena and unconventional superconductivity. These are quite fascinating topics and I expect a variety of hot discussions throughout this symposium. Finally, I would like to thank our president, Dr S Saito, for allowing us to hold this symposium and for help with financial sponsorship. My special gratitude goes also to the Physical Society of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for their endorsement. I would like to close my speech by expressing my sincere wishes for the success of the symposium and for all participants to discover new opportunities in the still growing area of research on the f-electron systems. Thank you very much for your attention.

Yasuoka, Hiroshi

2003-07-01

170

Addressing the nuclear misconception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

171

Addressing the nuclear misconception  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

172

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: I have been asked to say a few words about the origins of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm in 1972. That conference can, I think, be regarded as the beginning of organized international discussion on protection of the environment. In the 1960s, when I was Swedish Ambassador to the United Nations, it was customary for the United Nations to organize each year a major conference on a topic of global importance. There were always two proposals for the topic, between which the representatives of United Nations Member States in New York had to choose. In 1968 the choice of topic for 1972 was between the peaceful uses of atomic energy and protection of the environment. In the Swedish delegation, we thought that a further major conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy was not necessary, having concluded that the main purpose of such conferences was to promote United States industrial interests. Moreover, in our view the time was right for a major conference on protection of the environment. The international community was becoming increasingly aware of the harmful environmental effects of rapid industrialization, particularly after the publication of Rachel Carson's book 'Silent Spring'. So we took the initiative in the autumn of 1968 and succeeded in having protection of the environment chosen as the topic for 1972. During the preparations for the conference, which was to take place in Stockholm, we faced a formidabke place in Stockholm, we faced a formidable array of opponents. Firstly, some industrially advanced countries, such as France and the United Kingdom, thought a strong United Nations focus on environmental protection would lead to constraints on their further industrial development - and they were supported by a number of the United Nations agencies, such as FAO and UNESCO, which thought that they were doing enough about environmental protection within their respective spheres. Secondly - and more importantly - there was opposition in the beginning from developing countries which, led by Brazil, thought that the choice of environmental protection as the topic was a plot of some industrial countries to hinder industrial development in the developing world by creating various obstacles in the form of regulations for the protection of the environment. Their opposition slowly melted away, however, thanks mainly to Maurice Strong, a rare mixture of idealist and pragmatist who became Secretary General of the conference - and later also of the conference held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. In addition, there was opposition from the Soviet Union, whose representatives said 'There are no environmental problems in the Soviet Union. Under Socialism, such problems cannot exist!' However, assistants from academia attached to the Soviet delegation would come and whisper in my ear 'Don't believe that official nonsense. The Soviet Union is the worst hit country in the world as regards environmental deterioration. The whole country is a catastrophe!' Ultimately, however, the Soviet Government modified its practical position - if not its ideology - and collaborated, to some extent, in preparing for the conference, and after the conference (in which the Soviet Union did not take part since the Germany Democratic Republic had not been invited to participate) it took part without reservations in the follow-up work. The conference was to a large extent designed to increase awareness of the problems of environmental protection, since many governments - including the governments of some very important countries - were completely ignorant of and indifferent to such problems. In order to formulate positions regarding the various items on the conference agenda, governments had to get in touch with and seek advice from their scientific institutions, with which there had generally been very few contacts before. The scientific institutions were, of course, delighted to be consulted and to have an opportunity to tell their governments the truth about environmental problems. The 1972 conferenc

173

RESEARCH OF SERVICE QUALITY CUSTOMER SERVICES: PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents data from a study of the market of cellular communication of the Samara region and assess the quality of customer service by mobile operators for the period 2010-2012.Providing quality customer service is one of the major factors of competitiveness, enterprise services rendered. In a market economy, the problem of quality of service is the most important factor in improving the standard of living, economic, social and environmental security.The main probl...

??????? ??????????? ????

2014-01-01

174

Micronutrient problems in Thailand - extent, past and present research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Micronutrient problems in Thailand are briefly discussed, particularly with reference to rice. At present, the relative amounts of zinc in rice-growing areas (soils) are being analyzed for total and available zinc. Fertilizer (N, P, K) uptake by rice is being studied in the field by means of zinc-65. Observations on the relative uptake of P by rice associated with different zinc levels are made on pot cultures, using phosphorus-32

175

Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

Bowers, Alex J.

2010-01-01

176

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of the Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. (author)

177

Research briefing on contemporary problems in plasma science  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is presented of the broad perspective of all plasma science. Detailed discussions are given of scientific opportunities in various subdisciplines of plasma science. The first subdiscipline to be discussed is the area where the contemporary applications of plasma science are the most widespread, low temperature plasma science. Opportunities for new research and technology development that have emerged as byproducts of research in magnetic and inertial fusion are then highlighted. Then follows a discussion of new opportunities in ultrafast plasma science opened up by recent developments in laser and particle beam technology. Next, research that uses smaller scale facilities is discussed, first discussing non-neutral plasmas, and then the area of basic plasma experiments. Discussions of analytic theory and computational plasma physics and of space and astrophysical plasma physics are then presented.

1991-01-01

178

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

179

Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations, we identify five challenging areas in designing fisheye interfaces.

Jakobsen, Mikkel RØnne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders SØren

2011-01-01

180

Current Research on the Major Nematode Problems in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among important nematode species occurring in Japan, current research achievements with the following four nematodes are reviewed: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (P...

Ichinohe, M.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

On the Problem of Theorising: An Insider Account of Research Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses the problem of how we theorise in writing about higher education through a reconstruction and interrogation of my previous work. I argue that theorising is messy, incomplete and a non-reductive process. Using C. Wright-Mills' notion of craft and Val Hey's insights into theorists who come to haunt us, I retrace the steps…

Clegg, Sue

2012-01-01

182

Addressing Research Capacity for Health Equity and the Social Determinants of Health in three African Countries: the INTREC programme.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It ai...

Karen Hofman; Yulia Blomstedt; Sheila Addei; Rose Kalage; Mandy Maredza; Osman Sankoh; Martin Bangha; Kathleen Kahn; Heiko Becher; Joke Haafkens; John Kinsman

2013-01-01

183

Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy) and finalised to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm Unniversity. Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate ...

Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina; Picollo, Federico; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo

2012-01-01

184

Evaluation of online accessed systems: example of qualitative research of Fast Addresses of GeaBios System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient online information service user interface enables independent use of these online. Designers of the GeaBios Internet information system intended to evaluate the user-friendliness of their service »Fast adresses« (»Hitri naslovi«. In December 2003, as a research project for a graduation thesis, an evaluation of »Fast adresses« was conducted. The study consisted of 10 study participants performing assigned tasks and a survey of the same individuals. During the study research questions were developed as well as list of tasks to be assigned to the participants for the observations. Each observation was performed using a qualitative research paradigm. This paradigm was enhanced with an adaptation of Shneiderman’s (1998 questionnaire. Identified difficulties participants had in using »Fast adresses« fell into four types: (1 formulation of queries, (2 display of results, (3 the influence of the operating system, Windows, and, (4 the color and design of the display background and elements of the Web page. Results indicate that the difficulties encountered were not limited to the inappropriate design of the user interface, but also are attributable to user error.

Aleš Klemen

2006-01-01

185

Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

Bauer, Travis LaDell

2009-12-01

186

PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database ?library.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to the program package in use only in 17,5% of works. Thus shown that non-compliance with international standards in the preparation of scientific papers, primarily statistical requirements directly affect the quality and ratings of domestic articles.

Botagoz Turdalieva

2013-10-01

187

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership,ually, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level. The ILO adopted, two months ago, a new global strategy to prevent workplace hazards such as radiation from causing death, disability and disease. We would be pleased to encourage related infrastructures in national workplaces to do their share in our concerted efforts for achieving the required safety culture. The labour inspectorates worldwide, the employers and the workers, as well as their organizations, professionals and scientists, all of them can contribute. We need well organized, systematic and continuous collaborative efforts that end up in progressive and stepwise improvement which covers all those at risk. I am convinced this conference will be one step in that direction. (author)

188

Welcome Address  

Science.gov (United States)

Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology etc. Therefore, I am very happy that the excellent scientists of nuclear physics over 120 visit to our university for discussing the latest results and scope in nuclear physics, and enjoy our facilities and City of Yokohama. I believe that this conference will transmit the forefront of the nuclear physics from Yokohama to the world. Finally, I hope this international workshop will be successful and fruitful, and all you have nice days in Yokohama. Thank you very much for your attention.

Kiku, H.

2014-12-01

189

Investigation of Methodological Problems in Educational Research: Longitudinal Methodology. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems and issues involved in the conduct of educational-developmental research are examined within the perspective of longitudinal research methodology. Chapters 2 and 3 examine contemporary research designs and procedures implemented for the selection of subjects and testing of behavior over time. Particular attention is given to the…

Goulet, Larry R.; And Others

190

Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques. PMID:1277062

Selye, H.

1976-01-01

191

Body, art, experience and research. "Problems of embodiment"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we will summarise the main arguments raised in the Workshop [No. 15] "Issues of corporality" developed in the 9§ Argentinian and 4§ Latin American Physical Education and Sciences Congress, at the UNLP. The papers in this workshop focused on the issue of corporality in artistic practice, including reflections relating primarily to dance, theater, performance, music, dance therapy and corporal education. The emphasis of the workshop was placed on the generation of debates, discussions and reflections that most or many authors deal with, allowing to delineate points of agreement and differences between their approaches. The articles discussed in this meeting shared one characteristic: all of them come from the reflection upon the practice. This centerred the debate reflections on the relationship between experience and research, and the dialogue generated between doing research about and on practice

Ana Sabrina Mora

2011-11-01

192

RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and commu...

Resnik, David B.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Sharp, Richard R.

2005-01-01

193

Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

2015-02-01

194

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. The Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources provides non-binding guidance concerning the import and export of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources, notably in relation to the evaluation of export authorization requests and pre-shipment notification. Furthermore there is the IAEA Safeguards Agreements and their Additional Protocols, which require accounting and control of nuclear material, and the establishment of State systems of accounting and control. The purpose and objectives of this conference are, on the one hand, to look back and review our collective experience in combating illicit nuclear trafficking, and on the other hand, looking forward, to see whether we can identify ways in which existing practices can be improved, and where it might be useful for new practices to be developed

195

Research on periodic orbits in the three problem  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the possible existence of small planets in extrasolar systems, a restricted, circular and plane three body problem is used. One of the two primaries has a mass similar to the Sun and the other one has a mass greater than Jupiter. Periodic and quasi-periodic orbits for the third body with different values of the Jacobi constant (C) are found by numerical methods. One of the three cases studied is fictitious, the others resemble two real systems of ext rasolar planets. The Everhart method is used and the results show the existence of periodic and quasi-periodic orbits for the lesser value of C. Irregular orbits appear for the other values of C, specially on the exterior zone of the secondary body.

Fernández, S.; Gámez, J.

196

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spain has developed a system which can serve as a model for the safe management of low activity waste, thus guaranteeing compliance with the basic principles published by the IAEA for the safe management of this type of waste. ENRESA, the Spanish company in charge of radioactive waste management, has the knowledge, the qualified personnel and the resources that have allowed it to design and establish a national programme that has gained the highest international recognition. A proof of the excellence of its work is the El Cabril facility. In the international arena, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the IAEA have established the scientific and technical grounds for the safe management of radioactive waste by developing appropriate standards, safety assessment criteria, methods and technologies. Great progress has been made with the help of these agencies, which have even proposed innovative concepts, such as the one designed by the IAEA for the final deep well disposal of orphaned sealed radioactive sources. I cannot but mention the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management as the most valuable instrument available to the international community, aimed at promoting the most demanding international safety standards for the management of radioactive material and, in the context of this symposium, aimed at attaining worldwide harmonization of safety approaches for the final disposal of low activity radioacthe final disposal of low activity radioactive waste. Nevertheless, certain important technological and regulatory issues are still to be understood more thoroughly. The problems raised by orphaned radioactive sources need further consideration, since they can introduce heterogeneities into the final disposal system that might affect the long-term safety of a facility. Currently, the large volumes of waste with a low radioactive content from several different origins constitute a challenge. The final disposal systems for this waste type must provide a balance between radiological protection - and consequently the protection of the population and of the environment - and the economic costs involved in the system itself. Low activity waste has appeared during the last few decades from directions, which, initially, had not been contemplated in the design of low activity waste management systems, such as, from accidents involving radioactive materials

197

Study of a research process for researchers, pupils and students involved in the research of an unsolved problem in number theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our thesis deals with the transposition of mathematician's reserach activity in mathematical classroom, in the domain of number theory. Our research focuses on the study of a research process for researchers, pupils and students involved in the research of an unsolved problem: the Erdös-Straus conjecture. Our mathematical and epistemological analyses allow us to identify different aspects of the mathematician's work and the elements for progress in his research. The notion of "gesture" is de...

