WorldWideScience

Sample records for research problem addressed

  1. Using group method of teaching to address the problem of large class size: an action research.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintah, Emmanuel Kofi

    2014-01-01

    Large class sizes in Ghanaians schools with its attendants problems are major factors for the dwindling academic performance of students in Ghana. To solve this, means reducing the number of students which implies depriving some children from their right to education or building more schools and employing more staff which will bloat government expenditure. This paper brings to light the best and innovative method of addressing the problem of large class sizes. Test, interview, ...

  2. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. PMID:22525104

  3. Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

  4. Islamic Education Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

  5. Addressing some Common Problems in Transcript Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2001-01-01

    Computer conferencing is one of the more useful parts of computer-mediated communications (CMC), and is virtually ubiquitous in distance education. The temptation to analyze the resulting interaction has resulted in only partial success, however (Henri, 1992; Kanuka and Anderson, 1998; Rourke, Anderson, Garrison and Archer, 1999; Fahy, Crawford, Ally, Cookson, Keller and Prosser, 2000). Some suggest the problem is made more complex by failings of both technique and, more seriously, theory cap...

  6. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB)

  7. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  8. Improving ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn K. Davies

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex problems often result from the multiple interactions between human activities and ecosystems. The interconnected nature of ecological and social systems should be considered if these "wicked problems" are to be addressed. Ecosystem service approaches provide an opportunity to link ecosystem function with social values, but in practice the essential role that social dynamics play in the delivery of outcomes remains largely unexplored. Social factors such as management regimes, power relationships, skills, and values, can dramatically affect the definition and delivery of ecosystem services. Input from a diverse group of stakeholders improves the capacity of ecosystem service approaches to address wicked problems by acknowledging diverse sets of values and accounting for conflicting world views. Participatory modeling can incorporate both social and ecological dynamics into decision making that involves stakeholders, but is itself a complex social undertaking that may not yield precise or predictable outcomes. We explore the efficacy of different types of participatory modeling in relation to the integration of social values into ecosystem services frameworks and the generation of four important elements of social capital needed to address wicked problems: enhancing social learning and capacity building; increasing transparency; mediating power; and building trust. Our findings indicate that mediated modeling, group mapping, and mental/conceptual modeling are likely to generate elements of social capital that can improve ecosystem service frameworks. Participatory simulation, system dynamic modeling, and Bayesian belief networks, if utilized in isolation, were found to have a low likelihood of generating the social capital needed to improve ecosystem services frameworks. Scenario planning, companion modeling, group model building, and participatory mapping all generate a moderate to high level of social capital elements that improve the capacity of ecosystem service frameworks to address wicked problems.

  9. Problems in Biotechnology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Jamal and Hamzah M. Salleh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the challenges posed by the growing population of the world, biotechnology research is being pursued in all countries. In the area of medicine remarkable success has been achieved. It is believed that in future this trend will continue. In the area food also scientists and technocrats have shown considerable success, but in this area they have not received appreciation because of many objections. The paper discusses issues pertaining to biotechnology researches, because if these issues are not thoroughly discussed and problems are not hammered out, biotechnology researches will go on but will fail to serve the humanity.Key Words: biodiversity, biotechnology, cloning, germ cell, genetic materials, biosafety.

  10. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  11. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  12. Beyond Open Big Data: Addressing Unreliable Research

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J.; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture...

  13. Asia/Pacific moves to address mountainous waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a serious lack of chemical waste treatment units in the Asia/Pacific region. In many countries a lack of infrastructure, coupled with scant or no legislation or enforcement, results in significant amounts of chemical waste being dumped without proper treatment. The exception is Japan, which has substantial incineration, treatment, and landfill capabilities. Japan's chemical industry generates more than 14 million m.t./year of waste, which is reduced to 2.51 million m.t./year after treatment and recycling. Chemical companies operating in Asia/Pacific countries that do not have authorized waste contractors and disposal plants have few options. They can treat wastes inhouse, increase recycling, ship wastes outside for treatment, or store wastes onsite. Some companies, such as Monsanto (St. Louis), claim to have managed to avoid producing any final wastes. The company's farm chemicals plant in Malaysia is one example - even the drums used to transport raw materials to the site have been replaced with returnable containers. Chiba (Basel) also has invested in cutting waste. The Swiss firm's dyestuffs plant at Candra Sari, Indonesia cut primary pollution by 90%, while product output rose 12% - a result of changing operations procedures and capital investment of only $6,500. A number of countries have started to address the industrial waste problem - foremost is Hong Kong, which is currently commissioning one of the first chemical waste treatment centers in the region. Other countries planning integrated waste treatment facilities include Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, and China

  14. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  15. Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

  16. Cross Clustering Heuristics for addressing the Manufacturing Cell Formation problem

    OpenAIRE

    De Guio, Roland

    1992-01-01

    This paper, written in 1992, summarizes and regroups in one paper several cross clustering algorithms that are presented in my PhD memoire in French and that are referred to or presented partially in several of my papers. They are also implemented in several recent applications (2010) for manufacturing flows analysis and used in other context like inventive problem solving (2009). It is also used to compare its performance towards meta-heuristics that include the functions performed by these ...

  17. Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Godor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

  18. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  19. Research Activities Addressing the Fuel Design of Lead Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the 1990s, ENEA Brasimone Research Centre operates several experimental facilities aimed at supporting the research on LBE and lead systems, such as ADS and LFR. The experimental activities are related to thermal- hydraulics, heat exchange, science of materials, and qualification of components. Experimental loops operated at ENEA and an experiment addressing the compatibility of structural materials to withstand with aggressive coolants (i.e. Lead and LBE), at high temperature and high dose rate are described in this paper. These loops have been also operated for supporting the research related to the selection of the cladding materials for ADS and LRF technologies. The paper provides an overview of the recent and future activities devoted to material development. (author)

  20. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  1. Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 154485.html Researchers Explore Memory Problems Related to Parkinson's Brain scans revealed changes in white and gray ... Sept. 4, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many people with Parkinson's disease have memory problems, researchers report. The study ...

  2. Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

  3. Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

  4. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  5. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are removed or mitigated, yet most R and D is conducted by rich countries and focused on rich-country problems, not on tropical agriculture and medicine. 'If it were true that the poor were just like the rich but with less money, the global situation would be vastly easier than it is. As it happens, the poor live in different ecological zones, face different health conditions and must overcome agronomic limitations that are very different from those of rich countries. Those differences, indeed, are often a fundamental cause of persisting poverty....(For example)...populations are burdened by diseases such as malaria, hookworm, sleeping sickness and schistosomiasis, whose transmission generally depends on a warm climate....' '...poor food productivity in the tropics is not merely a problem of poor social organization....Using current technologies and seed types, the tropics are inherently less productive in annual food crops. Most agriculture in the equatorial tropics is of very low productivity....Scientific advances again offer great hope. Biotechnology could mobilise genetic engineering to breed hardier plants that are more resistant to drought and less sensitive to pests....(and) there are dozens, or perhaps hundreds, of underused foodstuffs that are well adapted to the tropics and could be improved through directed biotechnology research. Such R and D is now all but lacking in the poorest countries.' In tackling all these problems, Prof. Sachs remains very sanguine both about the ability of science and technology to solve them, as well as about the role that the UN agencies can play in implementing those solutions. '...rich and poor countries should direct their urgent attention to the mobilisation of science and technology for poor-country problems. The rich countries should understand that the IMF and World Bank are by themselves not equipped for that challenge. The specialised UN agencies have a great role to play, especially of they act as a bridge between the activities of advanced-country and developing-country scientific centres.' (author)

  6. Addressing the Cosmic Coincidence Problem in f(T) Gravity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Prabir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(T) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(T) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f(T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that there exists a perfect solution for the coincidence problem in the background of the second model while the first model remains utterly plagued by the phenomenon. This not only shows the cosmological viability but also the superiority of the second model over its counterpart.

  7. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Le Cordeur

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12. According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this article is on the significant number of learners in the intermediate phase who experience reading problems and the generic causes of reading problems for learners in general. The intent is to alert teachers and parents to the characteristics of a struggling reader so that the problem can be identified and addressed early. Firstly, ways in which learning problems are manifested are described. Secondly, a discussion of various types of reading problems, of which four, namely poor reading comprehension, inadequate reading fluency, a lack of vocabulary and a negative attitude towards reading, are discussed in depth. Strategies for struggling readers are presented and recommendations are made. The conclusion is that learners who experience reading problems can learn to read successfully when given the necessary support.

  8. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?uri?-Jo?i? Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  9. A hybrid QFD-based approach in addressing supplier selection problem in product improvement process

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about creating a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the best supplier is selected considering changing customer needs. In most previous studies employing a QFD approach, the possibility of changing customer needs is ignored. On the other hand, supplier selection is a challenging problem that could have been addressed by such a QFD. This paper attempts to create a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the internal relations between the elements are considered. It connects the new QF...

  10. Research governance: panacea or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Ash; Samanta, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research must meet contemporary professional, legal and ethical standards. Research governance aims to improve quality whilst safeguarding the interests of the public. Research on humans is covered by several internationally recognised ethical codes designed to protect persons from the hazards of experimental treatment. However, to date there is no overarching statutory framework that regulates health and social care research, which is governed by common law principles. The recent European Union Clinical Trials Directive aims to harmonise regulation of clinical trials and protect the interest of study participants. Approval by the new Central Office for Research Ethics Committees (COREC) is now a mandatory requirement for research projects in the UK to ensure stringent ethical standards. Research that involves NHS patients, staff, resources or premises is subject to a framework for research governance that monitors performance and adverse incidents and delineates lines of responsibility and accountability. Researchers at all levels must be fully aware of these new initiatives and of their responsibilities. NHS organisations should acknowledge and commit to clinical research as an intrinsic component of high quality health service delivery. PMID:16011214

  11. Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

    2011-01-01

    At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

  12. Increasing value and reducing waste : addressing inaccessible research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian

    2014-01-01

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets.

  13. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H Bart

    2014-01-18

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. PMID:24411650

  14. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to other Universities/Instition/Organisations for case studies. Under the new millennium context resurgence of global interest in web-based Open, distance and e-learning (ODEL has been proved to be potentially useful strategy for human development issues, particularly due to the evolution of fast-growing as well as net-working new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. The study reveals that though ODEL has been found widely used in many reputed and world leading universities in UK for higher studies leading to degrees, diploma and certificates on arts, general & environmental sciences as well the commerce subjects, and trainings for professional developments etc. The application ODEL especially in higher agricultural education and training leading to MScs and PhDs is almost scanty except a few cases of Fisheries and Livestock, the two sections of Agriculture in the Universities like the University of Sterling, University of Edinburgh and the University of London (Royal Veterinary College etc. But in cases of other major areas of Agricultural subjects such as the crop sciences including Agronomy, Soil science, Crop botany, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Genetics & Pl. Breeding, Agric. Extension Education, Agric. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agro forestry, Biotechnology, Seed Sci. & Techno. Farm Structure, Farm Power & Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management, Food Tech. & Rural Farm Industry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable a

  15. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly alig...

  16. Addressing the Challenges of Research With Small Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korngiebel, Diane M; Taualii, Maile; Forquera, Ralph; Harris, Raymond; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-09-01

    Public health policy relies on accurate data, which are often unavailable for small populations, especially indigenous groups. Yet these groups have some of the worst health disparities in the United States, making it an ethical imperative to explore creative solutions to the problem of insufficient data. We discuss the limits of widely applied methods of data aggregation and propose a mixed-methods approach to data borrowing as a way to augment sample sizes. In this approach, community partners assist in selecting related populations that make suitable "neighbors" to enlarge the data pool. The result will be data that are substantial, accurate, and relevant to the needs of small populations, especially for health-related policy and decision-making at all levels. PMID:26180955

  17. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far from simple. In fact, it is considered hard, complex, and of crucial importance. A number of criteria concerning personal interest, continuity with previous work, the danger of getting stuck, and how fellow mathematicians will respond to the findings are considered when mathematicians think about whether to approach a specific problem. These results add to previous investigations of mathematicians’ practice and suggest that mathematics education research could further investigate how students select and develop problems, work with multiple problems over a longer period of time, and use the solutions to problems to support the development of new problems. Furthermore, the negative emotional aspects of being stuck in problem solving and students’ conceptions of solvability and relevance of or interest in a mathematical problem are areas of research suggested by our study.

