WorldWideScience

Sample records for research problem addressed

  1. Using group method of teaching to address the problem of large class size: an action research.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintah, Emmanuel Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Large class sizes in Ghanaians schools with its attendants problems are major factors for the dwindling academic performance of students in Ghana. To solve this, means reducing the number of students which implies depriving some children from their right to education or building more schools and employing more staff which will bloat government expenditure. This paper brings to light the best and innovative method of addressing the problem of large class sizes. Test, interview, ...

  2. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. PMID:22525104

  3. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems. PMID:21537142

  4. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  5. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  6. Addressing the facilities layout design problem through constraint logic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, José; Ramos, Carlos; Neves, José

    2002-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems that face researchers experimenting with complex systems in real world applications is the Facility Layout Design Problem. It relies with the design and location of production lines, machinery and equipment, inventory storage and shipping facilities. In this work it is intended to address this problem through the use of Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) technology. The use of Genetic Algorithms (GA) as optimisation technique in CLP environment is also an is...

  7. Keynote address: Design Research and Academic Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article, published in Design Research Quarterly (3:4) October 2008, is based on the keynote address given by Prof Alan Blackwell at the DRS conference in 2008. Design Research Quarterly. Design Research Society ISSN 1752-8445

  8. Islamic Education Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

  9. Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

  10. Addressing some Common Problems in Transcript Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2001-01-01

    Computer conferencing is one of the more useful parts of computer-mediated communications (CMC), and is virtually ubiquitous in distance education. The temptation to analyze the resulting interaction has resulted in only partial success, however (Henri, 1992; Kanuka and Anderson, 1998; Rourke, Anderson, Garrison and Archer, 1999; Fahy, Crawford, Ally, Cookson, Keller and Prosser, 2000). Some suggest the problem is made more complex by failings of both technique and, more seriously, theory cap...

  11. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  12. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB)

  13. Problems in Biotechnology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Jamal and Hamzah M. Salleh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the challenges posed by the growing population of the world, biotechnology research is being pursued in all countries. In the area of medicine remarkable success has been achieved. It is believed that in future this trend will continue. In the area food also scientists and technocrats have shown considerable success, but in this area they have not received appreciation because of many objections. The paper discusses issues pertaining to biotechnology researches, because if these issues are not thoroughly discussed and problems are not hammered out, biotechnology researches will go on but will fail to serve the humanity.Key Words: biodiversity, biotechnology, cloning, germ cell, genetic materials, biosafety.

  14. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  15. Improving ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn K. Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex problems often result from the multiple interactions between human activities and ecosystems. The interconnected nature of ecological and social systems should be considered if these "wicked problems" are to be addressed. Ecosystem service approaches provide an opportunity to link ecosystem function with social values, but in practice the essential role that social dynamics play in the delivery of outcomes remains largely unexplored. Social factors such as management regimes, power relationships, skills, and values, can dramatically affect the definition and delivery of ecosystem services. Input from a diverse group of stakeholders improves the capacity of ecosystem service approaches to address wicked problems by acknowledging diverse sets of values and accounting for conflicting world views. Participatory modeling can incorporate both social and ecological dynamics into decision making that involves stakeholders, but is itself a complex social undertaking that may not yield precise or predictable outcomes. We explore the efficacy of different types of participatory modeling in relation to the integration of social values into ecosystem services frameworks and the generation of four important elements of social capital needed to address wicked problems: enhancing social learning and capacity building; increasing transparency; mediating power; and building trust. Our findings indicate that mediated modeling, group mapping, and mental/conceptual modeling are likely to generate elements of social capital that can improve ecosystem service frameworks. Participatory simulation, system dynamic modeling, and Bayesian belief networks, if utilized in isolation, were found to have a low likelihood of generating the social capital needed to improve ecosystem services frameworks. Scenario planning, companion modeling, group model building, and participatory mapping all generate a moderate to high level of social capital elements that improve the capacity of ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems.

  16. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    Neural engineers have made significant, if not remarkable, progress in interfacing with the nervous system in the last ten years. In particular, neuromodulation of the brain has generated significant therapeutic benefits [1-5]. EEG electrodes can be used to communicate with patients with locked-in syndrome [6]. In the central nervous system (CNS), electrode arrays placed directly over or within the cortex can record neural signals related to the intent of the subject or patient [7, 8]. A similar technology has allowed paralyzed patients to control an otherwise normal skeletal system with brain signals [9, 10]. This technology has significant potential to restore function in these and other patients with neural disorders such as stroke [11]. Although there are several multichannel arrays described in the literature, the workhorse for these cortical interfaces has been the Utah array [12]. This 100-channel electrode array has been used in most studies on animals and humans since the 1990s and is commercially available. This array and other similar microelectrode arrays can record neural signals with high quality (high signal-to-noise ratio), but these signals fade and disappear after a few months and therefore the current technology is not reliable for extended periods of time. Therefore, despite these major advances in communicating with the brain, clinical translation cannot be implemented. The reasons for this failure are not known but clearly involve the interface between the electrode and the neural tissue. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) as well as other federal funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health have provided significant financial support to investigate this problem without much success. A recent funding program from DARPA was designed to establish the failure modes in order to generate a reliable neural interface technology and again was unsuccessful at producing a robust interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly centered on interfacing with the CNS, it has recently become clear that the peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be an important target for interfacing, perhaps even more accessible for interfacing than the CNS. A recent initiative called Bioelectronic Medicines3 is a step in that direction. A recent summit held in New York was organized to investigate novel and disruptive neural technologies to interface specifically with the PNS in order to restore health and biological function to organs. With significant interest in neurotechnology for neural interfacing (see footnotes 1, 2 and 3) and uncovering new ways to treat, prevent and cure brain disorders (President Obama's brain initiative4), it seems clear that the problems at the interface will not remain unsolved for long. Finding solutions to the problem at the neural interface for interacting with the nervous system (PNS and CNS) is crucial for understanding and restoring brain function. This would in turn have a significant impact on health care and quality of life for patients with neural disorders. References [1] Follett K A et al 2010 Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease New Engl. J. Med. 362 2077-91 [2] Holtzheimer P E et al 2012 Subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 69 150 [3] Carron R, Chabardes S and Hammond C 2012 Mechanisms of action of high-frequency deep brain stimulation. A review of the literature and current concepts NeuroChirurgie 58 209-17 [4] Vidailhet M et al 2005 Bilateral deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus in primary generalized dystonia New Engl. J. Med. 352 459-67 [5] Theodore W H and Fisher R S 2004 Brain stimulation for epilepsy Lancet Neurol. 3 111-8 [6] Kübler A, Kotchoubey B, Kaiser J, Wolpaw J R and Birbaumer N 2001 Brain-computer communication: unlocking the locked Psychol. Bull. 127 358-75 [7] Schalk G, Miller K J, Anderson N R, Wilson J A, Smyth M D, Ojemann J G, Moran D W, Wolpaw J R and Leuthardt E C 2008 Two-dimensional movement control using electrocorticographic signals in humans J. Neural Eng. 5 75 [8] Serruya M D, Hatsopoulos N G, Paninski L, Fellows M R and Donoghue J P 2002 Brain-machine interface: instant neural control of a movement signal Nature 416 141-2 [9] Hochberg L R, Serruya M D, Friehs G M, Mukand J A, Saleh M, Caplan A H, Branner A, Chen D, Penn R D and Donoghue J P 2006 Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia Nature 442 164-71 [10] Collinger J L et al 2013 High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia Lancet 381 557-64 [11] Leuthardt E C, Schalk G, Wolpaw J R, Ojemann J G and Moran D W 2004 A brain-computer interface using electrocorticographic signals in humans J. Neural Eng. 1 63 [12] Maynard E M, Nordhausen C T and Normann R A 1997 The Utah intracortical electrode array: a recording structure for potential brain-computer interfaces Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 102 228-39 1 www.neuromodulation.com/8-june-2013 2 http://neuro.embs.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2013/05/SymposiumAdvert1.pdf 3 www.gsk.com/explore-gsk/how-we-do-r-and-d/bioelectronics.html 4 www.whitehouse.gov/share/brain-initiative

  17. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  18. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  19. Using Participatory Action Research to Address Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.

    2014-01-01

    Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…

  20. Asia/Pacific moves to address mountainous waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a serious lack of chemical waste treatment units in the Asia/Pacific region. In many countries a lack of infrastructure, coupled with scant or no legislation or enforcement, results in significant amounts of chemical waste being dumped without proper treatment. The exception is Japan, which has substantial incineration, treatment, and landfill capabilities. Japan's chemical industry generates more than 14 million m.t./year of waste, which is reduced to 2.51 million m.t./year after treatment and recycling. Chemical companies operating in Asia/Pacific countries that do not have authorized waste contractors and disposal plants have few options. They can treat wastes inhouse, increase recycling, ship wastes outside for treatment, or store wastes onsite. Some companies, such as Monsanto (St. Louis), claim to have managed to avoid producing any final wastes. The company's farm chemicals plant in Malaysia is one example - even the drums used to transport raw materials to the site have been replaced with returnable containers. Chiba (Basel) also has invested in cutting waste. The Swiss firm's dyestuffs plant at Candra Sari, Indonesia cut primary pollution by 90%, while product output rose 12% - a result of changing operations procedures and capital investment of only $6,500. A number of countries have started to address the industrial waste problem - foremost is Hong Kong, which is currently commissioning one of the first chemical waste treatment centers in the region. Other countries planning integrated waste treatment facilities include Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, and China

  1. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  2. Operational Risk Modeling: Addressing the Reporting Threshold Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Oscar; Wärmlös Helmrich, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    External loss data are typically left truncated at a reporting threshold. Ignoring this truncation level leads to biased capital charge estimations. This thesis addresses the challenges of recreating the truncated part of the distribution. By predicting the continuation of a probability density function, the unobserved body of an external operational risk loss distribution is estimated. The prediction is based on internally collected losses and the tail of the external loss distribution. Usin...

  3. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  4. Addressing the pilot security problem with gLExec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. However, many groups are starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one

  5. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one

  6. Research Grants: Problems and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Provides a broader perspective on research grants. Outlines several key types of problems with grant schemes (bias, waste, discouragement, orientation to interests) and presents several methods for decision making (administrative decision, peer review, performance-based funding, equality, community-based allocation). Assesses recent changes in…

  7. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  8. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  9. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  10. Research Activities Addressing the Fuel Design of Lead Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the 1990s, ENEA Brasimone Research Centre operates several experimental facilities aimed at supporting the research on LBE and lead systems, such as ADS and LFR. The experimental activities are related to thermal- hydraulics, heat exchange, science of materials, and qualification of components. Experimental loops operated at ENEA and an experiment addressing the compatibility of structural materials to withstand with aggressive coolants (i.e. Lead and LBE), at high temperature and high dose rate are described in this paper. These loops have been also operated for supporting the research related to the selection of the cladding materials for ADS and LRF technologies. The paper provides an overview of the recent and future activities devoted to material development. (author)

  11. In Search of Effective Programs to Address Students' Emotional Distress and Behavioral Problems. Part 1: Defining the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Adel; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluated the educational, psychological, and medical literature that addressed emotional difficulties and behavioral problems in students. Determined that the lack of consensus on the terms used to describe the problem prevented accurate assessment of its prevalence. Concludes that low-cost, gate-keeping mechanisms are needed to facilitate early…

  12. Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 154485.html Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's Brain scans revealed changes in white and gray ... Sept. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many people with Parkinson's disease have memory problems, researchers report. The study ...

  13. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  14. On the Emergence of Research Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, George A.; Brooks, Gordon; Papa, Michael J.

    This study examined the process followed by graduate students in the formation of research problems for their dissertations. Narratives were solicited from researchers who received Spencer Awards for their dissertation research, and researchers received 30 narratives that described the process of research problem formation. The grounded theory…

  15. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  16. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  17. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uri?-Jo?i? Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  18. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

  19. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, I.

    2016-02-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method.

  20. Research governance: panacea or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ash; Samanta, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research must meet contemporary professional, legal and ethical standards. Research governance aims to improve quality whilst safeguarding the interests of the public. Research on humans is covered by several internationally recognised ethical codes designed to protect persons from the hazards of experimental treatment. However, to date there is no overarching statutory framework that regulates health and social care research, which is governed by common law principles. The recent European Union Clinical Trials Directive aims to harmonise regulation of clinical trials and protect the interest of study participants. Approval by the new Central Office for Research Ethics Committees (COREC) is now a mandatory requirement for research projects in the UK to ensure stringent ethical standards. Research that involves NHS patients, staff, resources or premises is subject to a framework for research governance that monitors performance and adverse incidents and delineates lines of responsibility and accountability. Researchers at all levels must be fully aware of these new initiatives and of their responsibilities. NHS organisations should acknowledge and commit to clinical research as an intrinsic component of high quality health service delivery. PMID:16011214

  1. Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberry, Phillip J; Torres, María Idalí; Allison, Jeroan J; Rosal, Milagros C; Rustan, Sarah; Colón, Melissa; Fontes, Mayara; Cruz, Ivettte

    2016-03-01

    Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26896113

  2. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are removed or mitigated, yet most R and D is conducted by rich countries and focused on rich-country problems, not on tropical agriculture and medicine. 'If it were true that the poor were just like the rich but with less money, the global situation would be vastly easier than it is. As it happens, the poor live in different ecological zones, face different health conditions and must overcome agronomic limitations that are very different from those of rich countries. Those differences, indeed, are often a fundamental cause of persisting poverty....(For example)...populations are burdened by diseases such as malaria, hookworm, sleeping sickness and schistosomiasis, whose transmission generally depends on a warm climate....' '...poor food productivity in the tropics is not merely a problem of poor social organization....Using current technologies and seed types, the tropics are inherently less productive in annual food crops. Most agriculture in the equatorial tropics is of very low productivity....Scientific advances again offer great hope. Biotechnology could mobilise genetic engineering to breed hardier plants that are more resistant to drought and less sensitive to pests....(and) there are dozens, or perhaps hundreds, of underused foodstuffs that are well adapted to the tropics and could be improved through directed biotechnology research. Such R and D is now all but lacking in the poorest countries.' In tackling all these problems, Prof. Sachs remains very sanguine both about the ability of science and technology to solve them, as well as about the role that the UN agencies can play in implementing those solutions. '...rich and poor countries should direct their urgent attention to the mobilisation of science and technology for poor-country problems. The rich countries should understand that the IMF and World Bank are by themselves not equipped for that challenge. The specialised UN agencies have a great role to play, especially of they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced-country and developing-country scientific centres.' (author)

  3. On Using Meta-Modeling and Multi-Modeling to Address Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jbara, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Models, created using different modeling techniques, usually serve different purposes and provide unique insights. While each modeling technique might be capable of answering specific questions, complex problems require multiple models interoperating to complement/supplement each other; we call this Multi-Modeling. To address the syntactic and…

  4. Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ena

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

  5. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this intervention successfully. Participants identified a need for culturally-responsive services for children with conduct problems, and felt that parent training would be appropriate for the families they serve. Participants further identified specific training and support that they would require in order to deliver parent training with fidelity and effectiveness. Findings support the suggestion that natural helpers have the potential to address service disparities among Latina/o children with conduct problems. Recommendations from natural helpers should guide the development of culturally-adapted preventive interventions that help address existing service disparities. PMID:24910488

  6. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    OpenAIRE

    John Carmody

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR) at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. C...

  7. Addressing the Cosmic Coincidence Problem in f(T) Gravity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Prabir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(T) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(T) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f(T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that there exists a perfect solution for the coincidence problem in the background of the second model while the first model remains utterly plagued by the phenomenon. This not only shows the cosmological viability but also the superiority of the second model over its counterpart.

  8. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  9. A hybrid QFD-based approach in addressing supplier selection problem in product improvement process

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about creating a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the best supplier is selected considering changing customer needs. In most previous studies employing a QFD approach, the possibility of changing customer needs is ignored. On the other hand, supplier selection is a challenging problem that could have been addressed by such a QFD. This paper attempts to create a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the internal relations between the elements are considered. It connects the new QF...

  10. Increasing value and reducing waste : addressing inaccessible research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian

    2014-01-01

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets.

  11. The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carmody

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

  12. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H Bart

    2014-01-18

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. PMID:24411650

  13. Anthropology of Education and Educational Research: CAE Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses distinctions between the anthropology of education and educational research. Although the educationist generally has a technocist view of the reality of schooling (how to do it more efficiently), the anthropologist deals with the relational reality of schooling (what events mean to participants). (SLD)

  14. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria concerning personal interest, continuity with previous work, the danger of getting stuck, and how fellow mathematicians will respond to the findings are considered when mathematicians think about whether to approach a specific problem. These results add to previous investigations of mathematicians’ practice and suggest that mathematics education research could further investigate how students select and develop problems, work with multiple problems over a longer period of time, and use the solutions to problems to support the development of new problems. Furthermore, the negative emotional aspects of being stuck in problem solving and students’ conceptions of solvability and relevance of or interest in a mathematical problem are areas of research suggested by our study.

  15. Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation "demands basic research," Obama said, adding that Congress should not "gut these investments in our budget." Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to "open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources."

  16. Has research on collaborative learning technologies addressed massiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Manathunga, Kalpani; Hern??ndez Leo, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding to what extent innovative educational technologies can be used to support massive courses. Collaboration is one of the main desired elements in massive learning actions involving large communities of participants. Accumulated research in collaborative learning technologies has proposed and evaluated multiple models and implementation tools that engage learners in knowledge-intensive social interactions fostering fruitful learning. Howev...

  17. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Danielle J; Larson, Theodore C; Pfau, Jean C; Gavett, Stephen H; Shukla, Arti; Miller, Aubrey; Hines, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide. Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposures remain unresolved. For example, environmental asbestos exposures associated with a former mine in Libby, Montana, have resulted in high rates of nonoccupational asbestos-related disease. Additionally, other areas with naturally occurring asbestos deposits near communities in the United States and overseas are undergoing investigations to assess exposures and potential health risks. Some of the latest public health, epidemiological, and basic research findings were presented at a workshop on asbestos at the 2014 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology in Phoenix, Arizona. The following focus areas were discussed: a) mechanisms resulting in fibrosis and/or tumor development; b) relative toxicity of different forms of asbestos and other hazardous elongated mineral particles (EMPs); c) proper dose metrics (e.g., mass, fiber number, or surface area of fibers) when interpreting asbestos toxicity; d) asbestos exposure to susceptible populations; and e) using toxicological findings for risk assessment and remediation efforts. The workshop also featured asbestos research supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Better protection of individuals from asbestos-related health effects will require stimulation of new multidisciplinary research to further our understanding of what constitutes hazardous exposures and risk factors associated with toxicity of asbestos and other hazardous EMPs (e.g., nanomaterials). PMID:26230287

  18. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; KRUMHOLZ, HARLAN M.; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H. Bart

    2014-01-01

    The study protocol, publications, full study report detailing all analyses, and participant-level dataset constitute the main documentation of methods and results for health research. However, journal publications are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. The protocol, full study report, and participant-level dataset are rarely available. The quality of information provided in study protocols and reports is variable and often inc...

  19. Research: A Five Faceted Problem Solving Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Five concepts are discussed in order to explain that research is a multifacted problem-solving process: (1) analysis of a concept, its context, and data analysis; (2) treatment or experience; (3) representativeness; (4) measurement, and (5) logic. (GDC)

  20. Research in Reading Retardation: Two Critical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebee, Arthur N.

    1971-01-01

    The first problem confusing results of reading research is one of definition, with all its attendant questions of generalization and replication. The second problem is one of inference and has at its heart a fundamental disjunction between the statistical model which most studies have assumed and the model which may in fact describe the underlying…

  1. Research on problem solving in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Gangoso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Based an in depth bibliographical study, problem solving in science is focused from the point of view of the underlying psychological theories and of explaining factors – such as the nature of the task, the problem solver, and the context – aiming at supporting additional research on this field. A brief presentation of Gowin’s Vee is included as a heuristic tool to critically analyse research studies.

  2. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how...... concerning personal interest, continuity with previous work, the danger of getting stuck, and how fellow mathematicians will respond to the findings are considered when mathematicians think about whether to approach a specific problem. These results add to previous investigations of mathematicians’ practice...... and suggest that mathematics education research could further investigate how students select and develop problems, work with multiple problems over a longer period of time, and use the solutions to problems to support the development of new problems. Furthermore, the negative emotional aspects of...

  3. Problems of Research on Generations in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivrikova N.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern psychology faces many tasks that require the study of social psychological characteristics of representatives of different generations. However, there still is no single, unified concept of generations in the psychological science, which makes research into the subject even more difficult. Basing on a review of Russian and foreign works, the author describes the following three problems of research on generations in modern psychology: 1 The problem of defining the very concept of 'generation'; 2 The problem of defining quantitative and qualitative characteristics of 'generation'; 3 The problem of differentiating between generations. Creating a complex social psychological concept in which a generation would be considered a relatively independent social community of individuals united by common culturalhistorical location and common experience may contribute to eliminating these problems. The author argues that generations functioning in society should be differentiated on the basis of the following criteria: historical era, age, family role and identification with one or another generation

  4. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly alig...

  5. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R.; Agarwal, S.; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    ?? Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  6. RESEARCH INTEGRITY IN CHINA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David; ZENG, WEIQIN

    2010-01-01

    In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the conduct of research. China’s leaders have taken some steps to respond to these problems, such as developing ethics policies and establishing oversight committees. To keep moving forward, China needs to con...

  7. Research problems in Portugal run deep

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno; Lopes, J.; Jorge, M.

    2014-01-01

    As founders of the Portuguese National Association of Researchers in Science and Technology (ANICT), we believe that research problems in the country run deeper than just funding (see Nature 507, 306; 2014).Evaluation procedures for recruitment, career progression and funding allocation are in need of fundamental reform. They must become more transparent and be based solely on merit. Selection for nationally funded PhD and postdoc scholarships, for example, is beset by conflicting interests a...