Gardes, Marie-line

2013-01-01

198

Opening Address  

Science.gov (United States)

Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

Abalakin, V. K.

1997-03-01

199

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

200

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrortates to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at determining the overall needs for improvements in a cou

 
 
 
 
201

Flight Research: Problems Encountered and What They Should Teach Us  

Science.gov (United States)

The document by Milt Thompson that is reproduced here was an untitled rough draft found in Thompson's papers in the Dryden Historical Reference Collection. Internal evidence suggests that it was written around 1974. I have not attempted to second guess what Milt might have done in revising the paper, but I have made some minor stylistic changes to make it more readable without changing the sense of what Milt initially wrote. For the most part, I have not attempted to bring his comments up to date. For readers who may not be familiar with the history of what is today the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and of its predecessor organizations, I have added a background section.

Thompson, Milton O.; Hunley, J. D.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

202

Does the EU cause domestic developments? The problem of case selection in Europeanization research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Europeanization research has evolved into a promising research programme and has benefited from its increasing linkages with general theories of the social sciences. The paper starts from the assumption that the research programme would also benefit from a greater awareness of social science methodology. The paper focuses on the problem of case selection. Most Europeanization studies are designed in ways that the independent variables in which Europeanization research should be most intereste...

Haverland; Markus, MR

2005-01-01

203

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the international conference on 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities: Assuring the Safe Termination of Practices Involving Radioactive Materials', on behalf of the President of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Mr. Wolfram Koenig. The BfS is very pleased to host this conference on behalf of the German Government. We are deeply honoured by the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency to organize this conference and were delighted to accept it. After more than a year of preparatory work we are ready now to start the conference, with its plenary session, the poster presentations and the industrial exhibition. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an important issue in Germany. Following the agreement between the Federal Government and the operators of nuclear power plants to phase out of nuclear power generation within the next 20 years, the successive shutdown of facilities and subsequent dismantling will be a major task for all parties involved. As Germany is in favour of immediate dismantling, all the reactor sites should be brought to green field conditions in about 30 years from now. Germany has already gained a lot of practical experience in the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facilities. In total, 57 nuclear facilities were shut down and 27 were dismantled. Most of them are research reactors. The shutdown facilities include 17 nuclear power plants. Two of them were co nuclear power plants. Two of them were completely dismantled to green field conditions. In our definition, 'nuclear power plants' mean facilities that were connected to the grid. Of course, many of the facilities are smaller prototype reactors, but larger ones are also included. These are the five WWER reactors of Soviet design in Greifswald, which is claimed to be the biggest decommissioning project in the world, the Wuergassen BWR with 640 MW(e) (net) and the Muehlheim-Kaerlich PWR with 1220 MW(e) (net). Both facilities, Greifswald and Wuergassen, can be visited on Friday in the context of the 'scientific tours'. Furthermore, an application for the decommissioning of the Stade PWR with 640 MW(e) (net) was submitted to the regulators and is under examination. It should also be mentioned that nine fuel cycle facilities were shut down in Germany and four of them were completely dismantled. Amongst the fuel cycle facilities is the Karlsruhe prototype reprocessing plant, which has the following specialty: the reprocessing plant is being dismantled and a vitrification plant is being constructed in parallel in order to solidify the roughly 80 m3 of liquid HLW originating from the reprocessing of 208 Mg of spent fuel. Dismantling of the vitrification plant is the last step in this process. Another outstanding project is the cleanup and rehabilitation of the uranium mining and milling sites of the Wismut company in the German States of Saxony and Thuringia. When the facility was closed at the end of 1990, it had produced about 231 000 t of uranium. At that time, Wismut was the third largest uranium producer in the world. The ongoing work includes the stabilization and remediation of the waste rock piles, dismantling of the mining and milling facilities and underground remediation measures. The total cleanup costs are estimated to be about Euro 6.5 billion.The site is the destination of a scientific tour on Friday. The tour is not yet fully booked. Last minute registrations are possible at the registration desk. A large amount of research work was carried out in Germany for the development of methods, technologies, etc., for the dismantling of nuclear facilities, which was publicly funded and carried out, for example at universities. A large amount of know how emerged also from the application of equipment in dismantling the actual facilities. Having this background in mind, it is not surprising that Germany decided on some of the issues that are the subject of this conference, for example release from regulatory control. German experts will provide the respective

204

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistare backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism threats. There is a need to continue and strengthen the multinational cooperation which involves active participation by both nuclear specialists and those with more general security and law enforcement laws. Furthermore priority has to be given to developing national capacity to evaluate security threats, ensure adequate physical protection and intervene in ongoing nuclear trafficking cases complemented by cooperation in the areas of forensic analysis of nuclear material and emergency response. Together with the Russian Federation the USA announce the completion of security upgrades at strategic weapons sites and agreement on measures to ensure the long term sustainability of physical protection improvements in the Russian Federation. The USA is also working to convert research reactors and return the high enriched uranium fuel fro locations around the world which might otherwise become a target for terrorists or thieves. In parallel with efforts to improve security at the source, the USA is building international cooperation to put in place nuclear detection at seaports, airports and land border crossings. Through collaboration with the Russian Federal Customs Service, all of the Russian Federation's official border crossings will be equipped with radiation detection equipment by 2011

205

Addressable Terminally Linked DNA-CNT Nanowires  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite many advances in carbon nanotube (CNT) research, several issues continue to plague the field with regard to the construction of well-defined hybrid CNT materials. Regiospecific covalent functionalization, nonspecific surface absorption, and carbon nanotube aggregation/bundling present major difficulties when working with these materials. In this communication, we circumvent these problems and report a new addressable hybrid material composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes terminall...

Chenoweth, David M.; Swager, Timothy Manning

2010-01-01

206

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

207

Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address

Haste, Helen

2013-01-01

208

Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

Scott Ian

2010-12-01

209

Informing future research priorities into the psychological and social problems faced by cancer survivors: A rapid review and synthesis of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To establish what is known regarding the psychological and social problems faced by adult cancer survivors (people who are living with and beyond a diagnosis of cancer) and identify areas future research should address. Method: A rapid search of published literature reviews held in electronic data bases was under taken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, and removal of duplicated papers, reduced the initial number of papers from 4051 to 38. Twenty-two review papers were excluded on gr...

Jarrett, N.; Scott, I.; Addington-hall, J.; Amir, Z.; Brearley, S.; Hodges, L.; Richardson, A.; Sharpe, M.; Stamataki, Z.; Stark, D.; Siller, C.; Ziegler, L.; Foster, C.

2013-01-01

210

Research on energy transmission calculation problem on laser detecting submarine  

Science.gov (United States)

The laser detection and identification is based on the method of using laser as the source of signal to scan the surface of ocean. If the laser detection equipment finds out the target, it will immediately reflect the returning signal, and then through receiving and disposing the returning signal by the receiving system, to realize the function of detection and identification. Two mediums channels should be though in the process of laser detection transmission, which are the atmosphere and the seawater. The energy loss in the process of water transport, mainly considering the surface reflection and scattering attenuation and internal attenuation factors such as seawater. The energy consumption though atmospheric transmission, mainly considering the absorption of atmospheric and the attenuation causing by scattering, the energy consumption though seawater transmission, mainly considering the element such as surface reflection, the attenuation of scattering and internal attenuation of seawater. On the basis of the analysis and research, through the mode of establishment of atmospheric scattering, the model of sea surface reflection and the model of internal attenuation of seawater, determine the power dissipation of emitting lasers system, calculates the signal strength that reaches the receiver. Under certain conditions, the total attenuation of -98.92 dB by calculation, and put forward the related experiment scheme by the use of Atmospheric analog channel, seawater analog channel. In the experiment of the theory, we use the simulation pool of the atmosphere and the sea to replace the real environment where the laser detection system works in this kind of situation. To start with, we need to put the target in the simulating seawater pool of 10 meters large and then control the depth of the target in the sea level. We, putting the laser detection system in position where it is 2 kilometers far from one side, secondly use the equipment to aim at the target in some distance. Lastly, by launching and detecting the signal of returning wave, identify the effect of the image produced by the system.

Fu, Qiang; Li, Yingchao; Zhang, Lizhong; Wang, Chao; An, Yan

2014-12-01

211

Teacher Ethics as a Research Problem: Syntheses Achieved and New Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on teacher ethics and the moral dimensions of teaching has contributed to extensive and valuable knowledge, which has sometimes led to constructive syntheses of positions. Four research problems which have been elucidated are discussed in this article: the relationship between care and justice, the conflict between the ethics of virtue…

Colnerud, Gunnel

2006-01-01

212

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

213

New paradigms for old problems: some (small) advances in laser resonator research at the CSIR  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we outline new approaches to old problems, namely understanding the transverse modes in Porro prism resonators, and creating methods to select Gaussian beams by phase-only intra-cavity elements. In the process we outline some of the recent research that has taken place within the Mathematical Optics research group.

Forbes, Andrew

2010-02-01

214

Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

2008-01-01

215

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

1991-11-01

216

RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company) is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

Livenskaya, E. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

2011-01-01

217

RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

E.A. Livenskaya

2011-07-01

218

Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: kgrieger@rti.org [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)

2012-07-15

219

Problems in research integrity arising from misconceptions about the ownership of research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many allegations of scientific misconduct result from activities that are perceived by the complainants as the "theft" of ideas, experimental results, or other intellectual property. The authors' thesis is that many of these allegations originate in misconceptions about the ownership of publicly supported scientific research. Some universities and medical schools may have their own codes for authorship, and journals and professional societies have codes or guidelines. In the NIH intramural programs, research data are considered to be the property of the institutes, not the individual researchers. In contrast, the training and experience of most scientists lead them to consider research data as being theirs. The paper discusses the origins of this attitude toward data and the ways that the structures of university laboratories and training programs lead to confusion and misunderstandings of researchers' "rights" to data. Also, emotional and personality factors often complicate these issues and lead to confrontations. Other misconceptions widely held among researchers: the false concepts of "my grant" and the "co-principal" investigator, ideas about who is and is not qualified to be an author, and ideas about sharing data. The authors emphasize the importance of scientifically literate legal advisers and the necessity for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and professors to understand their institutions' and grantors' guidelines and their obligations as scientists. At the heart of these obligations at all levels of research is honesty. PMID:8373493

Fields, K L; Price, A R

1993-09-01

220

Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, alo...

Robinett, R. W.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Critical thinking and problem solving in a rural poverty situation: An action research project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While many of the issues surrounding poverty are universal, rural poverty presents a different variety of the situation. This research was completed in a small rural school with 380 students in grades seven through twelve. In seeking to address the unique needs of students in rural poverty, three questions were posed: •What characteristics does a child from rural poverty exhibit that a child from urban poverty does not? What similarities exist? •What transferable skills are needed for chi...

Franks, Janel Susan

2010-01-01

222

Port virtual addressing for PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

223

Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples  

CERN Document Server

We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, along with making contact with recent research papers in a variety of fields.

Robinett, R W

2007-01-01

224

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how t [...] o obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K., Ke.

2013-08-01

225

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Rob Foshay and Jamie Kirkley

2003-01-01

226

Addressing the identification problem in age-period-cohort analysis: a tutorial on the use of partial least squares and principal components analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the analysis of trends in health outcomes, an ongoing issue is how to separate and estimate the effects of age, period, and cohort. As these 3 variables are perfectly collinear by definition, regression coefficients in a general linear model are not unique. In this tutorial, we review why identification is a problem, and how this problem may be tackled using partial least squares and principal components regression analyses. Both methods produce regression coefficients that fulfill the same collinearity constraint as the variables age, period, and cohort. We show that, because the constraint imposed by partial least squares and principal components regression is inherent in the mathematical relation among the 3 variables, this leads to more interpretable results. We use one dataset from a Taiwanese health-screening program to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze the trends in body heights with 3 continuous variables for age, period, and cohort. We then use another dataset of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality rates for Taiwanese men to illustrate how to use partial least squares regression to analyze tables with aggregated data. We use the second dataset to show the relation between the intrinsic estimator, a recently proposed method for the age-period-cohort analysis, and partial least squares regression. We also show that the inclusion of all indicator variables provides a more consistent approach. R code for our analyses is provided in the eAppendix. PMID:22407139

Tu, Yu-Kang; Krämer, Nicole; Lee, Wen-Chung

2012-07-01

227

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the re...

Moller Mark S

2008-01-01

228

Introducing a Graduate Research Problem to a Junior Level Class: A Successful Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Formulating a research project to be designed and implemented by a junior level class during a short time period is a formidable undertaking. In this paper the authors discuss the problem of rough querying of databases presented to the information systems course and the special issues involved with the design and development of such a system. Of particular note was the greater emphasis in this project on research, and the special challenges involved with exposing undergraduates to graduate-le...