  18. Research: A Five Faceted Problem Solving Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Five concepts are discussed in order to explain that research is a multifacted problem-solving process: (1) analysis of a concept, its context, and data analysis; (2) treatment or experience; (3) representativeness; (4) measurement, and (5) logic. (GDC)

  19. Research on problem solving in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Gangoso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Based an in depth bibliographical study, problem solving in science is focused from the point of view of the underlying psychological theories and of explaining factors – such as the nature of the task, the problem solver, and the context – aiming at supporting additional research on this field. A brief presentation of Gowin’s Vee is included as a heuristic tool to critically analyse research studies.

  20. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation provision. Results The studies both demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach of research to action, adopting three pillars of assessment and monitoring; advocacy; and community empowerment. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project study, the participation of managers meant that their support for implementation was increased, although the failure to include nurses and communities in the study was noted as a limitation. The development of a community Water and Sanitation Forum to support the Project had some notable successes, but also experienced some difficulties due to lack of capacity in both the community and the municipality. Conclusion The two very different, but connected projects, demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach, and the importance of involvement of all stakeholders at all stages. The studies also illustrate the potential of a research institution as informed 'outsiders', in influencing policy and practice.

  1. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R.; Agarwal, S.; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    ?? Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  2. Gone… but not away : Addressing the problem of long-term impacts from landfills in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope: Land filling of materials with content of toxic metals or highly persistent organic compounds has posed a problem for life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners for many years. The slow release from the landfill entails a dilution in time, which is dramatic compared to other emissions occurring in the life cycle, and with its focus on the emitted mass, LCA is poorly equipped to handle this difference. As a consequence, the long-term emissions from landfills occurring over thousands of years are often disregarded, which is unacceptable to many stakeholders considering the quantities of toxic substances that can be present. On the other hand, inclusion of all future emissions (over thousands of years) in the inventories potentially dominates all other impacts from the product system. The paper aims to present a pragmatic approach to address this dilemma. Materials and methods: Two new impact categories are introduced representing the stored ecotoxicity and stored human toxicity of thecontaminants remaining in the landfill after a ‘foreseeable’ time period of 100 years. The impact scores are calculated using the normal characterisation factors for the ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories, and they represent the toxicity potentials of what remains in the landfill after 100 years (hence the term ‘stored’ (eco)toxicity). Normalisation references are developed for the stored toxicity categories based on Danish figures to support comparison with indicator scores for the conventional environmental impact categories. In contrast to the scores for the conventional impact categories, it is uncertain to what extent the stored toxicity scores represent emissions, which will occur at all. Guidance is given on how to reflect this uncertainty in the weighting and interpretation of the scores. Results and discussion: In landfills and road constructions used to deposit residuals from incinerators, less than 1% of the content of metals is leached within the first 100 years. The stored toxicityscores are therefore much higher than the conventional impact scores that represent the actual emissions. Several examples are given illustrating the use and potential significance of the stored toxicity categories. Conclusions and perspectives: The methodology to calculate stored human and ecotoxicity is a simple and pragmatic approach to address LCA’s problem of treating the slow´long-term emissions at very low concentrations appropriately. The problem resides in the inventory analysis and the impact assessment, and the methodology circumvents the problem by converting it into a weighting and interpretation issue accommodating the value-based discussion of how to weight potential effects in the far future.

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  4. RESEARCH INTEGRITY IN CHINA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Resnik, David; ZENG, WEIQIN

    2010-01-01

    In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the conduct of research. China’s leaders have taken some steps to respond to these problems, such as developing ethics policies and establishing oversight committees. To keep moving forward, China needs to con...

  5. Opening Address SEER 2003: Got Research in Experiential Education? Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    2004-01-01

    In a speech at the Symposium for Experiential Education Research 2003, Henderson discusses the importance of theory in building a body of knowledge. She says that to use information to create a body of knowledge, researchers must continue to develop and apply theory, and to address the emerging opportunities for evidence-based research and…

  6. Current topics in opioid therapy for pain management: addressing the problem of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casty, Frank E; Wieman, Matthew S; Shusterman, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Opioids are an established therapy for cancer pain and have become an accepted therapy for chronic noncancer pain. However, increased prescribing of opioids in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in prescription opioid abuse. All opioids have inherent potential for abuse, but gaps in healthcare provider understanding of or adherence to best prescribing practices may facilitate the misdirection of opioids for abuse. To address these concerns, the US Food and Drug Administration has required pharmaceutical manufacturers to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) for prescribers of extended-release/long-acting (ER/LA) opioids and has encouraged research to develop opioid formulations that are less easily abused or less attractive for abuse. The ER/LA opioid REMS require a partnership between the pharmaceutical industry, regulators, and healthcare providers to develop educational materials for physicians and patients that are not promotional. This article addresses challenges associated with improving the quality of pain care through support of prescriber education, developing formulations that combine efficacy with tamper-resistant properties, and encouraging collaborative efforts by regulatory bodies, legislators, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups to achieve these ends. PMID:23740336

  7. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    2013-01-01

    Finding ones way through empirical research in a construction project can be a challenging affair. Reflections about the uncertainty that relates to the researchers work when he/she is collecting data and construction knowledge in empirical studies of construction projects, is an area that could be elaborated more upon (Pink et. al., 2010). Getting access, formulating strategies for analyses, finding concepts and selecting methods such as participant observations and interviews are often problem...

  8. Research problems in Portugal run deep

    OpenAIRE

    Cerca, Nuno; Lopes, J.; Jorge, M.

    2014-01-01

    As founders of the Portuguese National Association of Researchers in Science and Technology (ANICT), we believe that research problems in the country run deeper than just funding (see Nature 507, 306; 2014).Evaluation procedures for recruitment, career progression and funding allocation are in need of fundamental reform. They must become more transparent and be based solely on merit. Selection for nationally funded PhD and postdoc scholarships, for example, is beset by conflicting interests a...

  9. Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke

    2004-01-01

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

  10. The Problem with "Formal" Research Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Dona De

    A course in advanced English as a second language that focused on the writing of formal research papers revealed that even students who had chosen personally interesting topics and were able to organize facts and present them well still had difficulty. They had problems beginning and ending their papers, they approached their topics warily, and…

  11. Bibliographical Problems in Research on Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Notes that the research consequences of current problems in composition bibliography have not been widely understood. Explores four special features of the composition field that have made bibliographic control difficult: (1) field demarcation; (2) taxonomy and terminology; (3) publication format, purpose, and intended audience; and (4)…

  12. Advanced Research Workshop on Nonlinear Hyperbolic Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Denis; Raviart, Pierre-Arnaud

    1987-01-01

    The field of nonlinear hyperbolic problems has been expanding very fast over the past few years, and has applications - actual and potential - in aerodynamics, multifluid flows, combustion, detonics amongst other. The difficulties that arise in application are of theoretical as well as numerical nature. In fact, the papers in this volume of proceedings deal to a greater extent with theoretical problems emerging in the resolution of nonlinear hyperbolic systems than with numerical methods. The volume provides an excellent up-to-date review of the current research trends in this area.

  13. How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

    2013-04-01

    Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

  14. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

    2005-12-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

  15. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  16. Security and Health Research Databases: The Stakeholders and Questions to Be Addressed

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Health research database security issues abound. Issues include subject confidentiality, data ownership, data integrity and data accessibility. There are also various stakeholders in database security. Each of these stakeholders has a different set of concerns and responsibilities when dealing with security issues. There is an obvious need for training in security issues, so that these issues may be addressed and health research will move on without added obstacles based on misunderstanding s...

  17. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  18. "Who Are You Calling a Problem?": Addressing Transphobia and Homophobia through School Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutzenheiser, Lisa W.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a detailed analysis of two school board-level policies in British Columbia, Canada that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer and transgender, Two Spirit (LGBQ and TT) youth to demonstrate how the language of the policy holds meaning and re/produces particular knowledges. Rather than offer an analysis that…

  19. Efforts to Empower Teachers in Ethiopia to Address Local Environmental Problems: Achievements and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalelo, Aklilu

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…

  20. A Blueprint to Address Research Gaps in the Development of Biomarkers for Pediatric Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Mark Patrick; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Browning, Renee; Click, Eleanor S; Cuevas, Luis E; Detjen, Anne; Graham, Steve M; Levin, Michael; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Nahid, Payam; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Reither, Klaus; Song, Rinn; Spiegel, Hans M L; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J; Walzl, Gerhard

    2015-10-15

    Childhood tuberculosis contributes significantly to the global tuberculosis disease burden but remains challenging to diagnose due to inadequate methods of pathogen detection in paucibacillary pediatric samples and lack of a child-specific host biomarker to identify disease. Accurately diagnosing tuberculosis in children is required to improve case detection, surveillance, healthcare delivery, and effective advocacy. In May 2014, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop including researchers in the field to delineate priorities to address this research gap. This blueprint describes the consensus from the workshop, identifies critical research steps to advance this field, and aims to catalyze efforts toward harmonization and collaboration in this area. PMID:26409279

  1. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Le Cordeur

    2011-01-01

    The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12). According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this articl...

  2. Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

    2004-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

  3. A community-based approach to translational research addressing breast cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Mason, Mondi; Turner, Jerome; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Chow, Marie; Hine, R. Jean; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Greene, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in breast cancer survival rates suggest that biological processes contribute. Translational research addressing health disparities would benefit from using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) to examine biological processes commonly seen as the proximal causes of illness as well as behavioral and social-ecological “causes of the causes” within an integrated conceptual framework. This paper describes a CBPR study that explored perceptions regarding breast cancer relevan...

  4. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  5. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  6. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

  7. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  8. Capital, liquidity standards and macro prudential policy tools in financial supervision: addressing sovereign debt problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    During the recent Financial Crisis, as well as the 2010 and ongoing European Sovereign Debt Crisis, several governments had/have had to raise their debt levels in order to stabilize their economies. The principal problem attributed to sovereign debts, which is linked to their characteristics, is the possibility of defaults occurring in relation to these – since they are usually accompanied without collaterals. The possibilities of such defaults occurring are further increased where bailouts a...

  9. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H.

    2005-01-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada’s remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow’s milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalenc...

  10. Using mixed methods for addressing researcher’s safety in a conflict area: an innovative use of mixed methods research in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Takavarasha Jr, Sam; Bednar, Peter; Adams, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Conducting robust research in a conflict or post-conflict area is complicated by concern for the researcher?s safety and the difficulty of reaching remote areas. In this paper we open a new frontier in mixed methods (MM) research by demonstrating how it can be used to address safety concerns. We used qualitative and quantitative work carried out in and outside the conflict zone to overcome the challenges of conducting Information Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) research in Zi...

  11. Research mathematicians’ practices in selecting mathematical problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Johansen, Mikkel Willum

    2015-01-01

    Developing abilities to create, inquire into, qualify, and choose among mathematical problems is an important educational goal. In this paper, we elucidate how mathematicians work with mathematical problems in order to understand this mathematical process. More specifically, we investigate how mathematicians select and pose problems and discuss to what extent our results can be used to inform, criticize, and develop educational practice at various levels. Selecting and posing problems is far fro...

  12. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  13. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID; Johnson, Hazel; Clark, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL) programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to ot...

  14. An integrated modeling approach for identifying promising technologies to address waste management problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A panel of technical experts is responsible for evaluating over 400 technology proposals in order to identify a limited number of the most promising for potential use in a future plutonium processing facility. A problem-driven, integrated modeling, decision-support framework has been conceptualized to facilitate this decision making effort. This integrated approach to planning utilizes a variety of modeling structures including Flowsheeting, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Linear and Goal Programming, and Object-Oriented Discrete Event Simulation. These models have been instrumental in improving communication among scientists, planners and model builders; increasing understanding of the potential for certain plutonium process technologies; providing insights into process technology interrelationships; and promoting a relatively objective basis for recommending further development for a select set of evolving process technologies. (author) 4 figs., 11 refs

  15. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM architectures on Exascale computing systems.

  16. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  17. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  18. Researching wicked problems in a construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter Holm

    Finding ones way through empirical research in a construction project can be a challenging affair. Reflections about the uncertainty that relates to the researchers work when he/she is collecting data and construction knowledge in empirical studies of construction projects, is an area that could be elaborated more upon (Pink et. al., 2010). Getting access, formulating strategies for analyses, finding concepts and selecting methods such as participant observations and interviews are often problematic aspects, that influences the knowledge that researchers produces in a number of ways that relates to empirical research.I will argue that uncertainty is an important aspect of doing empirical research because the empirical research is a part of a situated learning process and that uncertain situations are a central part of conducting empirical research.I will use an example from my study of the early phases of a construction project – a process competition - to argue why I think it is important and valuable to reflect upon how researchers learn when she/he participate in social practices.My perspective on the researchers role is inspired by social practice theory such as theories of situated learning (Lave, 1988) and critical psychology (Axel, 2002; Dreier, 2008; Højholt & Kousholt, 2011). Situated learning theories have developed some valuable methodologies that can be used to study learning as an aspect of social practices and critical psychology have expanded theories of situated learning by arguing that the researcher is learning in the social practices that are being researched.