  8. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    2013-01-01

    Finding ones way through empirical research in a construction project can be a challenging affair. Reflections about the uncertainty that relates to the researchers work when he/she is collecting data and construction knowledge in empirical studies of construction projects, is an area that could be elaborated more upon (Pink et. al., 2010). Getting access, formulating strategies for analyses, finding concepts and selecting methods such as participant observations and interviews are often problem...

  9. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to other Universities/Instition/Organisations for case studies. Under the new millennium context resurgence of global interest in web-based Open, distance and e-learning (ODEL has been proved to be potentially useful strategy for human development issues, particularly due to the evolution of fast-growing as well as net-working new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. The study reveals that though ODEL has been found widely used in many reputed and world leading universities in UK for higher studies leading to degrees, diploma and certificates on arts, general & environmental sciences as well the commerce subjects, and trainings for professional developments etc. The application ODEL especially in higher agricultural education and training leading to MScs and PhDs is almost scanty except a few cases of Fisheries and Livestock, the two sections of Agriculture in the Universities like the University of Sterling, University of Edinburgh and the University of London (Royal Veterinary College etc. But in cases of other major areas of Agricultural subjects such as the crop sciences including Agronomy, Soil science, Crop botany, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Genetics & Pl. Breeding, Agric. Extension Education, Agric. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agro forestry, Biotechnology, Seed Sci. & Techno. Farm Structure, Farm Power & Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management, Food Tech. & Rural Farm Industry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable agricultural development and alleviating poverty in the country.The study evidences that there is an ample paradigm shift towards ODEL system in providing accessible postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. On the basis of study on ODEL ongoing programmes at different Universities the following policy and practices have been recognised to be recommended to the concerned BAU authority. Ø The course materials for the students must be bespoke, having been developed for the ODEL mode, and are not simply a course that provides material on the web. It ensures that the students enjoy the same high quality teaching environment and exposure to innovation as the students on campus-based courses. Ø Development of adequate students’ supports and facilities along with valid accreditation of their degrees.Ø Development of highly skilled special academic as well as administrative expertise for the ODEL-based postgraduate in agricultural education programme. Ø For high technology and innovation as well as need-based action researches, global partnership development programme should be initiated. Thus BAU can go even beyond the boundary of the country with its high quality ODEL, especially Asian countries and the South Asian neighbourhood in particular but requires a strong need for an international intervention in planting the ‘ODEL seed’ into the conventional system in Bangladesh.

  10. Gone… but not away : Addressing the problem of long-term impacts from landfills in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope: Land filling of materials with content of toxic metals or highly persistent organic compounds has posed a problem for life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners for many years. The slow release from the landfill entails a dilution in time, which is dramatic compared to other emissions occurring in the life cycle, and with its focus on the emitted mass, LCA is poorly equipped to handle this difference. As a consequence, the long-term emissions from landfills occurring over thousands of years are often disregarded, which is unacceptable to many stakeholders considering the quantities of toxic substances that can be present. On the other hand, inclusion of all future emissions (over thousands of years) in the inventories potentially dominates all other impacts from the product system. The paper aims to present a pragmatic approach to address this dilemma. Materials and methods: Two new impact categories are introduced representing the stored ecotoxicity and stored human toxicity of thecontaminants remaining in the landfill after a ‘foreseeable’ time period of 100 years. The impact scores are calculated using the normal characterisation factors for the ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories, and they represent the toxicity potentials of what remains in the landfill after 100 years (hence the term ‘stored’ (eco)toxicity). Normalisation references are developed for the stored toxicity categories based on Danish figures to support comparison with indicator scores for the conventional environmental impact categories. In contrast to the scores for the conventional impact categories, it is uncertain to what extent the stored toxicity scores represent emissions, which will occur at all. Guidance is given on how to reflect this uncertainty in the weighting and interpretation of the scores. Results and discussion: In landfills and road constructions used to deposit residuals from incinerators, less than 1% of the content of metals is leached within the first 100 years. The stored toxicityscores are therefore much higher than the conventional impact scores that represent the actual emissions. Several examples are given illustrating the use and potential significance of the stored toxicity categories. Conclusions and perspectives: The methodology to calculate stored human and ecotoxicity is a simple and pragmatic approach to address LCA’s problem of treating the slow´long-term emissions at very low concentrations appropriately. The problem resides in the inventory analysis and the impact assessment, and the methodology circumvents the problem by converting it into a weighting and interpretation issue accommodating the value-based discussion of how to weight potential effects in the far future.

  11. The Problem with "Formal" Research Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Dona De

    A course in advanced English as a second language that focused on the writing of formal research papers revealed that even students who had chosen personally interesting topics and were able to organize facts and present them well still had difficulty. They had problems beginning and ending their papers, they approached their topics warily, and…

  12. Bibliographical Problems in Research on Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Notes that the research consequences of current problems in composition bibliography have not been widely understood. Explores four special features of the composition field that have made bibliographic control difficult: (1) field demarcation; (2) taxonomy and terminology; (3) publication format, purpose, and intended audience; and (4)…

  13. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    1987-01-01

    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  14. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation provision. Results The studies both demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach of research to action, adopting three pillars of assessment and monitoring; advocacy; and community empowerment. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project study, the participation of managers meant that their support for implementation was increased, although the failure to include nurses and communities in the study was noted as a limitation. The development of a community Water and Sanitation Forum to support the Project had some notable successes, but also experienced some difficulties due to lack of capacity in both the community and the municipality. Conclusion The two very different, but connected projects, demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach, and the importance of involvement of all stakeholders at all stages. The studies also illustrate the potential of a research institution as informed 'outsiders', in influencing policy and practice.

  15. Current topics in opioid therapy for pain management: addressing the problem of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casty, Frank E; Wieman, Matthew S; Shusterman, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Opioids are an established therapy for cancer pain and have become an accepted therapy for chronic noncancer pain. However, increased prescribing of opioids in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in prescription opioid abuse. All opioids have inherent potential for abuse, but gaps in healthcare provider understanding of or adherence to best prescribing practices may facilitate the misdirection of opioids for abuse. To address these concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration has required pharmaceutical manufacturers to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) for prescribers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids and has encouraged research to develop opioid formulations that are less easily abused or less attractive for abuse. The ER/LA opioid REMS require a partnership between the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and healthcare providers to develop educational materials for physicians and patients that are not promotional. This article addresses challenges associated with improving the quality of pain care through support of prescriber education, developing formulations that combine efficacy with tamper-resistant properties, and encouraging collaborative efforts by regulatory bodies, legislators, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups to achieve these ends. PMID:23740336

  16. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.)

  17. Opening Address SEER 2003: Got Research in Experiential Education? Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2004-01-01

    In a speech at the Symposium for Experiential Education Research 2003, Henderson discusses the importance of theory in building a body of knowledge. She says that to use information to create a body of knowledge, researchers must continue to develop and apply theory, and to address the emerging opportunities for evidence-based research and…

  18. Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

  19. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  20. How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

    2013-04-01

    Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

  1. Oversight of human participants research: identifying problems to evaluate reform proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Wood, Anne; Fleischman, Alan; Bowen, Angela; Getz, Kenneth A; Grady, Christine; Levine, Carol; Hammerschmidt, Dale E; Faden, Ruth; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Muse, Carianne Tucker; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2004-08-17

    The oversight of research involving human participants is widely believed to be inadequate. The U.S. Congress, national commissions, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Institute of Medicine, numerous professional societies, and others are proposing remedies based on the assumption that the main problems are researchers' conflict of interest, lack of institutional review board (IRB) resources, and the volume and complexity of clinical research. Developing appropriate reform proposals requires carefully delineating the problems of the current system to know what reforms are needed. To stimulate a more informed and meaningful debate, we delineate 15 current problems into 3 broad categories. First, structural problems encompass 8 specific problems related to the way the research oversight system is organized. Second, procedural problems constitute 5 specific problems related to the operations of IRB review. Finally, performance assessment problems include 2 problems related to absence of systematic assessment of the outcomes of the oversight system. We critically assess proposed reforms, such as accreditation and central IRBs, according to how well they address these 15 problems. None of the reforms addresses all 15 problems. Indeed, most focus on the procedural problems, failing to address either the structure or the performance assessment problems. Finally, on the basis of the delineation of problems, we outline components of a more effective reform proposal, including bringing all research under federal oversight, a permanent advisory committee to address recurrent ethical issues in clinical research, mandatory single-time review for multicenter research protocols, additional financial support for IRB functions, and a standardized system for collecting and disseminating data on both adverse events and the performance assessment of IRBs. PMID:15313744

  2. AIDS in Africa: problems for research and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwadda, D; Katongole-Mbidde, E

    1990-04-01

    AIDS was 1st recognized in the US in 1981, but in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) it became publicized in 1983. There are some major problems between the goals of African and Western researchers. These have developed as a result of many Western scientists trying to prove the theory that HIV may have originated in SSA, causing a strong backlash from many African politicians resenting the sensationalized reports in the Western press about the incidence of AIDS in SSA. Such negative reactions has delayed progress in AIDS research, health education and service programs in SSA. Inaccuracies in Western reporting persist, such as HIV seroprevalence figures taken from small local surveys and being quoted as representative of a whole country and even the whole continent. Such extrapolations have had serious political ramifications and have prevented many patients from participating in either hospital or community-based studies. Pressure from Western researchers and their funding agencies to gather data in SSA have overlooked the needs of African communities for services. As the quantity of data from collaborative studies has increased many African researchers are faced with the financial and technical constraints to analyze it, leading to the analysis and interpretation by expatriates without further consultation with African collaborators. SSA needs financial, medical and scientific support to cope with the problem of AIDS. However, the success of controlling the HIV infection in SSA will depend on a more responsible and professional western media, less sensitivity on the part of African governments, and greater financial contributions from donors for the local training of collaborators and for services for local populations. (Author's modified). PMID:1969569

  3. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  4. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  5. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Le Cordeur

    2011-01-01

    The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12). According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this articl...

  6. Looking beyond first-world problems: an emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality. PMID:25264693

  7. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far fro...

  8. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  9. Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

    2004-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

  10. Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are eager to see the first successful shipment in this programme, continue to assist it every way we can, and look forward to presentations this week on both the Russian RERTR and spent fuel return efforts

  11. Addressing ethical issues in H3Africa research – the views of research ethics committee members

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Jantina; Abayomi, Akin; Littler, Katherine; Madden, Ebony; McCurdy, Sheryl; Ouwe Missi Oukem-Boyer, Odile; Seeley, Janet; Staunton, Ciara; Tangwa, Godfrey; Tindana, Paulina; Troyer, Jennifer; . .

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, the H3Africa Working Group on Ethics organised a workshop with members of over 40 research ethics committees from across Africa to discuss the ethical challenges raised in H3Africa research, and to receive input on the proposed H3Africa governance framework. Prominent amongst a myriad of ethical issues raised by meeting participants were concerns over consent for future use of samples and data, the role of community engagement in large international collaborative projects, and p...

  12. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  13. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  14. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  15. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  16. PolySocial reality for education : addressing the vacancy problem with Mobile Cross Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Colin; Davies, Christopher John; Miller, Alan Henry David

    2013-01-01

    Widespread adoption of mobile communications devices has led to people multiplexing their grounded reality, where they engage in face-to-face social interaction, with Web-based social networks and apps; concurrently emerging 3D Web technologies hold promise for networks of rich, parallel 3D synthetic environments to emerge. Current technologies allow the 2D Web to be multiplexed with grounded reality, resulting in PolySocial Reality, however 3D platforms suffer from the vacancy problem when t...

  17. Capital, liquidity standards and macro prudential policy tools in financial supervision: addressing sovereign debt problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    During the recent Financial Crisis, as well as the 2010 and ongoing European Sovereign Debt Crisis, several governments had/have had to raise their debt levels in order to stabilize their economies. The principal problem attributed to sovereign debts, which is linked to their characteristics, is the possibility of defaults occurring in relation to these – since they are usually accompanied without collaterals. The possibilities of such defaults occurring are further increased where bailouts a...

  18. Addressing the net balances problem as a prerequisite for EU budget reform: A proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente, Ángel de la

    2008-01-01

    Conflict among member states regarding the distribution of net financial burdens has been allowed to contaminate the entire design of the EU budget with very negative consequences in terms of equity, efficiency and transparency. To get around this problem and pave the way for a substantive budget reform, we propose to decouple distributional negotiations from the rest of the budget process by linking member state net balances in a rigid manner to relative prosperity. This would be achieved th...

  19. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  20. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  1. The 1999 Heineman Prize Address- Integrable models in statistical mechanics The hidden field with unsolved problems

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, B M

    1999-01-01

    In the past 30 years there have been extensive discoveries in the theory of integrable statistical mechanical models including the discovery of non-linear differential equations for Ising model correlation functions, the theory of random impurities, level crossing transitions in the chiral Potts model and the use of Rogers-Ramanujan identities to generalize our concepts of Bose/Fermi statistics. Each of these advances has led to the further discovery of major unsolved problems of great mathematical and physical interest. I will here discuss the mathematical advances, the physical insights and extraordinary lack of visibility of this field of physics.

  2. Communication Challenges Learners Face Online: Why Addressing CMC and Language Proficiency Will Not Solve Learners' Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Ivannikova, Liubov

    2016-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been argued to cause (mis)communication issues. Research and practice suggest a range of tactics and strategies for educators focused on how to encourage and foster communication in a virtual learning environment (VLE) (eg, Salmon). However, while frameworks such as Salmon's support the effective…

  3. Noticing and Uptake: Addressing Pre-Articulated Covert Problems in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Osamu; Izumi, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    The assumption underlying research on feedback is that, in writing, feedback is something provided for what actually shows up in the learner's text. However, a new dimension may need to be added to the debate in light of the Noticing Hypothesis, the Output Hypothesis, and the emerging evidence on what L2 learners actually notice as they produce…

  4. A community-based approach to translational research addressing breast cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Mason, Mondi; Turner, Jerome; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Chow, Marie; Hine, R. Jean; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Greene, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in breast cancer survival rates suggest that biological processes contribute. Translational research addressing health disparities would benefit from using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) to examine biological processes commonly seen as the proximal causes of illness as well as behavioral and social-ecological “causes of the causes” within an integrated conceptual framework. This paper describes a CBPR study that explored perceptions regarding breast cancer relevan...

  5. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Sébastien

    2012-06-01

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R&D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  6. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R and D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  7. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    Finding ones way through empirical research in a construction project can be a challenging affair. Reflections about the uncertainty that relates to the researchers work when he/she is collecting data and construction knowledge in empirical studies of construction projects, is an area that could be elaborated more upon (Pink et. al., 2010). Getting access, formulating strategies for analyses, finding concepts and selecting methods such as participant observations and interviews are often problematic aspects, that influences the knowledge that researchers produces in a number of ways that relates to empirical research.I will argue that uncertainty is an important aspect of doing empirical research because the empirical research is a part of a situated learning process and that uncertain situations are a central part of conducting empirical research.I will use an example from my study of the early phases of a construction project – a process competition - to argue why I think it is important and valuable to reflect upon how researchers learn when she/he participate in social practices.My perspective on the researchers role is inspired by social practice theory such as theories of situated learning (Lave, 1988) and critical psychology (Axel, 2002; Dreier, 2008; Højholt & Kousholt, 2011). Situated learning theories have developed some valuable methodologies that can be used to study learning as an aspect of social practices and critical psychology have expanded theories of situated learning by arguing that the researcher is learning in the social practices that are being researched.

  8. An integrated modeling approach for identifying promising technologies to address waste management problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel of technical experts is responsible for evaluating over 400 technology proposals in order to identify a limited number of the most promising for potential use in a future plutonium processing facility. A problem-driven, integrated modeling, decision-support framework has been conceptualized to facilitate this decision making effort. This integrated approach to planning utilizes a variety of modeling structures including Flowsheeting, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Linear and Goal Programming, and Object-Oriented Discrete Event Simulation. These models have been instrumental in improving communication among scientists, planners and model builders; increasing understanding of the potential for certain plutonium process technologies; providing insights into process technology interrelationships; and promoting a relatively objective basis for recommending further development for a select set of evolving process technologies. (author) 4 figs., 11 refs

  9. Care of patients with epilepsy in the community: will new initiatives address old problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, A K

    1996-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition that has important medical, psychological and social consequences. Up to 90% of patients with epilepsy are not under hospital supervision at any one time; the role of the general practitioner is therefore of central importance. There seems little doubt that community care of people with epilepsy must be improved. This article reviews the research findings on the quality of care of people with epilepsy, examines the barriers to effective community c...

  10. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID; Hazel JOHNSON; Norman CLARK

    2009-01-01

    A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL) programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to ot...

  11. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women. PMID:19269726

  12. Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...

  13. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangling, Wei

    1983-01-01

    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  14. About research problems of historic territories.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Istanbul : UTEA, 2005, s. 51-54 ISBN 975-395-866-8. [ICOMOS/CIVVIH Istanbul 2005. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2005-24.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : European construction technology platform * research on historic cities and territories * 7th Framework Programme EC Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM architectures on Exascale computing systems.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  17. Using mixed methods for addressing researcher’s safety in a conflict area: an innovative use of mixed methods research in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Takavarasha Jr, Sam; Bednar, Peter; Adams, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Conducting robust research in a conflict or post-conflict area is complicated by concern for the researcher?s safety and the difficulty of reaching remote areas. In this paper we open a new frontier in mixed methods (MM) research by demonstrating how it can be used to address safety concerns. We used qualitative and quantitative work carried out in and outside the conflict zone to overcome the challenges of conducting Information Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) research in Zi...

  18. Computational problems in magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J.

    1981-08-31

    Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly.

  19. Researches on the Twin Prime Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Baoshan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Twin prime number problem is mainly the structure of the twin prime numbers and whether there are infinitely many prime twins group. In this paper, by constructing a special cluster number set(see formula(2.3)in the paper), proves that the number of set number of the first n columns set the intersection of the minimum number of q is decision of the prime twins (q, q+2), and the minimum number of series is divergent(see Theorem 2).The main rezults are Theorem 2,Theorem 3 and Theorem 4.Prime tw...

  20. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  1. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  3. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  4. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  5. [Selected research problems of anthrax vaccine development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowska, Dorota; Kocik, Janusz; Bartoszcze, Micha?

    2009-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with B. anthracis against civilian population is one of major concern. After successful bioterroristic attack in 2001 in US renewed research interest has prompted in the development of new and more effective vaccine against anthrax. There are two licensed vaccines against anthrax--AVA-Bio-Thrax US and UK--sterile culture filtrate prepared by alum precipitation. Both vaccines are based on PA antigen. There are several concerns regarding PA based vaccines. They require six sc injections and yearly booster, high rates of local reaction after vaccination is observed, the immunity is not long lasting, vaccination do not protect animals against different strains of B. anthracis. New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines have been presented (recombinant PA, subunits vaccine, mutants, conjugated). Using proteomic approaches new antigens have been also identified as candidates for future vaccines. More effective and easy to perform methods of vaccination have been reviewed. PMID:20120948

  6. Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

  7. Research ethics and the problem how to teach it

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzerath, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    European researchers and members of ethics committees feel the need to improve Good Scientific Practice, to ensure the protection of human subjects in clinical trials and to evaluate consequences of research. To enhance the current situation, a focus on the process of training and training materials in research ethics is desirable. Since the complicated moral issues of research, often divergent, cannot be addressed solely by an individual judgement based on a mere natural intuition. If the mo...

  8. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

    2013-04-01

    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

  9. Experimental Research in France on Criticality Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before 1964, some of France's experimental facilities for criticality studies were installed at Saclay. Here, fundamental experiments were carried out with solutions of plutonium, uranium-235 and uranium-233 in cylindrical geometries, which were either bare or were reflected with different types of reflector (PROSERPINE and ALECTO). Since 1962 experiments have been carried out with rig B at the Criticality Station of the Valduc Research Centre with a view to studying the storage of plutonium solutions in annular cylinders (500 mm x 300 mm, 500 mm x 200 mm and 500 x 350 mm); other special experiments have been devoted to the safety of apparatus containing plutonium nitrate in a homogeneous solution. The French programme provides for the continuation of the experiments carried out with rig B (interaction of 2-9 cylinders with a diameter of 250 mm), the bringing into operation of CASTOR and POLLUX with a view to determining the coupling coefficients between two 300-mm cylinders containing uranium-235 nitrate, the bringing into service of rig D (studying of the safety of a plutonium metal solution) and finally for the carrying out of very sub-critical pulsed-neutron-source experiments aimed at providing information on critical parameters. (author)

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

  11. The Research Bridge: problems and solutions for research related information

    OpenAIRE

    Beeken, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the reach and impact of research publications is important in helping UK HEIs respond to challenges in the research landscape. With the modern digital publishing ecosystem, the measurement of emerging alternative metrics is becoming increasingly key, as well as identifying how they can be represented and interpreted across multiple disciplines, sometimes using abstract, synthesized values. This can often be a difficult task to do without specific, specialised tools. To help brin...

  12. Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M.R., Vasconcelos; M.C., Cassimiro; M.F.M., Martins; M., Palacios.

    2013-12-02

    Full Text Available In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and co [...] nflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

  13. Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.R. Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and conflicts of interest (COIs have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

  14. Digital instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technologies: Issues and current research [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plantwide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology. To respond to technology challenges, roadmaps for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) are being developed. These roadmapping efforts address technology gaps, technology maturity, and technology experience by establishing a comprehensive, systematic approach to meet high-priority technological needs. The first RD and D objective is to identify and eliminate technology gaps that may constrain measurement, monitoring, control, or protection. The second RD and D objective is to ensure technology maturity so that needed methods, tools, equipment, or other products are available with a sound infrastructure. The third RD and D objective is to demonstrate performance and resolve licensing and usage uncertainty. This presentation summarizes the key elements of an ICHMI technology roadmap and discusses current research activities. (author)

  15. NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

  16. How the Japanese steel industry is addressing global environmental problems - focusing on measures to control carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Global Environmental Development Dept.

    1995-06-01

    Steelworks consume large quantities of raw materials and energy in their manufacturing process. For this reason, the Japanese steel industry has been engaged in industry-wide efforts for more efficient use of resources and energy and for environmental protection. These efforts are proving highly effective in controlling carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the furtherance of energy saving in the context of global environmental problems, including global warming, which have come to the fore in recent years. This report describes how the Japanese steel industry is addressing the need to control CO{sub 2} emissions mainly by reducing energy consumption, and what the industry is planning to do in the future. 3 figs.