Theresa Beaubouef; Ghassan Alkadi

2010-01-01

229

Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

2013-03-01

230

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complexand involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create asolution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how to obtain a solution from the variouscandidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can providerich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimizedproblem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility modelexplores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decisionanalysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. Theselection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses areasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company’sknowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to anoptimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which iseasy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K. Ke

2013-08-01

231

[Randomised controlled trials in mental health services research: practical problems of implementation].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines problems of implementation and clinical practice of randomised controlled trials in mental health services. Furthermore, it offers practical solutions taking into account the experiences with a randomisation process in a multi-site EC-funded (EDEN-) study on the evaluation of acute treatment in psychiatric day hospitals. Identification of the problems follows the time-course of a research project: 1. Problems to be solved prior to the study's commencement: Definition of the eligibility criteria, information of clinically working colleagues. 2. Problems referring to the process of randomisation: Influence of clinical experience of the research fellows, precise time-point of implementing the randomisation into the process of admission, assessment of the patient's ability to give informed consent, patient's refusal of randomisation but agreement to study participation, availability of treatment places. 3. Problems which might occur after randomisation: Early break-off of treatment, transfer from one treatment setting to another. General conclusion: Detailed definitions of the randomisation procedure do not guarantee high performance quality and randomisation rates. Continuous precise assessment of the implementation into the clinical routines of every study centre, adaptation according to specific conditions and personal discussions with all participants are obligatory to establish and maintain a high quality of this important research procedure. PMID:12459946

Kallert, T W; Schützwohl, M

2002-12-01

232

Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

233

Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

234

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-09-01

235

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-12-01

236

Instruction texts and problems for the training and examination of selected personnel at research nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication comprises 6 separate brochures: (1) Selected chapters in reactor theory; (2) Experimental education methods; (3) Research and experimental reactors; (4.1) Technical description of the LVR-15 reactor; (4.2) Technical description of the LR-0 reactor; (4.3) Technical description of the VR-1 reactor; (5) Research reactor safety and operation; and (6) Database of problems for qualification examinations. Brochure No. 4 consists of 3 separate parts. The publication is intended for the training and examination of the following research reactor staff: reactor operator, shift engineer, control physicist, and start-up group head. (J.B.)

237

Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research  

Science.gov (United States)

By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

Bowles, Ann E.

1996-01-01

238

Simulation research on improved regularized solution of the inverse problem in spectral extinction measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present further results of the simulation research on the constrained regularized least squares (CRLS) solution of the ill-conditioned inverse problem in spectral extinction (turbidimetric) measurements, which we originally presented in this journal [Appl. Opt. 49, 4591 (2010)]. The inverse problem consists of determining the particle size distribution (PSD) function of a particulate system on the basis of a measured extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. In our previous paper, it was shown that under assumed conditions the problem can be formulated in terms of the discretized Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The CRLS method incorporates two constraints, which the PSD sought will satisfy: nonnegativity of the PSD values and normalization of the PSD to unity when integrated over the whole range of particle size, into the regularized least squares (RLS) method. This leads to the quadratic programming problem, which is solved by means of the active set algorithm within the research. The simulation research that is the subject of the present paper is a continuation and extension of the research described in our previous paper. In the present research, the performance of the CRLS method variants is compared not only to the corresponding RLS method variants but also to other regularization techniques: the truncated generalized singular value decomposition and the filtered generalized singular value decomposition, as well as nonlinear iterative algorithms: The Twomey algorithm and the Twomey-Markowski algorithm. Moreover, two methods of selecting the optimum value of the regularization parameter are considered: The L-curve method and the generalized cross validation method. The results of our simulation research provide even stronger proof that the CRLS method performs considerably better with reconstruction of PSD than other inversing methods, in terms of better fidelity and smaller uncertainty. PMID:22505162

Mroczka, Janusz; Szczuczy?ski, Damian

2012-04-10

239

Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

2014-04-01

240

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

The problems of treatment of irradiated fuel at Russian research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the problems of safety during the storage and transportation of the spent fuel from Russian research reactors. Many research reactors continue to operate at Russia at present time. They use many different types of fuel elements and assemblies. The questions of safety during storage and transportation of spent fuel research reactors is considered in Russian documents on the safety of research reactors. The main features of these documents are described in this report. This report discusses three stages of the storage and transportation of the spent fuel: The temporary storage in the pool or in the vessel; the storage in the repository on the territory of the institutes; the transportation of the fuel to the reprocessing plant. The future plans provides the solution of the problem of transportation and reprocessing of all types of fuel assemblies which are used in Russian research reactors and experimental facilities. Also the Russian Reduced Enrichment Research Reactors Program that was started late in 70th continuing now. The main results of this work would be increase the density of the fuel meat in the composition on the basis of uranium dioxide and the change of the fuel composition to uranium silicide in aluminum matrix or another. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

242

Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

1994-06-01

243

”Generalizability” as Recognition: Reflections on a Foundational Problem in Qualitative Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop what counts as “generalizability” in qualitative research. By taking an ontological and epistemic stance in relation to the four foundational problems: 1Knowledge and its various forms. 2 Properties of reality and the doubleness of the situation. 3 How is understanding possible? 4 The researcher’s role: What are the fundamental questions that the researcher must ask himself before a study is designed? we are able to approach the exploration of ”generalizability” in qualitative research. Methodological theorists agree that the question of applicability is essential in the discussion of “generalizability” in qualitative research. If the quantitative tradition’s requirement for replicability also has to be met, the pressing question during the article is what counts as replicability and applicability in qualitative research. In the exploration of what is involved in “generalizability” in qualitative research a combination of Gadamer and Flyvbjerg´s thinking are important sources for a reflection on the ontological and epistemic questions related to the four foundational problems. The ontological question of what establishes a situation is an essential interpretation for the finding. A situation is characterised by its quality of doubleness: it is unique and typical at the same time. People with each their unique story and life world constitute the uniqueness of the situation. And a situation is typical in the sense that fundamental experiences can be found in every situation. The typical is what we as people have in common. There will be typical traits and recogizable patterns in every situation. The finding show us that “generalizability” in qualitative research builds on recognisability and a challenge to practice as a practical reasoning.

Charlotte Delmar

2010-10-01

244

Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a key factor of logistics distribution, vehicle routing problem (VRP is a hot research topic in management and computation science. In this paper the principle and algorithm process of firefly algorithm are introduced in detail. Then the algorithm process and solving steps are designed for vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW, including the coding and design of  disturbance mechanism of elicit fireflies. In the end, the testing examples from benchmark and other literatures are conducted with good outputs, which prove the validity of the firefly algorithm for VRP.

Fengshan Pan

2013-09-01

245

The ABCs of IP addressing  

CERN Document Server

Our world is rapidly becoming an Internet-based world, with tens of millions of homes, millions of businesses, and within a short period of time, possibly hundreds of millions of mobile professionals accessing the literal mother of all networks. One of the key problems affecting many Internet users, ranging from individual professionals to networking managers and administrators, is a lack of knowledge concerning Internet Protocol (IP) addressing.A detailed reference guide, The ABCs of IP Addressing provides you with the detailed information about the key challenges of IP addressing and designing networks that work efficiently. It takes you from the basics of the binary numbering system to advanced topics in subnetting, network address translation, and configuring workstations, servers and routers. The book contains network tools that prepare you for testing and troubleshooting and highlights the need for techniques that conserve the use of IP addressing as well as the creation of a next generation IP addressi...

Held, Gilbert

2001-01-01

246

"These are good problems to have…": establishing a collaborative research partnership in East Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.' PMID:23797916

Tierney, William M; Nyandiko, Winstone N; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S

2013-09-01

247

Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

248

Introducing a Graduate Research Problem to a Junior Level Class: A Successful Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formulating a research project to be designed and implemented by a junior level class during a short time period is a formidable undertaking. In this paper the authors discuss the problem of rough querying of databases presented to the information systems course and the special issues involved with the design and development of such a system. Of particular note was the greater emphasis in this project on research, and the special challenges involved with exposing undergraduates to graduate-level research concepts and tasks. The students were asked by the instructor to research and learn Database Connectivity, SQL Syntax, Microsoft C# Syntax, Graphical-User Interface Controls, and Database Structure and Design and the .Net framework. The students had to elicit the software requirements from the client at different meetings. Moreover, the students worked on their communicational and oral skills because they had to present their final product to the client and provide ample documentation.

Theresa Beaubouef

2010-07-01

249

Research priorities for non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal problems: nationally and internationally agreed recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a clear trend towards large, high quality trials testing the effectiveness of common non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions showing, at best, small to moderate benefits. This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from recent trials of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions in primary care and provides agreed research priorities for future clinical trials. Methods Consensus development using nominal group techniques through national (UK and international workshops. During a national Clinical Trials Thinktank workshop in April 2007 in the UK, a group of 30 senior researchers experienced in clinical trials for musculoskeletal conditions and 2 patient representatives debated the possible explanations for the findings of recent high quality trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Using the qualitative method of nominal group technique, these experts developed and ranked a set of priorities for future research, guided by the evidence from recent trials of treatments for common musculoskeletal problems. The recommendations from the national workshop were presented and further ranked at an international symposium (hosted in Canada in June 2007. Results 22 recommended research priorities were developed, of which 12 reached consensus as priorities for future research from the UK workshop. The 12 recommendations were reduced to 7 agreed priorities at the international symposium. These were: to increase the focus on implementation (research into practice; to develop national musculoskeletal research networks in which large trials can be sited and smaller trials supported; to use more innovative trial designs such as those based on stepped care and subgrouping for targeted treatment models; to routinely incorporate health economic analysis into future trials; to include more patient-centred outcome measures; to develop a core set of outcomes for new trials of interventions for musculoskeletal problems; and to focus on studies that advance methodological approaches for clinical trials in this field. Conclusion A set of research priorities for future trials of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions has been developed and agreed through national (UK and international consensus processes. These priorities provide useful direction for researchers and research funders alike and impetus for improvement in the quality and methodology of clinical trials in this field.

Windt Danielle

2009-01-01

250

Key-problem analysis and experimental research of stereo HMD used in augmented reality  

Science.gov (United States)

The key problems to be solved in stereo HMD (Head-Mounted Display) used in augmented reality are analyzed, such as brightness of image, fusion of virtual and real scene, binocular rivalry, occlusion, distortion, stereo vision and tracking of head and line of sight. An experimental platform of HMD is developed by discrete elements to research the key problems. The problem of fusion of virtual and real scene can be solved effectively by replacing the common beam splitter with polarization beam splitter in combiner. The variations of HMD vision effects including binocular rivalry with binocular overlapped range are investigated, and the results indicate that the optimal effect is achieved when the binocular overlapped range is 33~50% of the monocular field of view (FOV). At last, stereo vision is realized in HMD by the stereo image pairs made up according to the parallax theory.

Gao, Wei-Qing; Zhou, Shi-E.; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Ming, Hai

2009-11-01

251

Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

Alas, Joel

2007-01-01

252

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

253

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

James V. Taranik

2007-12-31

254

The Progress, Problems and Forsight of Scholarship of Teaching Research in China Since 2000  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 2000, Chinese researchers have introduced American ideology of scholarship of teaching (SoT, and conduct localizationas analysis on its definition, connotation and assessing standards, and initially form SoT theoretical framework based on Chinese reality. Researchers have carried out empirical investigations for Chinese SoT levels in universities, and discussed on overall design of Chinese university SoT system from such aspects as SoT cultivating system, value acceptance system, teaching administrative and quality guarantee system based on SoT, teachers’ specialty development system in the view of SoT, and SoT communicating and sharing system. Although SoT research has greatly developed in China, there still exist the following problems: just advocating foreign theories without taking consideration of Chinese context; taking old route in research path; more theoretical imagination but less investigation, many difficulties to implementation recommendation. It will be a tendency for future research to further clarify SoT theoretical foundation, explore the practice from the bottom up and probe into new epistemology and research paradigm applied to SoT.

Xiaohong LI

2014-12-01

255

Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

A.V. Zhilinskaya,

2014-08-01

256

Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts.