  19. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

    2013-04-01

    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

  20. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

    2013-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

  1. Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M.R., Vasconcelos; M.C., Cassimiro; M.F.M., Martins; M., Palacios.

    2013-12-02

    Full Text Available In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and co [...] nflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

  2. About research problems of historic territories.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Istanbul : UTEA, 2005, s. 51-54 ISBN 975-395-866-8. [ICOMOS/CIVVIH Istanbul 2005. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2005-24.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : European construction technology platform * research on historic cities and territories * 7th Framework Programme EC Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. The Many Problems with Quantum Mechanics from the Earliest Days on and How the Theory of Quantum Mechanics on Phase Space Addresses Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2015-12-01

    We review the problems with quantum mechanics by translating or interpreting leading specialists in the field. Then we obtain a theory called quantum mechanics on phase space which is immune to these problems. Finally, we see how these problems are addressed by quantum mechanics on phase space.

  4. Digital instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technologies: Issues and current research [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plantwide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology. To respond to technology challenges, roadmaps for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) are being developed. These roadmapping efforts address technology gaps, technology maturity, and technology experience by establishing a comprehensive, systematic approach to meet high-priority technological needs. The first RD and D objective is to identify and eliminate technology gaps that may constrain measurement, monitoring, control, or protection. The second RD and D objective is to ensure technology maturity so that needed methods, tools, equipment, or other products are available with a sound infrastructure. The third RD and D objective is to demonstrate performance and resolve licensing and usage uncertainty. This presentation summarizes the key elements of an ICHMI technology roadmap and discusses current research activities. (author)

  5. NASA DEVELOP Program: Students Extending Earth Science Research to Address Community Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A. L.; Ross, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Eight years ago, several students at NASA Langley Research Center launched the DEVELOP Program. DEVELOP is now at six NASA centers and is a program element of the NASA Applied Sciences Human Capital Development Program that extends the use of Earth observation sources to address Earth science issues in local communities. Students in the program strengthen their leadership and academic skills by analyzing scientific data, experimenting with novel technology, and engaging in cooperative interactions. Graduate, undergraduate and high school students from across the United States collaborate to integrate NASA space-based Earth observation sources and partner agencies' science data, models and decision support tools. Information from these collaborations result in rapid prototype projects addressing local policy and environmental issues. Following a rigorous 10-week term, DEVELOP students present visual products demonstrating the application of NASA scientific information to community leaders at scientific and public policy forums such as the American Geophysical Union (AGU), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and the Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB). Submission of written products to peer-reviewed scientific publications and other public databases is also done. Student experiences and interactions working with NASA data, advanced technological programs and community leaders have, and continue to prove, beneficial to student professional development. DEVELOP's human capital development focus affords students real world experience, making them a valuable asset to the scientific and global community and to the continuation of a scientifically aware society. NASA's DEVELOP Program is more than scientific exploration and valuable results; DEVELOP fosters human capital development by bridging the gap between NASA science research and federal, state, local and tribal resource managers.

  6. Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangling, Wei

    1983-01-01

    Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

  7. Problem-Solving Research with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Norman

    This study examined whether analogy or means-ends strategies (heuristics) would be used to solve geometric puzzle-like problems, which were generated by a microcomputer. The subjects in the two-group experiment were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Potsdam College (New York). One group of subjects learned…

  8. Problem Solving: Polya's Heuristic Applied to Psychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarin, Suzanne K.

    Using the "How to Solve It" list developed by Polya as a vehicle of comparison, research findings and key concepts from the psychological study of problem solving are applied to mathematical problem solving. Hypotheses concerning the interpretation of psychological phenomena for mathematical problem situations are explored. Several areas of needed…

  9. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  10. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  11. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Willmott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

  12. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  13. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  14. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  15. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

  16. Problems and experience of research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the IAEA research reactor database there are about 300 research reactors worldwide. At present above 30% of them have lifetime more than 35 years, 60% - more then 25 years. After the Chernobyl accident significant efforts have been made by many countries to modernize old research reactors aiming, first of all, at ensuring of its safe operation. However, a large number of aging research reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Before developing the design and planning of the works it is necessary to define the concept of the reactor decommissioning. It is defined by the time of the beginning of dismantling works after the reactor shutdown and the finite state of the reactor site.The concept of the reactor decommissioning provides 3 variants in a general case: reactor conservation, or partial dismantling, or complete dismantling to 'green field' state. Specialists of three International institutions (European Commission, IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have developed a detailed plan of all actions and operations on nuclear power plants decommissioning in the framework of a joint project for cost assessment. For the reactor decontamination the following main constructions, equipment and devices are necessary: temporary storage facility for the spent fuel; general site-dismantling equipment including manipulators and 'hot' cells; facilities for 'active' equipment, personnel, tooling and washing decontamination; equipment for concentration of liquid and compactness of solid radioactive waste; temporary storage facility for radioactive waste; instrumentation and radiometric devices including , ?,?,?-spectrometers; transportable containers and other means for transportation of fuel and radioactive materials

  17. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  18. Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research : A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem, 4. rely on first-order perspectives to see themselves as perspectives, and 5. be based on other rules than first-order research. Implications: The perspectivist insights of second-order science provide a new way of understanding interdisciplinary research that leads to new polyocular methods and research designs. It also points to more reflexive ways of dealing with scientific expertise in democratic processes. The main challenge is that this is a paradigmatic shift, which demands that the involved disciplines, at least to some degree, subscribe to a perspectivist view. Constructivist content: Our perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce.

  19. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact

  20. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  1. [Selected research problems of anthrax vaccine development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowska, Dorota; Kocik, Janusz; Bartoszcze, Micha?

    2009-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with B. anthracis against civilian population is one of major concern. After successful bioterroristic attack in 2001 in US renewed research interest has prompted in the development of new and more effective vaccine against anthrax. There are two licensed vaccines against anthrax--AVA-Bio-Thrax US and UK--sterile culture filtrate prepared by alum precipitation. Both vaccines are based on PA antigen. There are several concerns regarding PA based vaccines. They require six sc injections and yearly booster, high rates of local reaction after vaccination is observed, the immunity is not long lasting, vaccination do not protect animals against different strains of B. anthracis. New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines have been presented (recombinant PA, subunits vaccine, mutants, conjugated). Using proteomic approaches new antigens have been also identified as candidates for future vaccines. More effective and easy to perform methods of vaccination have been reviewed. PMID:20120948

  2. Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

  3. Underfunding of stroke research: a Europe-wide problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Pendlebury, ST; Rothwell, PM; Algra, A.; Ariesen, MJ; Bakac, G; Czlonkowska, A.; Dachenhausen, A; Krespi, Y; Kõrv, J; Krolikowski, K; Kulesh, S; Michel, P.; Thomassen, L.; BOGOUSSLAVSKY, J; Brainin, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies in the United States and the United Kingdom have shown that stroke research is underfunded compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cancer research despite the high clinical and financial burden of stroke. We aimed to determine whether underfunding of stroke research is a Europe-wide problem. METHODS: Data for the financial year 2000 to 2001 were collected from 9 different European countries. Information on stroke, CHD, and cancer research fundin...

  4. A Simulated Research Problem for Undergraduate Metamorphic Petrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Roddy V.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a laboratory problem in metamorphic petrology designed to simulate a research experience. The problem deals with data on scales ranging from a geologic map to hand specimens to thin sections. Student analysis includes identifying metamorphic index minerals, locating their isograds on the map, and determining the folding sequence. (BC)

  5. Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mossey Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

  6. Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, I. Lee

    2005-01-01

    We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

  7. A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

    2012-12-01

    In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice teachers' conceptions and perceptions about climate change, as well as the difficulties in engaging in evidence-based argumentation, have informed and enhanced the framework for development of the CSI: South Florida curriculum. The modules are sequenced according to the proposed learning progression. First, students are introduced to the nature of science and Earth's energy balance. Students then investigate the temporal and spatial temperature data to answer the question of whether Earth is warming. Students also compare natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change, investigate the various observed and projected consequences of climate change in the fourth module, and examine ways to mitigate the effects of and adapt to climate change. Finally, students learn how to refute skeptics' claims by providing counter evidence and reasoning of why the skeptics' claim is not the appropriate explanation. This paper describes our conceptual framework for teaching students how to address the skeptics' claims using the content learned in the CSI: South Florida curriculum and evidence-based argumentation.

  8. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  9. Ultra-brief intervention for problem drinkers: research protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Wild Cameron; Neighbors Clayton; Cunningham John A; Humphreys Keith

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Helping the large number of problem drinkers who will never seek treatment is a challenging issue. Public health initiatives employing educational materials or mass media campaigns have met with mixed success. However, clinical research has developed effective brief interventions to help problem drinkers. This project will employ an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as a public health int...

  10. CYANOBACTERIA, CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS & USEPA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as th...

  11. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  12. Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

  13. Private Property Rights and Selective Private Forest Conservation: Could a Nordic Hybrid Policy Address a United States Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia’s current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

  14. Problems in cancer treatment and major research of integrative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Quan LING

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: There exist some problems in the present cancer treatment, such as: (1) prevalence of excessive treatment; (2) lack of long-term research plan; (3) lack of reasonable comprehensive treatment; (4) lack of operative individualized treatment; (5) the superiority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was undervalued and underused. Integrative medicine should play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further research should be carried out in the following aspects:...

  15. Using lectins in biomarker research: addressing the limitations of sensitivity and availability

    OpenAIRE

    Haab, Brian B.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates have fundamental roles throughout biology, yet they have not been as well studied as proteins and nucleic acids, in part due to limitations in the experimental tools. Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. This article addresses two limita...

  16. Academic Institutions and One Health: Building Capacity for Transdisciplinary Research Approaches to Address Complex Health Issues at the Animal-Human-Ecosystem Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Scott, Lisa K; Buntain, Bonnie; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Meisser, Andrea; Thomas, Christopher James

    2015-07-01

    To improve health at the human, animal, and ecosystem interface, defined as One Health, training of researchers must transcend individual disciplines to develop a new process of collaboration. The transdisciplinary research approach integrates frameworks and methodologies beyond academic disciplines and includes involvement of and input from policy makers and members of the community. The authors argue that there should be a significant shift in academic institutions' research capacity to achieve the added value of a transdisciplinary approach for addressing One Health problems. This Perspective is a call to action for academic institutions to provide the foundations for this salient shift. The authors begin by describing the transdisciplinary approach, propose methods for building transdisciplinary research capacity, and highlight three value propositions that support the case. Examples are provided to illustrate how the transdisciplinary approach to research adds value through improved sustainability of impact, increased cost-effectiveness, and enhanced abilities to mitigate potentially harmful unintended consequences. The authors conclude with three key recommendations for academic institutions: (1) a focus on creating enabling environments for One Health and transdisciplinary research, (2) the development of novel funding structures for transdisciplinary research, and (3) training of "transmitters" using real-world-oriented educational programs that break down research silos through collaboration across disciplines. PMID:25650827

  17. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stauffacher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

  18. Electronic media: the problem of choosing research approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgaleeva L. V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.