  17. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  18. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  19. Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

  20. The Many Problems with Quantum Mechanics from the Earliest Days on and How the Theory of Quantum Mechanics on Phase Space Addresses Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2015-12-01

    We review the problems with quantum mechanics by translating or interpreting leading specialists in the field. Then we obtain a theory called quantum mechanics on phase space which is immune to these problems. Finally, we see how these problems are addressed by quantum mechanics on phase space.

  1. A Simulated Research Problem for Undergraduate Metamorphic Petrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Roddy V.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a laboratory problem in metamorphic petrology designed to simulate a research experience. The problem deals with data on scales ranging from a geologic map to hand specimens to thin sections. Student analysis includes identifying metamorphic index minerals, locating their isograds on the map, and determining the folding sequence. (BC)

  2. What is the 'problem' that outreach work seeks to address and how might it be tackled? Seeking theory in a primary health prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie Mhairi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive approaches to health are disproportionately accessed by the more affluent and recent health improvement policy advocates the use of targeted preventive primary care to reduce risk factors in poorer individuals and communities. Outreach has become part of the health service response. Outreach has a long history of engaging those who do not otherwise access services. It has, however, been described as eclectic in its purpose, clientele and mode of practice; its effectiveness is unproven. Using a primary prevention programme in the UK as a case, this paper addresses two research questions: what are the perceived problems of non-engagement that outreach aims to address; and, what specific mechanisms of outreach are hypothesised to tackle these. Methods Drawing on a wider programme evaluation, the study undertook qualitative interviews with strategically selected health-care professionals. The analysis was thematically guided by the concept of 'candidacy' which theorises the dynamic process through which services and individuals negotiate appropriate service use. Results The study identified seven types of engagement 'problem' and corresponding solutions. These 'problems' lie on a continuum of complexity in terms of the challenges they present to primary care. Reasons for non-engagement are congruent with the concept of 'candidacy' but point to ways in which it can be expanded. Conclusions The paper draws conclusions about the role of outreach in contributing to the implementation of inequalities focused primary prevention and identifies further research needed in the theoretical development of both outreach as an approach and candidacy as a conceptual framework.

  3. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  4. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  5. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  6. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  7. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  8. Problems That Face Research in the Design of English Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Argues that English spelling is a legitimate subject for research and development to improve it. Discusses research problems, including the definition of an "optimum" spelling, issues of models, and methodology and experimental design. Suggests that empirical exploration has been prevented by the historic unquestioned assumptions of spelling…

  9. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  10. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research : A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem, 4. rely on first-order perspectives to see themselves as perspectives, and 5. be based on other rules than first-order research. Implications: The perspectivist insights of second-order science provide a new way of understanding interdisciplinary research that leads to new polyocular methods and research designs. It also points to more reflexive ways of dealing with scientific expertise in democratic processes. The main challenge is that this is a paradigmatic shift, which demands that the involved disciplines, at least to some degree, subscribe to a perspectivist view. Constructivist content: Our perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce.

  11. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  12. Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, I. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

  13. The Problem of Gender Categorisation: Addressing Dilemmas Past and Present in Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…

  14. Ultra-brief intervention for problem drinkers: research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wild Cameron; Neighbors Clayton; Cunningham John A; Humphreys Keith

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Helping the large number of problem drinkers who will never seek treatment is a challenging issue. Public health initiatives employing educational materials or mass media campaigns have met with mixed success. However, clinical research has developed effective brief interventions to help problem drinkers. This project will employ an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as a public health int...

  15. A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice teachers' conceptions and perceptions about climate change, as well as the difficulties in engaging in evidence-based argumentation, have informed and enhanced the framework for development of the CSI: South Florida curriculum. The modules are sequenced according to the proposed learning progression. First, students are introduced to the nature of science and Earth's energy balance. Students then investigate the temporal and spatial temperature data to answer the question of whether Earth is warming. Students also compare natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change, investigate the various observed and projected consequences of climate change in the fourth module, and examine ways to mitigate the effects of and adapt to climate change. Finally, students learn how to refute skeptics' claims by providing counter evidence and reasoning of why the skeptics' claim is not the appropriate explanation. This paper describes our conceptual framework for teaching students how to address the skeptics' claims using the content learned in the CSI: South Florida curriculum and evidence-based argumentation.

  16. Strengthening national capacities for researching on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) towards informing and addressing health inequities in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtenga, Sally; Masanja, Irene M; Mamdani, Masuma

    2016-01-01

    Background Tanzania’s socio-economic development is challenged by sharp inequities between and within urban and rural areas, and among different socio-economic groups. This paper discusses the importance of strengthening SDH research, knowledge, relevant capacities and responsive systems towards addressing health inequities in Tanzania. Methods Based on a conceptual framework for building SDH research capacity, a mapping of existing research systems was undertaken between February and June 20...

  17. Research assessment in the humanities: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Galimberti Paola,

    2010-01-01

    Research assessment is going to play a new role in the governance of universities and research institutions. Evaluation of results is evolving from a simple tool for resource allocation towards policy design. In this respect "measuring" implies a different approach to quantitative aspects as well as to an estimation of qualitative criteria that are difficult to define. Bibliometrics became so popular, in spite of its limits, just offering a simple solution to complex problems. The theory behi...

  18. Problems in cancer treatment and major research of integrative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Quan LING

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There exist some problems in the present cancer treatment, such as: (1) prevalence of excessive treatment; (2) lack of long-term research plan; (3) lack of reasonable comprehensive treatment; (4) lack of operative individualized treatment; (5) the superiority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was undervalued and underused. Integrative medicine should play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further research should be carried out in the following aspects:...

  19. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stauffacher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

  20. Electronic media: the problem of choosing research approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgaleeva L. V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.

  1. Data, Problems, Heuristics and Results in Cognitive Metaphor Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Andras; Rakosi, Csilla; Csatar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive metaphor research is characterized by the diversity of rival theories. Starting from this observation, the paper focuses on the problem of how the unity and diversity of cognitive theories of metaphor can be accounted for. The first part of the paper outlines a suitable metascientific approach which emerges as a modification of B. von…

  2. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  3. Using lectins in biomarker research: addressing the limitations of sensitivity and availability

    OpenAIRE

    Haab, Brian B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates have fundamental roles throughout biology, yet they have not been as well studied as proteins and nucleic acids, in part due to limitations in the experimental tools. Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. This article addresses two limita...

  4. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions that are of intrinsic concern to AI. We present examples of current AI work on specific design tasks, and discuss new directions of research, both as extensions of current work and in the context of new design tasks where domain knowledge is either intractable or incomplete. The domains discussed include Digital Circuit Design, Mechanical Design of Rotational Transmissions, Design of Computer Architectures, Marine Design, Aircraft Design, and Design of Chemical Processes and Materials. Work in these domains is significant on technical grounds, and it is also important for economic and policy reasons.

  5. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  6. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  7. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  8. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  9. Presidential Address, AVERA: Globalization and the Internationalization of Research on Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    2003-01-01

    I offer my perspective concerning the role of international research for an organization dedicated to the investigation of career, vocational, and technical education in all forms and contexts, to the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA). While I do represent AVERA, the views outlined here are not AVERA policy nor do they…

  10. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  11. SEISMITES OF THE SOUTHERN EAST SIBERIA: RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey S. Gladkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews research problems and perspectives of studying the secondary seismogenic deformations of vibrational type (termed «seismites» that are revealed in soft sediments in the territory of the Southern East Siberia. Proposed are ways and principles based on which criteria can be developed for definition of similar structures in view of wide propagation of cryogenic processes. Studies to reveal seismites in cross-sections of the Selenga river delta, the Tunka basin and the southern part of the Siberian platform have been conducted; some of the research results are presented in the article.

  12. Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

  13. Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Svend Brinkmann

    2012-01-01

    Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three curre...

  14. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web (“Web”) is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation ...

  15. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings. PMID:26174950

  16. University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk perceptions and their research problem choices. The results suggest that risk is a useful paradigm to study decision-making in science. In making scientific risk decisions, at times scientists conform to the existing institutional structures. Other times they challenge them, persist through them, or compromise their actions. Bioscientists' risk epistemologies matter to the extent that these allow for more creative ways in which individual scientists can navigate the institutional environments that they are embedded in. Risk perceptions of university bioscientists differ based on the specific dimension of risk under investigation. Several significant relationships between perceived risks and problem choice orientations have emerged through the data analysis. Overall, university bioscientists' risk epistemologies seem to be related to the unique reward structure of science, compelling them to use various risk management techniques while navigating their research environments.

  17. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  18. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. PMID:24431134

  19. Difficult life situations of the minors and the parent involvement in interdepartmental interaction addressing to solving problems of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudkin A. S.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical and methodological problems of establishing inter-agency cooperation in providing social assistance to minors. The author proposes a principles for the model of the mobilization of parents to solve problems of their children. To analyze the structure of social and pedagogical work, distinguished types of difficult life situations that require special efforts to ensure children's education. Proceedings of the publication permit to develop and implement social technologies.

  20. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…

  1. State of the Research and Literature Address: ACT with Children, Adolescents and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Amy R.; Scherbarth, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) has been found effective in treating a wide number of psychological conditions affecting adults. To date, however, little research has been done on the use of ACT with youth and parents. Few efforts have been made at summarizing the literature that does exist. This article,…

  2. Opening address at the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of variuos programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. More detailed status of the RERTR program in Japan, as the host country is covered in this presentation

  3. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  4. Identifying health problems and health research priorities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feachem, R G; Graham, W J; Timaeus, I M

    1989-06-01

    When we were invited to prepare this background paper on the health problems of the developing countries for the Commission on Health Research for Development, our first thought was to compile and organize available data on the causes of morbidity and mortality affecting different age groups in various populations. It soon became clear that this would not be especially useful. There are major gaps in the available data, particularly from the poorer countries and for people above 5 years of age. The data that are available are often of poor or uncertain quality, collected from unrepresentative or undefined subpopulations, and not strictly comparable due to different definitions and data-collection methods. Additionally, in the absence of agreed definitions and analytical frameworks, it is not clear what could or should be done with the data on health problems so amassed. More fundamentally, we have come to doubt whether the current array of epidemiological concepts and tools is sufficient for the task. We therefore decided that, while giving an overview of current knowledge on levels and trends of morbidity and mortality, the emphasis of this paper should be more towards concepts, methods, and data deficiencies. In Section 1, we set out definitions and frameworks for considering health problems and health research; we review recent conceptual models for the analysis of the determinants of child survival; and we outline a framework, focusing on modifiable determinants of health and life-cycle health effects, which is used in subsequent sections. In Section 2, relationships between national and societal level determinants and health are reviewed and then set aside. In Section 3, we review available data on world patterns and trends of morbidity and mortality, highlighting the data deficiencies and lacunae. In Section 4, we follow the life of a woman in a developing country and examine the health problems, and their determinants, which she and her children face. In Section 5, we draw these strands together and, having reviewed current approaches to prioritizing health problems and suggested some ways in which they could be improved, in Section 6 identify several research priorities, emphasizing the need for methodological research. This paper was commissioned in March 1987; prepared in draft and presented to a meeting at Chateau de Bossey, Geneva, Switzerland during 15-17 July; and revised and completed in September 1987. It is in no sense definitive or final.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2661849

  5. Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-jie XIONG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available
    How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The paper has important theory and practice value.
    Key words: Integer Linear Programming (ILP, Cutting plane equation, Export Equation
    Résumé: Comment résoudre les problèmes ILP est toujours un sujet chaud dans le milieu de la Recherche d’Opération. L’auteur de cet essai, à travers la méthode de démonstration, a analysé les fautes de la Méthode de Coupe Plane utilisée pour résoudre ILP et a proposé un nouveau principe, par exemple : « il est comme une équation de coupe plane qui a plus de restrictions sur un problème donné. ». En même temps, l’auteur indique qu’il y a deux problèmes qui seraient notés au cours de l’utilisation. Cet article revêtit une valeur importante théorique et pratique.
    Mots-Clés: ILP( Integer Linear Programming /programmation linéaire du nombre entier, équation de coupe plane, équation d’exportation

  6. A selection of biomechanical research problems: From modeling to experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Cyrus Omid

    The research undertakings within this manuscript illustrate the importance of biomechanics in today's science. Without doubt, biomechanics can be utilized to obtain a better understanding of many unsolved mysteries involved in the field of medicine. Moreover, biomechanics can be used to develop better prosthetic or surgical devices as well. Chapter 2 represents a medical problem, which has not been solved for more than a century. With the use of fundamental principles of biomechanics', a better insight of this problem and its possible causes were obtained. Chapter 3 investigates the mechanical interaction between the human teeth and some processed food products during mastication, which is a routine but crucial daily activity of a human being. Chapter 4 looks at a problem within the field of surgery. In this chapter the stability and reliability of two different Suturing-Techniques are explored. Chapters 5 and 6 represent new patent designs as a result of the investigations made in Chapter 4. Chapter 7 studies the impact and load transfer patterns during the collision between a child's head and the ground. All of the above mentioned chapters show the significance of biomechanics in solving a range of different medical problems that involve physical and or mechanical characters.

  7. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  8. Addressing children's oral health inequalities in Northern Ireland: a research-practice-community partnership initiative.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, R.; Oliver, M.; Bunting, G.; Kirk, J.; Saunderson, W.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Northern Ireland has a high prevalence of childhood dental caries, reflecting heavy consumption of cariogenic snack foods. To develop a policy to promote and facilitate healthier eating, researchers, practitioners, and the school community formed a partnership, together creating the Boost Better Breaks (BBB) school-based policy. The policy was developed with and supported by dieticians, health promotion officers, teachers, school meal advisors, and local suppliers of school milk. E...

  9. Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltsch, F.; Bonte, D.; Pe'Er, G.; Reineking, B.; Leimgruber, P.; Balkenhol, N.; Schröder, B.; Buchmann, C.M.; Mueller, T(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany); Blaum, N.; Zurell, D.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Wiegand, T.; Eccard, J.A.; Hofer, H

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of ‘movement ecology’. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and ...

  10. French underground research laboratory addressing radioactive waste management scientific programme and layout design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Act of 30.12.91 relating to research into long lived radioactive waste set the objectives for the programme whose results will be evaluated in 15 years time. Three avenues of research were defined: 1. Research relating to the separation and transmutation of long lived radioactive elements present in such waste. 2. The study of long-term surface conditioning and storage procedures of such waste. 3. The study of retrievable and unretrievable disposal options for such waste in deep geological formations, particularly thanks to the creation of underground laboratories. Under the Act, ANDRA (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste), is now responsible for studies of geological disposal options of which underground laboratories are an essential component. French underground laboratories will be established on sites looking favourable with respect to safety and technical feasibility for possible disposal. Thus the French underground laboratories will first represent access installations to the selected host rock very similar to those used in the mining industry for access to deposits. The Act provides for concertation with the elected representatives and the populations of the sites concerned, and a mediator was appointed in December 1992. Once the sites have been retained, preliminary research work will get underway. Authorization for the installation and operation of the laboratories is to be granted by a decree issued by the Conseil d'Etat (Council of State). This authorization grants the recipient the exclusive right to proceed with surface and underground works. It also specifies a protection perimeter within which works or activities likely to compromise the installation or operation of the laboratories at the technical level will be regulated or prohibited. (author). 2 figs

  11. Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Priorities for Research and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Amy D; Rodrigue, James R.; Purnell, Tanjala S; Ladin, Keren; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2010-01-01

    One potential mechanism for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of kidney transplants is to enhance minorities’ pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Pursuit of LDKT is influenced by patients’ personal values, their extended social networks, the healthcare system, and the community at large. This review discusses research and interventions promoting LDKT, especially for minorities, including improving education for patients, donors, and providers, utilizing LDKT...

  12. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  13. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected

  14. To address gender equality since the preschool education: research and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Piscalho, Isabel; Cardona, Maria João; Tavares, Teresa; Uva, Marta

    2010-01-01

    To study the school careers of boys and girls from pre-school is one of the objectives of a study that took place in Santarém (Portugal). With this intention, in recent years a line of research, training and organization of materials for work on gender in preschool, has been developed. In this text we analyze some guidelines of our work presenting some examples of the data collected in kindergartens on the representations of gender and age (which is to be a man, woman, boy a...

  15. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  16. Addressing "waste" in diagnostic imaging: some implications of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaug, Adam G; Bessen, Taryn; Moss, John R; Hiller, Janet E

    2010-08-01

    Comparative effectiveness research is intended to provide evidence to improve patient outcomes through the use of the most appropriate health technology affordable. The authors present 5 case studies, focusing on the use of plain radiography in common clinical scenarios, to illustrate the considerable scope for comparative effectiveness research within medical imaging and the different levels of evidence currently in existence to guide the improved use of medical imaging. These are blunt ankle injury, breast cancer follow-up, low back pain, routine daily chest x-rays in intensive care, and screening for breast cancer. Although there are established models for evaluating new technologies, especially pharmaceuticals, against the most commonly used current technology, the evaluation of technologies in current clinical practice is in an early phase of development. Because evaluation resources are limited, one major challenge is developing ways to identify established technologies for evaluation to refine the indications for their use. A set of criteria with which to identify established technologies that may not be delivering value for money is described, and their use is illustrated in relation to the 5 case studies. These criteria could be incorporated into literature search strategies, stakeholder consultations, and utilization scanning. Once identified, these technologies should be formally evaluated for their performance in improving patient health without restricting the availability of other effective interventions. PMID:20678730

  17. Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sobel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

  18. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  19. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment, in particular one that is likely to find broad international acceptance. In this context, the topic was included as an important element of the Commission's 6th Research Framework Programme with the specific objective of 'establishing a robust conceptual and methodological basis for underpinning sound policy and standards for protection of the environment from radiation'. A contract is currently being negotiated to this purpose - the ERICA project which is expected to make a major contribution in this area. Progress within the ERICA project and initiatives being taken to develop standards in other quarters (e.g. IAEA, ICRP) will determine the need for further supporting RTD. In principle, within the next few years, an adequate scientific basis should be established for underpinning standards, albeit supported by further modest research of a confirmatory nature. The Commission has, at present, no plans to establish explicit standards for protection of the environment from radiation. You may be aware that we had included in the work programme of DG Environment the establishment of an Environmental Action Programme under the EURATOM Treaty (complementary to the 6th EAP under the EC Treaty). A follow-up to the Stakeholders' Conference on Approaches to the Management of Environmental Radioactivity of December 2002 was foreseen for 2004. However, in view of the preparation of this EURATOM EAP it cannot be guaranteed at the moment. But the Commission will continue to monitor developments in environmental radiation protection, in particular the results of its sponsored research and the activities of ICRP and IAEA. Should the need arise for standards at a European level, the Commission would respond in a timely manner. If and when it does, important considerations will be the adoption of a system that is robust, practicable, cost effective and proportionate to the problem at hand. A proper balance will need to be achieved between science and policy. I will end my opening remarks with these last thoughts which I hope will be kept in mind throughout the remainder of thi

  20. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  1. Dishonesty, misconduct and fraud in clinical research: an international problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankier, S I

    2002-01-01

    Clinical research misdemeanours include a broad spectrum of misdeeds that misappropriate an unfair advantage or harm the rights of others. There is no internationally accepted definition of such malpractices and no generalized procedure to facilitate their reporting or correction. Those who do report research misdemeanours are often stigmatized as 'whistleblowers', a term that has acquired many negative connotations. Frequently, whistleblowers encounter many personal conflicts and/or may suffer victimization in their working environment. There remains a need for an internationally harmonized approach to manage these unacceptable problems. Resolution of such important issues should be catalysed by the impending need for European Union states to implement Good Clinical Practice Directive 2001/20/EC into national law. PMID:12235917

  2. Radiation and lung cancer: problems and topics of future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the purpose of this critical review to outline the main uncertainties of present risk estimates for radiation-induced lung cancer and the resulting topics of future research in this field. The main emphasis was the actual problems of dose and risk estimates for indoor exposure to radon daughters. The discussion indicates that the conclusions of the ICRP and the BEIR IV studies, which proceed from data of radon-exposed miners, are based on models and assumptions that are too simple. Comparison with the lung cancer data from the atomic bomb survivors indicates that these uncertainties concern mainly the transfer of the data from male miners to the female population and the influence of smoking. This underlines the importance of large direct case-control studies on lung cancer from indoor radon. A detailed list of topics for future research in this field is presented in the summary of this session. (author)

  3. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Wee, Loo Kang; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post...

  4. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ward Paul R; Meyer Samantha B; Verity Fiona; Gill Tiffany K; Luong Tini CN

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative con...