Opsomming
Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

Gert Roodt

2004-10-01

257

Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infnd private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. I consider this a timely opportunity to reiterate the Government of Chile's iron commitment to exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as our firm opposition to any deviation of this form of energy towards military ends. We also acknowledge the important work achieved through technical cooperation, of which our country has been a beneficiary ever since the initiation of nuclear activity in Chile almost three decades ago. I cannot keep from mentioning the fact that even though nuclear energy represents a major contribution to humanity through the use of isotopes and ionizing radiation, as well as through the generation of electricity throughout the world, our country recognizes that there are some issues pending which must be resolved, taking into account the perspective of developing nations. I refer to the management and final disposal of highly radioactive waste, and also to the cross-border transport of radioactive materials. Both of those issues are rejected by public opinion, making social validation of this form of energy difficult. Esteemed scientists, in closing I would like to convey to you my wishes that the conversations held and agreements entered into during this week may lead to major progress in the use of nuclear research reactors, and that this in turn may contribute to improving the quality of life worldwide, as well as to reinforcing international cooperation. I also hope that your stay in our country will be an enjoyable one, that you may have the opportunity to become a little more acquainted with its natural beauty and culture, and that through the focus on the particular scientific issues which brings you here, it may become possible to achieve progress towards the genuine integration of different peoples and cultures sharing a common ideal: that of putting nuclear science and technology at the service of humankind. Thank you very much. (author)

258

Opening Address (by R. Hojman) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: I have the high honour of addressing you in order to express on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile (CCHEN), and also on my own behalf, our pleasure in having the opportunity to welcome to our country this select group of authorities and professionals of the IAEA, and more than 100 representatives of nuclear institutions from some 50 countries. We are certain that this conference will facilitate a valuable exchange of knowledge in areas as important as the use of research reactors, safety related aspects of such use, the fuel cycle, and dismantling and management of radioactive waste. We also value the opportunity provided by this forum to share experi- ences, exchange opinions, and discuss options and priorities during the five technical sessions scheduled as part of the conference and, moreover, to deepen existing and create new bonds of international cooperation. I would like to mention the fact that our country has experience in the operation of its experimental reactors and has managed to make contributions to major applications in various fields including medicine, agriculture, industry and mining, and environment and metrology. Health applications have been given priority among the CCHEN's activities, and this is why the use of the reactor at La Reina Nuclear Studies Center has focused on the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceu- tical applications which have short half-lives and are used in the diagnosis of the dynamic functised in the diagnosis of the dynamic functioning of various organs and as therapeutic agents in some types of cancer. In agriculture, various isotope techniques have been investigated and fine tuned in areas such as soil fertility, fertilizing sources, optimum use of nutrients, rationalization and economy in the use of water, quantification of the degree of soil erosion, and irrigation with fertilizers. More recently, a study of residuality and mobility of agro-chemicals in soil and water was initiated through a project developed jointly with the IAEA and with our country's Agricultural and Livestock Raising Service, for the purposes of contributing regulations and standards in the use of pesticides. (author) In the area of mining, the CCHEN has been using radioactive tracers in mining and metallurgical processes for over two decades in determination of residence times, flow rates, fluid velocity, and characterization of runoff in in situ leaching processes, among other techniques, all of which has made it possible to optimize processes and achieve cost reductions. In the environmental field, isotope techniques have been developed for the study of both surface and underground aquifer resources. Work has also been carried out in determining contaminant sources and, more recently, there has been participation in multi-disciplinary research in order to collaborate in the control of marine toxins responsible for red tides through the use of isotope techniques. In the area of chemical metrology, the CCHEN renders major assistance services to the national export system in terms of sanitary certification, giving support and technical assistance to national laboratories so that the latter may raise their standards and undertake measurements in compliance with the growing requirements imposed by international markets. Worth pointing out are both the organization of aptitude drills and inter-comparison rounds at the national and international levels, and the CCHEN's capacity to prepare reference and control materials in natural matrices and also control materials for chemical analyses, all of which has enabled the CCHEN's laboratories to attain formal recognition as the reference laboratory for determining trace elements in biological samples. I have mentioned only some of the technological developments associated with the operation of our reactors for the purposes of contextual- izing the importance that various topics we are to discuss during the current week have for us. I want to end by reiterating that we feel honoured and experience great pleasure in having a sel

259

Vybrané problémy ve výzkumu zážitkové pedagogiky Chosen problems in experiential education research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V textu se zabýváme výzkumem v oblasti, kterou pro pot?eby ?lánku nazýváme zážitková pedagogika. Nejd?íve se v?nujeme n?kterým problém?m výzkumu v obecné rovin?. Dále se s využitím p?íklad? z d?íve publikovaných studií zabýváme problémy jak kvantitativního, tak kvalitativního výzkumu. Dotýkáme se mimo jiné i otázky, zda by výzkum v dané oblasti m?l klást d?raz spíše na ov??ování stávajících teorií, ?i tvorbu teorie vlastní. Zejména pro ?eské prost?edí se p?ikláníme k druhé variant?, která m?že spíše p?isp?t k tvorb? spole?ného jazyka a znalostního základu oboru. This paper is concerned with research in the field of experiential education. At first we picked out some problems of research in general. Than using examples from published studies we focused on problems of the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Amongst others we touched on the questions to whether the researchers in the field should put emphasis on verifying existing theories or rather on generating theory peculiar to experential education. Especially in the Czech environment we prefer the latter possibility, which can contribute to the creation of a common language and to our own body of knowledge.

Ji?í Okrouhlý

2007-01-01

260

Measuring humanity (research on the problem of medical service for homeless  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the structure of the disease between homeless people and leading factors, influencing its formation. Material and Methods. Information on diseases was received from the data of homeless entering the Saratov Clinical hospital ?2 and Clinical hospital ?6 in 2013. The questionnaire of students ofthe 5th course of Medical University on the subject of problem of medical help rendering to homeless. Results. The majority of hospitalized homeless suffered acute respiratory diseases (17,5%. It has been determined that 53% of students are ready to renderthe medical help to homeless, but 39% of students do not consider rendering medical assistance. Conclusion. The research has showed the health state of homeless is conditioned by the weather and psychological and social status. The problems of medical service for homeless are of great importance for future doctors. But specific medical attitude don't formed enough in young doctors.

Skvortsova V.V.

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Research on the Endogenous Problems of Rural Farmers’ Spiritual and Cultural Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author conducts research and analysis on the endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education and finds that: the current endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education in China are mainly manifested in the oldness of spiritual and cultural education concepts, the monotonousness of spiritual and cultural education content, the blurring of spiritual and cultural education forms, the simplicity of spiritual and cultural education methods, and the lag of spiritual and cultural education evaluation and etc. Meanwhile, the author proposes to build a scientific system of spiritual and cultural education policy, create a healthy and harmonious policy implementation atmosphere, and construct a full policy supervision system and some other policy suggestions.

Yanlong ZHAO

2014-04-01

262

The patient-centered outcomes research institute should focus on high-impact problems that can be solved quickly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Affordable Care Act created the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to help patients, clinicians, and policy makers make well-informed decisions about health care. Because its funding expires in 2019, the institute has little time in which to produce timely, practice-changing results that will build public support for comparative effectiveness research. PCORI should plan its research agenda strategically, so that it addresses research questions that comparative effectiveness research could answer quickly and decisively. To date, the institute has not chosen this path. In January 2012 PCORI's first research agenda described broad research priorities rather than specific clinical questions. The institute must drive the burgeoning discipline of comparative effectiveness research forward, starting with a research project agenda that conveys a sense of urgency and strategic direction. PMID:23048093

Sox, Harold

2012-10-01

263

Problem-based learning research in anesthesia teaching: current status and future perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching. PMID:24982673

Chilkoti, G; Mohta, M; Wadhwa, R; Saxena, A K

2014-01-01

264

A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2014-09-01

265

Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

266

WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

Williams van Rooij, Shahron

2007-01-01

267

??????????????? The Research Status and Problems on Ecology and Environment of Lake Erhai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????50???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????????????????????????????(?????????????????????????????????????(??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????There are wide concerns from scholars at domestic and overseas on the ecological environment of Lake Erhai recently as a consequence of worsening status, massive and rapid development on the catchment of Lake Erhai. This paper summarizes the research status of Lake Erhai which has been collected since 1950s, analyzes the current situation of the environment (including eutrophication, heavy metal pollution, and catchment development and vegetation status and ecology (including biological diversity, food web change, and characteristics changes of ecological system, and makes a further analysis on the meteorological factors (including temperature, precipitation and wind speed. Through those data we point out that there are some problems still exist in the research of Lake Erhai, for instance, the Cyano- phyta explosion history, the detailed research on zoo-plankton and food chain, the distinction of drive strength of multi- ple pressure on the process of eutrophication of Lake Erhai for the purpose that we can have a comprehensive under- standing of the situation on ecology and environment of Lake Erhai. In this way we can have cognitive bases for the further relative work carried out in Lake Erhai and support some constructive opinions for ecological restoration work of Lake Erhai preferably.

???

2013-08-01

268

Children of parent(s) who have a gambling problem: a review of the literature and commentary on research approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem gambling is becoming an increasingly widespread and damaging social and health problem. As opportunities for gambling become more accessible, especially through lotteries and electronic gaming machines, it is likely that more people will develop serious gambling problems. Given the worldwide increasing spending on gambling activities and the increasing number of problem gamblers, it is unfortunate but likely that the children who grow up in problem gambling families will become an important area of concern for child health and social workers. Considerable research has been undertaken into problem gambling and the adult problem gambler, but within the gambling and child health literature there is almost no recognition of the experiences of children who live in problem-gambling families. Drawing on the findings of the landmark Productivity Commission Report, this review explores the marked increase in gambling and its social effects, especially from the Australian perspective. The damaging social effects of problem gambling on families and children are reviewed and the comparative invisibility of children and young people in such research is discussed. The pervasive influence of developmentalism is critiqued and highlighted in relation to the exclusion of children's perspectives from our research understandings. The review concludes by proposing that adoption of some of the emerging 'new paradigm' approaches to childhood and children's experiences could markedly enhance our understandings of the lives and experiences of this significant group of children and young people. PMID:11560734

Darbyshire, P; Oster, C; Carrig, H

2001-07-01

269

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

R. Barthel

2014-02-01

270

Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of com...

Es, R.

2000-01-01

271

38 CFR 21.390 - Rehabilitation research and special projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

...b)) (c) Research by Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) staff members. VA will encourage research by VR&E staff members. This research will address problems affecting service delivery, initiation and...

2010-07-01

272

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

Barthel, R.

2014-07-01

273

Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

274

The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content and basic program, regarding the advanced repair maintenance concept as the guidance, establish the scientific management system, clarify the professional requirements and perfect effective management mechanism, so as to ensure that its maintenance work into effect.

Fei-Long Liu

2013-06-01

275

On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

1972-01-01

276

A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most modern scholars in the genesis of the aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive factors and factors constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations. At the same time, there are also scientific approaches to understanding the nature of aggression, which in some cases does not focus directly on the structures inhibiting aggressive impulses, and are limited to considering only the aggression catalysts. In the present article we discuss the need to introduce the term "inhibitors of aggression", analyze different positions and views on this problem. We consider not only Russian conceptions of the nature of aggression retarding structures, but also the international research aimed at understanding the psychological analogue of this phenomenon: "protective factors". The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which not only traces the history of the studies of this phenomenon, but also makes an attempt to analyze few up-to-day theories of aggressive behavior, aimed at objectivation of the psychological mechanism of interaction of proagressive and inhibiting personality structures.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2014-09-01

277

The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

2010-01-01

278

'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-07-01

279

The problem of analysing the relationship between change and initial value in oral health research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between initial disease status and subsequent change following treatment has attracted great interest in dental research. However, medical statisticians have repeatedly warned against correlating/regressing change with baseline because of two methodological concerns known as mathematical coupling and regression to the mean. In general, mathematical coupling occurs when one variable directly or indirectly contains the whole or part of another, and the two variables are then analyzed by using correlation or regression. Consequently, the statistical procedure of testing the null hypothesis - that the coefficient of correlation or the slope of regression is zero - may become inappropriate. Regression to the mean occurs with any variable that fluctuates within an individual or a population, either owing to measurement error and/or to physiological variation. The aim of this article was to clarify the conceptual confusion around mathematical coupling and regression to the mean within the statistical literature, and to correct a popular misconception about the correct analysis of the relationship between change and initial value. As examples that use inappropriate methods to analyze the relationship between change and baseline are still found in leading dental journals, this article seeks to help oral health researchers understand these problems and explain how to overcome them.

Tu, Yu-Kang; Bælum, Vibeke

2005-01-01

280

A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: the problem of helminthiases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:22545164

Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Grant, Warwick N; Boatin, Boakye A; McCarthy, James S; Basáñez, María-Gloria

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Measuring Human Performance on Clustering Problems: Some Potential Objective Criteria and Experimental Research Opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of human performance on discrete optimization problems has a considerable history that spans various disciplines. The two most widely studied problems are the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem and the quadratic assignment problem. The purpose of this paper is to outline a program of study for the measurement of human performance on discrete optimization problems related to clustering of points in the two-dimensional plane. I describe possible objective criteria for clustering...