  19. Data, Problems, Heuristics and Results in Cognitive Metaphor Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Andras; Rakosi, Csilla; Csatar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive metaphor research is characterized by the diversity of rival theories. Starting from this observation, the paper focuses on the problem of how the unity and diversity of cognitive theories of metaphor can be accounted for. The first part of the paper outlines a suitable metascientific approach which emerges as a modification of B. von…

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is an honour for me to make this opening address on behalf of the European Commission which has cooperated with the International Atomic Energy Agency in organizing this Conference, and in particular on behalf of Hans Forsstroem from the Directorate-General, Research, who will arrive only later this week. Protection of the environment is, and will continue to be, an important consideration in the development and application of soundly based radiation protection standards. Current standards rest largely on the premise that, in protecting man, the environment is afforded an adequate level of protection. While this premise is broadly accepted by the radiation protection profession, it has come under increasing challenge in recent years. This challenge has not arisen because of any observable damage to the environment while operating within current standards. Rather, it has different origins including: - The robustness of the premise that protection of man affords protection of the environment, in particular the extent to which it is based on value judgements as opposed to rigorous scientific argument; - The more explicit inclusion of protection of the environment into national legislation on radiation protection and the need to demonstrate compliance; - A desire to achieve greater comparability between radiation and other pollutants. These trends were recognized by the Commission in the late 1990s and, as a result, the topic of protection of the environment was included as an important element of the European Union's 5th Research Framework Programme. Community support has been given to the FASSET project about which we will hear much during this Conference. This multinational project is providing much of the scientific basis underpinning and informing ongoing discussions on the development of a system of protection for the environment. Much, however, remains to be done to establish a well conceived and practicable system for protection of the environment, in particular one that is likely to find broad international acceptance. In this context, the topic was included as an important element of the Commission's 6th Research Framework Programme with the specific objective of 'establishing a robust conceptual and methodological basis for underpinning sound policy and standards for protection of the environment from radiation'. A contract is currently being negotiated to this purpose - the ERICA project which is expected to make a major contribution in this area. Progress within the ERICA project and initiatives being taken to develop standards in other quarters (e.g. IAEA, ICRP) will determine the need for further supporting RTD. In principle, within the next few years, an adequate scientific basis should be established for underpinning standards, albeit supported by further modest research of a confirmatory nature. The Commission has, at present, no plans to establish explicit standards for protection of the environment from radiation. You may be aware that we had included in the work programme of DG Environment the establishment of an Environmental Action Programme under the EURATOM Treaty (complementary to the 6th EAP under the EC Treaty). A follow-up to the Stakeholders' Conference on Approaches to the Management of Environmental Radioactivity of December 2002 was foreseen for 2004. However, in view of the preparation of this EURATOM EAP it cannot be guaranteed at the moment. But the Commission will continue to monitor developments in environmental radiation protection, in particular the results of its sponsored research and the activities of ICRP and IAEA. Should the need arise for standards at a European level, the Commission would respond in a timely manner. If and when it does, important considerations will be the adoption of a system that is robust, practicable, cost effective and proportionate to the problem at hand. A proper balance will need to be achieved between science and policy. I will end my opening remarks with these last thoughts which I hope will be kept in mind throughout the remainder of thi

  1. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  2. Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

    2014-01-01

    Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

  3. Presidential Address, AVERA: Globalization and the Internationalization of Research on Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    2003-01-01

    I offer my perspective concerning the role of international research for an organization dedicated to the investigation of career, vocational, and technical education in all forms and contexts, to the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA). While I do represent AVERA, the views outlined here are not AVERA policy nor do they…

  4. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  5. An Overview of Interdisciplinary Research at Notre Dame Addressing "Grand Challenges" in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Bolster, D.; Tank, J. L.; Hellmann, J.; Christopher, S. F.; Sharma, A.; Chiu, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midwest and Great Lakes region face a number of "Grand Challenges" associated with climate, land use, agriculture, and water resources infrastructure. These include sustainability of agricultural systems and related impacts to food security and the regional economy; sustainability of Great Lakes water levels; changing storm statistics and impacts to stormwater management and flooding; water quality in rivers and downstream receiving water bodies related to non-point source pollution on agricultural lands and combined sewer overflows in urban areas; urban impacts related to aging infrastructure and climate change, and ecosystem management and restoration. In the context of water management, groundwater resources are poorly understood in comparison with surface water resources, and regional-scale simulation models are needed to address questions of sustainability both in terms of supply and water quality. Interdisciplinary research at the University of Notre Dame is attempting to address these research challenges via 1) integrated macro-scale groundwater and surface water modeling to address issues related to sustainable water supply, ecosystem restoration, and agricultural impacts; 2) development of high-resolution regional climate models dynamically coupled to the Great Lakes to address urban impacts, changing storm statistics and to quantify precipitation and evaporation over the Great Lakes; 3) and integrated macro-scale hydrology and water quality modeling to assess the large-scale performance of innovative land management BMPs on agricultural land (such as the two-stage ditch, cover crops, and dynamic drainage control) intended to improve water quality.

  6. CREATIVE CORE WITHIN THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Zagvyazinsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The authors continue to explore the issue of practical methodology of research studies (Education and Science No 8, 2014. The aim of the study is to reveal theoretical and practical issues of empirical-research activity at the stages of conceptual problem understanding of pedagogical research, ideas promotion, development of the conception of their practical implementation and formation of scientifically grounded constructive hypotheses. Methods. The applied methods include theoretical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, idealization, generalization, specification, comparison, classification, extrapolation, modelling and hermeneutic interpretation. Results. Scientifically grounded description of the process of creative research of educational problems is presented in the paper. The content of such notions as «concept», «creative core», «idea», «plot», and «research hypothesis» is revealed. The creative core of scientific research is considered in close relation to the key aspects of the scientific inquiry: problematics definition, research topic and subject selection, clarification of initial facts and theoretical statements, definition of the conceptual framework, determination of essential novelty. The authors explore the mechanisms of the scientific research through the analysis of the educational situation and initial facts to the formation of a conceptual framework of research and the further working out of its instrumental component. The creative core of research is characterised as its most difficult element including the inception of idea transformation, its realisation into some conception and expansion into productive hypothesis. The authors describe the types of hypotheses, such as working and scientific (ready, functional and explanatory. The logical and gnoseological structure of a scientific hypothesis is shown in the study. The methodological requirements to the formulation of the scientific hypotheses are described. The probable logic errors of the are characterized. It is given the samples of fundamentally new scientific and pedagogical hypotheses suggested by well-known Russian scientist during the last decades and which have proved its constructivemodified possibilities. The specific examples of failed hypothesis-generating attempts of newcomer researchers are mentioned. Scientific novelty. The authors point out the mechanisms of complicated and understudied process of hypothesis-generating, – the hypothesis formation due to mental abilities of a researcher. Complementarity of algorithmic and creative basis of the research activity, projective and reflexive character of scientific and pedagogical search integration are emphasized. Additionally, the authors arrange the common methodological mistakes made by researches during the process of developing the working hypotheses. Practical significance. The research findings can help researchers, students, postgraduate students and candidates for a doctor’s degree who master practical methodology scientific and pedagogical search to acquire the specific methods of hypothesizing, its verification and testing. It also can be useful to research adviors in order to enhance the creative strategy and constructiveness under their scientific supervision.

  7. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  8. Policies and Initiatives Aimed at Addressing Research Misconduct in High-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    David B. Resnik; MASTER, ZUBIN

    2013-01-01

    David Resnik and Zubin Master review current policies and initiatives for preventing and managing research misconduct in high-income countries, summarize some high profile cases of misconduct, and make suggestions on ways forward.

  9. Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Svend Brinkmann

    2012-01-01

    Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three curre...

  10. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web (“Web”) is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation ...

  11. Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarel, Saul

    1990-01-01

    The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions that are of intrinsic concern to AI. We present examples of current AI work on specific design tasks, and discuss new directions of research, both as extensions of current work and in the context of new design tasks where domain knowledge is either intractable or incomplete. The domains discussed include Digital Circuit Design, Mechanical Design of Rotational Transmissions, Design of Computer Architectures, Marine Design, Aircraft Design, and Design of Chemical Processes and Materials. Work in these domains is significant on technical grounds, and it is also important for economic and policy reasons.

  12. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564

  13. Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. PMID:24431134

  14. Addressing Informatics Barriers to Conducting Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Comparative Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christopher P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The U.S. health care system has been under immense scrutiny for ever-increasing costs and poor health outcomes for its patients. Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has emerged as a generally accepted practice by providers, policy makers, and scientists as an approach to identify the most clinical- and cost-effective interventions…

  15. College Students' Views of Work-Life Balance in STEM Research Careers: Addressing Negative Preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…

  16. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  17. Addressing children's oral health inequalities in Northern Ireland: a research-practice-community partnership initiative.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, R.; Oliver, M.; Bunting, G.; Kirk, J.; Saunderson, W.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Northern Ireland has a high prevalence of childhood dental caries, reflecting heavy consumption of cariogenic snack foods. To develop a policy to promote and facilitate healthier eating, researchers, practitioners, and the school community formed a partnership, together creating the Boost Better Breaks (BBB) school-based policy. The policy was developed with and supported by dieticians, health promotion officers, teachers, school meal advisors, and local suppliers of school milk. E...

  18. Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltsch, F.; Bonte, D.; Pe'Er, G.; Reineking, B.; Leimgruber, P.; Balkenhol, N.; Schröder, B.; Buchmann, C.M.; Mueller, T(Institut für Physik, Universität Mainz, Mainz, Germany); Blaum, N.; Zurell, D.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Wiegand, T.; Eccard, J.A.; Hofer, H

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of ‘movement ecology’. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and ...

  19. University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk perceptions and their research problem choices. The results suggest that risk is a useful paradigm to study decision-making in science. In making scientific risk decisions, at times scientists conform to the existing institutional structures. Other times they challenge them, persist through them, or compromise their actions. Bioscientists' risk epistemologies matter to the extent that these allow for more creative ways in which individual scientists can navigate the institutional environments that they are embedded in. Risk perceptions of university bioscientists differ based on the specific dimension of risk under investigation. Several significant relationships between perceived risks and problem choice orientations have emerged through the data analysis. Overall, university bioscientists' risk epistemologies seem to be related to the unique reward structure of science, compelling them to use various risk management techniques while navigating their research environments.

  20. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  1. ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected

  2. To address gender equality since the preschool education: research and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Piscalho, Isabel; Cardona, Maria João; Tavares, Teresa; Uva, Marta

    2010-01-01

    To study the school careers of boys and girls from pre-school is one of the objectives of a study that took place in Santarém (Portugal). With this intention, in recent years a line of research, training and organization of materials for work on gender in preschool, has been developed. In this text we analyze some guidelines of our work presenting some examples of the data collected in kindergartens on the representations of gender and age (which is to be a man, woman, boy a...

  3. The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

    CERN Document Server

    Djeflat, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

  4. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ward Paul R; Meyer Samantha B; Verity Fiona; Gill Tiffany K; Luong Tini CN

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new and innovative con...

  5. Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-jie XIONG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available
    How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The paper has important theory and practice value.
    Key words: Integer Linear Programming (ILP, Cutting plane equation, Export Equation
    Résumé: Comment résoudre les problèmes ILP est toujours un sujet chaud dans le milieu de la Recherche d’Opération. L’auteur de cet essai, à travers la méthode de démonstration, a analysé les fautes de la Méthode de Coupe Plane utilisée pour résoudre ILP et a proposé un nouveau principe, par exemple : « il est comme une équation de coupe plane qui a plus de restrictions sur un problème donné. ». En même temps, l’auteur indique qu’il y a deux problèmes qui seraient notés au cours de l’utilisation. Cet article revêtit une valeur importante théorique et pratique.
    Mots-Clés: ILP( Integer Linear Programming /programmation linéaire du nombre entier, équation de coupe plane, équation d’exportation

  6. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Wee, Loo Kang; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post...

  7. A selection of biomechanical research problems: From modeling to experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Cyrus Omid

    The research undertakings within this manuscript illustrate the importance of biomechanics in today's science. Without doubt, biomechanics can be utilized to obtain a better understanding of many unsolved mysteries involved in the field of medicine. Moreover, biomechanics can be used to develop better prosthetic or surgical devices as well. Chapter 2 represents a medical problem, which has not been solved for more than a century. With the use of fundamental principles of biomechanics', a better insight of this problem and its possible causes were obtained. Chapter 3 investigates the mechanical interaction between the human teeth and some processed food products during mastication, which is a routine but crucial daily activity of a human being. Chapter 4 looks at a problem within the field of surgery. In this chapter the stability and reliability of two different Suturing-Techniques are explored. Chapters 5 and 6 represent new patent designs as a result of the investigations made in Chapter 4. Chapter 7 studies the impact and load transfer patterns during the collision between a child's head and the ground. All of the above mentioned chapters show the significance of biomechanics in solving a range of different medical problems that involve physical and or mechanical characters.

  8. Problem-centric Process for Research-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shaban

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Research-based Learning (RbL extends Inquiry and Project-based Learning by facilitating an early stage exposure and training for future scientists through authentic research activities. In this paper, an iterative problem-centric RbL process is introduced, and its activities and management aspects are described. The process helps implement course-integrated research systematically and practically. Furthermore, the novel process follows constructivist methods in incorporating inquiry, scaffolding, open-ended projects, as well as a goal oriented learning approach. The RbL process is adopted in two advanced computing courses, at two different universities: a leading comprehensive Western university and a new university in a developing country. The paper summarizes new lessons learned in these rewarding experiences. In particular, the instructor should help students start their projects, by providing them with previous work or data and pre-approving the papers to review by students. He should also maintain a continuous feedback to and from students to keep the students motivated and help the instructor refine and adapt the RBL process. We note that research collaborators can help students in identifying the research topics early. The paper also shows how to alleviate difficulties that may be encountered by students who find the novel approach demanding, and consequently it also helps the instructors better manage the course contents.