  5. METHODS FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TIME OF FLIGHT ON TRANSVERSE AMPLITUTE IN LINEAR NON-SCALING FFAGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the time of flight in a linear non-scaling FFAG depends on the transverse amplitude, motion in the longitudinal plane will be different for different transverse particle amplitudes. This effect, if not considered, will lead the failure of a substantial portion of the beam to be accelerated. I will first briefly review this effect. Then I will outline some techniques for addressing the problems created by the effect. In particular, I will discuss partially correcting the chromaticity and increasing the energy gain per cell. I will discuss potential problems with another technique, namely the introduction of higher harmonic cavities

  6. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  7. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a tritium labeling facility operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ordinary citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though discovered or appreciated only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case-particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the establishment, as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against citizen volunteers, (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of no safe dose and levels below regulatory concern when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment

  8. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, Robert J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peterson, S. Ring [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-05-05

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a "tritium labeling facility" operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and "ordinary" citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though "discovered" or "appreciated" only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the "establishment," as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against "citizen volunteers," (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of "no safe dose" and "levels below regulatory concern" when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

  9. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R J; Peterson, S

    1999-05-05

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a ?tritium labeling facility? operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ?ordinary? citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though ?discovered? or ?appreciated? only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case?particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators?that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the ?establishment,? as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against ?citizen volunteers,? (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of ?no safe dose? and ?levels below regulatory concern? when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

  10. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low k1 lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Eickhoff, Mark; Ma, Mark; Pas, Sylvia

    2005-06-01

    Progressive mask defect problems such as crystal growth or haze are key yield limiters for DUV lithography, especially in 300mm fabs. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So, a high-resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but the big question is: "how often do fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? This re-inspection frequency should ideally be the most cost-effective frequency at which there is minimum threat for a yield loss. Previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. Other related recent work was done 2004 BACUS conference which is dedicated to DRAM fab data. In this paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on a large volume of data from an advanced logic fab. This work will compliment previous work in this area done with the data from a DRAM fab. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  11. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low-k1 lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Son, Kong; Eynon, Benjamin G., Jr.; Gudmundsson, Dadi; Jaehnert, Carmen; Uhlig, Doris

    2004-12-01

    DUV lithography has introduced a progressive mask defect growth problem widely known as crystal growth or haze. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So a high- resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but then the big question is: "how often the fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? A previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done by Vince Samek et al. of IBM and Dadi Gudmundsson et al. of KLA-Tencor in 1999 [1], but this work was prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. In this present paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on the data from an advanced DRAM fab environment that is using low k1 lithography. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  12. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  13. High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarolineLustenberger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High density EEG (hdEEG during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g. the traveling of slow waves and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g. consciousness and cognitive abilities. Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

  14. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

  15. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

  16. Research on Project Scheduling Problem with Resource Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the traditional optimization problem considering constraint conditions of resource supply, which makes the problem more difficult to solve in real life. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is a typical NP-hard problem, which is quite popular issue in recent years. This article firstly analyzes the literature review of resource-constrained project scheduling problem. And then, the mathematical model of this problem is established, and the solution via the genetic algorithm is also developed. Finally, the numerical experiment is adopted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  17. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address IAEA Director General H. Blix discussed the history, progress and problems in the IAEA's nuclear safety activities. Dr. Blix supported an intention to discuss the idea of binding international convention on safety matters, comprising a set of fundamental nuclear safety principles and having annexes that could be continuously reviewed and updated, and proposed to raise the question of whether the time has come to make some international safety standards mandatory. He also underlined an importance of the issue of final disposal of radioactive wastes. Dr. Blix invited the conference participants to take stock of the present level of safety of nuclear power installations, to assess what improvements have been made over the last five years and to identify areas and modalities for further international cooperation

  18. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  19. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  20. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  1. The Research on Financing Problems of PRC’s SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, HUI

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, middle and small-sized enterprises are playing a more and more important role in market economic and become an important part of national economy in our country which is also an active strength in the market. However, the manage environment of middle and small-sized enterprises is not very favorable, specially the problem of financing. The problem of fund shortage is becoming the most serious problem which restricts the development or even threats the su...

  2. IPCC and other assessments as vehicles for integrating natural and social science research to address human dimensions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    IPCC and other assessments address both natural and social science aspects of climate change, but this approach has historically involved relatively little integration across the two sets of disciplines. In a framing that is only slightly oversimplified, past relationships were mostly sequential. From a physical climate perspective, human behavior was a boundary condition setting the trajectory of atmospheric forcing. And from an impacts perspective, changes in the physical climate set the stage upon which humans experienced impacts and made decisions about adaptation and mitigation. Integrated assessment models have been the main locus of research on questions about bi-directional coupling, where the trajectory of the physical climate influences GHG balance related to the need for agricultural land as well as GHG emissions from other activities. In the IPCC AR4 (2007), feedbacks from the natural carbon cycle to climate were a focus, but with little discussion of the potentially important feedbacks from climate-carbon interactions in the human domain. Detailed research and modeling in this area are still in the relatively early stages. For the future, IPCC and other assessments potentially provide a vehicle for new insights about the interaction of natural and social science dimensions of climate change. Several aspects could be interesting. Some of these relate to the decisions that modulate GHG emissions. For example, how does scientific understanding of climate change influence people's interest in mitigation and adaptation? How does it influence their willingness to pay? How are these modulated by regional and global geopolitics? Other potentially interesting aspects relate to interactions between mitigation and adaptation. For example, how does local experience of climate change alter the balance of focus on adaptation and mitigation? Still others relate to the nature of impacts and the role of sustainable development. With an aggress sustainable development agenda aimed at building resilience, would societies be more or less focused on impacts? Finding ways to address these questions in the context of an assessment presents a range of challenges, beginning with the challenge that the assessments are generally not designed to conduct new research. But on the other hand, the juxtaposition of disciplines, perspectives, and tools creates a fertile ground for new insights.

  3. Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identificatio...

  4. TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Mamudi, William; Henderson, Charles R; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2016-01-01

    In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

  5. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  6. Resolution on the problems and prospects of common research policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH)

  7. Researching the Film Audience: Purposes, Procedures, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Film audience research complements institutional research, verifying scholarship on the meanings films have to viewers and providing broad-based explanations of film images. Most important, such research focuses on the decision and motivation processes people use before they set foot in the movie theater, thereby helping to construct a context…

  8. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  9. Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

    2000-03-01

    Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

  10. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)

  11. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

  12. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management. PMID:21877255

  13. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams:

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and present stage of a team’s life.

  14. Qualitative Research in the Gymnasium: Old Problems and New Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Lawrence F.

    Most, though not all, qualitative research is naturalistic in that the researcher enters the world of the participants as it exists and obtains data without any deliberate intervention to alter the setting. The resulting accounts of what people say and do form the basis for inductive rather than deductive analysis--theory is created to explain the…

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  16. Research in nonlinear problems of energy. Progress report, November 1, 1977-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1979-12-01

    A research program in the applications of Bifurcation and Stability Theory to Problems of energy is described with specific emphasis on Problems of Combustion and Flame Propagation. In particular, the transition from laminar to turbulent flame propagation is considered.

  17. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

  18. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of Classroom Research and the Problems in Conducting Classroom Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantarakantee, Ekgapoom; Roadrangka, Vantipa; Clarke, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This research paper explores pre-service science teachers' understandings of classroom research, problems in conducting classroom research and the supports that pre-service science teachers need from their cooperating teachers to help them conduct a classroom research project during the internship period. The participants in this study are 19…

  19. [Cataract in China: research and development direction and problems encountered].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Cataract is the major cause of blindness in China. After efforts of generations, there were tremendous progresses in cataract diagnosis and treatment. With the popularity of microincision cataract surgery, the rise of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, and the application of advanced intraocular lens, cataract surgery has been gradually changed from visual rehabilitation to refractive surgery. But there are still some problems such as the lower surgery coverage, the large discrepancy of the diagnosis and treatment between urban and rural areas, and the imperfect treatment standard. In future work, cataract study group combining with other ophthalmic institutes will continue to find and solve problems for upgrading the overall level of cataract treatments in China. PMID:26081227

  20. Problems of Research Work in the Information Society ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadranskyy Dmytro M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper put three issues which, in my opinion, are essential in the modern study of labor in the information society. In particular, to the author's vision of what can be considered informational labor; logical approach to the measurement of product information work, the theoretical possibility of pricing to our work. Proposed to the author's vision of theoretical approaches to solving problems and resolving conflicts that are associated with them.? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????, ???????, ?? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????; ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????; ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ????. ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???? ???????.

  1. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Stauffacher; Mario Schirmer; René Schwarzenbach; Christian Pohl; Michael Lehning; Rolf Holderegger; Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn; Evelyn Underwood; Christoph Kueffer; Gabriela Wuelser; Peter Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucia...

  2. Problems and pitfalls in a clinical research data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, R W; ten Katen, H J; Meester, G T

    1984-01-01

    The problems and pitfalls encountered in the computerized data bank for the Netherlands Coronary Surgery (NCS) study are reviewed. This study involved 848 patients seen before coronary artery surgery and at 1 and 3 yr after surgery. Nineteen data forms were used resulting in maximally 1142 variables per patient. The importance of quality control is emphasized as well as the efficient transfer of information from data bank to statistical processing. PMID:6335424

  3. EMF health effects research: Problems and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A. (Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1990-07-19

    The author describes some of the current generation of research, focusing particularly on that being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The central goal of the research program is to answer the question of whether threats to human health result from exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Several related questions are examined: Is there any epidemiological evidence of risk to those who are exposed What are the sources of exposure to EMF, and who is exposed What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed What is the biologically important parameter, or 'dose' of EMF exposure How is exposure best estimated What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed to EMF If there are effects of exposure in cells or tissues, where in the cell does that interaction occur The author describes current research to answer these questions.

  4. Corrosion problem in the CRENK Triga Mark II research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1987, a routine underwater optical inspection of the aluminum tank housing the core of the CRENK Triga Mark II reactor, carried out to update safety condition of the reactor, revealed pitting corrosion attacks on the 8 mm thick aluminum tank bottom. The paper discuss the work carried out by the reactor staff to dismantle the reactor in order to allow a more precise investigation of the corrosion problem, to repair the aluminum tank bottom, and to enhance the reactor overall safety condition

  5. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  6. Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

  7. Current Research on the Major Nematode Problems in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinohe, M.

    1988-01-01

    Among important nematode species occurring in Japan, current research achievements with the following four nematodes are reviewed: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (P...

  8. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  9. University Bioscientists' Risk Epistemologies and Research Problem Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine…

  10. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether unstructured graduate student research internships conducted in collaboration with community agencies build capacity and knowledge for students and community. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports the results of four semi-structured interviews and 20 pre- and post-internship…

  11. Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2011-01-01

    Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations, we identify five challenging areas in designing fisheye interfaces.

  12. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In on of the three 'pillars' of the overall IAEA mission, the 'safety pillar', the IAEA seeks to contribute towards a vision of a strong, sustainable and visible global safety regime by pursuing three main objectives: to establish and maintain a set of safety standards that are universally accepted as global standards; to integrate fully these safety standards and the various mechanisms to provide for their application; and to promote self-sustaining regional and global networks of safety knowledge and experience. The purpose of this conference is to foster the exchange of information, but this is not an end in itself. The aim of this conference is to clarify the key issues within the larger global picture and set out a road map for the future direction and priorities for work on safety standards for decommissioning and for applying those standards. The word 'decommissioning' is often treated as though it was synonymous with dismantling nuclear reactors and returning to a 'green field' site, and we quite deliberately intended to challenge that interpretation. The subject of this conference is one that no country can ignore. All countries whether or not they have nuclear power programs or research reactors - make use of at least some applications involving radiation sources or radioactive materials, in medicine, industry, agriculture and research. All of these countries will need to terminate these activities safely. Decommissioning is also a subject that has suffered from being addressed in a piecemeal and sometimes ad hoc fashion.The IAEA must take its share of responsibility for this: IAEA has published safety standards on particular aspects of decommissioning, and more general safety standards on the regulatory control of practices, on operational safety, on occupational radiation protection, on the management of different types of radioactive waste and discharges, and we are developing standards on the management of very low activity wastes and of contaminated areas. Yet, the IAEA has not succeeded in bringing all these elements together into safety standards to cover the entire process of decommissioning and the termination of practices. Similarly, the IAEA has recently been involved in the organization of international conferences on the remediation of contaminated areas and of an international workshop on the regulatory aspects of decommissioning. Within the IAEA, one step towards a more holistic approach to the issue was taken by establishing a Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE)

  14. Status, problems and future directions of research in volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz Błażej

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . To analyse of publications on various aspects of volleyball and identify the most promising areas of research. Material and methods . As information sources were selected journals from different databases, full-text catalogs and libraries. Results . It is noted that the selection and training process of young volleyball players largely determines the level of club and national teams. In this case, the application of modern techniques, systems and approaches to research is a key component of the success of the team and the level of training of talented volleyball players. Found that the combination of sports orientation and quality of life of young people through passion volleyball helps educate conscious attitude towards their health and desire for high professional achievements. Conclusions . Promising areas should be recognized, such as: improving orientation sessions volleyball; biomechanical prerequisites of development and realization of motor actions, adaptation of existing technical facilities for volleyball.

  15. Researching on international alliances – the problem of lack of sources

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Susana Costa e; Ferreira, Mário Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The low level of formality and the diversity of international alliances create an important challenge for researchers. Unlike mergers and acquisitions, alliances include various types of cooperation agreements between organizations and do not require formal registration. Therefore, in this field, secondary data is scarce and the few available international databases present several disadvantages. This manuscript attempts to discuss and assess options available to circumvent dif...

  16. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  17. Solving Problems in Social–Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research

    OpenAIRE

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K. Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social–ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for rese...

  18. The research centers' contribution to solving waste mangement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Federal Government's concept, private enterprises should in principle ensure the waste disposal of nuclear power plants, and research centres should only back up the processing of the waste. Thus a mobile plant is at the disposal for the compaction of solid waste. The centres made an important contribution for the decontamination and the scrapping of removed elements. For the burning of solid waste there is only one commercial plant with a capacity of about 400 Mg/a in the FRG. The remaining amount of about 150 Mg/a could be taken over by the centres in Juelich and Karlsruhe. (DG)

  19. REFRIGERANT/LUBRICANT MIXTURES: PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION AND PROPERTY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Semenyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and generalizations of thermophysical property research for the refrigerant/lubricant mixtures are summarized. The methodological aspects of the experimental studies of the thermal properties of real working media for vapor compression refrigeration machines and the general principles of the thermodynamic properties simulation for such solutions are analyzed. It is shown that the admixtures of compressor oil in the refrigerant make the efficiency parameters of compressor systems much lower. The question of a selective solubility of the multicomponent refrigerants in compressor oils is discussed.

  20. Progress in research on laser damage mechanisms and contamination problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitsuno, T.; Murakami, H.; Kato, K.; Sato, E.; Mikami, K.; Motokoshi, S.; Miyanaga, N.; Azechi, H.

    2014-09-01

    In high power laser systems, the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in optical coating is very important parameters for obtaining high performances. Recently, LIDT was found to have strong temperature dependences in the bulk, surface of substrates, and in coatings. These temperature dependences of LIDT were carefully measured, and the damage formation model was constructed regarding to this temperature dependence. To explain this temperature dependence of LIDT, the temperature dependences of the initial electron generation and electron multiplication in the avalanche process were taken into account. On the other hand, LIDT in optical coating is very sensitive to organic contaminations accumulated in coating layers during storage and using condition. This paper also introduces the oil-contamination problem in LFEX laser system for First Ignition scheme in the laser fusion. We have analyzed contaminants and evaluated the effects of the contamination. We also developed new cleaning methods to remove contamination from the coating, and we have succeeded to prevent the degradation in LIDT for the duration of evacuation with Silica-gel in the chamber. The quantitative analysis of contamination on LIDT was made. We have investigated the characteristics of LIDT in dielectric coatings under the controlled contamination with several materials.

  1. Research on key problems for LAMOST optical fiber detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxin; Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Ali; Chen, Xiaoran

    2014-07-01

    The large sky area multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescope (LAMOST) is an innovative reflecting schmidt telescope, promising a very high spectrum acquiring rate of several ten-thousands of spectra per night. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, LAMOST makes reconfiguration of fibers accurately according to the positions of objects in minutes and fine adjusting the fibers. During telescope observation period, each optical fiber unit positional accuracy directly determines the quality of subsequent spectrum acqusition, yet for real-time optical fiber positional accuracy, there only exists an internal information feedback which focus on the corresponding stepper motor driving conditions, however, this available information is not comprehensive, it can not offer the actual positional information for each fiber unit. Considering the LAMOST on-site environment, a novel real-time optical fiber positional accuracy detection system which can be integrated in the existing observation and control system need to be developed to solve this problem. During the observation interval, this system can offer a comprehensive and effective information feedback about the focal optical fiber positional accuracy. Based on this feedback, the observation assistants can properly adjust the observation strategies to ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of acquired spectrum. Furthermore, this fiber positional accuracy feedback can provide prior spectral quality information to the spectral processing personnel and optimal the spectrum processing efficiency.

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Health Organization. (author)

  3. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  4. [PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY: ORIGINS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS OF THE RESEARCH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprudnov, A M; Kharitonova, L A; Grigoriev, K I; Bogomaz, L V

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclature of digestive diseases in children was supplemented by the "new" diseases: of esophagus--gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, Zenker's diverticulum; of stomach and duodenum--gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer disease, polyps, ectopic pancreas in the stomach wall; of the intestine--jejunitis, ileocolitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine; of biliary tract--cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, anomalies of the biliary tract; of pancreas--acute and chronic pancreatitis, annular pancreas (2). The features of gastrointestinal diseases in children experiencing the action of factors, not always positively affecting the growing organism, were established. These features include: presence of allergic background; high level of neuro-autonomous and psycho-emotional changes in modern children, not only in schoolchildren, but even in preschoolers; polymorbidity or a combination (syntropy) of lesions of the digestive system; adverse outcomes of certain diseases as chronization, complications development, and as a consequence--a high risk of disability in children; "rejuvenation" of certain diseases of the digestive system (cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, Crohn's disease), typical for adults. It is important to emphasize the clinical and social importance of gastroenterological diseases in childhood. Axiomatic is that the origins of many diseases of the digestive organs in adults lie in childhood. Early manifestation of certain diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gluten enteropathy, Crohn's disease, and others, significantly impact the quality of life of sick children and their parents. It is worth to emphasize high costs of medical and prophylactic (tertiary prevention) activities using the drugs of latest generations. All this causes problems in both applied and scientific pediatric gastroenterology. PMID:26281153

  5. Mathematical models of physics problems (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is intended to provide a foundation for a one-semester introductory course on the advanced mathematical methods that form the cornerstones of the hard sciences and engineering. The work is suitable for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate students in the fields of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering. This text therefore employs a condensed narrative sufficient to prepare graduate and advanced undergraduate students for the level of mathematics expected in more advanced graduate physics courses, without too much exposition on related but non-essential material. In contrast to the two semesters traditionally devoted to mathematical methods for physicists, the material in this book has been quite distilled, making it a suitable guide for a one-semester course. The assumption is that the student, once versed in the fundamentals, can master more esoteric aspects of these topics on his or her own if and when the need arises during the course of conducting research. The book focuses on two cor...

  6. Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

  7. Assessing and Addressing the "Testing Backlash": Practical Advice and Current Public Opinion Research for Business Coalitions and Standards Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Roundtable, Washington, DC.

    As states and communities across the United States work to raise expectations for student learning, many are challenged by concerns and questions from increasingly vocal parents and teachers. This report summarizes the best advice for business coalitions and standards advocates on how to address the testing backlash. It also features an analysis…

  8. Slaughter by-products: problems, preliminary research and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlings, H A; van Logtestijn, J G; Bijker, P G

    1992-01-01

    The collection, storage, disposal and processing of slaughterhouse by-products is an important part of veterinary care in regions with intensive animal husbandry and meat production. Transmission of diseases and environmental pollution through an improper and/or incorrect handling of slaughterhouse by-products needs to be prevented. The use of animal by-products as feedstuff could be of economical benefit to slaughterhouses and could add nutritive value to animal feed. As a results of the centralisation and intensification of slaughtering, the amount of slaughter by-products produced at a single location is increasing. Until now, hardly any attention, in practice or in research, has been paid to the collection and disposal of these by-products. There are important socio-economic reasons to increase scientific knowledge about the handling of slaughter by-products. Several animal by-products were contaminated with Salmonella. We also showed that rapid breakdown of amino acids in poultry by-products occurs during storage at 20 degrees C. It is concluded that as far as safety, environmental care and nutritive value of animal by-products is concerned, diversification and separation of slaughter by-product collection, storage, disposal and processing is necessary. Measures at source, the slaughterline, and some technologies are suggested for future use. PMID:1574834

  9. The problem with pleasure: part II. The research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdow, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how adult survivors of chronic abuse and neglect define pleasure, the disruption of pleasure, and the repair of the capacity for pleasure in the context of the therapeutic relationship. Using narrative methodology, I interviewed 15 clinical pairs of patients and their therapists separately. Thematic analysis revealed 8 findings. All patients reported the capacity to experience pleasure throughout life prior to therapy. Subjects defined pleasure as a variety of positive affects that fell into 2 categories: pleasure in activities and interests and pleasure in relationships. All patients reported a history of traumatic disruption of pleasure in childhood. Patients reported a history of internalizing and reenacting their own disruption of pleasure. Narratives of the patients were consistent with the narratives told by the therapists. In many clinical pairs, both parties spoke positively of an important therapeutic event when the therapist stepped out of his or her usual treatment frame. Safety, consistency, reliability, predictability, and compassionate caring were spoken of throughout the sample as elements that created a pleasurable and therapeutically reparative relationship. Patients spoke repeatedly of the importance of "finding a self" to the experience of pleasure. Pleasure enhanced the ability to find a self, and finding a self enhanced patients' capacity for pleasure. This study invites further research to investigate the function of pleasure in the process of therapeutic repair for chronically traumatized populations. PMID:21967181

  10. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  11. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  12. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  13. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

  14. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome issues, particularly in school contexts. In this article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

  15. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the functions of the CSN, as the regulatory authority responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, is the performance of studies, assessments and inspections of all plans, programmes and projects relating to the different phases of radioactive waste management, from production to final disposal. The development of general criteria for the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear and other facilities which, give rise to large volumes of low activity waste, is a priority issue in Spain. In the same context, mention should be made of the importance of having a solid materials declassification process for use during the operating phase of the facilities. This naturally contributes to reducing the waste to be managed in decommissioning and to optimizing overall radioactive waste management. In relation to declassification, a large number of activities have been carried out or are currently under way in Spain, e.g. the systematic approach to the licensing of various common projects for the declassification of materials at nuclear power plants, such as those applied to metallic scrap, spent resins, activated carbon and wood. A general standard for the declassification of materials at medical, research and industrial facilities was recently adopted; this includes general criteria and specific activity values for the radionuclides usually used at such installations. All of the above mentioned declassification initiatives have taken full account of the recommendations of the IAEA. To date, one nuclear power plant has been dismantled in Spain and the dismantling of a second nuclear plant is foreseen after the year 2006. A number of nuclear production facilities have been decommissioned and various uranium mine restoration projects have been carried out. In keeping with the lines mapped out in the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Spain possesses an administrative structure, a regulatory framework, an assignment of responsibilities and a financing system that provide assurance that the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste will be carried out safely. Although, to date, no generic regulations have been developed governing the long term management of radioactive waste, the regulatory authorities have defined and approved, upon request, specific criteria applicable to the licensing of individual facilities. Currently standards relating to safety in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste are developed, radioactive waste management plans at the sites of waste production and actions are developed and integrated. They are aimed at improving the general capacity to respond to radiological emergencies in which significant amounts of low activity radioactive waste might be generated. Likewise, several initiatives have been launched for the adoption of general criteria applicable to the release of sites; this includes requirements for institutional surveillance when the sites cannot be released without restrictions. Of special interest is the problem of the management of the long lived low activity waste associated with uranium mining and milling activities, on which the Symposium will include a specific session. Managing TENORM waste arising from the processing of materials contaminated by isotopes of natural origin, which is very much a major issue in Spain at poses a major problem. The new complementary facility at El Cabril for the disposal of very low activity waste was licensed. Work has been carried out jointly with ENRESA during the preparatory phases for the definition of applicable safety and radiation protection criteria. In order to guarantee adequate protection for workers, the public and the environment, and to respond with rigour to the current social demands relating to radioactive waste management, very close collaboration is required between all those involved; this includes the regulatory authorities, the waste producers and, obviously, those responsible for the actual management. International collabor

  16. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety' and S for 'security', are indispensable infrastructure for the introduction of nuclear power plants. Japan, therefore, regards these three Ss as a prerequisite when it starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. For the same reason, Japan has extended assistance to countries concerned to develop the necessary infrastructure to assure the three S's. Acknowledging the importance of the Additional Protocol in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation, Japan requests, as a matter of policy, that the Additional Protocol be concluded before Japan starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements. Furthermore, in the framework of NSG, Japan proposes that conclusion of the Additional Protocol be a prerequisite for the export of nuclear related items. As the issue has global implications, Japan considers that the countries of the former Soviet Union deserve high priority attention, and has rendered assistance to these countries as well. Japan has also concluded bilateral agreements and carries out projects on denuclearization with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Japan has also extended assistance to these countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund

  17. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of the IUR have been at the forefront of exploring ethical and legal aspects of protection of the environment. Their work can be seen in recent IAEA and IUR publications as well as participation at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and contributions made to the ICRP Task Group working on radiological protection of non-human species. At the IUR-sponsored conference in Monaco, together with other current initiatives and research efforts, the IUR have been able to present the current status of work connected to radiological protection of the environment and have also been able to make recommendations for future work in the field. Foremost amongst these recommendations was the requirement for basic scientific research in order to strengthen our assessment system and increase confidence in our decision making practices. I can assure you that the IUR will continue in these activities, and I hope that you all enjoy this interesting and useful conference. I would like to finish by expressing my gratitude to the personnel of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority for their great efforts in staging this event. (author)

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Hillstrom; Valerie Ruelas; Anne Peters; Turusew Gedebu-Wilson; Ellen Iverson

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership ...