Brusco, Michael

2007-01-01

282

Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

1996-12-01

283

Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues  

Science.gov (United States)

Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

Hsu, Pei-Ling

2014-03-01

284

Radon measurements in Austria and some basic problems in earthquake prediction research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic problems in earthquake prediction research are discussed in connection with the analysis of spring water radon (222Rn) measurements in Austria. Two possibilities for the definition of an anomaly are proposed. In the analysed data two periods of outstanding radon concentration could be observed. The data were carefully analyzed using different methods but the extreme radon concentrations could not be explained by an influence of vadose water or by meteorological effects or other non-tectonic disturbances. These two periods were identified as anomalies when using the proposed definition of anomaly. Contingency table tests give high probabilities (>90%) for a correlation between certain earthquakes and the observed radon anomalies. The investigations result in the following hypothesis: The probability for the occurrence of an earthquake in the area 42 deg. N???47.5 deg. N, 13 deg. E???20 deg. E, Friuli area excluded, with a magnitude M greater as a certain well defined level, increases during the time of an anomaly in the radon concentration of the Freibadquelle by about a factor of ten. To test this hypothesis a new set of radon data is necessary. However this new set of radon data is still not large enough to reach a sufficient statistical proof. Finally, some recommendations are given in order to improve the possibilities for comparing and judging predictions. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

285

Research of Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem by Cellular Ant Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP) is a generalization of SDVRP, in which multiple vehicles start from multiple depots and return to their original depots at the end of their assigned tours. The MDVRP is NP-hard, therefore, the development of heuristic algorithms for this problem class is of primary interest. This paper solves Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Cellular Ant Algorithm which is a new optimization method for solving real problems by using b...

Yuanzhi Wang

2013-01-01

286

Residual coding in ICHPPC: the size of the problem and its impact on research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In initial field trials of the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC), the number of problems coded in residual (`other') categories was <5 per cent. Since then, there have been no published analyses of the residual category. Problems have been coded and computerized for over eight years at the Medical University of South Carolina Department of Family Medicine model practice. An analysis of that experience demonstrates that 14.3 per cent of the 85,000 problem...

Robertson, Dwight L.; Simpson, William M.

1982-01-01

287

Adaptive management of the climate change problem: bridging the gap between research and public policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are important differences between adaptation to normal climate and adaptation to climate change. One scientific community is organized to address extreme probabilities in current distributions, and their disaster potential. Another scientific community addresses the longer-term changes in the climate system. There are important differences between natural hazard (extreme and unpredictable events) and disaster as natural hazard with disastrous economic and social consequences as a matter...

Sa?voiu, Gheorghe

2008-01-01

288

The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M.

2013-01-01

289

La antibiótico-resistencia de bacterias de importancia clínica aisladas del río Almendares, Cuba, abordada como problema de salud ecosistémica / The antibiotic-resistance of clinically significant bacteria isolated from Almendares River in Cuba, addressed as an ecosystem health problem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Universidad actual tiene, además de su papel docente, una posición privilegiada en cuanto a la protección del medio ambiente mediante la difusión de los resultados de sus investigaciones. Uno de los problemas medioambientales, y por ende de salud, que más preocupa a los investigadores en la actua [...] lidad es la resistencia a los antibióticos de bacterias que habitan los ecosistemas acuáticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar la presencia de bacterias de importancia clínica en el río Almendares, La Habana, Cuba, como problema de salud ecosistémica y así tener una visión más completa en el análisis de situaciones problémicas sobre el estado ecológico real del mismo que se discuten en la docencia de pregrado y postgrado. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de 72 aislados del río Almendares por el método de Bauer- Kirby. Las lecturas fueron realizadas teniendo en los catálogos del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Se obtuvieron aislados resistentes a las cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación, un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a nueve antibióticos distintos, mientras que fueron también multirresistentes aislados de Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis y Streptococcus pneumoniae. La presencia de bacterias de diferentes grupos de importancia clínica, resistentes y multirresistentes a antibióticos, en este río constituye un importante problema de salud ecosistémica, lo cual constituye un riesgo potencial que afecta los servicios ecosistémicos de los cuales depende gran parte de la población de la capital cubana. Abstract in english The current University has, besides its educational paper, a privileged position as for the protection of the environment by means of the diffusion of the results of its investigations. One of the environmental problems, and therefore health, of greatest concern to researchers today is the antibioti [...] c resistance of bacteria that inhabit aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the presence of bacteria of clinical importance from the Almendares River in Havana, Cuba, as an ecosystem health problem and thus have a more complete vision on the analysis of problem situations about the actual ecological status of this ecosystem, which are being discussed in pre and postgraduate teaching. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined from 72 strains isolated in vitro on Almendares River through Bauer-Kirby method. The readings were carried out having in the catalogs of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Isolated resistant to cefalosporins of third and fourth generation were obtained, one isolated of Escherichia coli was resistant to nine different antibiotics, while isolated of Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also multiresistant. It was concluded that the presence of some resistant and multiresistant to antibiotics bacteria of clinical importance, in this river, constitute an important problem of ecosystem health, which at the same time, establishes a potential risk that affects the ecosystem services from which many people from Cuban capital depend.

Yunier, Arpajón-Peña; Rebeca, Doval-García; José Gabriel, Hernández-Carretero; Martha, Pérez-Cosme; Yornaika, Llano-González.

2014-06-30

290

Learning to Research Environmental Problems from a Functional Socio-Cultural Constructivism Perspective: The Transdisciplinary Case Study Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the transdisciplinary case study (TCS) as a learning framework based on what we call functional socio-cultural constructivism and project-based learning (PBL). In doing so, the paper attempts to illustrate the applicability of TCS to learn competencies and skills necessary to research problems of…

Stauffacher, M.; Walter, A. I.; Lang, D. J.; Wiek, A.; Scholz, R. W.

2006-01-01

291

Sesotho Address Forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

Akindele, Dele Femi

2008-01-01

292

Tasks and problems of research on air pollution effects as a basis of practical air pollution control. Aufgaben und Probleme der Wirkungsforschung als Grundlage fuer den praktischen Immissionsschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under present air pollution conditions, characterized by long-term exposure to wide-spread low-concentrated complex air pollutants the availability of data for prophylactic as well as subsequent protection measures is very difficult. The tasks and problems of research under given air pollution conditions are demonstrated taking terrestric ecosystems as example. Special attention is given to definition of protection aims recognition of air pollution damage, monitoring of polluted areas and determination of dose-response-relationships as a basis for establishing standards. (orig.).

Guderian, R. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Architektur, Bio- und Geowissenschaften); Ballach, H.J. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst.)

1989-01-01

293

Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality

Jordi López Sintas

2012-12-01

294

Is there a role for expectation maximization imputation in addressing missing data in research using WOMAC questionnaire? Comparison to the standard mean approach and a tutorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard mean imputation for missing values in the Western Ontario and Mc Master (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index limits the use of collected data and may lead to bias. Probability model-based imputation methods overcome such limitations but were never before applied to the WOMAC. In this study, we compare imputation results for the Expectation Maximization method (EM and the mean imputation method for WOMAC in a cohort of total hip replacement patients. Methods WOMAC data on a consecutive cohort of 2062 patients scheduled for surgery were analyzed. Rates of missing values in each of the WOMAC items from this large cohort were used to create missing patterns in the subset of patients with complete data. EM and the WOMAC's method of imputation are then applied to fill the missing values. Summary score statistics for both methods are then described through box-plot and contrasted with the complete case (CC analysis and the true score (TS. This process is repeated using a smaller sample size of 200 randomly drawn patients with higher missing rate (5 times the rates of missing values observed in the 2062 patients capped at 45%. Results Rate of missing values per item ranged from 2.9% to 14.5% and 1339 patients had complete data. Probability model-based EM imputed a score for all subjects while WOMAC's imputation method did not. Mean subscale scores were very similar for both imputation methods and were similar to the true score; however, the EM method results were more consistent with the TS after simulation. This difference became more pronounced as the number of items in a subscale increased and the sample size decreased. Conclusions The EM method provides a better alternative to the WOMAC imputation method. The EM method is more accurate and imputes data to create a complete data set. These features are very valuable for patient-reported outcomes research in which resources are limited and the WOMAC score is used in a multivariate analysis.

Rutledge John

2011-05-01

295

Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009. Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent efforts at PNNL to conduct confirmatory research, development, and evaluation of advanced NDE methods for characterizing CASS microstructures and inspecting welds in these materials. This paper describes results from recent assessments using low-frequency, phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) techniques as applied to both small-bore pressurizer (PZR) surge line components and larger-bore primary coolant piping components. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld rootsgue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. Advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased-array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at lower frequencies than conventionally applied PA-UT (500 kHz and 800 kHz) and composite volumetric images of these samples were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization, and sizing effectiveness are discussed. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping, piping segments used in PISC-III round robin tests, and practice specimens from the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. Interim results from sound-field mapping in CASS microstructures as a function of frequency, incident angle, and microstructure parameters are presented. This paper also describes progress and recent developments resulting from laboratory studies focused on developing effective in-situ methods for microstructural characterization (classification) in CASS components from the outside surface. A study of past CASS fabrication processes and their impact on resultant microstructures will also be discussed.

296

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

2008-07-01

297

Corrosion Induced Leakage Problem of the Radial Beam Port 1 of BAEC Triga Mark-II Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BAEC reactor has so far been operated as per the technical specifications and procedures laid down in the SAR of the research reactor. The BP leakage problem of the BAEC research reactor was an issue that could lead to a situation close to a LOCA. Therefore, the matter was handled carefully, taking all measures so that such an incident could be prevented. Assistance of agencies outside BAEC was taken for solving the problem. It is understood that the silicone rubber lining of the encirclement clamp may become damaged by neutron irradiation. Therefore, while designing the clamp, provisions were kept such that it can be dismantled and reinstalled again following lining replacement. As a moderately aged facility, the ageing management BAEC TRIGA research reactor deserves significant attention. BAEC, together with its strategic partners, are doing what is needed in this regard

298

The Relevance of the Identification Problem to Statistical Research on Capital Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews several potential problems that often invalidate statistical tests of social theories. Discusses how there may be very serious identification problems in the estimation of the relationship between executions and homicides, and that serious questions may be raised regarding the validity of any particular estimation of this relationship.…

Yunker, James A.

1982-01-01

299

A Research Methodology for Studying What Makes Some Problems Difficult to Solve  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a quantitative model for predicting the level of difficulty subjects will experience with specific problems. The model explicitly accounts for the number of subproblems a problem can be broken into and the difficultly of each subproblem. Although the model builds on previously published models, it is uniquely suited for blending with…

Gulacar, Ozcan; Fynewever, Herb

2010-01-01

300

“These are Good Problems to Have…”: Establishing a Collaborative Research Partnership in East Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the context of a long-term institutional ‘twinning’ partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan–North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, con...

Tierney, William M.; Nyandiko, Winstone N.; Siika, Abraham M.; Wools-kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E.; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Harvard University Commencement Address  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an advantage to starting from low expectations. Agreed, I am not running for President, and I am not a prime minister or a general. But I speak for an element of our culture at least as important as politics or war---an element that has not been at this podium since Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin, addressed the graduating class of 1945. That element is science.

302

Computer-Supported Problem-Based Learning in the Research Methodology Domain  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to look for possible benefits and drawbacks of the use of computer-supported simulation in the teaching and learning of experimental research methodology and statistics. In the study three research methodology groups were compared. The results show that there were significant differences in favour of the…

Lehti, Sirpa; Lehtinen, Erno

2005-01-01

303

The communication problems of Spanish researchers to get research articles published in Applied Linguistics English-medium journals: proposal and analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...

Moreno, Ana I.

2012-01-01

304

Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns

305

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Jason Justice

2008-05-01

306

Research of Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem by Cellular Ant Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP is a generalization of SDVRP, in which multiple vehicles start from multiple depots and return to their original depots at the end of their assigned tours. The MDVRP is NP-hard, therefore, the development of heuristic algorithms for this problem class is of primary interest. This paper solves Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Cellular Ant Algorithm which is a new optimization method for solving real problems by using both the evolutionary rule of cellular, graph theory and the characteristics of ant colony optimization. The simulation experiment shows that the Cellular Ant Algorithm is feasible and effective for the MDVRP. The clarity and simplicity of the Cellular Ant Algorithm is greatly enhanced to ant colony optimization.

Yuanzhi Wang

2013-07-01

307

Research on Existing Problem of China's MBA Education and the Countermeasures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article started with a brief review of the history and current situation of Chinese MBA education, Moreover, the major problems of Chinese MBA education and the reasonable resolution were presented on improving the MBA education in China as well.

Haiyong Ma

2010-01-01

308

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Eccles Martin P

2008-12-01

309

PROBLEM SITUATION AS DIDACTIC STRATEGY IN THE CHEMICAL BOND TEACHING: RESEARCH CONTEXTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the understanding of chemical bonding by students of Bachellor degree in Chemistry exposed to a situation-problem (SP) teaching approach. The methodology involved: development of a problem situation, educational tools, namely video, computer simulation and manual preparation of crystal structures from polexpan balls and sticks. After the educational intervention, groups of students recorded in writing their views on the SP. The SP strategy showed its potential for both, the...

Fernandes, Lucas Dos S.; Campos, Angela F.

2013-01-01

310

Research on Single and Mixed Fleet Strategy for Open Vehicle Routing Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open vehicle routing problem with single and mixed fleet strategy is logistics optimization indispensable part. Hybrid genetic algorithm is used to optimize the solution. Firstly, use sequence of real numbers coding so as to simplify the problem; construct the targeted initial solution to improve the feasibility; adopt some arithmetic crossover operator to enhance whole search ability of the chromosome. Secondly, Boltzmann simulated annealing mechanism for control genetic algorithm crossov...