  9. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  10. Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sobel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

  11. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a tritium labeling facility operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ordinary citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though discovered or appreciated only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case-particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the establishment, as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against citizen volunteers, (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of no safe dose and levels below regulatory concern when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment

  12. Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R J; Peterson, S

    1999-05-05

    Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a ?tritium labeling facility? operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ?ordinary? citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though ?discovered? or ?appreciated? only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case?particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators?that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the ?establishment,? as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against ?citizen volunteers,? (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of ?no safe dose? and ?levels below regulatory concern? when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment.

  13. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low k1 lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Eickhoff, Mark; Ma, Mark; Pas, Sylvia

    2005-06-01

    Progressive mask defect problems such as crystal growth or haze are key yield limiters for DUV lithography, especially in 300mm fabs. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So, a high-resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but the big question is: "how often do fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? This re-inspection frequency should ideally be the most cost-effective frequency at which there is minimum threat for a yield loss. Previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. Other related recent work was done 2004 BACUS conference which is dedicated to DRAM fab data. In this paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on a large volume of data from an advanced logic fab. This work will compliment previous work in this area done with the data from a DRAM fab. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  14. A reticle quality management strategy in wafer fabs addressing progressive mask defect growth problem at low-k1 lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Son, Kong; Eynon, Benjamin G., Jr.; Gudmundsson, Dadi; Jaehnert, Carmen; Uhlig, Doris

    2004-12-01

    DUV lithography has introduced a progressive mask defect growth problem widely known as crystal growth or haze. Even if the incoming mask quality is good, there is no guarantee that the mask will remain clean during its production usage in the wafer fab. These progressive defects must be caught in advance during production in the fabs. The ideal reticle quality control goal should be to detect any nascent progressive defects before they become yield limiting. So a high- resolution mask inspection is absolutely needed, but then the big question is: "how often the fabs need to re-inspect their masks"? A previous work towards finding a cost effective mask re-qualification frequency was done by Vince Samek et al. of IBM and Dadi Gudmundsson et al. of KLA-Tencor in 1999 [1], but this work was prior to the above mentioned progressive defect problem that industry started to see at a much higher rate during just the last few years. In this present paper a realistic mask re-qualification frequency model has been developed based on the data from an advanced DRAM fab environment that is using low k1 lithography. Statistical methods are used to analyze mask inspection and product data, which are combined in a stochastic model.

  15. Radiation and lung cancer: problems and topics of future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the purpose of this critical review to outline the main uncertainties of present risk estimates for radiation-induced lung cancer and the resulting topics of future research in this field. The main emphasis was the actual problems of dose and risk estimates for indoor exposure to radon daughters. The discussion indicates that the conclusions of the ICRP and the BEIR IV studies, which proceed from data of radon-exposed miners, are based on models and assumptions that are too simple. Comparison with the lung cancer data from the atomic bomb survivors indicates that these uncertainties concern mainly the transfer of the data from male miners to the female population and the influence of smoking. This underlines the importance of large direct case-control studies on lung cancer from indoor radon. A detailed list of topics for future research in this field is presented in the summary of this session. (author)

  16. Dishonesty, misconduct and fraud in clinical research: an international problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankier, S I

    2002-01-01

    Clinical research misdemeanours include a broad spectrum of misdeeds that misappropriate an unfair advantage or harm the rights of others. There is no internationally accepted definition of such malpractices and no generalized procedure to facilitate their reporting or correction. Those who do report research misdemeanours are often stigmatized as 'whistleblowers', a term that has acquired many negative connotations. Frequently, whistleblowers encounter many personal conflicts and/or may suffer victimization in their working environment. There remains a need for an internationally harmonized approach to manage these unacceptable problems. Resolution of such important issues should be catalysed by the impending need for European Union states to implement Good Clinical Practice Directive 2001/20/EC into national law. PMID:12235917

  17. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT: THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dorozhkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the sociological research findings reflecting the development problems and prospects of theRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversity. A survey, conducted in March 2013, demonstrates positive dynamics of the university prestige, rank and popularity index compared to the year 2003. The academic staff tends to recognize the unique competitive advantages of the given university: status of the Russian higher school and leading vocational pedagogical institution; professional quality of human resources, variety of prestigious specializations, existence of the Educational Methodology Association, Dissertation Board, etc. Although the respondents point out some factors adversely affecting the university image and public opinion, the criticism helps to identify the problematic units and corresponding contradictions of the university development. The research outcomes can provide the background for strategic development programs ofRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversityfor the nearest future; and help to promote the university brand as the leading, dynamic and competitive educational centre at the regional, federal and international levels.

  18. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

  19. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  20. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

  1. Update: Health Status of Iranian Victims of Chemical Weapons / Ongoing Research Projects Addressing CW Health Effects in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of chemical weapons against Iran during the 1980s was a horrifying epic in the annals of modern warfare, inflicting enormous suffering during the conflict that continues to the present day in the form of latent illness among survivors. Surviving victims suffer from a diverse range of chronic illnesses placing an enormous strain on the nation's medical infrastructure. To define the scope of this problem, the National Organization for Veteran's Affairs (Janbazan) established a subsidiary research department called Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC). Beginning in 2000 JMERC has conducted epidemiological, clinical and basic scientific studies to characterize disease among chemical attack survivors and develop new therapeutic strategies. The primary JMERC mission has been to identify where resources may be allocated so as to most effectively treat patients with the greatest need - requiring a comprehensive picture of the major medical problems among this population. Accordingly, JMERC's initial task was to define the nature and distribution of serious chronic illness among CW survivors. Therefore epidemiological studies in CW-exposed Iranian populations are currently underway. Ultimately these studies will allow management of illness among CW-exposed populations that is both compassionate and cost-effective. A summary of the above mentioned research projects will be reported in this article. (author)

  2. Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identificatio...

  3. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  4. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  5. High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarolineLustenberger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High density EEG (hdEEG during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g. the traveling of slow waves and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g. consciousness and cognitive abilities. Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

  6. IPCC and other assessments as vehicles for integrating natural and social science research to address human dimensions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    IPCC and other assessments address both natural and social science aspects of climate change, but this approach has historically involved relatively little integration across the two sets of disciplines. In a framing that is only slightly oversimplified, past relationships were mostly sequential. From a physical climate perspective, human behavior was a boundary condition setting the trajectory of atmospheric forcing. And from an impacts perspective, changes in the physical climate set the stage upon which humans experienced impacts and made decisions about adaptation and mitigation. Integrated assessment models have been the main locus of research on questions about bi-directional coupling, where the trajectory of the physical climate influences GHG balance related to the need for agricultural land as well as GHG emissions from other activities. In the IPCC AR4 (2007), feedbacks from the natural carbon cycle to climate were a focus, but with little discussion of the potentially important feedbacks from climate-carbon interactions in the human domain. Detailed research and modeling in this area are still in the relatively early stages. For the future, IPCC and other assessments potentially provide a vehicle for new insights about the interaction of natural and social science dimensions of climate change. Several aspects could be interesting. Some of these relate to the decisions that modulate GHG emissions. For example, how does scientific understanding of climate change influence people's interest in mitigation and adaptation? How does it influence their willingness to pay? How are these modulated by regional and global geopolitics? Other potentially interesting aspects relate to interactions between mitigation and adaptation. For example, how does local experience of climate change alter the balance of focus on adaptation and mitigation? Still others relate to the nature of impacts and the role of sustainable development. With an aggress sustainable development agenda aimed at building resilience, would societies be more or less focused on impacts? Finding ways to address these questions in the context of an assessment presents a range of challenges, beginning with the challenge that the assessments are generally not designed to conduct new research. But on the other hand, the juxtaposition of disciplines, perspectives, and tools creates a fertile ground for new insights.

  7. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  8. Research on Project Scheduling Problem with Resource Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the traditional optimization problem considering constraint conditions of resource supply, which makes the problem more difficult to solve in real life. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is a typical NP-hard problem, which is quite popular issue in recent years. This article firstly analyzes the literature review of resource-constrained project scheduling problem. And then, the mathematical model of this problem is established, and the solution via the genetic algorithm is also developed. Finally, the numerical experiment is adopted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

  9. Conducting Community Research in Rural China –Addressing the Methodological Challenges of Recruiting Participants in Rapidly Changing Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Chiu, Helen F.K.; Hou, Zai-Jin; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper addressed a unique challenge for public health and community research in rural China, i.e., the very large percentage of young adults that comprises a highly mobile working population that has been an essential component of the country’s economic transformation. Fluid local demographic patterns potentially have a substantial impact on sample representativeness and data validity. Methods This report is based upon a cross sectional survey with face-to-face interviews of residents aged 16–34 years in rural communities of Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. Two waves of fieldwork and other strategies were adopted in response to recruitment challenges. Results 1654 of 3008 potential participants took part in the study; this constituted 98% of those individuals approached and 55% of the persons enumerated in the local household registration system (hukou). Analyses revealed substantial differences among those who were interviewed during September and October 2005, versus those seen during the Chinese Lunar New Year of 2006 when many migrant workers and students returned to their homes. Both groups together differed from those who were unavailable during either recruiting episode. Discussion and Conclusions We discuss potential responses to associated methodological challenges, including, (1) permanent hukou mismatches; (2) temporary hukou mismatches; (3) difficulties faced by potential participants to fully understand the purpose of research, the informed consent process, and specific research questions; and (4) appreciation of the importance of local social networks, as they pertain in particular to rural China. These findings underscore that there may be a need to make “on-the-ground” adjustments to varying local conditions to maximize sample representativeness and data validity. PMID:22662022

  10. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

  11. Classroom Discipline Problems and Reality Therapy: Research Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Jean T.; Gang, Mark J.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the methods and results of two studies on the successful application of reality therapy (RT) to classroom discipline problems. Results indicate RT is an effective humanizing approach for solving problems. (Author)

  12. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

  13. Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

  14. Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-10-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management. PMID:21877255

  15. ‘"Education-based Research" : Integrating Problem-based Learning and Research-Based Education in Tertiary Design Education.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper lays out a concept of education-based research-the production of research knowledge within the framework of tertiary design education-as an integration of problem-based learning and research-based education. This leads to a critique of reflective practice as the primary way to facilitate learning at this level, a discussion of the nature of design problems in the instrumentalist tradition, and some suggestions as to how design studies curricula may facilitate education-based research.

  16. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  17. Religious Holidays on Campus: Policies, Problems, and Recommendations. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An increase in the diversity of students' religious affiliations has necessitated that students affairs professionals address the role of religion in students' lives. This paper is an examination of the current policies at the University of Maryland concerning the observance of religious holidays, accompanied by a critique of those policies.…

  18. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  19. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  20. Resolution on the problems and prospects of common research policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Researching the Film Audience: Purposes, Procedures, and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Film audience research complements institutional research, verifying scholarship on the meanings films have to viewers and providing broad-based explanations of film images. Most important, such research focuses on the decision and motivation processes people use before they set foot in the movie theater, thereby helping to construct a context…

  2. Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

  3. Solving Problems in Social–Ecological Systems: Definition, Practice and Barriers of Transdisciplinary Research

    OpenAIRE

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social–ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for rese...

  4. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous exp...

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Hillstrom; Valerie Ruelas; Anne Peters; Turusew Gedebu-Wilson; Ellen Iverson

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership ...

  6. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen Sarah C; Butterworth Peter; Jacomb Patricia; Tait Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epid...

  7. Brief Strategic Family Therapy: Twenty-Five Years of Interplay Among Theory, Research and Practice in Adolescent Behavior Problems and Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Szapocznik, José; Williams, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a systematic program of research that focuses on Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) and the adaptations that were developed based on BSFT principles. The culture-specific origins of BSFT are reviewed, as well as its broader applications to the field of family therapy. Research is reviewed demonstrating that BSFT is a promising family-based approach to treating Hispanic youth behavior problems and drug abuse. Treatment innovations are described that address the combin...

  8. An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams:

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerl, P.S.; Steinheider, B.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and present stage of a team’s life.