  19. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous exp...

  20. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen Sarah C; Butterworth Peter; Jacomb Patricia; Tait Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epid...

  1. Ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Dyhrberg, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with certain ethical problems inherent in psychological research based on internet communication as stored information. Section 1 contains an analysis of research on Internet debates. In particular, it takes into account a famous example of deception for psychology research...... purposes. In section 2, the focus is on research on personal data in texts published on the Internet. Section 3 includes an attempt to formulate some ethical principles and guidelines, which should be regarded as fundamental in research on stored information....

  2. Was your father a problem drinker?: The challenges of life story interviewing in researching adult sons of problem drinking fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Pirskanen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the challenges of carrying out life story interview research on the adult sons of problem-drinking fathers will be discussed. Earlier studies have shown that parents’ problem drinking can disturb family life and be harmful in various ways to children. In the case of a problem-drinking father and his son, aspects of the father-son relationship and of the father as a male role model also assume major importance. Consequently, fathers’ drinking may continue to be a sensitive and a painful topic for their sons in adulthood. Moreover, several studies indicate that recruiting young men as a focus group for interview study is complicated. In addition, family matters are often perceived as something private, not to be talked about or shared with outsiders.For these reasons the life story interview method can be problematic for the researcher interested in collecting and interpreting interview data on sons’ childhood experiences. In my study, both finding interviewees, carrying out interviews on a sensitive topic and interpreting the data “truthfully” were challenging tasks presenting a number of ethical considerations. The data used in the study consist of 21 life story interviews with young Finnish men aged 21-42. While these young men were growing up, their fathers were problem drinkers. In the interviews the young men produced narratives or stories about their lives from an adult perspective. Thus narrative analysis is suggested to be applied in analysing the interviews.

  3. Final Technical Report for "Applied Mathematics Research: Simulation Based Optimization and Application to Electromagnetic Inverse Problems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Eldad

    2014-03-17

    The focus of research was: Developing adaptive mesh for the solution of Maxwell's equations; Developing a parallel framework for time dependent inverse Maxwell's equations; Developing multilevel methods for optimization problems with inequal- ity constraints; A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in the 0th frequency (DC resistivity); A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in low frequency regime. Although the research concentrated on electromagnetic forward and in- verse problems the results of the research was applied to the problem of image registration.

  4. Addressing the Social and Environmental Determinants of Urban Health Equity: Evidence for Action and a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world’s population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges—economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development chall...

  5. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballini Luciana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1 definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2 systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3 definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4 analysis of local context; 5 identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1 evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2 uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3 exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4 mapping of local context; 5 recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to outline a research course of action. Decision makers wishing to tie coverage policies to the development of scientific evidence could find this method a useful aid to the governance of innovations.

  6. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Twenty-Five Years of Interplay Among Theory, Research and Practice in Adolescent Behavior Problems and Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Szapocznik, José; Williams, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a systematic program of research that focuses on Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) and the adaptations that were developed based on BSFT principles. The culture-specific origins of BSFT are reviewed, as well as its broader applications to the field of family therapy. Research is reviewed demonstrating that BSFT is a promising family-based approach to treating Hispanic youth behavior problems and drug abuse. Treatment innovations are described that address the combin...

  7. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

  8. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  9. President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

  10. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  11. The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and rehabilitation research in a changing postacute landscape. The 2007 ACRM presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Gerben

    2008-02-01

    Postacute rehabilitation is on the threshold of several major changes that have implications for rehabilitation practice and research. The most important of these is the desire of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to establish a uniform patient assessment method and implement a more setting-neutral prospective payment system across all major postacute settings. The proposed uniform patient assessment instrument will in all likelihood displace the FIM instrument as the industry standard. The rehabilitation research community needs to remain vigilant about the nature, scope, and measurement properties of the proposed uniform patient assessment instrument. A new instrument and setting-neutral payment system may provide new opportunities for service innovation and research. Neurorehabilitation has been one of the strengths of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM). ACRM needs to build on this strength and examine more earnestly the rehabilitation interventions and outcomes associated with the increasing prevalence of people with orthopedic and musculoskeletal conditions seen in rehabilitation centers today. ACRM's ability to do so will depend in part on its ability to join forces with other professional and consumer organizations to increase research funding significantly for each of the major federal agencies that currently fund rehabilitation research. PMID:18226641

  12. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues still being faced by the research reactor community are primarily related to the operation, utilization, safety, ageing, decommissioning and waste management. More recently, challenges such as initiatives for creating new RR facilities, securing isotope production, human resources, infrastructure capacity building, or sustainability of RR programmes, are receiving greater attention. This conference will focus on new developments in the relevant, efficient and safe utilisation of Nuclear Research Reactors for the countries' social and economic development. It will contribute to foster the exchange of information on current and new research reactors and to provide a forum for reactor users, operators, managers, regulators, designers and suppliers to share experience and exchange opinions. It constitutes an opportunity to discuss common challenges, options and strategies and to strengthen regional and international cooperation between Research Reactors' centres from developed and developing countries with special emphasis on the transfer of knowledge and know how. In this particular context, the International Atomic Energy Agency is a central partner, playing a major role in strengthening the operation, applications and safety of Nuclear Research Reactors, thus supporting the development of civil and peaceful nuclear technologies worldwide

  13. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  14. ”Generalizability” as Recognition: Reflections on a Foundational Problem in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Delmar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to develop what counts as “generalizability” in qualitative research. By taking an ontological and epistemic stance in relation to the four foundational problems: 1)Knowledge and its various forms. 2) Properties of reality and the doubleness of the situation. 3) How is understanding possible? 4) The researcher’s role: What are the fundamental questions that the researcher must ask himself before a study is designed? we are able to approach the exploration of ”genera...

  15. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of the Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

  17. Broadening participation in community problem solving: A multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research

    OpenAIRE

    Lasker, Roz D.; Weiss, Elisa S.

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities—in the United States and internationally—have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of, this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. On...

  18. A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

  19. Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address…

  20. Research and development problems of building technology of light water power reactors in the CSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsky, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research and development problems are described of the construction of power reactors in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic which proceeds from the papers and discussion on this problem area at the conference Research and development work for nuclear power plants with light water reactors held between December 1 and 4, 1981 in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia. The individual problems are analysed and suggestions made for measures and a programme of further research work related to the following problem areas: 1. Projects and design. 2. Metallurgy and technology. 3. Material and corrosion. 4. Strength, diagnostics of integrity and operating reliability. It is pointed out that 1. for the more effective implementation of the nuclear power programme it will be necessary to interlink the resolved tasks, 2. the special exactingness of the nuclear programme requires extraordinary concentration of labour and material equipment, 3. for the manufacture of nuclear components it is necessary to have modern equipment for the metallurgical base.

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

  2. Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

    2008-01-01

    In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

  3. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

    2010-01-01

    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  4. Addressing Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  5. Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: the translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J David

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are adopted, implemented, and sustained on a large scale, with a strong orientation toward devising empirically-driven strategies for increasing their population impact. In this article, we address two core challenges to the advancement of T2 translation research: (1) building infrastructure and capacity to support systems-oriented scaling up of evidence-based interventions, with well-integrated practice-oriented T2 research, and (2) developing an agenda and improving research methods for advancing T2 translation science. We also summarize a heuristic "Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework." It articulates key considerations in addressing the core challenges, with three components that represent: (1) four phases of translation functions to be investigated (pre-adoption, adoption, implementation, and sustainability); (2) the multiple contexts in which translation occurs, ranging from community to national levels; and (3) necessary practice and research infrastructure supports. Discussion of the framework addresses the critical roles of practitioner-scientist partnerships and networks, governmental agencies and policies at all levels, plus financing partnerships and structures, all required for both infrastructure development and advances in the science. The article concludes with two sets of recommended action steps that could provide impetus for advancing the next generation of T2 translation science and, in turn, potentially enhance the health and well-being of subsequent generations of youth and families. PMID:23430579

  6. Banquet address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the address is the position of nuclear power following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After acknowledging the Russian openness over the accident, Lord Marshall explains why a similar accident could not happen in the United Kingdom. The pressure tube design at Chernobyl had been investigated in 1976 but had been rejected because of three major disadvantages - the reactor had a positive void coefficient, it had zonal instabilities and local criticality in the core and it had a very high graphite temperature. In addition the British report of 1976 listed two other concerns - that the Russian design appeared to have insufficient shut-down margin and there was no back-up for the control rods for reactivity shutdown. The Russian safety philosophy is also seen as different from that of most Western reactor operators. It is thus concluded that Chernobyl could not happen in the West. However, the confidence of the public has to be won back and communication is important in this. The effects of Chernobyl should be seen in perspective - compared, for instance, against other accidents where a greater number of lives were lost. (U.K.)

  7. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues that the RR community continues to face are primarily related to operation, utilization and safety, ageing, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. There are also more recent challenges, such as initiatives for new RR facilities, securing radioisotope production, human resource and infrastructure capacity building, as well as sustainability of RR programmes, all of which are receiving greater attention. In view of the above, it is timely to convene another in the series of international conferences to discuss the issues and foster cooperation within the worldwide RR community. For more than 60 years, RRs have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 RRs have been built, and some 240 of these facilities continue to operate in 55 countries. It goes without saying that RRs must be safely and reliably operated, adequately utilized, refurbished when necessary, provided with adequate proliferation-resistant fuel cycle services and safely decommissioned at the end of life. In this regard, the IAEA provides assistance to Member States by developing safety standards and disseminating information on good practices for all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the planning and implementation of decommissioning. Member States look to the IAEA for coordination of the worldwide effort in this area and for help in solving specific problems. Today RR operating organizations need to overcome challenges such as effective utilization, the on-going management of ageing facilities, pressures for increased vigilance with respect to non-proliferation, and shrinking resources, both financial and human, while fulfilling an expanding role in support of nuclear technology development. The IAEA coordinates and implements an array of activities that together provide broad support for RRs. As with other aspects of nuclear technology, RR activities within the IAEA are spread among diverse groups in different Departments. To ensure harmonized approaches a cross-cutting coordination group on RRs has been established, with representatives from all IAEA departments actively supporting RR activities

  8. RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Livenskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

  9. RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Livenskaya; Fedorov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company) is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

  11. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, L

    1984-01-01

    Stressed in this address is the crucial stage of the population boom, peeculiar to developing countries. The phenomenal rise in India's population, over the last 10 years, is particularly emphasized as it may thwart attempts for socioeconnomic development. Population and development are congruent concerns which need to be pursued simultaneously, and family planning must be accorded the highest priority in national efforts. In its attempts to curb its population explosion, India has witnessed significant progress in health and family welfare work in its march towards the goal of health for all. Recently, the focus has been on primary health care with its emphasis on prevention against risk of disease. The key element of the goal of health for all is the provision of primary health care to all, especially those who are poor. The new 20-Point Programme of India pinpoints areas of special thrust which show immediate tangible results in health and family welfare and the increase of primary health care facilities. Family planning is discussed as a people's movement in which the government's role is that of educator in contraceptive methodds so the people can be motivated to choose, on their own, anyone of them. Trained government personnel, service facilities and contraceptive supplies are being promoted for that goal. The energies of all social, political, religious and cultural organizations have to be channelled and utilized in the process of educating the people and making them adopt the small family norm. Graduates are urged to utilize their knowledge in the service of their country. PMID:12233437

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level. The ILO adopted, two months ago, a new global strategy to prevent workplace hazards such as radiation from causing death, disability and disease. We would be pleased to encourage related infrastructures in national workplaces to do their share in our concerted efforts for achieving the required safety culture. The labour inspectorates worldwide, the employers and the workers, as well as their organizations, professionals and scientists, all of them can contribute. We need well organized, systematic and continuous collaborative efforts that end up in progressive and stepwise improvement which covers all those at risk. I am convinced this conference will be one step in that direction. (author)

  13. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. The Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources provides non-binding guidance concerning the import and export of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources, notably in relation to the evaluation of export authorization requests and pre-shipment notification. Furthermore there is the IAEA Safeguards Agreements and their Additional Protocols, which require accounting and control of nuclear material, and the establishment of State systems of accounting and control. The purpose and objectives of this conference are, on the one hand, to look back and review our collective experience in combating illicit nuclear trafficking, and on the other hand, looking forward, to see whether we can identify ways in which existing practices can be improved, and where it might be useful for new practices to be developed

  14. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology etc. Therefore, I am very happy that the excellent scientists of nuclear physics over 120 visit to our university for discussing the latest results and scope in nuclear physics, and enjoy our facilities and City of Yokohama. I believe that this conference will transmit the forefront of the nuclear physics from Yokohama to the world. Finally, I hope this international workshop will be successful and fruitful, and all you have nice days in Yokohama. Thank you very much for your attention.

  15. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear era has spanned little over a half century, and in that comparatively short period we have witnessed dramatic changes in the way in which the public and their politicians view the environment. Until the 1960s, people were concerned primarily with their own health and prosperity - there was little reason to think that the environment was at risk. Increasingly, however, as time went on, there was evidence - for the public to see - of the environment being damaged. Emissions from the burning of fossil fuels were causing acid rain, resulting in damage to sensitive ecosystems, and the increased use of chemical fertilisers was resulting in polluted surface waters, upsetting ecological balances and causing more visible evidence of a deteriorating environment. More recently, the threat of global warming and its possible implications for humans and their environment has become a common concern. Thus, from the 1970s onwards, there was an increasing consciousness that the environment - which depends on a delicate and complex balance of ecosystems - must be cared for and protected. This led to the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 and to the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. The latter conference, called the 'Earth Summit', resulted in the Rio Declaration, which, among other things, concluded that 'in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be isolated from it'. This was reinforced in the declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg last year, where it With the growing interest in improved environmental protection, it was gradually realized that the international standards for radiation protection were insufficient since they focused exclusively on the protection of humans. While there is no evidence of any permanent harm having been caused to the environment by nuclear activities under normal conditions, it is clear that the subject has not been formally addressed in setting safety standards and that there is a gap in our philosophical approach. This insufficiency was recognized at an international symposium held here in Stockholm in 1996 and the progress towards rectifying the situation has been punctuated by further international meetings - in Ottawa in 1999, in Darwin in 2002 and now back here in Stockholm. I am pleased to say that the IAEA has played an active role in each of these meetings. This conference represents an important step in the process of establishing an accepted international framework for environmental radiation protection. This has been recognized by the latest General Conference of the IAEA, which has welcomed the steps taken in developing an international framework for the protection of the environment from ionizing radiation and drawn attention to this conference

  16. International Research Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects, and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    The 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4) was convened in Banff, Canada, September 2-8, 2000 at The Banff Centre for Conferences. The meeting's purpose, like it's predecessors was to reformulate, each three to four years, the collaborative research agenda for integrating spatio-temporal analysis with environmental simulation modeling.

  17. Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. K., Ke.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how t [...] o obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

  18. Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo; Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso

    2007-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Env...

  19. Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Roodt

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivati...

  20. Research on the Endogenous Problems of Rural Farmers’ Spiritual and Cultural Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanlong; Yibing LIU

    2014-01-01

    The author conducts research and analysis on the endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education and finds that: the current endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education in China are mainly manifested in the oldness of spiritual and cultural education concepts, the monotonousness of spiritual and cultural education content, the blurring of spiritual and cultural education forms, the simplicity of spiritual and cultural education methods, and th...

  1. Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Pan; Chunming Ye; Kefeng Wang; Jiangbo Cao

    2013-01-01

    As a key factor of logistics distribution, vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a hot research topic in management and computation science. In this paper the principle and algorithm process of firefly algorithm are introduced in detail. Then the algorithm process and solving steps are designed for vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW), including the coding and design of  disturbance mechanism of elicit fireflies. In the end, the testing examples from benchmark and other literatur...

  2. Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Robinett, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, alo...

  3. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in educational research — problems and examples of controlled understanding through interpretive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Karl

    1987-06-01

    In the methodological discussion of recent years it has become apparent that many research problems, including problems relating to the theory of educational science, cannot be solved by using quantitative methods. The multifaceted aspects of human behaviour and all its environment-bound subtle nuances, especially the process of education or the development of identity, cannot fully be taken into account within a rigid neopositivist approach. In employing the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as a suitable model for the analysis of processes of education and formation, the research has generally to start out from complex reciprocal social interactions instead of unambigious connections of causes. In analysing several particular methodological problems, the article demonstrates some weaknesses of quantitative approaches and then shows the advantages in and the necessity for using qualitative research tools.

  4. Engaging novice researchers in the process and culture of science using a "Pass-the-Problem" case strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B; Usher, David C

    2015-09-10

    Undergraduates having their first research experience frequently have little idea of what to expect. Institutions offering summer research experiences attempt to address this issue through programs that introduce students to the process and culture of science. However, didactic approaches frequently bore students who prefer more interactive sessions. We describe a "Pass-the-Problem" case study approach that engages groups of students in useful discussions about the research environment they are entering. The cases presented here include keeping a thorough laboratory notebook, balancing laboratory and personal time demands, anxiety about formal presentations, unexpected federal regulatory inspection, working in a lab with limited funds, being used as a technician rather than a researcher, frustration with failed experiments, effects of promotion and tenure on laboratory atmosphere, the importance of reading the research literature, and questioning a career in science. These cases alert students to different situations they might encounter and stimulate discussion about how to deal with them. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(5):341-344, 2015. PMID:26153350

  5. Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett, R W

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, along with making contact with recent research papers in a variety of fields.

  6. Listen-Identify-Brainstorm-Reality-Test-Encourage (LIBRE) Problem-Solving Model: Addressing Special Education Teacher Attrition through a Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Teacher Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Norma S.; Hernandez, Art; Hector, Alison M.; Crosby, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Special education teacher attrition rates continue to challenge the profession. A cognitive-behavioral problem-solving approach was used to examine three alternative certification program special education teachers' professional development through a series of 41 interviews conducted over a 2-year period. Beginning when they were novice special…

  7. Opening address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon representation of the mole. Most of you, I presume, are neo-Pythagoreans, and consequently believe that a new definition and, maybe, a new realization of the unit of mass will be based on a number of atoms of silicon, a view which will certainly lead you to cross swords with the "electrical party". The importance of NA is also linked to the considerable and far-reaching return in other scientific and industrial fields. Finally, let me add that, ethically, the work of many persons all over the world and the money and energy they spend in order to add a decimal figure, may be an example of commitment to be given to our students. Last but not least, my warm thanks to the Director of the Istituto di Metrologia "G Colonnetti", where the experiment has been in progress since 1971, and to all the researchers involved in this work. I do hope that the National Council of Research will continue to support this important project. While wishing you a pleasant stay in Turin, I express the hope that our meeting will prove a fruitful opportunity for discussion and exchange of views.

  8. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  9. How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at determining the overall needs for improvements in a country; the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) evaluates in detail the physical protection at State level or at facilities, and the International SSAC Service (ISSAS) aims at evaluating the SSAC system. It should be noted that the IAEA International Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) will, for the first time, in January 2008, include a security module in an IRRS mission to Spain

  11. Problem-based learning sessions and undergraduate research: a medical student’s perspective and experience

    OpenAIRE

    AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research (UR) and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions are similar with respect to the type of skills gained through each. However, appropriate modification of PBL sessions would contribute to enhanced UR experience. Based on personal experience in UR and a PBL curriculum, in this short discourse I shall explain how studying under a PBL curriculum enabled me to gain more out of my research experience.