Chunyu Ren

2011-01-01

311

Research on Potential Problem based on Singular Decomposition and Boundary FM-BEM Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to overcome the difficulties of low computational efficiency and high memory requirement in the conventional boundary element method for solving large-scale potential problems, a fast multipole boundary element method for the problems of Poisson equation is presented. First of all, through the multipole expansion and local expansion for the basic solution of the kernel function of the Poisson equation, the boundary integral equation of the fast multipole boundary element method for P...

Chunfeng Liu; Jingguo Qu; Yuhuan Cui; Aimin Yang

2014-01-01

312

Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

Joan C. Durrance

2006-01-01

313

Behavior genetic research on gambling and problem gambling: a preliminary meta-analysis of available data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A meta-analysis of family and twin studies on gambling and problem gambling was initiated in an effort to determine the probable role of genetic factors in high risk wagering. Two twin studies and 17 investigations employing the family history or family study method were included in this meta-analysis. A summation of the 19 studies produced a small but significant overall effect size (weighted phi = .10, unweighted phi = .13), with both family (weighted phi = .12, unweighted phi = .14) and twin (weighted phi = .06, unweighted phi = .05) studies achieving significant individual mean effects. Given the paucity of twin data, further analysis was confined to family studies and revealed a stronger familial effect for the sons of problem gambling fathers than for the daughters of problem gambling mothers and for more severe forms of problem gambling than for less severe forms of problem wagering, and was strongest for high severity problem gambling in males. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11842524

Walters, G D

2001-01-01

314

Address partitioning in DSM clusters with parallel coherence controllers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent research suggests that DSM clusters can benefit from parallel coherence controllers. Parallel controllers requires address partitioning and synchronization to avoid handling multiple coherence events for the same memory address simultaneously. This paper evaluates a spectrum of address partitioning schemes that vary in performance, hardware complexity, and cost. Dynamic partitioning minimizes load imbalance in controllers by using hardware address synchronizers to distribute the ...

Pragaspathy, Ilanthiraiyan; Falsafi, Babak

2000-01-01

315

IPv6 ADDRESSING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the diploma work was to examine the concept of addressing in IPv6, to describe the basic features and to focus on novelties. In addition, we described the parallels with IPv4 and explored the reasons for its upgrade to new protocol, IPv6. The first part of diploma work consists of theoretical presuppositions, that have been the subject of a practical testing in second part. Demonstration of typical features was shown not only on simulation tools but also on real devices in the ...

Frece, Manja

2011-01-01

316

Ethical review of biomedical research in Belarus: Current status, problems and perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and p...

Famenka, Andrei

2011-01-01

317

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

Michael Conn, P.; Rantin, F. T.

2010-01-01

318

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

P. Michael Conn

2010-02-01

319

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and s [...] uggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

P., Michael Conn; F.T., Rantin.

2010-02-01

320

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represe...

Eccles Martin P; Hutton Jane L; Grimshaw Jeremy M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

2009-08-01

322

[Between scientific management and research-action: the problem of overconsumption of drugs in Kasongo (Zaire)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A Primary Health Care (PHC) system may be effective and efficient to the extent that essential drugs are available in health services and financially accessible to the population. In developing countries, besides the difficulties related to supplying health services with adequate amounts of drugs, the control of drug consumption is one of the frequent problems encountered by health authorities. Literature is relatively abundant in the field of rationalization of the diagnosis and drug prescription processes, and also in the field of drug financing mechanisms; publications are however rather scarce when topics related to corruption or drug misappropriation are concerned. The case study submitted hereafter reports a drug overconsumption problem in the health centres (HC) of the Kasongo district (Zaire). Despite the existence of direct control mechanisms as well as indirect ones (monitoring of drug consumption by HC), the problem has been identified belatedly. The district staff then used a step-by-step analysis of the HC drug consumption profiles; this analysis allowed to demonstrate that misappropriation would be the most plausible hypothesis. In order to solve the misappropriation problem-the consequences of which jeopardized the functioning of the very health system-the district staff chose to involve the nurses, in charge of the HC, in the entire problem-solving process. This participative approach, involving different actors as partners, allowed to deepen the situation analysis and to elaborate solutions congruent with PHC principles and acceptable to all concerned. PMID:8796103

De Brouwere, V; Van Lerberghe, W; Criel, B; Van Dormael, M

1996-01-01

323

Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

Archbald, Doug

2008-01-01

324

Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

Dawson, Phillip

2014-01-01

325

Twenty Years of Cultural Imperialism Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the notion of "cultural imperialism" has received significant attention in communication studies since the early 1970s, researchers have ignored analyses of message systems and audience cultivation in favor of institutional analysis. Likewise, researchers have concentrated on the technologies, media products and processes of Western…

Burrowes, Carl Patrick

326

The main problems and theirs exploration from theoretical research of the luminescence dating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The luminescence dating has been developing rapidly during resent years because it has relatively broader dating range, varied dating materials, rapid dating and relatively high precision and accuracy in the whole of dating range. The ages dated with luminescence are difference from the pre-estimated ages in some conditions, which are mainly resulted from the complicated factors influencing the luminescence dating. The paper has commended and discussed on the main problems existing in the luminescence dating process, which mainly include separation of mineral, anomalous fading, sensitivity variation, and incomplete bleaching, etc, meanwhile, the paper also has reviewed the progresses of theories explaining these problems. (authors)

327

Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

S. D. Snyman

1997-08-01

328

Authenticating Identity Addressing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis tackles with security aspects of future home networks, where all devices will be connected to a home network and controlled by a control and management platform. Due to inclusion of critical devices e.g., alarm system, front door opener, etc., access to devices will have to be strictly controlled. An access control system will be needed by any such platform. Additionally, devices need to ensure that commands are executed at the intended device and nowhere else. Both problems are s...

Primc, Blaz?

2010-01-01

329

Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed

330

Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

331

RESEARCH STRATEGIES FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE TECHNIQUES OF COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

On October 25 and 26, 1984, the U.S. EPA sponsored a workshop to consider the potential applications of the techniques of computational biological chemistry to problems in environmental health. Eleven extramural scientists from the various related disciplines and a similar number...

332

Problems of data and search languages of data retrieval systems in nuclear research and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospective importance is pointed out of data retrieval systems and the necessity of resolving related theoretical, technical, technological and semantic problems, which conditions the further successful development of the said systems. Different types of such systems are presented and characterized, including search languages, data collection, selection, evaluation and verification. The said aspects are related to the OEKFAK ZfI Leipzig system

333

Practical Problems in the Cement Industry Solved by Modern Research Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Practical chemical problems in the cement industry are being solved by such techniques as infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption and arc spectroscopy, thermally evolved gas analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (CP)

Daugherty, Kenneth E.; Robertson, Les D.

1972-01-01

334

Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of Personal Financing Products in the City Commercial Banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a new rising branch of Chinese city commercial banks industry, its financial aspects should be strengthened. This paper focuses on the problems and the reasons for City Commercial Bank in China in the aspects of financial products, puts forward effective countermeasures.

Chen Jianying; Du Yong; Di Xingxing

2014-01-01

335

Research on Existing Financial Predicament Problems of China's Small-Medium Business Enterprises and Its Countermeasures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently, SMEs' financing difficulties have become a major problem threatening the Chinese economy, especially for the Small-Medium business enterprises (SMBEs).This article laid out current situation of SMBEs' Financial Predicament and analysis the factors influencing the SMBEs' financial Predicament. At the end of this article, the authors summarized the countermeasures to the SMBEs' financial Predicament according the actual situation of China.

Haiyong Ma

2010-01-01

336

Experiments in Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1994-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is a complication of the short status reports on current experiments on intermediate energy physics and on high energy physics. The projects of new facilities and the results of radiobiological researches are presented

337

Cooperation between Russian research organizations and industrial companies: factors and problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study is focused on the cooperation of Russian companies with research organizations in implementing R&D projects during technological innovation. Taking into account behavioral changes, authors carry out a micro-level analysis based on empirical data of executive survey of over 600 Russian industrial firms (2011—2012) and about 350 research organizations and universities (2012). The authors emphasize the key factors of firms’ demand for outsourcing R&D reveal the main barriers to the...

Simachev, Yuri; Kuzyk, Mikhail; Feygina, Vera

2014-01-01

338

Problems and Countermeasures on China’s Cooperation of Industry, Universities and Research Institutes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cooperation of industry, universities and research institutes is an outcome of the development of science,technology and higher education to certain degree, a manifestation of higher education’s adaptability toeconomic development and its combination with social production as well as an inevitable choice in marketeconomy and the era of knowledge economy. In spite of certain accomplishments made in China’s cooperationof industry, universities and research instit...

Chunhua Feng; Jing Kang; Baojun Sun

2010-01-01

339

Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

Yokoyama, O.

1993-12-31

340

Dynamic calculations of the IAEA safety MTR research reactor Benchmark problem using RELAP5/3.2 code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, increased attention to safety issues for nuclear research reactors has emerged as a consequence of their enlarged commercial exploitation. Almost all of the research reactors safety analyses were, so far, performed using conservative computational tools. Currently, the application of Best-Estimate methods constitutes a real necessity in order to get a more realistic vision of the system behavior, and overcome constraining limits related to conservative approaches. The aim of the current work is an attempt to apply this technique using the system thermal-hydraulic RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. For this purpose, the IAEA 10 MW MTR pool type research reactors Benchmark problem is considered. The exercise consists in performing some fast transients related to typical reactivity induced accidents, and relatively slow transients related to loss of flow accidents. The RELAP5 results were compared against previous data obtained by various conservative channel codes. Differences between the two modeling approaches are afterwards emphasized and discussed

 
 
 
 
341

Dynamic calculations of the IAEA safety MTR research reactor Benchmark problem using RELAP5/3.2 code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, increased attention to safety issues for nuclear research reactors has emerged as a consequence of their enlarged commercial exploitation. Almost all of the research reactors safety analyses were, so far, performed using conservative computational tools. Currently, the application of Best-Estimate methods constitutes a real necessity in order to get a more realistic vision of the system behavior, and overcome constraining limits related to conservative approaches. The aim of the current work is an attempt to apply this technique using the system thermal-hydraulic RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. For this purpose, the IAEA 10 MW MTR pool type research reactors Benchmark problem is considered. The exercise consists in performing some fast transients related to typical reactivity induced accidents, and relatively slow transients related to loss of flow accidents. The RELAP5 results were compared against previous data obtained by various conservative channel codes. Differences between the two modeling approaches are afterwards emphasized and discussed.

Hamidouche, Tewfik E-mail: thamidouche@comena-dz.org; Bousbia-Salah, Anis E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Adorni, Martina; D' Auria, Franscesco

2004-08-01

342

Editor‘s address  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our journal “Applied Economics: Systematic Research” that is the second journal from the journal’s family issued by the Faculty of Economics and Management at Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania becomes more famous, applications for publishing are coming from academicians of different countries – specifically in the present issue authors are from United States of America, Sweden, Latvia and Lithuania.

Z?ukauskas, Pranas

2013-01-01

343

Current fouling problems of PVC film fills and research into new designs to eliminate fouling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fouling of film fills in power plant cooling towers represents a major problem in loss of performance of the cooling tower and loss of efficiency of the power plant. The results of this loss in performance is higher energy consumption to drive the fans to move air through the cooling tower in mechanical draft towers. Higher fuel consumption in plant operations or reduced peak load output and the discharge of warmer water which poses environmental concerns to our rivers and lakes. This paper discusses the effects of fouling on cooling tower performance and the current knowledge of how this fouling may occur, industry practices of controlling cleaning and eliminating the problem using new film fill products

344

Addressing LISA Science Analysis Challenges  

CERN Document Server

The principal goal of the \\emph{LISA Science Analysis Workshop} is to encourage the development and maturation of science analysis technology in preparation for LISA science operations. Exactly because LISA is a pathfinder for a new scientific discipline -- gravitational wave astronomy -- LISA data processing and science analysis methodologies are in their infancy and require considerable maturation if they are to be ready to take advantage of LISA data. Here we offer some thoughts, in anticipation of the LISA Science Analysis Workshop, on analysis research problems that demonstrate the capabilities of different proposed analysis methodologies and, simultaneously, help to push those techniques toward greater maturity. Particular emphasis is placed on formulating questions that can be turned into well-posed problems involving tests run on specific data sets, which can be shared among different groups to enable the comparison of techniques on a well-defined platform.

Benacquista, M J; Larson, S L; Rubbo, L J; Benacquista, Matthew J.; Finn, Lee Samuel; Larson, Shane L.; Rubbo, Louis J.

2006-01-01

345

Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

346

The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further r...

Lugova, V.; Serikov, D.