  9. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the functions of the CSN, as the regulatory authority responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, is the performance of studies, assessments and inspections of all plans, programmes and projects relating to the different phases of radioactive waste management, from production to final disposal. The development of general criteria for the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear and other facilities which, give rise to large volumes of low activity waste, is a priority issue in Spain. In the same context, mention should be made of the importance of having a solid materials declassification process for use during the operating phase of the facilities. This naturally contributes to reducing the waste to be managed in decommissioning and to optimizing overall radioactive waste management. In relation to declassification, a large number of activities have been carried out or are currently under way in Spain, e.g. the systematic approach to the licensing of various common projects for the declassification of materials at nuclear power plants, such as those applied to metallic scrap, spent resins, activated carbon and wood. A general standard for the declassification of materials at medical, research and industrial facilities was recently adopted; this includes general criteria and specific activity values for the radionuclides usually used at such installations. All of the above mentioned declassification initiatives have taken full account of the recommendations of the IAEA. To date, one nuclear power plant has been dismantled in Spain and the dismantling of a second nuclear plant is foreseen after the year 2006. A number of nuclear production facilities have been decommissioned and various uranium mine restoration projects have been carried out. In keeping with the lines mapped out in the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Spain possesses an administrative structure, a regulatory framework, an assignment of responsibilities and a financing system that provide assurance that the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste will be carried out safely. Although, to date, no generic regulations have been developed governing the long term management of radioactive waste, the regulatory authorities have defined and approved, upon request, specific criteria applicable to the licensing of individual facilities. Currently standards relating to safety in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste are developed, radioactive waste management plans at the sites of waste production and actions are developed and integrated. They are aimed at improving the general capacity to respond to radiological emergencies in which significant amounts of low activity radioactive waste might be generated. Likewise, several initiatives have been launched for the adoption of general criteria applicable to the release of sites; this includes requirements for institutional surveillance when the sites cannot be released without restrictions. Of special interest is the problem of the management of the long lived low activity waste associated with uranium mining and milling activities, on which the Symposium will include a specific session. Managing TENORM waste arising from the processing of materials contaminated by isotopes of natural origin, which is very much a major issue in Spain at poses a major problem. The new complementary facility at El Cabril for the disposal of very low activity waste was licensed. Work has been carried out jointly with ENRESA during the preparatory phases for the definition of applicable safety and radiation protection criteria. In order to guarantee adequate protection for workers, the public and the environment, and to respond with rigour to the current social demands relating to radioactive waste management, very close collaboration is required between all those involved; this includes the regulatory authorities, the waste producers and, obviously, those responsible for the actual management. International collabor

  10. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety' and S for 'security', are indispensable infrastructure for the introduction of nuclear power plants. Japan, therefore, regards these three Ss as a prerequisite when it starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. For the same reason, Japan has extended assistance to countries concerned to develop the necessary infrastructure to assure the three S's. Acknowledging the importance of the Additional Protocol in ensuring nuclear non-proliferation, Japan requests, as a matter of policy, that the Additional Protocol be concluded before Japan starts bilateral talks for nuclear cooperation agreements. Furthermore, in the framework of NSG, Japan proposes that conclusion of the Additional Protocol be a prerequisite for the export of nuclear related items. As the issue has global implications, Japan considers that the countries of the former Soviet Union deserve high priority attention, and has rendered assistance to these countries as well. Japan has also concluded bilateral agreements and carries out projects on denuclearization with Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Japan has also extended assistance to these countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund

  11. EMF health effects research: Problems and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A. (Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1990-07-19

    The author describes some of the current generation of research, focusing particularly on that being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The central goal of the research program is to answer the question of whether threats to human health result from exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Several related questions are examined: Is there any epidemiological evidence of risk to those who are exposed What are the sources of exposure to EMF, and who is exposed What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed What is the biologically important parameter, or 'dose' of EMF exposure How is exposure best estimated What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed to EMF If there are effects of exposure in cells or tissues, where in the cell does that interaction occur The author describes current research to answer these questions.

  12. Error analysis for the standard research problem CASP 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, W.

    1981-06-01

    The experimental results obtained during the CASP2-standard problem show certain measuring errors which are always related to measuring problems. An estimation of errors which occurred during the measurements have been given by the Battelle-Institute where the experiments had been carried out. In this report there are given some results to show the influence of these measuring errors upon the calculated values. In particular these are, e.g., the influence of the mass flow rate together with the specific enthalpy as well as that of paint thickness (heat transfer effect) upon the pressure distribution. It is shown that the measured results which are used to prepare input data for the theoretical calculation have to be obtained very carefully because the calculated results can be very sensitive to input variations.

  13. [Cataract in China: research and development direction and problems encountered].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Cataract is the major cause of blindness in China. After efforts of generations, there were tremendous progresses in cataract diagnosis and treatment. With the popularity of microincision cataract surgery, the rise of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, and the application of advanced intraocular lens, cataract surgery has been gradually changed from visual rehabilitation to refractive surgery. But there are still some problems such as the lower surgery coverage, the large discrepancy of the diagnosis and treatment between urban and rural areas, and the imperfect treatment standard. In future work, cataract study group combining with other ophthalmic institutes will continue to find and solve problems for upgrading the overall level of cataract treatments in China. PMID:26081227

  14. Problems of Research Work in the Information Society ???????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadranskyy Dmytro M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper put three issues which, in my opinion, are essential in the modern study of labor in the information society. In particular, to the author's vision of what can be considered informational labor; logical approach to the measurement of product information work, the theoretical possibility of pricing to our work. Proposed to the author's vision of theoretical approaches to solving problems and resolving conflicts that are associated with them.? ?????? ???????? ??? ????????, ???????, ?? ?????? ??????, ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ????????. ? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ?????????????? ??????; ?????????? ?????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????; ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????????? ????. ???????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????????????, ??????? ? ???? ???????.

  15. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

  16. Corrosion problem in the CRENK Triga Mark II research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1987, a routine underwater optical inspection of the aluminum tank housing the core of the CRENK Triga Mark II reactor, carried out to update safety condition of the reactor, revealed pitting corrosion attacks on the 8 mm thick aluminum tank bottom. The paper discuss the work carried out by the reactor staff to dismantle the reactor in order to allow a more precise investigation of the corrosion problem, to repair the aluminum tank bottom, and to enhance the reactor overall safety condition

  17. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  18. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether unstructured graduate student research internships conducted in collaboration with community agencies build capacity and knowledge for students and community. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports the results of four semi-structured interviews and 20 pre- and post-internship…

  19. University Bioscientists' Risk Epistemologies and Research Problem Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine…

  20. Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2011-01-01

    Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations, we identify five challenging areas in designing fisheye interfaces.

  1. Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selye, H

    1976-07-01

    An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques. PMID:1277062

  2. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  3. Researching on international alliances – the problem of lack of sources

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Susana Costa e; Ferreira, Mário Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The low level of formality and the diversity of international alliances create an important challenge for researchers. Unlike mergers and acquisitions, alliances include various types of cooperation agreements between organizations and do not require formal registration. Therefore, in this field, secondary data is scarce and the few available international databases present several disadvantages. This manuscript attempts to discuss and assess options available to circumvent dif...

  4. President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

  5. Final Technical Report for "Applied Mathematics Research: Simulation Based Optimization and Application to Electromagnetic Inverse Problems"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Eldad

    2014-03-17

    The focus of research was: Developing adaptive mesh for the solution of Maxwell's equations; Developing a parallel framework for time dependent inverse Maxwell's equations; Developing multilevel methods for optimization problems with inequal- ity constraints; A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in the 0th frequency (DC resistivity); A new inversion code for inverse Maxwell's equations in low frequency regime. Although the research concentrated on electromagnetic forward and in- verse problems the results of the research was applied to the problem of image registration.

  6. A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballini Luciana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1 definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2 systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3 definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4 analysis of local context; 5 identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1 evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2 uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3 exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4 mapping of local context; 5 recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to outline a research course of action. Decision makers wishing to tie coverage policies to the development of scientific evidence could find this method a useful aid to the governance of innovations.

  7. Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: the translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J David

    2013-08-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are adopted, implemented, and sustained on a large scale, with a strong orientation toward devising empirically-driven strategies for increasing their population impact. In this article, we address two core challenges to the advancement of T2 translation research: (1) building infrastructure and capacity to support systems-oriented scaling up of evidence-based interventions, with well-integrated practice-oriented T2 research, and (2) developing an agenda and improving research methods for advancing T2 translation science. We also summarize a heuristic "Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework." It articulates key considerations in addressing the core challenges, with three components that represent: (1) four phases of translation functions to be investigated (pre-adoption, adoption, implementation, and sustainability); (2) the multiple contexts in which translation occurs, ranging from community to national levels; and (3) necessary practice and research infrastructure supports. Discussion of the framework addresses the critical roles of practitioner-scientist partnerships and networks, governmental agencies and policies at all levels, plus financing partnerships and structures, all required for both infrastructure development and advances in the science. The article concludes with two sets of recommended action steps that could provide impetus for advancing the next generation of T2 translation science and, in turn, potentially enhance the health and well-being of subsequent generations of youth and families. PMID:23430579

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

  10. Addressing the Social and Environmental Determinants of Urban Health Equity: Evidence for Action and a Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

    2011-01-01

    Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world’s population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges—economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development chall...

  11. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry. PMID:25888694

  12. Mathematical models of physics problems (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is intended to provide a foundation for a one-semester introductory course on the advanced mathematical methods that form the cornerstones of the hard sciences and engineering. The work is suitable for first year graduate or advanced undergraduate students in the fields of Physics, Astronomy and Engineering. This text therefore employs a condensed narrative sufficient to prepare graduate and advanced undergraduate students for the level of mathematics expected in more advanced graduate physics courses, without too much exposition on related but non-essential material. In contrast to the two semesters traditionally devoted to mathematical methods for physicists, the material in this book has been quite distilled, making it a suitable guide for a one-semester course. The assumption is that the student, once versed in the fundamentals, can master more esoteric aspects of these topics on his or her own if and when the need arises during the course of conducting research. The book focuses on two cor...

  13. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  14. [PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY: ORIGINS, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECTS OF THE RESEARCH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprudnov, A M; Kharitonova, L A; Grigoriev, K I; Bogomaz, L V

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclature of digestive diseases in children was supplemented by the "new" diseases: of esophagus--gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, Zenker's diverticulum; of stomach and duodenum--gastroduodenitis, peptic ulcer disease, polyps, ectopic pancreas in the stomach wall; of the intestine--jejunitis, ileocolitis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, bacterial overgrowth syndrome in the small intestine; of biliary tract--cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, anomalies of the biliary tract; of pancreas--acute and chronic pancreatitis, annular pancreas (2). The features of gastrointestinal diseases in children experiencing the action of factors, not always positively affecting the growing organism, were established. These features include: presence of allergic background; high level of neuro-autonomous and psycho-emotional changes in modern children, not only in schoolchildren, but even in preschoolers; polymorbidity or a combination (syntropy) of lesions of the digestive system; adverse outcomes of certain diseases as chronization, complications development, and as a consequence--a high risk of disability in children; "rejuvenation" of certain diseases of the digestive system (cholelithiasis, gallbladder cholesterosis, Crohn's disease), typical for adults. It is important to emphasize the clinical and social importance of gastroenterological diseases in childhood. Axiomatic is that the origins of many diseases of the digestive organs in adults lie in childhood. Early manifestation of certain diseases such as peptic ulcer disease, gluten enteropathy, Crohn's disease, and others, significantly impact the quality of life of sick children and their parents. It is worth to emphasize high costs of medical and prophylactic (tertiary prevention) activities using the drugs of latest generations. All this causes problems in both applied and scientific pediatric gastroenterology. PMID:26281153

  15. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

  16. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues still being faced by the research reactor community are primarily related to the operation, utilization, safety, ageing, decommissioning and waste management. More recently, challenges such as initiatives for creating new RR facilities, securing isotope production, human resources, infrastructure capacity building, or sustainability of RR programmes, are receiving greater attention. This conference will focus on new developments in the relevant, efficient and safe utilisation of Nuclear Research Reactors for the countries' social and economic development. It will contribute to foster the exchange of information on current and new research reactors and to provide a forum for reactor users, operators, managers, regulators, designers and suppliers to share experience and exchange opinions. It constitutes an opportunity to discuss common challenges, options and strategies and to strengthen regional and international cooperation between Research Reactors' centres from developed and developing countries with special emphasis on the transfer of knowledge and know how. In this particular context, the International Atomic Energy Agency is a central partner, playing a major role in strengthening the operation, applications and safety of Nuclear Research Reactors, thus supporting the development of civil and peaceful nuclear technologies worldwide

  17. The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and rehabilitation research in a changing postacute landscape. The 2007 ACRM presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Gerben

    2008-02-01

    Postacute rehabilitation is on the threshold of several major changes that have implications for rehabilitation practice and research. The most important of these is the desire of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to establish a uniform patient assessment method and implement a more setting-neutral prospective payment system across all major postacute settings. The proposed uniform patient assessment instrument will in all likelihood displace the FIM instrument as the industry standard. The rehabilitation research community needs to remain vigilant about the nature, scope, and measurement properties of the proposed uniform patient assessment instrument. A new instrument and setting-neutral payment system may provide new opportunities for service innovation and research. Neurorehabilitation has been one of the strengths of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM). ACRM needs to build on this strength and examine more earnestly the rehabilitation interventions and outcomes associated with the increasing prevalence of people with orthopedic and musculoskeletal conditions seen in rehabilitation centers today. ACRM's ability to do so will depend in part on its ability to join forces with other professional and consumer organizations to increase research funding significantly for each of the major federal agencies that currently fund rehabilitation research. PMID:18226641

  18. Addressing Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

  19. ”Generalizability” as Recognition: Reflections on a Foundational Problem in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Delmar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to develop what counts as “generalizability” in qualitative research. By taking an ontological and epistemic stance in relation to the four foundational problems: 1)Knowledge and its various forms. 2) Properties of reality and the doubleness of the situation. 3) How is understanding possible? 4) The researcher’s role: What are the fundamental questions that the researcher must ask himself before a study is designed? we are able to approach the exploration of ”genera...