  12. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism threats. There is a need to continue and strengthen the multinational cooperation which involves active participation by both nuclear specialists and those with more general security and law enforcement laws. Furthermore priority has to be given to developing national capacity to evaluate security threats, ensure adequate physical protection and intervene in ongoing nuclear trafficking cases complemented by cooperation in the areas of forensic analysis of nuclear material and emergency response. Together with the Russian Federation the USA announce the completion of security upgrades at strategic weapons sites and agreement on measures to ensure the long term sustainability of physical protection improvements in the Russian Federation. The USA is also working to convert research reactors and return the high enriched uranium fuel fro locations around the world which might otherwise become a target for terrorists or thieves. In parallel with efforts to improve security at the source, the USA is building international cooperation to put in place nuclear detection at seaports, airports and land border crossings. Through collaboration with the Russian Federal Customs Service, all of the Russian Federation's official border crossings will be equipped with radiation detection equipment by 2011

  13. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  14. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  15. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2001-01-01

    Laddering and means-end chains are one of the most promising developments in consumer research since the 1980s. It is an approach that takes consumers' individuality seriously but, nevertheless, comes up with quantitative results. It is rooted in a cognitive approach, and allows for emotional and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals with methodological problems of the interview technique called laddering, og coding laddering data, and of analysing the coded data. However, also shown, methodological and theoretical issues are partly interlinked: resolutions of methodological problems may require theoretical progress or at least a clarification of some theoretical issues. We therefore start with a discussion of some unresolved theoretical issues.

  16. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  17. Development of a practical toolkit using participatory action research to address health inequalities through NGOs in the UK: Challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirewa, Blessing

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop a practical toolkit to support non-government organizations (NGOs) in tackling health inequalities in the UK and to highlight the challenges and lessons learned. A mixed qualitative methodology within an action research framework was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires, focus group interviews and discussions with an expert reference group aimed to identify the important themes and produce the toolkit content. A practical guide of information materials for NGOs working on addressing health inequalities was subsequently developed and successfully piloted. The experience of using participatory action research revealed a number of lessons and challenges. The key challenges were lack of training and experience in conducting action research, costs and insufficient resources, slow and time-consuming process, lack of commitment from marginalized groups, and differences in emphasis of goals and vision among participants. The main lessons learned were importance of effective leadership and project management skills, importance of integrating researchers and the researched as equal partners, creation and nurturing of trust, importance of evaluating and piloting processes, importance of engaging with marginalized groups, and use of evidence base in decision making. The lessons and challenges enumerating herein are of value to researchers aiming to implement participatory action research in developing checklists, tools, practical guidance and frameworks, and they offer important areas to consider before starting such projects. In addition, this offers an insight into how the dynamics of participatory action research methodology evolved in the development of the toolkit. Future research and initiatives in this area should focus on ways to improve the toolkit and make it more relevant to a wider community, and methods for evaluating the impact of the toolkit on practice. PMID:22991370

  18. Virtualization of Research Universities: Raising the Right Questions to Address Key Functions of the Institution. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.6.03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the variety of information and communication technology (ICT) applications at traditional universities and to integrate them into a holistic picture of the institution. Using the distinction of three key elements of scholarly activity (research, publication, education), it suggests a functional…

  19. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high level A3 Thinking. PMID:24204681

  20. Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

  1. Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

  2. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

  3. Research on groundwater flow and transport problems at the Universität Stuttgart

    OpenAIRE

    Kobus, Helmut

    1989-01-01

    The groundwater research activities at the Institut für Wasserbau of the Universität Stuttgart are described. Numerical methods as well as laboratory and field measurements are used for the development of transport models and exploration techniques and their applications to problems of groundwater protection.

  4. Problem posing in teacher training and as a research object in didactics: two complementary perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie

    Palermo : GRIM, 2009 - (Di Paola, B.), s. 445-449 ISSN 1592-5137. [CIEAEM 61. Quebeck (CA), 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : mathematical education * teachers training * subject didactical competence * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education

  5. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Conduct Problems in Children: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…

  6. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Some results and open problems in research on low dimensional organic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Celebonovic, V

    2003-01-01

    This is a broad reviw of some of the fundamental results of research on the Bechgaard salts.To a lesser extent Q2D salts will also be discussed.Apart from known results,based on the author's work and the literature,some open problems will also be presented.

  8. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  9. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

  10. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  11. Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

  12. Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

  13. Nutrition ecology--a concept for systemic nutrition research and integrative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition-related problems (e.g., obesity) are complex and thus characterized by a multitude of components, interrelatedness, associated feedbacks, and dynamics. Nutrition ecology is an innovative concept to deal with complexity and multidimensionality in nutrition science and practice. Along the food supply chain the dimensions health, environment, society, and economy are taken into account simultaneously and coequally. By combining special disciplinary knowledge with methods and principles of research on complexity and knowledge integration, nutrition ecology offers a concept to develop approaches to solving complex nutrition-related problems. Accordingly, the conceptual background and methodological elements of nutrition ecology are presented and discussed. PMID:21888585

  14. Technological problems in the use of research fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the technological problems associated with the use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy of cancer patients and outline the approaches to the solution of these problems. The state of the art is assessed. Physical and radiobiologial prerequisites for the use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors are analyzed. Results of clinic used of BR-10 reactor at the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, are presented. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that the results of radiotherapy may be appreaciably improved if a novel perspective source of fast neutrons, a nuclear reactor, is used

  15. Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengshan Pan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a key factor of logistics distribution, vehicle routing problem (VRP is a hot research topic in management and computation science. In this paper the principle and algorithm process of firefly algorithm are introduced in detail. Then the algorithm process and solving steps are designed for vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW, including the coding and design of  disturbance mechanism of elicit fireflies. In the end, the testing examples from benchmark and other literatures are conducted with good outputs, which prove the validity of the firefly algorithm for VRP.

  16. The optimization research of the multi-response problems based on the SUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haitao; Yao, Hong Mei; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    In the optimization design of products and processes in the biological medicine, we need to consider multiple characteristics of quality simultaneously, namely multi-response problems, multi-response optimization design can improve the quality of the products effectively, and realize enormous economic benefits and so multi-response optimization design is showing a more and more important role in continuous quality improvement activities. But usually there is no specific set of input variables to make all the response variables be optimal, and the traditional multi-response surface method cannot solve the correlation problem between multi-responses and regression model problem effectively. Because we can make a better fitting model and solve the problem of the correlation between the response variables at the same time with SUR method, this thesis uses the SUR method to model the relationship between each response and control variables, and makes predictions; confirms the satisfaction function of each response and the overall satisfaction function; combines with practical problems of a company in biological medicine field named SX to conduct empirical research, this thesis confirms the optimal factor level combination with the overall satisfaction function in the end, thus solves the multi-response optimization problems. PMID:25796165

  17. The problems of treatment of irradiated fuel at Russian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the problems of safety during the storage and transportation of the spent fuel from Russian research reactors. Many research reactors continue to operate at Russia at present time. They use many different types of fuel elements and assemblies. The questions of safety during storage and transportation of spent fuel research reactors is considered in Russian documents on the safety of research reactors. The main features of these documents are described in this report. This report discusses three stages of the storage and transportation of the spent fuel: The temporary storage in the pool or in the vessel; the storage in the repository on the territory of the institutes; the transportation of the fuel to the reprocessing plant. The future plans provides the solution of the problem of transportation and reprocessing of all types of fuel assemblies which are used in Russian research reactors and experimental facilities. Also the Russian Reduced Enrichment Research Reactors Program that was started late in 70th continuing now. The main results of this work would be increase the density of the fuel meat in the composition on the basis of uranium dioxide and the change of the fuel composition to uranium silicide in aluminum matrix or another. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  18. ¿Inteligencia administrativa para abordar "problemas malditos"? El caso de las comisiones interdepartamentales / Managerial Intelligence to Address "Wicked Problems": The Case of Interdepartmental Commitees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Quim, Brugué; Ramón, Canal; Palmira, Paya.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Situados en un contexto de creciente complejidad, las administraciones públicas del siglo XXI se ven sometidas a nuevos retos y deberían, usando la terminología de algunos analistas, ser capaces de responder a los mismos no sólo con eficiencia sino también con inteligencia. Una inteligencia que desb [...] orda la clásica racionalidad tecnocrática y que reclama una innovadora racionalidad deliberativa. A partir de estas premisas, que discutimos teóricamente, el artículo analiza empíricamente seis comisiones interdepartamentales del gobierno de Cataluña (España) y se pregunta hasta qué punto son espacios de diálogo interdepartamental, en qué medida generan inteligencia administrativa y, finalmente, si son herramientas útiles y efectivas para responder a los problemas "malditos" que azotan a nuestras sociedades. Abstract in english In a context of increasing complexity, 21st century public administrations should be ready to respond not just with efficiency but also with intelligence. To reach such smart responses, traditional technocratic rationality should be complemented with a more innovative form of deliberative rationalit [...] y. From this theoretical starting point, the article analyze six cross-sectoral commissions and try to find out its effective results in terms of dialogue among different administrative departments and capacity to generate intelligent responses to complex problems.

  19. The European Research Network on Men in Europe: The Social Problem and Societal Problematisation of Men and Masculinities The social problem of men: deliverable 14: Final Network Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Jeff; Muller, Ursula; Oleksy, Elzbieta H.; Pringle, Keith; Chernova, Janna; Ferguson, Harry; Holter, Oystein Gullvag; Kolga, Voldemar; Novikova, Irina; Pitch, Tamar; Ventimiglia, Carmine; Lattu, Emmi; Olsvik, Elvind; Tallberg, Teemu; Millett, Jackie

    2003-01-01

    Changing and improving gender relations and reducing gender inequality involves changing men as well as changing the position of women. The EU Framework 5 European Research Network on Men in Europe (2000-2003) has aimed to develop empirical, theoretical and policy outcomes on the gendering of men and masculinities in Europe. The Network has investigated the social problem and societal problematisation of men and masculinities. ‘Social problem’ refers to both problems created by men, and those...

  20. Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

  1. Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: collected papers on econometrics, operations research, game theory and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, F; Kaymram, F; Khoshnevisan, M; Malakar, S; Salmeron, J L; Singh, H P; Singh, R; Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad; Salmeron, Jose L.; Singh, Housila P.; Singh, Rajesh; Smarandache, Florentin

    2006-01-01

    Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cutting-edge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global politics by some prolific researchers in the field.

  2. "These are good problems to have…": establishing a collaborative research partnership in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William M; Nyandiko, Winstone N; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.' PMID:23797916

  3. Does the EU cause domestic developments? The problem of case selection in Europeanization research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Haverland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Europeanization research has evolved into a promising research programme and has benefited from its increasing linkages with general theories of the social sciences. The paper starts from the assumption that the research programme would also benefit from a greater awareness of social science methodology. The paper focuses on the problem of case selection. Most Europeanization studies are designed in ways that the independent variables in which Europeanization research should be most interested EU regulations, incentives or models does not vary. Control cases are lacking. Therefore it is difficult, and some would even argue impossible, to demonstrate that the EU has been causally important for domestic developments. The paper explores two strategies to establish variation in the independent variable: counterfactual reasoning and comparing EU member states with non-members or, if research is restricted to EU countries, cases where the source of an EU effect is present with cases where the source of an EU effect is absent. Although neither of these strategies is a panacea for the problem of causality, their careful application will help to get better answers to the question of whether the EU makes a difference.

  4. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  5. Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: collected papers on econometrics, operations research, game theory and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad; Singh, Housila P.; singh, rajesh; Kaymram, F.; Malakar, S.; Salmeron, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cutting-edge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global...

  6. A Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Integrative Parasite Research: Identification of Intervention Targets for Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Priti P; Minning, Todd A.; Nguyen, Vinh; Lalithsena, Sarasi; Asiaee, Amir H.; Sahoo, Satya S; Doshi, Prashant; Tarleton, Rick; Sheth, Amit P.

    2012-01-01

    Effective research in parasite biology requires analyzing experimental lab data in the context of constantly expanding public data resources. Integrating lab data with public resources is particularly difficult for biologists who may not possess significant computational skills to acquire and process heterogeneous data stored at different locations. Therefore, we develop a semantic problem solving environment (SPSE) that allows parasitologists to query their lab data integrated with public re...

  7. The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Long Liu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content a...

  8. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  9. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

  10. The Progress, Problems and Forsight of Scholarship of Teaching Research in China Since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Chinese researchers have introduced American ideology of scholarship of teaching (SoT, and conduct localizationas analysis on its definition, connotation and assessing standards, and initially form SoT theoretical framework based on Chinese reality. Researchers have carried out empirical investigations for Chinese SoT levels in universities, and discussed on overall design of Chinese university SoT system from such aspects as SoT cultivating system, value acceptance system, teaching administrative and quality guarantee system based on SoT, teachers’ specialty development system in the view of SoT, and SoT communicating and sharing system. Although SoT research has greatly developed in China, there still exist the following problems: just advocating foreign theories without taking consideration of Chinese context; taking old route in research path; more theoretical imagination but less investigation, many difficulties to implementation recommendation. It will be a tendency for future research to further clarify SoT theoretical foundation, explore the practice from the bottom up and probe into new epistemology and research paradigm applied to SoT.

  11. Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Roodt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts. Opsomming Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

  12. Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Bianchi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for the conclusion of the courses, this papaer tries to be a guide for the definition of themes and for the organization of a research in Social Sciences. In order to achieve this goal there will be the reconstruction of The power elite by Wright Mills. Keywords: Methodology of research. Scientific research. Scientific problems.

  13. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process, which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in USNRC licensing of nuclear power plants. It keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process but makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them, which need to be solved to improve the performance. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method by showing a specific example of the application to physical events or phenomena in objects having fatigue or SCC crack(s) under ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. (author)

  14. Vybrané problémy ve výzkumu zážitkové pedagogiky Chosen problems in experiential education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji?í Okrouhlý

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available V textu se zabýváme výzkumem v oblasti, kterou pro pot?eby ?lánku nazýváme zážitková pedagogika. Nejd?íve se v?nujeme n?kterým problém?m výzkumu v obecné rovin?. Dále se s využitím p?íklad? z d?íve publikovaných studií zabýváme problémy jak kvantitativního, tak kvalitativního výzkumu. Dotýkáme se mimo jiné i otázky, zda by výzkum v dané oblasti m?l klást d?raz spíše na ov??ování stávajících teorií, ?i tvorbu teorie vlastní. Zejména pro ?eské prost?edí se p?ikláníme k druhé variant?, která m?že spíše p?isp?t k tvorb? spole?ného jazyka a znalostního základu oboru. This paper is concerned with research in the field of experiential education. At first we picked out some problems of research in general. Than using examples from published studies we focused on problems of the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Amongst others we touched on the questions to whether the researchers in the field should put emphasis on verifying existing theories or rather on generating theory peculiar to experential education. Especially in the Czech environment we prefer the latter possibility, which can contribute to the creation of a common language and to our own body of knowledge.

  15. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  16. Software design as a problem in learning theory (a research overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Leona F.

    1992-01-01

    Our interest in automating software design has come out of our research in automated reasoning, inductive inference, learnability, and algebraic machine theory. We have investigated these areas extensively, in connection with specific problems of language representation, acquisition, processing, and design. In the case of formal context-free (CF) languages we established existence of finite learnable models ('behavioral realizations') and procedures for constructing them effectively. We also determined techniques for automatic construction of the models, inductively inferring them from finite examples of how they should 'behave'. These results were obtainable due to appropriate representation of domain knowledge, and constraints on the domain that the representation defined. It was when we sought to generalize our results, and adapt or apply them, that we began investigating the possibility of determining similar procedures for constructing correct software. Discussions with other researchers led us to examine testing and verification processes, as they are related to inference, and due to their considerable importance in correct software design. Motivating papers by other researchers, led us to examine these processes in some depth. Here we present our approach to those software design issues raised by other researchers, within our own theoretical context. We describe our results, relative to those of the other researchers, and conclude that they do not compare unfavorably.

  17. How Can We Improve Problem Solving in Undergraduate Biology? Applying Lessons from 30 Years of Physics Education Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskinson, A.-M.; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the last three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and ...

  18. French research program on the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Use of the primate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.

    The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.

  19. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  20. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Sarah C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. Methods The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Results Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. Conclusions This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of cervical cancer screening services will inform targeted health promotion efforts.

  1. The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lugova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further research. Thus, the aim of the article is to determine the key directions in the studies of motivation in the works of Ukrainian scientists, and to make the prospects for studies in this area clear.The theoretical analysis of the abstracts from the thesis for doctor’s degree in economics, which were defended in 1999 – 2010, has shown that in Ukraine the scientists study motivation in the following basic directions: first, motivation is considered as economic incentive, financial stimulus, motivation by payment; second, mainly the problems of motivation in special conditions are studied, namely: motivation in an economy in transition, motivation in agriculture, in banking, in commerce, in small businesses, in the conditions of restructuring as well; third, the idea of motivation is limited to the problem of staff assessment and the results of their work; forth, motivation is treated as a mechanism and some recommendations concerned its effectiveness are given.As a result of the research it has become possible to specify the promising lines of investigation of motivation which haven’t received sufficient attention in the science of economics: first, peculiarities of motivation of executives and managers of different levels, whose role has increased greatly in modern conditions, haven’t been adequately studied; second, the notions of "mechanism of employee motivation" and "mechanism of staff motivation" should be made clear; third, it is necessary to solve one of the most important tasks of forming an efficient mechanism of staff motivation, i. e. to reach harmony of aims of business and staff through integration of mechanism of employee motivation into mechanism of staff motivation; forth, it is necessary to continue studying the problem of assessment of efficiency of staff moti­vation mechanism.The importance of these tasks for personnel management at Ukrainian enterprises dictates the necessity of scientific research in the field of staff motivation that will make the subject of further studies of the authors.

  2. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

  3. A Multi-Systemic School-Based Approach for Addressing Childhood Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runions, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    School-based approaches to addressing aggression in the early grades have focused on explicit curriculum addressing social and emotional processes. The current study reviews research on the distinct modes of aggression, the status of current research on social and emotional processing relevant to problems of aggression amongst young children, as…

  4. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So…

  5. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  6. The fuel element of the first charge for EL 4; presentation, main problems arising in the research, production problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel element making up the first charge for EL-4 is made of slightly enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel. This fuel element makes it possible to operate the reactor in the safest conditions awaiting the development of the fuel which will be finally adopted; this will have a low absorption can: beryllium, or a zirconium copper alloy. The 500 mm assembly is made up of 19 small rods placed on 3 rings, inside a graphite jacket. The solution adopted was a solution using completely independent small rods. This report deals with possible problems resulting from their study and production. (authors)

  7. A top priority problem of national radiation protection - proper disposal of research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents basic facts about RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute. The present state of the RA reactor spent fuel storage pool appears to be a serious safety and radiological problem, which must be solved urgently, independent of the decision about the future status of the reactor itself. The following paragraphs describe current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel. Activities performed so far, concerning identification and improvement of the spent fuel storage conditions are presented. These are verification of radiation protection measures, radiological and chemical analyses, visual inspection and photographing, safety analyses and nuclear criticality studies.A project for long-term solution of the research reactor spent fuel storage is proposed. In order to minimise further corrosion and establish strict control of all the relevant technological parameters of the utility, improvement of conditions for disposal of the fuel in the existing storage, is foreseen in the first phase. New dry storage for long-term storing of the spent fuel should be built during the second phase of the project. Particular attention is paid to the activities related to radiation protection and waste treatment, starting from standard monitoring and control, radiological analyses, regulations and legislation, to complicated handling of high level radioactive waste. (authors)

  8. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

  9. Some problems in understanding other people: analysing talk in research, counselling and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, P

    1992-04-01

    Various problems associated with analysing interview transcripts are identified. It is asserted that such problems of analysis may also be problems associated with understanding other people in counselling and psychotherapy. PMID:1374835

  10. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barthel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

  11. Confusing confusability: on the problems of using psychophysical measures of letter confusability in neuropsychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Lindegaard, Martin; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The effect of letter confusability on reading has received increasing attention over the last decade. Confusability scores for individual letters, derived from older psychophysical studies, have been used to calculate summed confusability scores for whole words, and effects of this variable on...... normal and alexic reading have been reported. On this basis, letter confusability is now increasingly controlled for in stimulus selection. In this commentary, we try to clarify what letter confusability scores represent and discuss several problems with the way this variable has been treated in...... neuropsychological research. We conclude that it is premature to control for this variable when selecting stimuli in studies of reading and alexia. Although letter confusability may play a role in (impaired) reading, it remains to be determined how this measure should be calculated, and what effect it may have on...

  12. Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

  13. Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

  14. Confusing confusability: on the problems of using psychophysical measures of letter confusability in neuropsychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Lindegaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of letter confusability on reading has received increasing attention over the last decade. Confusability scores for individual letters, derived from older psychophysical studies, have been used to calculate summed confusability scores for whole words, and effects of this variable on normal and alexic reading have been reported. On this basis, letter confusability is now increasingly controlled for in stimulus selection. In this commentary, we try to clarify what letter confusability scores represent and discuss several problems with the way this variable has been treated in neuropsychological research. We conclude that it is premature to control for this variable when selecting stimuli in studies of reading and alexia. Although letter confusability may play a role in (impaired) reading, it remains to be determined how this measure should be calculated, and what effect it may have on word and letter identification.

  15. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

  16. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  17. Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions' are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author)

  18. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most modern scholars in the genesis of the aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive factors and factors constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations. At the same time, there are also scientific approaches to understanding the nature of aggression, which in some cases does not focus directly on the structures inhibiting aggressive impulses, and are limited to considering only the aggression catalysts. In the present article we discuss the need to introduce the term "inhibitors of aggression", analyze different positions and views on this problem. We consider not only Russian conceptions of the nature of aggression retarding structures, but also the international research aimed at understanding the psychological analogue of this phenomenon: "protective factors". The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which not only traces the history of the studies of this phenomenon, but also makes an attempt to analyze few up-to-day theories of aggressive behavior, aimed at objectivation of the psychological mechanism of interaction of proagressive and inhibiting personality structures.