2011-01-01

347

On Boussinesq?s problem for Maxwell continua subject to an external gravity field : research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boussinesq's problem is solved for a uniform and incompressible Maxwell half-space subject to an external gravity field. The solution is based on momentum equations which account for stress advection in the hydrostatically pre-stressed continuum during its deformation. The analysis shows that disregarding the pre-stress term renders the theoretical stress distribution incorrect and the deformation singular in the inviscid limit of the Maxwell continuum. Our solution is contrasted with a recen...

Wolf, Detlef

1985-01-01

348

Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the ch...

Chilkoti, G.; Mohta, M.; Wadhwa, R.; Saxena, A. K.

2014-01-01

349

Overview of research trends and problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steels for pressure vessel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cr-Mo low alloy steels have been used for a long time for pressure vessel due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high temperature strength and toughness. The paper reviewed the latest trends on material development and some problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steel for pressure vessel, such as elevated temperature strength, hardenability, synergetic effect between temper and hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen attack and hydrogen induced disbonding of overlay weld-cladding

350

High-level-waste containment for a thousand years: unique technical and research problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United States the present policy for disposal of high level nuclear wastes is focused on isolation of solidified wastes in a mined geologic repository. Safe isolation is to be achieved by utilizing both natural and man-made barriers which will act in concert to assure the overall conservative performance of the disposal system. The incorporation of predictable man-made barriers into the waste disposal strategy has generated some new and unique problems for the scientific community

351

The global social problem : challenges for a research school like CERES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The text starts with a reminder of the historical roots of the debate about the social problem in early industrial England, and connects it with the current debate about social exclusion and poverty, with an example from South Africa. Poverty issues should be related to the debates about labour conditions and labour rewards and about the variety of capitalist transformations taking place in the era of globalisation and of global social polarisation. But understanding poverty also demands a mu...

Dietz, A. J.

2003-01-01

352

Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of China's Service Trade in the New Era  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the 21st century, global trade competitions focus point has shifted from commodity trade to service trade. International trade in services shows some new trends. Although China's service trade has obtained fast development in recent years, they also have many problems. To adapt to the new trend of the development of international service trade, China should take some countermeasures to promote China's service trade has a high level of development. These countermeasures include accelerat...

Zhijun Sheng; Kuo Wang

2012-01-01

353

Research on Location Routing Problem (LRP) Based on Chaos Search (CS) and Empirical Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the problem complexity, simultaneous solution methods are limited. A hybrid algorithm is emphatically proposed for LRP. First, the customers are classified by clustering analysis with preference-fitting rules. Second, a chaos search (CS) algorithm for the optimal routes of LRP scheduling is presented in this paper. For the ergodicity and randomness of chaotic sequence, this CS architecture makes it possible to search the solution space easily, thus producing o...

Qian Zhang; Zhongming Shen; Xianji Zhang

2013-01-01

354

Research on the Optimal Layout Problem for NC Machining Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of NC machining, the optimization processing of graphic layout is a well-studied problem which has practical application value for improving the utilization rate of raw materials and saving the cost of production. In this paper, a new design of genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for solving this problem. This improved genetic algorithm combines GA with the improved crossover operator and mutation operator. Moreover, the best individual preservation method is integrated into the algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm expands the search space and enhances the GA’s search capabilities. Furthermore, the maximum matching algorithm is proposed based on the lowest horizontal line algorithm, which effectively avoids blind elevating horizontal lines and improves the utilization rate of the lowest horizontal line. It is integrated with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the two-dimensional rectangular parts optimal layout problem which combines the advantages of two kinds of algorithms. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get a good optimization result.    

Wang Shuqing

2013-11-01

355

The Grammar of Power: The Problem of Moral Objectification in Human Research  

Science.gov (United States)

During the course of the last century, a number of historical instances of unethical human research have occurred, and risen to the forefront of the social imagination. The atrocities of the European and Pacific Holocausts, the tragic 1932-1972 United States Public Health Service Syphilis Studies at Tuskegee, concomitant with the 1946-48 unethical…

Warren, Rueben C.; Gabriele, Edward F.

2012-01-01

356

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

357

Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

Zimmerman, Frederick J.

2008-01-01

358

Use of Cattell's Three-Panel Model to Remedy Problems in Small Group Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small group research presently suffers from five major weaknesses: lack of a common conceptual base, lack of appropriate design, lack of external validity, lack of adequate instrumentation, and lack of appropriate statistical procedure. Application of Cattell's three panel model (involving syntality, characteristics of internal structure, and…

Ruzicka, Mary F.; Palisi, Anthony T.

359

A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a teaching module designed to enhance engineering creativity in an introductory chemical engineering course. The module includes an exercise to design column packing material, and an open-ended research project to describe the societal impact of chemical engineering. These assignments were created to illustrate the benefit…

Forbes, Neil S.

2008-01-01

360

Square Pegs in Round Holes--These Kids Don't Fit: High Ability Students with Behavioral Problems. Research-Based Decision Making Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report investigates the lack of services provided to gifted students with attention and/or behavior problems. Issues addressed include: characterizations of gifted children and the resulting prejudice against gifted children who do not meet a certain profile; the similarities among characteristics of high ability/creative children and…

Reid, Brian D.; McGuire, Michele D.

 
 
 
 
361

Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed so...

Snyman, S. D.

1997-01-01

362

Parental Attachment Style and Severity of Emotional/Behavioral Problems in Toddlerhood Research Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal and paternal attachment style and severity of emotional and behavioral problem severity in toddlers and to explore the effect of toddlers’ gender, presence of autism, and parental depression on this relation.Methods: All patients (n=103 (male=75; female=28 younger than 43 months old (range: 14-43, mean: 30.93±8.26 months were included from a clinical sample. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Beck Depression Inventory, and Adult Attachment Scale (AAS were used for assessing mothers and fathers; the Child Behavior Checklist/ 2-3 (CBCL and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC were applied to evaluate associated psychopathology in toddlers.Results: Both maternal and paternal AAS-avoidance scores were found to be significantly correlated with ABC-hyperactivity and ABC-irritability scores of the toddler (p<.001. A multiple regression model significantly predicted ABC-hyperactivity scores, F(4.47=5.74, p<.001, with two variables (higher paternal BDI score, and maternal insecure attachment style significantly contributing to the prediction.Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that maternal (but not paternal insecure attachment style is significantly associated with the severity of toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity, and irritability. Especially when combined with paternal depression, this association becomes stronger. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 147-54

Koray Karabekiro?lu

2011-06-01

363

Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching l be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be economi cally installed even in existing buildings that were not wired for dual-level lighting

364

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

365

Millisecond precision psychological research in a world of commodity computers: new hardware, new problems?  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the publication of Plant, Hammond, and Turner (2004), which highlighted a pressing need for researchers to pay more attention to sources of error in computer-based experiments, the landscape has undoubtedly changed, but not necessarily for the better. Readily available hardware has improved in terms of raw speed; multi core processors abound; graphics cards now have hundreds of megabytes of RAM; main memory is measured in gigabytes; drive space is measured in terabytes; ever larger thin film transistor displays capable of single-digit response times, together with newer Digital Light Processing multimedia projectors, enable much greater graphic complexity; and new 64-bit operating systems, such as Microsoft Vista, are now commonplace. However, have millisecond-accurate presentation and response timing improved, and will they ever be available in commodity computers and peripherals? In the present article, we used a Black Box ToolKit to measure the variability in timing characteristics of hardware used commonly in psychological research. PMID:19587169

Plant, Richard R; Turner, Garry

2009-08-01

366

Observations of IPv6 Addresses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

Malone, David

2008-01-01

367

Final results of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark problem calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives a brief survey of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark calculation results received with the code DYN3D/ATHLET at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the seventh Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Hoernitz near Zittau, 1997). Its initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one stuck out control rod group. The calculations were performed with the externally coupled codes ATHLET Mod.1.1 Cycle C and DYN3DH1.1/M3. The standard WWER-440/213 input deck of ATHLET code was adopted for benchmark purposes and for coupling with the code DYN3D. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristics of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters. In comparison with the results published at the eighth Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Bystrice nad Pernstejnem, 1998), the results published in this paper are based on improved ATHLET descriptions of control and safety systems. (Author)

368

The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

369

Research on Location Routing Problem (LRP Based on Chaos Search (CS and Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the problem complexity, simultaneous solution methods are limited. A hybrid algorithm is emphatically proposed for LRP. First, the customers are classified by clustering analysis with preference-fitting rules. Second, a chaos search (CS algorithm for the optimal routes of LRP scheduling is presented in this paper. For the ergodicity and randomness of chaotic sequence, this CS architecture makes it possible to search the solution space easily, thus producing optimal solutions without local optimization. A case study using computer simulation showed that the CS system is simple and effective, which achieves significant improvement compared to a recent LRP with nonlinear constrained optimization solution. Lastly the pratical anlysis is presented relationship with regional logistics and its development in Fujianprovince.

Qian Zhang

2013-01-01

370

O problema da análise em pesquisa cartográfica / The problem of analysis in cartographic research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda o papel da análise em uma pesquisa de abordagem cartográfica. Ao equivocar a noção de "dado", entendemos que a análise em cartografia leva a uma redefinição das fronteiras entre subjetividade e objetividade. A análise em cartografia está afinada com outras abordagens de pesquisa e [...] intervenção, assumindo diferentes procedimentos que permitem a análise de implicação na pesquisa e, por conseguinte, a análise da participação. Como efeito da análise, há o reposicionamento do lugar dos participantes na pesquisa. A análise em cartografia permite, ao longo de toda a realização da pesquisa, o acesso a uma objetividade que, em lugar de fixar um sentido unívoco, tende a proliferar sentidos. A cartografia afirma tal paradoxo por meio de uma atitude analítica, agente de singularização. Abstract in english This article discusses the role of analysis in a study of cartographic approach. When we question the notion of "data" we mean that the analysis in cartography leads to a redefinition of the boundaries between subjectivity and objectivity. The mapping analysis is tuned to other research approaches a [...] nd intervention, assuming different procedures that enable the analysis of implication in the research and therefore the analysis of the participation. As a result of the analysis, there is a repositioning of the place of the participants in the study. The mapping analysis allows, throughout the research, access to an objectivity that, instead of fixing unambiguously, tends to proliferate directions. Cartography supports this paradox through an analytic attitude, a singling agent.

Letícia Maria Renault de, Barros; Maria Elizabeth Barros de, Barros.

2013-08-01

371

Main problems regarding the decommissioning of VVR-S research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Romanian VVR-S research reactor has been put in operation in 1957 and it worked continuously without major events up to the present moment. During this period, there were not made major modifications concerning the core and the main circuits. The reactor works with the original equipment and control instrumentation supplied by the Soviets. Taking into account the long time of operation (over 35 years), the limited fuel reserve (for about 3-4 years), the low neutron flux performances (about 1013 n/cm2 s) and the safety aspects, a decommissioning project is imposed. This complex activity began in Romania in 1992. This paper presents the major aspects of our activity in this field: preparation of up-to-date libraries of nuclear data including all materials in the real composition of the reactor structures; the reactor calculation system adaptation at the specific activities of decommissioning; technical analysis of VVR-S Bucharest research reactor; safety analysis; the improvement of decontamination methods; modern method for waste management and disposal. There are also provided some preliminary results regarding calculated radioactive inventory, measured primary circuit contamination, technical and safety analysis. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

372

Notes for an address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government of Canada is involved in the nuclear industry both as a regulator, through the Atomic Energy Control Board, and as a promoter, through Atomic Energy of Canda Ltd. and Eldorado Nuclear. These roles reflect government's desire to ensure that the benefits continue to outweigh the risks of nuclear power. The government is in the process of considering the options available in its policy towards the nuclear industry. Nuclear exports are advantageous to the country, both directly and as a step towards other high-technology exports. A strong safeguards policy is a prerequisite for exports. Nuclear-generated electricity will be one of the substitutes for oil as the country attempts to reduce oil consumption to 10 percent of primary energy use by 1990. Uranium production is one of Canada's strengths. Short-term storage of radioactive wastes is being handled well, and the research program into long-term disposal is making progress. The nuclear industry's attitude towards its waste should serve as a model for other industries. There is much less technological uncertainty about the ability of the CANDU system to meet future energy needs than there is about most other energy sources

373

A knowledge-based agent prototype for Chinese address geocoding  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese address geocoding is a difficult problem to deal with due to intrinsic complexities in Chinese address systems and a lack of standards in address assignments and usages. In order to improve existing address geocoding algorithm, a spatial knowledge-based agent prototype aimed at validating address geocoding results is built to determine the spatial accuracies as well as matching confidence. A portion of human's knowledge of judging the spatial closeness of two addresses is represented via first order logic and the corresponding algorithms are implemented with the Prolog language. Preliminary tests conducted using addresses matching result in Beijing area showed that the prototype can successfully assess the spatial closeness between the matching address and the query address with 97% accuracy.