  20. The problem with pleasure: part II. The research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdow, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how adult survivors of chronic abuse and neglect define pleasure, the disruption of pleasure, and the repair of the capacity for pleasure in the context of the therapeutic relationship. Using narrative methodology, I interviewed 15 clinical pairs of patients and their therapists separately. Thematic analysis revealed 8 findings. All patients reported the capacity to experience pleasure throughout life prior to therapy. Subjects defined pleasure as a variety of positive affects that fell into 2 categories: pleasure in activities and interests and pleasure in relationships. All patients reported a history of traumatic disruption of pleasure in childhood. Patients reported a history of internalizing and reenacting their own disruption of pleasure. Narratives of the patients were consistent with the narratives told by the therapists. In many clinical pairs, both parties spoke positively of an important therapeutic event when the therapist stepped out of his or her usual treatment frame. Safety, consistency, reliability, predictability, and compassionate caring were spoken of throughout the sample as elements that created a pleasurable and therapeutically reparative relationship. Patients spoke repeatedly of the importance of "finding a self" to the experience of pleasure. Pleasure enhanced the ability to find a self, and finding a self enhanced patients' capacity for pleasure. This study invites further research to investigate the function of pleasure in the process of therapeutic repair for chronically traumatized populations. PMID:21967181

  1. Lingua-Pedagogy as the Interdisciplinary Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Yakovleva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  The paper is devoted to lingua-pedagogy – one of the modern branches of pedagogy dealing with personal socialization in the process of foreign language learning. This interdisciplinary field of knowledge is related to linguistics, pedagogic psychology, development psychology and acmeology. Lingua-pedagogy undergoes the formation process; therefore, there still are a number of open questions concerning its place among the other sciences, and the final definitions of the main concepts and terms. The author recommends the systematic approach to developing the theoretical foundation of lingua- pedagogy. The paper outlines the subject and aims of the lingua-pedagogic research, its content and affecting means. The system in question is poly- functional, its main functions being the integral pedagogic effect in foreign language teaching, stimulating self-dependent learning, and arranging the in- tercultural integration. The linguistic faculties at universities can be taken as the key elements of the lingua-pedagogic system – the development centers, nurturing the value-oriented respectful attitude to the native and foreign cul- ture, providing intercultural competence acquisition, and training pedagogic staff capable of fulfilling the poly-cultural development tasks. Identification of the conformities of intercultural socialization makes it possible to organize the system of pedagogic facilitation for students learning foreign languages; and develop the perspective methods and technologies of language competence acquisition and consolidation. 

  2. Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of the Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. (author)

  3. Banquet address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the address is the position of nuclear power following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After acknowledging the Russian openness over the accident, Lord Marshall explains why a similar accident could not happen in the United Kingdom. The pressure tube design at Chernobyl had been investigated in 1976 but had been rejected because of three major disadvantages - the reactor had a positive void coefficient, it had zonal instabilities and local criticality in the core and it had a very high graphite temperature. In addition the British report of 1976 listed two other concerns - that the Russian design appeared to have insufficient shut-down margin and there was no back-up for the control rods for reactivity shutdown. The Russian safety philosophy is also seen as different from that of most Western reactor operators. It is thus concluded that Chernobyl could not happen in the West. However, the confidence of the public has to be won back and communication is important in this. The effects of Chernobyl should be seen in perspective - compared, for instance, against other accidents where a greater number of lives were lost. (U.K.)

  4. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Ian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  5. Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address…

  6. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

  7. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, L

    1984-01-01

    Stressed in this address is the crucial stage of the population boom, peeculiar to developing countries. The phenomenal rise in India's population, over the last 10 years, is particularly emphasized as it may thwart attempts for socioeconnomic development. Population and development are congruent concerns which need to be pursued simultaneously, and family planning must be accorded the highest priority in national efforts. In its attempts to curb its population explosion, India has witnessed significant progress in health and family welfare work in its march towards the goal of health for all. Recently, the focus has been on primary health care with its emphasis on prevention against risk of disease. The key element of the goal of health for all is the provision of primary health care to all, especially those who are poor. The new 20-Point Programme of India pinpoints areas of special thrust which show immediate tangible results in health and family welfare and the increase of primary health care facilities. Family planning is discussed as a people's movement in which the government's role is that of educator in contraceptive methodds so the people can be motivated to choose, on their own, anyone of them. Trained government personnel, service facilities and contraceptive supplies are being promoted for that goal. The energies of all social, political, religious and cultural organizations have to be channelled and utilized in the process of educating the people and making them adopt the small family norm. Graduates are urged to utilize their knowledge in the service of their country. PMID:12233437

  8. Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

  9. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level. The ILO adopted, two months ago, a new global strategy to prevent workplace hazards such as radiation from causing death, disability and disease. We would be pleased to encourage related infrastructures in national workplaces to do their share in our concerted efforts for achieving the required safety culture. The labour inspectorates worldwide, the employers and the workers, as well as their organizations, professionals and scientists, all of them can contribute. We need well organized, systematic and continuous collaborative efforts that end up in progressive and stepwise improvement which covers all those at risk. I am convinced this conference will be one step in that direction. (author)

  10. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology etc. Therefore, I am very happy that the excellent scientists of nuclear physics over 120 visit to our university for discussing the latest results and scope in nuclear physics, and enjoy our facilities and City of Yokohama. I believe that this conference will transmit the forefront of the nuclear physics from Yokohama to the world. Finally, I hope this international workshop will be successful and fruitful, and all you have nice days in Yokohama. Thank you very much for your attention.

  11. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear era has spanned little over a half century, and in that comparatively short period we have witnessed dramatic changes in the way in which the public and their politicians view the environment. Until the 1960s, people were concerned primarily with their own health and prosperity - there was little reason to think that the environment was at risk. Increasingly, however, as time went on, there was evidence - for the public to see - of the environment being damaged. Emissions from the burning of fossil fuels were causing acid rain, resulting in damage to sensitive ecosystems, and the increased use of chemical fertilisers was resulting in polluted surface waters, upsetting ecological balances and causing more visible evidence of a deteriorating environment. More recently, the threat of global warming and its possible implications for humans and their environment has become a common concern. Thus, from the 1970s onwards, there was an increasing consciousness that the environment - which depends on a delicate and complex balance of ecosystems - must be cared for and protected. This led to the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 and to the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. The latter conference, called the 'Earth Summit', resulted in the Rio Declaration, which, among other things, concluded that 'in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be isolated from it'. This was reinforced in the declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg last year, where it With the growing interest in improved environmental protection, it was gradually realized that the international standards for radiation protection were insufficient since they focused exclusively on the protection of humans. While there is no evidence of any permanent harm having been caused to the environment by nuclear activities under normal conditions, it is clear that the subject has not been formally addressed in setting safety standards and that there is a gap in our philosophical approach. This insufficiency was recognized at an international symposium held here in Stockholm in 1996 and the progress towards rectifying the situation has been punctuated by further international meetings - in Ottawa in 1999, in Darwin in 2002 and now back here in Stockholm. I am pleased to say that the IAEA has played an active role in each of these meetings. This conference represents an important step in the process of establishing an accepted international framework for environmental radiation protection. This has been recognized by the latest General Conference of the IAEA, which has welcomed the steps taken in developing an international framework for the protection of the environment from ionizing radiation and drawn attention to this conference

  12. The way of perceiving ecological problems by citizens of Vojvodina: Presentation of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puši? Ljubinko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected results of an empirical research about the attitudes of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems. Its starting hypothesis is that the sensibility of citizens’ attitudes towards ecological problems is the crucial key to create participative model of decision-making processes regarding environment. Research goals are descriptive and exploratory: evaluating the general attitude towards ecological problems, and checking their links with socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and with the globalization of the consciousness about the environment. The results of research show that respondents first recognize directly observable ecological problems (pollution. The rest of respondents recognized ecological problems which are necessarily mediated by global ecological consciousness and by ideas that put mainly human beings in the center of ecological issues (the lack of ecological consciousness. The respondents are divided in determining the state/civil society as the possible source of ecological problems, where most of them recognized the state institutions (ecological legislation as such. The respondents expressed a significant level of non-anthropocentric values towards nature. The assumed link between socio-demographic characteristics and reception of ecological problems was not confirmed. It is shown that the attitude of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems is highly diversified. On one hand, this attitude reflects an ecological consciousness, formed by the direct experience in the local context; while, on the other hand, it reflects a consciousness formed in the framework of globalized environmental discourse in “networked society”.

  13. Research and development problems of building technology of light water power reactors in the CSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsky, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research and development problems are described of the construction of power reactors in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic which proceeds from the papers and discussion on this problem area at the conference Research and development work for nuclear power plants with light water reactors held between December 1 and 4, 1981 in Karlovy Vary, Czechoslovakia. The individual problems are analysed and suggestions made for measures and a programme of further research work related to the following problem areas: 1. Projects and design. 2. Metallurgy and technology. 3. Material and corrosion. 4. Strength, diagnostics of integrity and operating reliability. It is pointed out that 1. for the more effective implementation of the nuclear power programme it will be necessary to interlink the resolved tasks, 2. the special exactingness of the nuclear programme requires extraordinary concentration of labour and material equipment, 3. for the manufacture of nuclear components it is necessary to have modern equipment for the metallurgical base.

  14. A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

  15. Disconnected Youth in the Research Triangle Region: An Ominous Problem Hidden in Plain Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, David; Guillory, Ferrel; Lipsitz, Joan; Raper, Noah; Rausch, Christina

    2008-01-01

    In September 2006, the North Carolina GlaxoSmithKline Foundation commissioned MDC, Inc. of Chapel Hill to analyze the problem of "disconnected youth" in the Research Triangle region, determine the current state of the region's responses to the challenge, and recommend steps to deepen and accelerate action on the issue. The research process was…

  16. Engaging novice researchers in the process and culture of science using a "Pass-the-Problem" case strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B; Usher, David C

    2015-09-10

    Undergraduates having their first research experience frequently have little idea of what to expect. Institutions offering summer research experiences attempt to address this issue through programs that introduce students to the process and culture of science. However, didactic approaches frequently bore students who prefer more interactive sessions. We describe a "Pass-the-Problem" case study approach that engages groups of students in useful discussions about the research environment they are entering. The cases presented here include keeping a thorough laboratory notebook, balancing laboratory and personal time demands, anxiety about formal presentations, unexpected federal regulatory inspection, working in a lab with limited funds, being used as a technician rather than a researcher, frustration with failed experiments, effects of promotion and tenure on laboratory atmosphere, the importance of reading the research literature, and questioning a career in science. These cases alert students to different situations they might encounter and stimulate discussion about how to deal with them. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(5):341-344, 2015. PMID:26153350

  17. Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant issues that the RR community continues to face are primarily related to operation, utilization and safety, ageing, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. There are also more recent challenges, such as initiatives for new RR facilities, securing radioisotope production, human resource and infrastructure capacity building, as well as sustainability of RR programmes, all of which are receiving greater attention. In view of the above, it is timely to convene another in the series of international conferences to discuss the issues and foster cooperation within the worldwide RR community. For more than 60 years, RRs have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 RRs have been built, and some 240 of these facilities continue to operate in 55 countries. It goes without saying that RRs must be safely and reliably operated, adequately utilized, refurbished when necessary, provided with adequate proliferation-resistant fuel cycle services and safely decommissioned at the end of life. In this regard, the IAEA provides assistance to Member States by developing safety standards and disseminating information on good practices for all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the planning and implementation of decommissioning. Member States look to the IAEA for coordination of the worldwide effort in this area and for help in solving specific problems. Today RR operating organizations need to overcome challenges such as effective utilization, the on-going management of ageing facilities, pressures for increased vigilance with respect to non-proliferation, and shrinking resources, both financial and human, while fulfilling an expanding role in support of nuclear technology development. The IAEA coordinates and implements an array of activities that together provide broad support for RRs. As with other aspects of nuclear technology, RR activities within the IAEA are spread among diverse groups in different Departments. To ensure harmonized approaches a cross-cutting coordination group on RRs has been established, with representatives from all IAEA departments actively supporting RR activities

  18. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically sustainable in the long term. Sweden welcomes the work done by the IAEA and the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) to draw up guidelines and recommendations for radiation protection

  19. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  20. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  1. A Multi-Systemic School-Based Approach for Addressing Childhood Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runions, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    School-based approaches to addressing aggression in the early grades have focused on explicit curriculum addressing social and emotional processes. The current study reviews research on the distinct modes of aggression, the status of current research on social and emotional processing relevant to problems of aggression amongst young children, as…

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at determining the overall needs for improvements in a country; the International Physical Protectio

  3. RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Livenskaya; A. V. Fedorov

    2011-01-01

    In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company) is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

  4. RESEARCH OF ENVIRONMENT AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM OF MARKETING RESEARCH OF BANK «VTB 24» (JOINT-STOCK COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Livenskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the analysis of environment of bank «??? 24» (Joint-Stock Company is given, internal characteristics ofbank, and also algorithm of statement of problems of marketing research of the market of bank services in the south of Russia areinvestigated.