  19. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

  20. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

  1. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  2. Using a Brief Form of Problem-Based Learning in a Research Methods Class: Perspectives of Instructor and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional method aimed at engaging students in collaboratively solving an ill-structured problem. PBL has been presented and researched as an overhaul of existing curriculum design, yet a modified version may be attractive to college instructors who desire active learning on the part of their students, but…

  3. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  4. Opening Address (by R. Hojman) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I have the high honour of addressing you in order to express on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile (CCHEN), and also on my own behalf, our pleasure in having the opportunity to welcome to our country this select group of authorities and professionals of the IAEA, and more than 100 representatives of nuclear institutions from some 50 countries. We are certain that this conference will facilitate a valuable exchange of knowledge in areas as important as the use of research reactors, safety related aspects of such use, the fuel cycle, and dismantling and management of radioactive waste. We also value the opportunity provided by this forum to share experi- ences, exchange opinions, and discuss options and priorities during the five technical sessions scheduled as part of the conference and, moreover, to deepen existing and create new bonds of international cooperation. I would like to mention the fact that our country has experience in the operation of its experimental reactors and has managed to make contributions to major applications in various fields including medicine, agriculture, industry and mining, and environment and metrology. Health applications have been given priority among the CCHEN's activities, and this is why the use of the reactor at La Reina Nuclear Studies Center has focused on the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceu- tical applications which have short half-lives and are used in the diagnosis of the dynamic functioning of various organs and as therapeutic agents in some types of cancer. In agriculture, various isotope techniques have been investigated and fine tuned in areas such as soil fertility, fertilizing sources, optimum use of nutrients, rationalization and economy in the use of water, quantification of the degree of soil erosion, and irrigation with fertilizers. More recently, a study of residuality and mobility of agro-chemicals in soil and water was initiated through a project developed jointly with the IAEA and with our country's Agricultural and Livestock Raising Service, for the purposes of contributing regulations and standards in the use of pesticides. (author) In the area of mining, the CCHEN has been using radioactive tracers in mining and metallurgical processes for over two decades in determination of residence times, flow rates, fluid velocity, and characterization of runoff in in situ leaching processes, among other techniques, all of which has made it possible to optimize processes and achieve cost reductions. In the environmental field, isotope techniques have been developed for the study of both surface and underground aquifer resources. Work has also been carried out in determining contaminant sources and, more recently, there has been participation in multi-disciplinary research in order to collaborate in the control of marine toxins responsible for red tides through the use of isotope techniques. In the area of chemical metrology, the CCHEN renders major assistance services to the national export system in terms of sanitary certification, giving support and technical assistance to national laboratories so that the latter may raise their standards and undertake measurements in compliance with the growing requirements imposed by international markets. Worth pointing out are both the organization of aptitude drills and inter-comparison rounds at the national and international levels, and the CCHEN's capacity to prepare reference and control materials in natural matrices and also control materials for chemical analyses, all of which has enabled the CCHEN's laboratories to attain formal recognition as the reference laboratory for determining trace elements in biological samples. I have mentioned only some of the technological developments associated with the operation of our reactors for the purposes of contextual- izing the importance that various topics we are to discuss during the current week have for us. I want to end by reiterating that we feel honoured and experience great pleasure in having a select group of researchers, scientists and p

  5. The problem of analysing the relationship between change and initial value in oral health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Bælum, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between initial disease status and subsequent change following treatment has attracted great interest in dental research. However, medical statisticians have repeatedly warned against correlating/regressing change with baseline because of two methodological concerns known as mathematical coupling and regression to the mean. In general, mathematical coupling occurs when one variable directly or indirectly contains the whole or part of another, and the two variables are then analyzed by using correlation or regression. Consequently, the statistical procedure of testing the null hypothesis - that the coefficient of correlation or the slope of regression is zero - may become inappropriate. Regression to the mean occurs with any variable that fluctuates within an individual or a population, either owing to measurement error and/or to physiological variation. The aim of this article was to clarify the conceptual confusion around mathematical coupling and regression to the mean within the statistical literature, and to correct a popular misconception about the correct analysis of the relationship between change and initial value. As examples that use inappropriate methods to analyze the relationship between change and baseline are still found in leading dental journals, this article seeks to help oral health researchers understand these problems and explain how to overcome them.

  6. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  7. Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. I consider this a timely opportunity to reiterate the Government of Chile's iron commitment to exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as our firm opposition to any deviation of this form of energy towards military ends. We also acknowledge the important work achieved through technical cooperation, of which our country has been a beneficiary ever since the initiation of nuclear activity in Chile almost three decades ago. I cannot keep from mentioning the fact that even though nuclear energy represents a major contribution to humanity through the use of isotopes and ionizing radiation, as well as through the generation of electricity throughout the world, our country recognizes that there are some issues pending which must be resolved, taking into account the perspective of developing nations. I refer to the management and final disposal of highly radioactive waste, and also to the cross-border transport of radioactive materials. Both of those issues are rejected by public opinion, making social validation of this form of energy difficult. Esteemed scientists, in closing I would like to convey to you my wishes that the conversations held and agreements entered into during this week may lead to major progress in the use of nuclear research reactors, and that this in turn may contribute to improving the quality of life worldwide, as well as to reinforcing international cooperation. I also hope that your stay in our country will be an enjoyable one, that you may have the opportunity to become a little more acquainted with its natural beauty and culture, and that through the focus on the particular scientific issues which brings you here, it may become possible to achieve progress towards the genuine integration of different peoples and cultures sharing a common ideal: that of putting nuclear science and technology at the service of humankind. Thank you very much. (author)

  8. Addressing polarisation in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D

    2015-09-01

    Ploug and Holm argue that polarisation in scientific communities can generate conflicts of interest for individual researchers. Their proposed solution to this problem is that authors should self-report whether they are polarised on conflict of interest disclosure forms. I argue that this is unlikely to work. This is because any author with the self-awareness and integrity to identify herself as polarised would be unlikely to conduct polarised research to begin with. Instead, I suggest that it is the role of (associate-level) editors of journals to detect and report on polarisation. One consequence of this view is that they need to be sufficiently familiar with the field of research they are evaluating to know whether polarisation is at stake. PMID:26100362

  9. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

  10. Danish translation and validation of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaires on overuse injuries and health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, J. E.; Rathleff, C. R.; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Andreasen, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse...

  11. A study of the control problem of the shoot side environment delivery system of a closed crop growth research chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Blackwell, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The details of our initial study of the control problem of the crop shoot environment of a hypothetical closed crop growth research chamber (CGRC) are presented in this report. The configuration of the CGRC is hypothetical because neither a physical subject nor a design existed at the time the study began, a circumstance which is typical of large scale systems control studies. The basis of the control study is a mathematical model which was judged to adequately mimic the relevant dynamics of the system components considered necessary to provide acceptable realism in the representation. Control of pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the crop shoot environment, along with its oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water concentration is addressed. To account for mass exchange, the group of plants is represented in the model by a source of oxygen, a source of water vapor, and a sink for carbon dioxide. In terms of the thermal energy exchange, the group of plants is represented by a surface with an appropriate temperature. Most of the primitive equations about an experimental operating condition and a state variable representation which was extracted from the linearized equations are presented. Next, we present the results of a real Jordan decomposition and the repositioning of an undesirable eigenvalue via full state feedback. The state variable representation of the modeling system is of the nineteenth order and reflects the eleven control variables and eight system disturbances. Five real eigenvalues are very near zero, with one at zero, three having small magnitude positive values, and one having a small magnitude negative value. A Singular Value Decomposition analysis indicates that these non-zero eigenvalues are not results of numerical error.

  12. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  13. Research on Time Table Problem Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm Combined Chaos and Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    The scheduling problem is a typical time table problem in educational administration. For such a NP complete problems, when the genetic algorithm solves this problem, it has precociousness phenomenon and quickly converges not to the global optimal solution but to the local optimal solution. Therefore, we use the advantage of simulated annealing algorithm to transform the fitness function and chaotic sequence to control the crossover and mutation genetic ope...

  14. About a problem of reception of antimatter: possibility of research f properties, synthesis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is of special interest to study a possibility of reception of intensive streams of positrons (probably and other antiparticles) at reorganization of physical vacuum in strong fields (for example, in an electric field of modern super-power laser beams) and on accelerators. This topic can be possible related to creation of space solar factories on the Moon or asteroids, etc. with use of the solar radiation energy transformed into electric energy, and use of space for manufacturing and storages of positrons [1-7]. The essence of the method should consist of fast positron streams reception by means of the transformed solar energy on accelerators, or any other methods, with their subsequent delay up to temperatures of the order 0.5 K in some closed area of space. Thus, very significant stocks of positrons could be created. Gathering of such positrons in magnetic traps in space conditions can become rather effective method of accumulation of antimatter. Present level of technologies does not allow accumulation of received antimatter in large amounts. Besides, this reception process of is very expensive. Therefore, probably, only about ten or hundred nanograms of antimatter is yet received. This quantity of antimatter would be apparently sufficient for creation of space vehicles (SV) with the sizes in nano-or a micron range. These are not some crazy fantastic assumption in a context of modern development of nanotechnologies in the World. All the units and details of such SV should not exceed nano- and micron ranges. The situation can change, if the black holes both natural and created by the human can become 'factories' of antimatter http://www.rian.ru/rian/intro.cfm (A.D.Dolgov (ITEP) et al). Gravitation in vicinities of a black hole so is great, that there is no object, even radiation that can leave. Indeed, gravitation of a black hole acts on protons more strongly, than on electrons as their mass is larger. As a result, the black hole gets a positive electric charge. Thus, if the mass of a black hole is rather small, the electric field at horizon of events can reach critical values. It leads to electron-positron instability of vacuum and generation of pairs. As positrons are thrown out by electric field, and electrons are trapped, the black hole works as a factory of antimatter, transforming protons into antiparticles. Reference: 1. E.P. Svetlov-Prokop'ev // Materials of the international conference. Ed. E.I.Artamonov. M.: Institute of problems of management of the Russian Academy of Science. - 2008. P.100-101.; 2. E.P.Prokop'ev. Possible space technologies of the future and a problem of technical progress. Materials of the Third Belarus space congress. On October 23-25, 2007, Minsk, Belarus. Minsk: Publishing house of the Incorporated institute of problems of computer science NAS of Belarus, 2007. P.383-389. http://www.uiip.bas-net.by/kosmos3/sec10.html, http://www.prokopep.narod.ru; 3. Svetlov-Prokopyev / About a problem of physics and chemistry of antisubstance: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // In book.: Actual problems of modern physics . Materials of the All-Russia remote scientifically-practical conference with the international participation. Russia, Krasnodar, on June, 5th, 2008. Krasnodar: KGU, 2008. P.15-30.; 4. A.L.Suvorov, E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova // Reception of antimatter for use in a modern science, techniques and microelectronics. The Petersburg magazine of electronics. 2007. No 2. P.4 - 16.; 5. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev. The general principles of interaction of matter and antimatter. Not relativistic theory // Bull. Kaz. NU, ser. phys. 2007. No 1 (23). P.169 - 177.; 6. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova. About a problem of physics, chemistry and technology of antimatter: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // 5 International conferences Nuclear and radiating physics. 26 - 29 September, 2005: ICNP' 05. V.1. Nuclear physics. Almaty: Publishing house RK. 2006. P.33 4 - 34

  15. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  16. Radon measurements in Austria and some basic problems in earthquake prediction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic problems in earthquake prediction research are discussed in connection with the analysis of spring water radon (222Rn) measurements in Austria. Two possibilities for the definition of an anomaly are proposed. In the analysed data two periods of outstanding radon concentration could be observed. The data were carefully analyzed using different methods but the extreme radon concentrations could not be explained by an influence of vadose water or by meteorological effects or other non-tectonic disturbances. These two periods were identified as anomalies when using the proposed definition of anomaly. Contingency table tests give high probabilities (>90%) for a correlation between certain earthquakes and the observed radon anomalies. The investigations result in the following hypothesis: The probability for the occurrence of an earthquake in the area 42 deg. N???47.5 deg. N, 13 deg. E???20 deg. E, Friuli area excluded, with a magnitude M greater as a certain well defined level, increases during the time of an anomaly in the radon concentration of the Freibadquelle by about a factor of ten. To test this hypothesis a new set of radon data is necessary. However this new set of radon data is still not large enough to reach a sufficient statistical proof. Finally, some recommendations are given in order to improve the possibilities for comparing and judging predictions. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  17. Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Milgram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA prevented it.? It turns out that this is not true.? The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.? The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.? There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

  18. Current state of research and development in dioxins problem; Daiokishin kenkyukaihatsu no genjo to kongo no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, M. [National Institute for Resource and Environment, Tokyo (Japan). Thermal Energy and Combustion Engineering Dept.

    1999-05-25

    The environmental pollution caused in association with dioxins has been one of the most urgent problems in Japan. Dioxins have been acknowledged as one of the most toxic chemicals. In this paper, the research topics of dioxins exhausted along with the waste incineration and the current state of the research are described. Moreover, an outline of the dioxin research by National Institute for Resources and Environment is described. (author)

  19. The Use and Overuse of Electronic Research in Freshman Composition Research Papers: Problems in Traditional and Online Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Suzanne L.

    Traditionally, students taking an introductory English composition class have been encouraged to perform their research in the college or university library, but in recent years there has been a trend toward encouraging students to perform part or all of their research for composition research papers on the Internet or within an entirely…

  20. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to solve the identified problems. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus on several directions: when filling out the application form, the technical-financial reporting, at the contracting phase of the projects, problems of partners. This article deals with the problems encountered during the projects’ contracting stage and problems caused by partners. The respondents’ answers place the problems of partners on top of the categories of problems that stood in the way of European funds’ beneficiaries. A series of causes that have led to the occurrence of these problems have also been identified. It should be stated that the information obtained from the conducted research supplies, theoretically speaking, the studied field and brings an important contribution not only to possible beneficiaries of European funds, but to the institutions managing European funds in Romania, who have a lot to learn from the experience of the first period of programmes. The authors’ main contribution is to integrate this study into the logical thread of the thesis entitled “Strategic management in European project funding”. Both articles, part of a research in the field of project management are unique and original and meet a current and pressing requirement of the Romanian society.

  1. An anthropologic study on strategies for addressing health problems among the elderly in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Um estudo antropológico sobre as estratégias para resolver problemas de saúde entre idosos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Uchôa; Josélia O. A., Firmo; Maria Fernanda, Lima-Costa; Ellen, Corin.

    Full Text Available Este artigo utiliza a abordagem antropológica para examinar mecanismos por meio dos quais a situação socioeconômica influencia as estratégias desenvolvidas por idosos residentes em uma pequena cidade brasileira para enfrentar seus problemas de saúde. Entrevistas com vinte informantes-chave visaram à [...] percepção da comunidade acerca da saúde do idoso. Entrevistas com trinta senhoras idosas objetivaram a percepção que elas possuíam da saúde e estratégias adotadas para resolver tais problemas. As análises mostraram que as narrativas dos dois grupos convergem na ênfase do papel desempenhado por fatores financeiros no acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos medicamentos. As histórias de vida descreveram algumas estratégias prejudiciais à saúde para fazer frente à falta de recursos. As senhoras também destacaram a importância do apoio da família e/ou de vizinhos para superar problemas relacionados à saúde. Assim, a questão da pobreza não é só econômica, mas também a pobreza das redes sociais de apoio. Abstract in english This paper explores the contribution of anthropological perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms through which socioeconomic circumstances influence the strategies developed by elderly for addressing their health problems in a small Brazilian city. Interviews with 20 key-informants explored the co [...] mmunity's broad perception of the health situation of the elderly. Life histories collected from 30 elderly women examined their own perception of their health status and their health strategies. Narratives converge in emphasising the important role played by financial factors in accessing health services and medication. Life histories also describe some damaging strategies resorted to by the elderly to deal with their lack of resources. Elderly women emphasize the crucial support they receive from their family and/or neighbours to overcome health problems. Thus, the issue of poverty is not only a matter of socioeconomic circumstances, but also the poverty of broader social networks.

  2. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

  3. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  4. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    ?AFAKLI, Okan Veli; Mustafa ERTANIN; Hüda HÜDAVERD?

    2013-01-01

    The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC), accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus a...

  5. Research on the Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm in Web Services Composition Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shujun Pei; Xi Shi; Daming Hu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of finding the optimal solution for web services composition problem to meet increasingly sophisticated demand of users, an algorithm called Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm (PACA) based on Quality of Service (QoS) is proposed in this article. This algorithm converts the web services composition problem into shortest path problem of QoS-based directed acyclic graph. First, find several suboptimal paths by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA) and initial...

  6. The Organisational Problems of Combining Teaching and Research: Humboldt, Weber, and the Polish Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Stefan

    1980-01-01

    The application of a theory combining research and teaching is examined as it has been applied in Poland, considering practical experience, policy issues, research funding, traditional university structure and attitudes, and administrative innovations such as the research institute. (MSE)

  7. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  8. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  9. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  10. Automated formulation of constraint satisfaction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, M.; Freuder, E.C. [Univ. of New Hampshire, NH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A wide variety of problems can be represented as constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), and once so represented can be solved by a variety of effective algorithms. However, as with other powerful, general Al problem solving methods, we must still address the task of moving from a natural statement of the problem to a formulation of the problem as a CSP. This research addresses the task of automating this problem formulation process, using logic puzzles as a testbed. Beyond problem formulation per se, we address the issues of effective problem formulation, i.e. finding formulations that support more efficient solution, as well as incremental problem formulation that supports reasoning from partial information and are congenial to human thought processes.

  11. Building a platform for translational research in chronic noncommunicable diseases to address population health: lessons from NHLBI supported CRONICAS in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Pesantes, M Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognized center of excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The center's identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity-building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organization: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment are key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  12. Opening Address (by T. Taniguchi) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to the Government of Chile, and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile, for hosting this Conference in the beautiful and historic city of Santiago de Chile. I would also like to thank you, the 180 or so registered delegates from around the world, for participating in this conference. I trust that you will have an interesting and enjoyable week. For more than 50 years, research reactors have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 research reactors have been built, and some 270 of these reactors, in 59 countries, continue to operate today. Altogether, over 13 000 reactor years of operational experience have accumulated during this period. Just as important, however, is the fact that those reactors have operated in a remarkably safe manner. The IAEA's statutes charter it to promote the contributions that atomic energy can bring to the health and prosperity of people throughout the world. Thus, the IAEA is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and practical application of research related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. From its inception in 1957, there has been a broad interest at the IAEA in the benefits to be derived by Member States from the safe operation of research reactors. The multi-disciplinary research that a research reactor can support has led to the development of numerous capacities within Member States, many of which have been realized under the umbrella of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. These benefits have been realized in a wide variety of areas within science and technology: nuclear power, radioisotope production, neutron beam research and analysis, nuclear medicine and personnel training, and more recently, materials development, component testing, computer code validation and environmental pollution control. One can cite numerous Member States, for example, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico in the Latin American region, which have developed high quality nuclear programmes indigenously, thanks in no small part to the growth and effective utilization of their research reactor programmes. Thanks to the recognition of these great benefits for human health, welfare and social development, new research reactors are being planned and built. Pre-eminent to the pursuit of these universal gains, however, is the precondition that any and all reactor operations be conducted with a commitment to and an assurance of safety: safety for the operators, safety for the public and safety for the environment. The research reactor community has had a long and successful history of both productive and safe operations; however, nearly two thirds of the world's operating research reactors, i.e. 63% are now over 30 years old. Many of them have been refurbished to meet today's technological standards and safety requirements; however, there are challenges associated with ageing components and materials - and even members of staff - at these facilities. They continue to be serious issues, and are receiving increased attention, worldwide. Likewise, worldwide attention is focused on the serious erosion in governmental support, management commitment and available resources to the infrastructure necessary for effective research reactor operations. Robust utilization plans are not always an inherent part of the decision making process for determining whether a research reactor should be built, in the first place, or should continue to operate, in the long run. This is compounded by the fact that the use of these reactors is no longer an attractive research vehicle for university students and academic researchers. From these facts, it can be seen that there is a need to infuse vitality into this critical part of the nuclear industry and its infrastructure, thereby allowing for broade

  13. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard; Louise A. Rohrbach; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; CATALANO, RICHARD F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; HAWKINS, J. DAVID

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  14. Developing an integrated framework of problem-based learning and coaching psychology for medical education: a participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo; Liang, Shuo; Su, Yiliang

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical schools have been making efforts to develop their own problem-based learning (PBL) approaches based on their educational conditions, human resources and existing curriculum structures. This study aimed to explore a new framework by integrating the essential features of PBL and coaching psychology applicable to the undergraduate medical education context. Methods A participatory research design was employed. Four educational psychology researchers, eight undergraduate medica...

  15. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium

    OpenAIRE

    Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

  16. Keynote address: Foreign Bodies / Jewellery as Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This article, published in Design Research Quarterly (3:4) October 2008, is based on the keynote address given by Prof Christoph Zellweger at the DRS conference in 2008. Design Research Quarterly. Design Research Society ISSN 1752-8445

  17. Problems of metrological research automation in the field of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal problems are considered of a measuring-computing complex development for automation of metrological investigations in the field of ionizing radiations. The structural diagram of such a complex is given

  18. Research of Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem by Cellular Ant Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP is a generalization of SDVRP, in which multiple vehicles start from multiple depots and return to their original depots at the end of their assigned tours. The MDVRP is NP-hard, therefore, the development of heuristic algorithms for this problem class is of primary interest. This paper solves Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Cellular Ant Algorithm which is a new optimization method for solving real problems by using both the evolutionary rule of cellular, graph theory and the characteristics of ant colony optimization. The simulation experiment shows that the Cellular Ant Algorithm is feasible and effective for the MDVRP. The clarity and simplicity of the Cellular Ant Algorithm is greatly enhanced to ant colony optimization.