Wei, Ran; Zhang, Xuehu; Ding, Linfang; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

2009-10-01

374

Research program with no ''measurement problem''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

1985-07-01

375

Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing their Earth observing needs but it has left a big void in the developing world who have very limited resources to invest in the space measurements. This paper gives some serious thoughts in what options are there in undertaking this tremendous challenge. The problem is multi-dimensional in terms of budget, technology availability, environmental legislations, public awareness, and communication limitations. Some of these issues are introduced, discussed and possible implementation strategies are provided in this paper to move out of this predicament. A strong emphasis is placed on international cooperation and collaboration to see a collective benefit for this effort

Habib, Shahid

2007-01-01

376

Neural network and genetic algorithms for optimizing the plate element of Egyptian research reactor problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Second Egyptian Research Reactor ET-RR-2 went critical on the 27th of November 1997. The National Center of Nuclear Safety and radiation Control 'NCNSRC' has the responsibility of the evaluation and the assessment of the safety of this reactor. Multi-objective optimization is a powerful tool for resolving conflicting objectives in engineering design and numerous other fields. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to the optimization of the fuel element plate, which is designed with a view to improve reliability and lifetime and it is one of the most important elements during the shut down. In this paper, we present a conceptual design approach for fuel element plate, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm and comparing with neural networks to obtain a fuel plate that maximizes a fitness value to optimize the safety design of the fuel plate.

377

Experimental Research on Asymmetric R&D Investment of R&D/Product Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an experiment is designed to verify the model findings of asymmetric R&D investment in open environment. 25 MBA students voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were divided into five groups representing different corporate decision-makers with different technical level to participate in repeated R&D/production game. The results show that low technology players will choose to take free ride of high technology competitors’ R&D investment and spare much expenditure at the stage of sequential game, while in a synchronize game a R&D race is the rational choice to both sides. The results fit well with model research, and they can also confirm that the equilibrium of model can be found by people in reality.

Huayao Zhang

2012-02-01

378

About the aims, objects and problems in Brazilian research on Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of scientific communications published in the IV Mathematical Modeling National Conference (CNMEM in the Brazilian abbreviation, which took place in 2005. The analysis consists of a meta-analytical and content qualitative approach, aided by the software Atlas T.i. The data collected was originated in the above mentioned conference which is the first of the three which will be analyzed in the study that aims to unveil the research on Mathematical Modeling in Brazil. The categories established in this paper and which will be interpreted are: a Meta-study on Mathematics Modeling; b Modeling application; c Articulation between Modeling and other theories, and d Modeling and teachers education.

Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

2012-12-01

379

Analysis of the IAEA research reactor benchmark problem by the RETRAC-PC code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A basic approach to perform safety analysis of a nuclear research reactor consists in using deterministic methods to verify that the established acceptance criteria related to fuel integrity are fulfilled during all the stages of the facility lifetime. These methods should be validated against a large set of experimental and postulated transients. Since measured data are not easily available in the literature, the IAEA defined typical transients in a generic 10-MW MTR nuclear reactor core as a benchmark test for computational tools verification. In this framework, an assessment study of the coupled kinetic-thermal-hydraulic RETRAC-PC code is presented herein. The considered cases include the analysis of core dynamic under ramp positive reactivity insertion, and loss of flow transients. In general, the obtained results are satisfactory and agree with results obtained by other similar codes.

Bousbia-Salah, Anis [Facolta di Ingegneria, DIMNP, Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Hamidouche, Tewfik [Laboratoire des Analyses de Surete, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger-Algeria, 02 Boulevard Frantz fanon, BP 399 Alger-gare (Algeria)]. E-mail: thamidouche@comena-dz.org

2005-03-01

380

Analysis of the IAEA research reactor benchmark problem by the RETRAC-PC code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A basic approach to perform safety analysis of a nuclear research reactor consists in using deterministic methods to verify that the established acceptance criteria related to fuel integrity are fulfilled during all the stages of the facility lifetime. These methods should be validated against a large set of experimental and postulated transients. Since measured data are not easily available in the literature, the IAEA defined typical transients in a generic 10-MW MTR nuclear reactor core as a benchmark test for computational tools verification. In this framework, an assessment study of the coupled kinetic-thermal-hydraulic RETRAC-PC code is presented herein. The considered cases include the analysis of core dynamic under ramp positive reactivity insertion, and loss of flow transients. In general, the obtained results are satisfactory and agree with results obtained by other similar codes

 
 
 
 
381

STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-7

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2013-04-01

382

STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.

Ulyanchenko Anton Leonidovich

2013-01-01

383

Is Disability a Health Problem?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.

Malcolm MacLachlan

2013-12-01

384

Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

385

Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

Chin, George

1999-01-11

386

Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric Corrosion Problems of Steel Industries in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.

387

CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea,use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasifications and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by CO2-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e. g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or direct reduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland), shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reduced-iron by H2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behaviour ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modern shaft furnaces are shown. (Author) 76 refs

388

Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Industry, medical, research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. In many cases, these exemption levels differ orders of magnitude, higher or lower, compared to those from the old standards. For the natural radionuclides, the exempted specific activity is much lower (10 or even 1 Bq/g, depending on the radionuclide, compared to 500 Bq/g in the old BSS). As a consequence, industrial activities with certain minerals or raw materials containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides, which were exempted from the radiation protection control system under the old BSS, may have to be declared as radiologically relevant activities and may now come under regulatory control. Examples of these activities are the phosphate ore processing, the refining of a number of metals, the use of slag, and the oil and natural gas production. This might give rise, in some cases, to large volumes of waste which should be treated, conditioned and disposed of in a controlled way. For artificial radionuclides with higher exemption levels, the use of such radionuclides for industrial, medical or research purposes, such as tracers, sealed sources and beta lights, may increase considerably without being controlled any longer by the regulatory system. (author)

389

Research on the Coal Energy of Coal Enterprise and Environmental Problem Under Circular Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Coal as a pillar of energy, which contributes a lot in our social economy. The coal enterprises are the representatives of our energy enterprises. In the long course of development, the traditional economic development model, such as overexploitation, over waste, insufficient utilization, has not only created serious wasting of resources and environmental destruction, but also hardly satisfy the need of economic development, and restrict the sustainable development process of the coal enterprises. The coal enterprises must transform from the traditional extensive coal industry to the circular economy multipurpose use sustainable industry to achieve sustainable development. Circular economy which can urge energy, environment and economy to coordinated development is an advanced development pattern. It is the inevitable choice when the coal enterprises research the new industrialization. This paper sets out from the coal enterprise develops circular economy, to illustrate strategic importance of circular economy to coal industry, to demonstrate the coal enterprises coal energy’s effects to the environment, and propose related policies and measures, to realized a win-win situation of energy conservation and environmental conservation.

Key words: Coal enterprise; Circular economy; Coal; Environment

Meiyue LIU

2011-09-01

390

Results of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic atomic energy research benchmark problem calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pare gives a brief survey of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic atomic energy research benchmark calculation results received with the code DYN3D/ATHLET at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the seventh AER Symposium. Its initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one stuck out control rot group. The calculations were performed with the externally coupled codes ATHLET Mod.1.1 Cycle C and DYN3DH1.1/M3. The Kasseta library was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The standard WWER-440/213 input deck of ATHLET code was adopted for benchmark purposes and for coupling with the code DYN3D. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristics of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global, fuel assembly and loops parameters.(Author)

391

From Basic Processes to Real-World Problems: How Research on Emotion and Emotion Regulation Can Inform Understanding of Psychopathology, and Vice Versa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on emotion and emotion regulation is expected to improve our understanding of psychopathology. However, achieving this understanding requires overcoming several obstacles, including the paucity of objective markers of specific emotions or psychiatric diagnoses, and the fact that emotion regulation is a concept that can be difficult to operationalize. We review affective neuroscience research that has addressed these issues by focusing on psychological and neural mechanisms implicated...

Dillon, Daniel G.; Deveney, Christen M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2011-01-01

392

Role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proceedings of a workshop on carbon uptake and losses from temperate zone forests are presented. The goals of the workshop were to analyze existing data on growth and utilization of the temperate zone forest carbon pool and to identify further research needs in relation to the role of temperate forests in the global carbon cycle. Total standing stock and growth recovery transients were examined for most of the temperate region over a period from pre-settlement times to the present, with emphasis on the last three decades. Because of data availability, certain regions and topics were covered more in detail than others. Forest inventory data from most of the commercial timberlands of the north temperate zone suggest these forests have functioned over the past several decades as an annual sink for about 10/sup 9/ metric tons of carbon. Thus, net growth of these forests has withdrawn carbon from the atmosphere at a rate equivalent, approximately, to 50% of the annual rise in atmospheric carbon. Various data inadequacies make this estimate probably no more precise than plus or minus half of the value. Analysis of growth and vegetation changes in New England and the southeastern United States shows that forest biomass has partly recovered since extensive clearing took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. This regrowth represents a net withdrawal of carbon (carbon sink) from the atmosphere in recent decades, although the difference in pool size between present and original forests means that, in the longer term, the two regions have functioned as carbon sources.

Armentano, T.V.; Hett, J. (eds.)

1979-01-01

393

32 CFR Appendix B to Part 286 - Addressing FOIA Requests  

Science.gov (United States)

...Under Secretary of Defense (Advanced Technology) Deputy Under...Gulf War Illness Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ...Services University of the Health Sciences Armed Forces Radiology Research...Corps activity by addressing a letter to the Commanding...

2010-07-01

394

Aboriginal Gambling and Problem Gambling: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevention of gambling-related problems amongst Aboriginal communities has been neglected by most public health strategies which concentrate on mainstream populations. Research indicates that rates of problem gambling are higher for Aboriginal groups than the general population. Specific cultural, familial, and social patterns influence gambling by Aboriginal groups, which are individually different, making it difficult to implement a cohesive strategy to address gambling-related harms. B...

Breen, Helen; Gainsbury, Sally

2012-01-01

395

Addressing the Coming Radiology Crisis—The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP™) Initiative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP™) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster interdisciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP™ will focus on the following basic objectives: improving...

Andriole, Katherine P.

2004-01-01

396

An eight component decision-making model for problem gambling: a systems approach to stimulate integrative research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem Gambling (PG) represents a serious problem for affected individuals, their families and society in general. Previous approaches to understanding PG have been confined to only a subset of the psychobiological factors influencing PG. We present a model that attempts to integrate potential causal factors across levels of organization, providing empirical evidence from the vast literature on PG and complimentary literatures in decision-making and addiction. The model posits that components are arranged systematically to bias decisions in favor of either immediately approaching or avoiding targets affording the opportunity for immediate reward. Dopamine, Testosterone and Endogenous Opioids favor immediate approach, while Serotonin and Cortisol favor inhibition. Glutamate is involved in associative learning between stimuli and promotes the approach response through its link to the DA reward system. GABA functions to monitor performance and curb impulsive decision-making. Finally, while very high levels of Norepinephrine can induce arousal to an extent that is detrimental to sound decision-making, the reactivity of the Norepinephrine system and its effects of Cortisol levels can shift the focus towards long-term consequences, thereby inhibiting impulsive decisions. Empirical evidence is provided showing the effects of each component on PG and decision-making across behavioural, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging and genetic levels. Last, an effect size analysis of the growing pharmacotherapy literature is presented. It is hoped that this model will stimulate multi-level research to solidify our comprehension of biased decision-making in PG and suggest pharmacological and psychological approaches to treatment. PMID:21191637

Nussbaum, David; Honarmand, Kimia; Govoni, Richard; Kalahani-Bargis, Martina; Bass, Stephanie; Ni, Xinqun; Laforge, Kaitlyn; Burden, Andrea; Romero, Kristoffer; Basarke, Sonya; Courbasson, Christine; Deamond, Wade

2011-12-01

397

Definition of engineering development and research problems relating to the use of geothermal fluids for electric power generation and nonelectric heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of geothermal fluids for electric power generation and nonelectric purposes causes problems not normally encountered when pure water is used for similar purposes. These problems must be identified and means developed to overcome them before geothermal energy resources can become an important source of electric power or thermal energy in the United States. Research and development projects aimed at solving problems arising from the use of geothermal fluids from known sources in the United States are listed. Problem areas covered are: impact on engineering design caused by chemical, thermodynamic, and transport properties of geothermal fluids; scaling and sludge formation; gases, volatile brine constituents, condensate chemistry; environmental problems. The research projects identified are general in nature and are not site specific. (JGB)

Apps, J.A.

1977-11-01

398

A BAT ALGORITHM FOR REALISTIC HYBRID FLOWSHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEMS TO MINIMIZE MAKESPAN AND MEAN FLOW TIME  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the multistage hybrid flow shop (HFS) scheduling problems. The HFS is the special case of flowshop problem. Multiple parallel machines are considered in each stage in the HFS. The HFS scheduling problem is known to be strongly NP-hard. Hence, many researchers proposed metaheuristic algorithms for solving the HFS scheduling problems. This paper develops a bat algorithm (BA) to the HFS scheduling problem to minimize makespan and mean flow time. To verify the developed algor...

Marichelvam, M. K.; Prabaharan, T.

2012-01-01

399

Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)