  19. Research investigations in and demonstrations of remote sensing applications to urban environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J. U.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing to transportation and traffic analysis, urban quality, and land use problems is discussed. Other topics discussed include preliminary user analysis, potential uses, traffic study by remote sensing, and urban condition analysis using ERTS.

  20. Research on Existing Problem of China's MBA Education and the Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyong Ma

    2010-01-01

    This article started with a brief review of the history and current situation of Chinese MBA education, Moreover, the major problems of Chinese MBA education and the reasonable resolution were presented on improving the MBA education in China as well.

  1. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Durrance, Joan C.; Maria Souden; Dana Walker; Fisher, Karen E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the informati...

  2. Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research

    OpenAIRE

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.; Struik, P. C.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining sufficient quantities of adequate quality are reviewed. For successful production of organic seed and planting material intensive communication between and mutual commitment of farmers, traders, breed...

  3. The problem of causality in corporate governance research: The case of governance indexes and firm valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Saravia, Jimmy A.; Saravia, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the problem of the determination of causality has become an increasingly important question in the field of corporate governance. This paper reviews contemporary literature on the topic and finds that the current approach is to attempt to determine causality empirically and that the problem remains unresolved. After explaining the reasons why it is not possible to attempt to determine causality using real world data without falling prey to a logical fallacy, this paper discuss...

  4. Why There Are No Dialogues among the Divided: The Problem of Solipsistic Agendas in Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys issues raised in earlier articles in this issue of the journal regarding standards for reading research methodologies. Offers a tentative explanation of why debates, paradigm wars, and parallel play are prevalent in literacy research. (RS)

  5. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  6. “These are Good Problems to Have…”: Establishing a Collaborative Research Partnership in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    William M. Tierney; Nyandiko, Winstone N.; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E.; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of a long-term institutional ‘twinning’ partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan–North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributi...

  7. Moving beyond "It Worked": The Ongoing Evolution of Research on Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on Problem-Based Learning in medical education has undergone an evolutionary process from initial proof of concept studies through critiques of the original methods and beyond. Initial studies focused on whether or not the instructional method was effective for medical students and the goals of medical education. Despite much movement…

  8. Expected problems in the decommissioning planning of a small research reactor in a non-nuclear country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5 MW materials testing research reactor is operational in Greece. The operator of the reactor, while carrying on planning for its continued use, is formulating a decommissioning strategy. In the paper the issues and problems related to the future decommissioning of the reactor are discussed and the steps to be taken now for successful future decommissioning are outlined. (author)

  9. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  10. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

  11. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

  12. CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Evelyn

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis…

  13. Efficient address translation

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Matthias M.

    2000-01-01

    The address calculation for distributed data access plays a major role for the performance of fine-grained data-parallel applications. This paper reports about the hardware centrifuge of the Cray T3E which enables the shift of the address calculation from software into hardware. This shift minimizes address calculation overhead reducing communication cost of dynamic communication patterns. The centrifuge is compared with complex integer division and modulo and with int...

  14. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

  15. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi López Sintas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality

  16. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Neylan, Thomas C; Chambers, David A; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs. PMID:26958075

  17. Research on Water Resource Problems of Capital Economic Circle Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jinghua; Xiang, Nan; Guo, Lin; Gu, Runbo

    2010-01-01

    Capital Economic Circle that is located in north of China belongs to water resources shortage regions. The per capita water of it is only 1/7 of the per capita water of the whole country, and 1/30 of the per capita water of the whole world. Thus water resources problems become one of the key factors that restrict regional development. According to the analysis of water resources situation in Capital Economic Circle, in this paper we find out some main problems existing in regional water resou...

  18. Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Snyman

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

  19. Language and rigour in qualitative research: Problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Jing; Smith Helen J; Liu Xiaoyun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence r...

  20. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Michael Conn; F.T., Rantin.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and s [...] uggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  1. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    OpenAIRE

    P. Michael Conn; F.T. Rantin

    2010-01-01

    Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  2. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Michael Conn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  3. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  4. On the Knowledge-sociological Problems in using Philosophy of Science Methods to solve Transdisciplinary Problems : Andur’s Contribution to Interdisciplinary Research Across Knowledge Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, SØren

    In 1979 I was almost kicked out of biology for making a philosophy and historical analysis of Konrad Lorenz work in developing Ethology. I was saved by Jesper Hoffmeyer and Iven Reventlow, who was a behavioral psychologist, who then created a prize essay in the problem area, which I answered and got a Gold medal in psychology, which helped me getting three years of research in comparative psychology at Psychological Laboratory Coph. U. My main interdisciplinary problem was how to conceptualize the causal role of experience in cognitive and communicative behavior. At the time the dialectical materialism of Leontjev was a possible way of making a common philosophical framework for biology and psychology that really did not share a common ontological framework at the time. But when I realized that diamat could not contain a phenomenological aspect in its ontological framework I suddenly found myself in conflict with the Marxists that dominated the professional framework of rationality in the psychology department. I had no way to go further within that professional setting. I got a job at the royal Danish Library School. Here I discovered the same type of interdisciplinary problem in information science. Suddenly there was research money to upgrade your position by making a PhD I was looking for a supervisor. But who would support such a project falling outside all professional areas and without any formal PhD study and any economic compensation for the work? Andur of course. We had deep discussions about Daniel Dennet’s take on this problem and on Prigogine and Stengers revolutionary work in physics and how its introduction of irreversible time changed the ontology of the natural sciences. It was very inspirational and confirmed that I was onto something valid and interesting after all. After a couple of years I managed to finish and a year after it was published as a book. "Information er sølv ...: om muligheden for en pragmatisk informationsteori baseret på anden ordens kybernetik, semiotik og sprogspilsteori" Forlaget Biblioteksarbejde 1994. It saved my possibility of having a carrier in Academia and the rest of it has only been possible through people like Andur that had the intellectual capacity and the courage to go across knowledge borders and still keep their position in their own field. I know I am not the only one in that situation Andur has supported over the years. He became an institution in fostering interdisciplinarity in Danish academia. He gave us courage: In 2006 I became Doctor of Philosophy with "Cybersemiotics: Why Information is not Enough" published at Toronto Univ. P. in 2008, (2010, 2013).

  5. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help is available. Share your concerns with your healthcare provider, who can address the concern or refer ... don’t be afraid to talk with a healthcare professional. Although sexual problems can be complex, there ...

  6. Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

  7. Exploring quantum mechanics a collection of 700+ solved problems for students, lecturers, and researchers

    CERN Document Server

    Galitski, Victor; Kogan, Vladimir; Galitski, Victor Jr

    2013-01-01

    A series of seminal technological revolutions has led to a new generation of electronic devices miniaturized to such tiny scales where the strange laws of quantum physics come into play. There is no doubt that, unlike scientists and engineers of the past, technology leaders of the future will have to rely on quantum mechanics in their everyday work. This makes teaching and learning the subject of paramount importance for further progress. Mastering quantum physics is a very non-trivial task and its deep understanding can only be achieved through working out real-life problems and examples. It is notoriously difficult to come up with new quantum-mechanical problems that would be solvable with a pencil and paper, and within a finite amount of time. This book remarkably presents some 700+ original problems in quantum mechanics together with detailed solutions covering nearly 1000 pages on all aspects of quantum science. The material is largely new to the English-speaking audience. The problems have been collect...

  8. Review of experimental results of upper floodings at research reactors and problems of further investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One analyzed problems dealing with investigation into follow-up upper flooding using both foreign and Russian testing units devoted to efficiency of cooling, chocking phenomenon occurring at steam and water counterflow and installation scale. One determined tasks to be tackled in course of further experiments to obtain correlations in designed programs for coolant loss accidents

  9. Self-Monitoring Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review of Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; McDaniel, Sara; Kreigh, Christi

    2015-01-01

    Explicitly teaching skills associated with self-determination has been promoted to support students' independence and control over their own lives. This is especially important for students with behavior problems. One self-determination skill or behavior that has been studied widely is self-monitoring. Although multiple reviews of various…

  10. Problems of data and search languages of data retrieval systems in nuclear research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospective importance is pointed out of data retrieval systems and the necessity of resolving related theoretical, technical, technological and semantic problems, which conditions the further successful development of the said systems. Different types of such systems are presented and characterized, including search languages, data collection, selection, evaluation and verification. The said aspects are related to the OEKFAK ZfI Leipzig system

  11. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  12. Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy- A research paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for children undergoing radiotherapy and their parents, a paediatric radiographer may be one welcome solution to relieve the anxiety and stress during this difficult time in their lives. given the various factors, no one solution can be deemed ultimate in dealing with this complex situation. thus further efforts are needed to bring about workable solutions to this problem depending on the circumstances and situation

  13. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

  14. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  15. Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug

    2008-01-01

    Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

  16. Ethical problems in health research with indigenous or originary peoples in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Gabriela; Roque, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The varied, abrupt and amazing geography of the land of Peru is home of one of the major concentrations of indigenous peoples in the world. The asymmetry of power, however, in their relationship with the rest of society and the State is still very evident in their social exclusion, their gap in social and economic development, barriers in their access to health services as well as their marginalization and exploitation as subjects of health research. In this paper, we analyse two cases of research on indigenous populations in Peru, discuss them from the point of view of bioethics and reflect on important issues for researchers, research participants and the society, such as the need to respect different cultures, the need that the research being done is relevant to the needs of the population in which it is conducted and the necessity to empower indigenous communities in participatory research, to strengthen the institutions and to protect human rights, namely through ethics committees for research and the free, informed and meaningful informed consent. This approach should foster quality research, while at the same time fully respecting human rights and bioethics. We cannot forget that advancements in genetics, throughout the world, are very much in debt to indigenous populations. PMID:26103916

  17. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar situations in which a fast and effective task force may be required to evaluate vaccination-related adverse events. PMID:26123389

  18. Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina

    2016-04-01

    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others. PMID:26982911

  19. La antibiótico-resistencia de bacterias de importancia clínica aisladas del río Almendares, Cuba, abordada como problema de salud ecosistémica / The antibiotic-resistance of clinically significant bacteria isolated from Almendares River in Cuba, addressed as an ecosystem health problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yunier, Arpajón-Peña; Rebeca, Doval-García; José Gabriel, Hernández-Carretero; Martha, Pérez-Cosme; Yornaika, Llano-González.

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available La Universidad actual tiene, además de su papel docente, una posición privilegiada en cuanto a la protección del medio ambiente mediante la difusión de los resultados de sus investigaciones. Uno de los problemas medioambientales, y por ende de salud, que más preocupa a los investigadores en la actua [...] lidad es la resistencia a los antibióticos de bacterias que habitan los ecosistemas acuáticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar la presencia de bacterias de importancia clínica en el río Almendares, La Habana, Cuba, como problema de salud ecosistémica y así tener una visión más completa en el análisis de situaciones problémicas sobre el estado ecológico real del mismo que se discuten en la docencia de pregrado y postgrado. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de 72 aislados del río Almendares por el método de Bauer- Kirby. Las lecturas fueron realizadas teniendo en los catálogos del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Se obtuvieron aislados resistentes a las cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación, un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a nueve antibióticos distintos, mientras que fueron también multirresistentes aislados de Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis y Streptococcus pneumoniae. La presencia de bacterias de diferentes grupos de importancia clínica, resistentes y multirresistentes a antibióticos, en este río constituye un importante problema de salud ecosistémica, lo cual constituye un riesgo potencial que afecta los servicios ecosistémicos de los cuales depende gran parte de la población de la capital cubana. Abstract in english The current University has, besides its educational paper, a privileged position as for the protection of the environment by means of the diffusion of the results of its investigations. One of the environmental problems, and therefore health, of greatest concern to researchers today is the antibioti [...] c resistance of bacteria that inhabit aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the presence of bacteria of clinical importance from the Almendares River in Havana, Cuba, as an ecosystem health problem and thus have a more complete vision on the analysis of problem situations about the actual ecological status of this ecosystem, which are being discussed in pre and postgraduate teaching. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined from 72 strains isolated in vitro on Almendares River through Bauer-Kirby method. The readings were carried out having in the catalogs of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Isolated resistant to cefalosporins of third and fourth generation were obtained, one isolated of Escherichia coli was resistant to nine different antibiotics, while isolated of Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also multiresistant. It was concluded that the presence of some resistant and multiresistant to antibiotics bacteria of clinical importance, in this river, constitute an important problem of ecosystem health, which at the same time, establishes a potential risk that affects the ecosystem services from which many people from Cuban capital depend.

  20. Welcome address to 30th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, 6 October 2008, Washington, D.C., USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RERTR meetings, of course, have a special role among our activities. They are important not only for what is presented in the formal technical sessions, but also for what takes place in the informal gatherings, side meetings, and personal encounters. The IAEA also has participated as an observer in the International Fuel Development Working Group, a highly important effort that is overseeing the multinational cooperative research and development effort for very high density LEU fuel. Remarkable achievements of GTRI are the conversion to LEU or final shutdown prior to conversion of 62 research reactors, the return to the United States of more than 1100 kg of spent HEU fuel and more than 1800 kg of spent LEU fuel and the return to Russia of more than 600 kg of spent and fresh HEU fuel. But while much has been achieved so far, vulnerabilities remain. HEU continues to be used for military purposes in a number of States; about 150 civilian and military research reactors are still using HEU and important quantities of fresh; and spent HEU fuel continues to be stored in different countries. All this calls for continued efforts, with a sense of urgency and more coherent global action. Some of the measures that might be taken are as follows: The countries involved should join forces to step up their efforts towards minimizing and eventually eliminating the civilian and in due course the military use of HEU. Financing and other incentives should be made available where needed to assist countries with conversion operations. All countries should agree to stop producing fissile material for use in nuclear weapons. The elements are already in place for such an agreement, in the form of the proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. It is high time to negotiate and conclude such a treaty. To build confidence, countries with civilian and military HEU stockpiles should declare the size of those stockpiles and publish a schedule under which the remaining HEU will be verifiably down blended. By investing in these measures, we could alleviate proliferation concerns associated with the continued uses of HEU and help reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism. I believe that this is an initiative in which all countries - Nuclear Weapon States and Non-Nuclear Weapon States alike - could play a role, and from which all would clearly benefit. The Agency stands ready to continue to take its share of this work through supporting and assisting its Member States in their efforts

  1. The Need for an Information Communication and Advocacy Strategy to Guide a Research Agenda to Address Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Khan, M; Freeman, Alexander J; Gessner, Bradford D; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant

    2015-11-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) is often not recognized clinically, and prevention of iNTS is largely ignored by policy planners and decision makers. During 2010, an estimated 3.4 million cases and 681 316 deaths occurred worldwide due to iNTS, with the largest estimated disease burden in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa. These figures likely underestimate global burden for several reasons, further complicating efforts to raise awareness of iNTS. To increase disease recognition and facilitate development of interventions, a communication and advocacy plan should be developed and implemented by actors in different sectors of global health, including researchers and scientists, funders, vaccine manufacturers, civil society organizations, and government officials from highly affected countries. PMID:26449955

  2. The communication problems of Spanish researchers to get research articles published in Applied Linguistics English-medium journals: proposal and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Ana I

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...

  3. Research on Potential Problem based on Singular Decomposition and Boundary FM-BEM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of low computational efficiency and high memory requirement in the conventional boundary element method for solving large-scale potential problems, a fast multipole boundary element method for the problems of Poisson equation is presented. First of all, through the multipole expansion and local expansion for the basic solution of the kernel function of the Poisson equation, the boundary integral equation of the fast multipole boundary element method for Poisson equation was obtained; secondly, the Laplasse transform is used for the Singularity processing treatment of Poisson equation; then, the realize the algorithm design of fast multipole boundary element method, the calculating flow of the algorithm is given; finally, a numerical example is given to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the fast multipole boundary element method.

  4. Current fouling problems of PVC film fills and research into new designs to eliminate fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fouling of film fills in power plant cooling towers represents a major problem in loss of performance of the cooling tower and loss of efficiency of the power plant. The results of this loss in performance is higher energy consumption to drive the fans to move air through the cooling tower in mechanical draft towers. Higher fuel consumption in plant operations or reduced peak load output and the discharge of warmer water which poses environmental concerns to our rivers and lakes. This paper discusses the effects of fouling on cooling tower performance and the current knowledge of how this fouling may occur, industry practices of controlling cleaning and eliminating the problem using new film fill products

  5. A Research on Structural Characteristics and Problems of Goat Breeding in Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.

  6. State and problems of scientific research automation in radiation damage physics in KFTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of automatization of theoretical and experimental investigations into physics of radiation damages at KhFTI of UkSSR Academy of Sciences have been considered. Main peculiarity is a complex approach to the automatization of experiment on materials technology envisaging the modelling of radiation effects, monitoring and control of materials irradiation at accelerators, centralized experimental data processing and interpretation of the results using mathematical models

  7. Overview of research trends and problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steels for pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cr-Mo low alloy steels have been used for a long time for pressure vessel due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high temperature strength and toughness. The paper reviewed the latest trends on material development and some problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steel for pressure vessel, such as elevated temperature strength, hardenability, synergetic effect between temper and hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen attack and hydrogen induced disbonding of overlay weld-cladding

  8. Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of China's Service Trade in the New Era

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijun Sheng; Kuo Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the 21st century, global trade competitions focus point has shifted from commodity trade to service trade. International trade in services shows some new trends. Although China's service trade has obtained fast development in recent years, they also have many problems. To adapt to the new trend of the development of international service trade, China should take some countermeasures to promote China's service trade has a high level of development. These countermeasures include accelerat...

  9. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented

  10. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, Russia MIREA, Faculty of Information Technology (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vasily V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shnourkoff, Peter V.; Ivanov, Alexey V. [National research university Higher school of economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

  11. Experiments in Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a complication of the short status reports on current experiments on intermediate energy physics and on high energy physics. The projects of new facilities and the results of radiobiological researches are presented

  12. Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor IRT-M and problems connected with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear research reactor IRT-2000 is described, along with modifications and upgrades made over the past three decades. Considerations are outlined which followed a decision to shut-down the reactor and to dismantle it. (author)

  13. Research on the Optimal Layout Problem for NC Machining Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of NC machining, the optimization processing of graphic layout is a well-studied problem which has practical application value for improving the utilization rate of raw materials and saving the cost of production. In this paper, a new design of genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for solving this problem. This improved genetic algorithm combines GA with the improved crossover operator and mutation operator. Moreover, the best individual preservation method is integrated into the algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm expands the search space and enhances the GA’s search capabilities. Furthermore, the maximum matching algorithm is proposed based on the lowest horizontal line algorithm, which effectively avoids blind elevating horizontal lines and improves the utilization rate of the lowest horizontal line. It is integrated with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the two-dimensional rectangular parts optimal layout problem which combines the advantages of two kinds of algorithms. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get a good optimization result.    

  14. The Progress, Problems and Forsight of Scholarship of Teaching Research in China Since 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaohong; Yule JIN; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000, Chinese researchers have introduced American ideology of scholarship of teaching (SoT), and conduct localizationas analysis on its definition, connotation and assessing standards, and initially form SoT theoretical framework based on Chinese reality. Researchers have carried out empirical investigations for Chinese SoT levels in universities, and discussed on overall design of Chinese university SoT system from such aspects as SoT cultivating system, value acceptance system, teach...

  15. Problem posing in teacher training and as a research object in didactics: two complementary perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie

    Montréal : Université de Montréal, 2009, s. 357-360. ISSN 1592-5137. [Pre-Proceedings CIEAEM 61: Mathematical activity in classroom practice and as a research object in didactics : two complementary perspectives. For the Memory of Claude Janvier. Montréal (CA), 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : mathematical education * teacher training * subject didactical competence Subject RIV: AM - Education

  16. Review : Public service motivation—practical problems, scientific evidence and the role of a research community

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenabeele, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323038816; Skelcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This review article introduces Public Money & Management's theme papers and articles on public service motivation (PSM). PSM has proven to be a promising road in creating public performance and public value and this theme brings it to an even wider audience, ensuring that policy-makers and those responsible for delivering public services worldwide are aware of the value of PSM research. The article also presents new findings about how best to further PSM research.

  17. Cooperation between Russian research organizations and industrial companies: factors and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Simachev, Yuri; Kuzyk, Mikhail; Feygina, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The study is focused on the cooperation of Russian companies with research organizations in implementing R&D projects during technological innovation. Taking into account behavioral changes, authors carry out a micro-level analysis based on empirical data of executive survey of over 600 Russian industrial firms (2011—2012) and about 350 research organizations and universities (2012). The authors emphasize the key factors of firms’ demand for outsourcing R&D reveal the main barriers to the dev...

  18. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  19. Present status of design, research and development of nuclear fusion reactors and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven years have elapsed since the publication of ''Progress of nuclear fusion research and perspective toward the development of power reactors'' by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in August, 1976. During this period, the research and development of nuclear fusion have changed from plasma physics to reactor technology, being conscious of the realization of fusion reactors. There are the R project in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, and the design and construction of JT-60 in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, to put it concretely. Now the research and development taking the economical efficiency into account are adopted. However, the type of fusion reactors is not reduced to tokamak type, accordingly the research and development to meet the diverse possibilities are forwarded. The progress of tokamak reactor research, core plasma design, nuclear design and shielding design, thermal structure design, the design of superconducting magnets, disassembling and repair, safety, economical efficiency, the conceptual design of other types than tokamak and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Teachers’ Problems and Misconceptions Relate to “Solar System And Beyond: Space Puzzle” Unit: A Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay ?ENEL ÇORUHLU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to emerge science and technology teachers problems and misconceptions relate to “The Solar System and Beyond: Space Puzzle” Unit. Case study research method was used in this study. The sample of the study consisted of 10 science and technology teachers. Semi structured interview question and observation form were used in the data collection process. Semi structured interview conducted with 10 science and technology teachers. Observation study was done in 2 science and technology teachers’ class. These observations take 14 hours. At the end of the study; it was found that teachers faced problems to attract students’ attention to the unit. Also half of the teachers faced difficulty to answer students’ problems because of the insufficient content knowledge. Textbook including misconception relate to planet orbits can led to teachers’ misconceptions