  5. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism threats. There is a need to continue and strengthen the multinational cooperation which involves active participation by both nuclear specialists and those with more general security and law enforcement laws. Furthermore priority has to be given to developing national capacity to evaluate security threats, ensure adequate physical protection and intervene in ongoing nuclear trafficking cases complemented by cooperation in the areas of forensic analysis of nuclear material and emergency response. Together with the Russian Federation the USA announce the completion of security upgrades at strategic weapons sites and agreement on measures to ensure the long term sustainability of physical protection improvements in the Russian Federation. The USA is also working to convert research reactors and return the high enriched uranium fuel fro locations around the world which might otherwise become a target for terrorists or thieves. In parallel with efforts to improve security at the source, the USA is building international cooperation to put in place nuclear detection at seaports, airports and land border crossings. Through collaboration with the Russian Federal Customs Service, all of the Russian Federation's official border crossings will be equipped with radiation detection equipment by 2011

  6. The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high level A3 Thinking. PMID:24204681

  7. Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo; Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso

    2007-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Env...

  8. Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Roodt

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivati...

  9. Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Pan; Chunming Ye; Kefeng Wang; Jiangbo Cao

    2013-01-01

    As a key factor of logistics distribution, vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a hot research topic in management and computation science. In this paper the principle and algorithm process of firefly algorithm are introduced in detail. Then the algorithm process and solving steps are designed for vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW), including the coding and design of  disturbance mechanism of elicit fireflies. In the end, the testing examples from benchmark and other literatur...

  10. Research on the Endogenous Problems of Rural Farmers’ Spiritual and Cultural Education

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanlong; Yibing LIU

    2014-01-01

    The author conducts research and analysis on the endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education and finds that: the current endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education in China are mainly manifested in the oldness of spiritual and cultural education concepts, the monotonousness of spiritual and cultural education content, the blurring of spiritual and cultural education forms, the simplicity of spiritual and cultural education methods, and th...

  11. Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Robinett, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, alo...

  12. Quantitative and qualitative approaches in educational research — problems and examples of controlled understanding through interpretive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Karl

    1987-06-01

    In the methodological discussion of recent years it has become apparent that many research problems, including problems relating to the theory of educational science, cannot be solved by using quantitative methods. The multifaceted aspects of human behaviour and all its environment-bound subtle nuances, especially the process of education or the development of identity, cannot fully be taken into account within a rigid neopositivist approach. In employing the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as a suitable model for the analysis of processes of education and formation, the research has generally to start out from complex reciprocal social interactions instead of unambigious connections of causes. In analysing several particular methodological problems, the article demonstrates some weaknesses of quantitative approaches and then shows the advantages in and the necessity for using qualitative research tools.

  13. Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. K., Ke.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how t [...] o obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

  14. Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Robinett, R W

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, along with making contact with recent research papers in a variety of fields.

  15. Problem-based learning sessions and undergraduate research: a medical student’s perspective and experience

    OpenAIRE

    AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research (UR) and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions are similar with respect to the type of skills gained through each. However, appropriate modification of PBL sessions would contribute to enhanced UR experience. Based on personal experience in UR and a PBL curriculum, in this short discourse I shall explain how studying under a PBL curriculum enabled me to gain more out of my research experience.

  16. MULTICRITERIA HYBRID FLOW SHOP SCHEDULING PROBLEM: LITERATURE REVIEW, ANALYSIS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Fatima Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem, which is one of the most difficult problems to solve. The literature points to several studies that focus the Hybrid Flow Shop scheduling problem with monocriteria functions. Despite of the fact that, many real world problems involve several objective functions, they can often compete and conflict, leading researchers to concentrate direct their efforts on the development of methods that take consider this variant into consideration. The goal of the study is to review and analyze the methods in order to solve the Hybrid Flow Shop production scheduling problem with multicriteria functions in the literature. The analyses were performed using several papers that have been published over the years, also the parallel machines types, the approach used to develop solution methods, the type of method develop, the objective function, the performance criterion adopted, and the additional constraints considered. The results of the reviewing and analysis of 46 papers showed opportunities for future research on this topic, including the following: (i use uniform and dedicated parallel machines, (ii use exact and metaheuristics approaches, (iv develop lower and uppers bounds, relations of dominance and different search strategies to improve the computational time of the exact methods,  (v develop  other types of metaheuristic, (vi work with anticipatory setups, and (vii add constraints faced by the production systems itself.

  17. Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2001-01-01

    Laddering and means-end chains are one of the most promising developments in consumer research since the 1980s. It is an approach that takes consumers' individuality seriously but, nevertheless, comes up with quantitative results. It is rooted in a cognitive approach, and allows for emotional and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals with methodological problems of the interview technique called laddering, og coding laddering data, and of analysing the coded data. However, also shown, methodological and theoretical issues are partly interlinked: resolutions of methodological problems may require theoretical progress or at least a clarification of some theoretical issues. We therefore start with a discussion of some unresolved theoretical issues.

  18. Problem posing in teacher training and as a research object in didactics: two complementary perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie

    Palermo : GRIM, 2009 - (Di Paola, B.), s. 445-449 ISSN 1592-5137. [CIEAEM 61. Quebeck (CA), 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : mathematical education * teachers training * subject didactical competence * problem posing Subject RIV: AM - Education

  19. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  20. Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Skrickij

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Some results and open problems in research on low dimensional organic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Celebonovic, V

    2003-01-01

    This is a broad reviw of some of the fundamental results of research on the Bechgaard salts.To a lesser extent Q2D salts will also be discussed.Apart from known results,based on the author's work and the literature,some open problems will also be presented.

  2. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: kgrieger@rti.org [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  3. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  4. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  5. Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

  6. Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

  7. ¿Inteligencia administrativa para abordar "problemas malditos"? El caso de las comisiones interdepartamentales / Managerial Intelligence to Address "Wicked Problems": The Case of Interdepartmental Commitees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Quim, Brugué; Ramón, Canal; Palmira, Paya.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Situados en un contexto de creciente complejidad, las administraciones públicas del siglo XXI se ven sometidas a nuevos retos y deberían, usando la terminología de algunos analistas, ser capaces de responder a los mismos no sólo con eficiencia sino también con inteligencia. Una inteligencia que desb [...] orda la clásica racionalidad tecnocrática y que reclama una innovadora racionalidad deliberativa. A partir de estas premisas, que discutimos teóricamente, el artículo analiza empíricamente seis comisiones interdepartamentales del gobierno de Cataluña (España) y se pregunta hasta qué punto son espacios de diálogo interdepartamental, en qué medida generan inteligencia administrativa y, finalmente, si son herramientas útiles y efectivas para responder a los problemas "malditos" que azotan a nuestras sociedades. Abstract in english In a context of increasing complexity, 21st century public administrations should be ready to respond not just with efficiency but also with intelligence. To reach such smart responses, traditional technocratic rationality should be complemented with a more innovative form of deliberative rationalit [...] y. From this theoretical starting point, the article analyze six cross-sectoral commissions and try to find out its effective results in terms of dialogue among different administrative departments and capacity to generate intelligent responses to complex problems.

  8. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  9. The problems of treatment of irradiated fuel at Russian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the problems of safety during the storage and transportation of the spent fuel from Russian research reactors. Many research reactors continue to operate at Russia at present time. They use many different types of fuel elements and assemblies. The questions of safety during storage and transportation of spent fuel research reactors is considered in Russian documents on the safety of research reactors. The main features of these documents are described in this report. This report discusses three stages of the storage and transportation of the spent fuel: The temporary storage in the pool or in the vessel; the storage in the repository on the territory of the institutes; the transportation of the fuel to the reprocessing plant. The future plans provides the solution of the problem of transportation and reprocessing of all types of fuel assemblies which are used in Russian research reactors and experimental facilities. Also the Russian Reduced Enrichment Research Reactors Program that was started late in 70th continuing now. The main results of this work would be increase the density of the fuel meat in the composition on the basis of uranium dioxide and the change of the fuel composition to uranium silicide in aluminum matrix or another. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Nutrition ecology--a concept for systemic nutrition research and integrative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition-related problems (e.g., obesity) are complex and thus characterized by a multitude of components, interrelatedness, associated feedbacks, and dynamics. Nutrition ecology is an innovative concept to deal with complexity and multidimensionality in nutrition science and practice. Along the food supply chain the dimensions health, environment, society, and economy are taken into account simultaneously and coequally. By combining special disciplinary knowledge with methods and principles of research on complexity and knowledge integration, nutrition ecology offers a concept to develop approaches to solving complex nutrition-related problems. Accordingly, the conceptual background and methodological elements of nutrition ecology are presented and discussed. PMID:21888585

  11. Research on the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows Using Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengshan Pan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a key factor of logistics distribution, vehicle routing problem (VRP is a hot research topic in management and computation science. In this paper the principle and algorithm process of firefly algorithm are introduced in detail. Then the algorithm process and solving steps are designed for vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW, including the coding and design of  disturbance mechanism of elicit fireflies. In the end, the testing examples from benchmark and other literatures are conducted with good outputs, which prove the validity of the firefly algorithm for VRP.

  12. The optimization research of the multi-response problems based on the SUR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haitao; Yao, Hong Mei; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    In the optimization design of products and processes in the biological medicine, we need to consider multiple characteristics of quality simultaneously, namely multi-response problems, multi-response optimization design can improve the quality of the products effectively, and realize enormous economic benefits and so multi-response optimization design is showing a more and more important role in continuous quality improvement activities. But usually there is no specific set of input variables to make all the response variables be optimal, and the traditional multi-response surface method cannot solve the correlation problem between multi-responses and regression model problem effectively. Because we can make a better fitting model and solve the problem of the correlation between the response variables at the same time with SUR method, this thesis uses the SUR method to model the relationship between each response and control variables, and makes predictions; confirms the satisfaction function of each response and the overall satisfaction function; combines with practical problems of a company in biological medicine field named SX to conduct empirical research, this thesis confirms the optimal factor level combination with the overall satisfaction function in the end, thus solves the multi-response optimization problems. PMID:25796165

  13. Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

  14. "These are good problems to have…": establishing a collaborative research partnership in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William M; Nyandiko, Winstone N; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S

    2013-09-01

    In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.' PMID:23797916

  15. Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: collected papers on econometrics, operations research, game theory and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, F; Kaymram, F; Khoshnevisan, M; Malakar, S; Salmeron, J L; Singh, H P; Singh, R; Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad; Salmeron, Jose L.; Singh, Housila P.; Singh, Rajesh; Smarandache, Florentin

    2006-01-01

    Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cutting-edge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global politics by some prolific researchers in the field.

  16. Does the EU cause domestic developments? The problem of case selection in Europeanization research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Haverland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Europeanization research has evolved into a promising research programme and has benefited from its increasing linkages with general theories of the social sciences. The paper starts from the assumption that the research programme would also benefit from a greater awareness of social science methodology. The paper focuses on the problem of case selection. Most Europeanization studies are designed in ways that the independent variables in which Europeanization research should be most interested EU regulations, incentives or models does not vary. Control cases are lacking. Therefore it is difficult, and some would even argue impossible, to demonstrate that the EU has been causally important for domestic developments. The paper explores two strategies to establish variation in the independent variable: counterfactual reasoning and comparing EU member states with non-members or, if research is restricted to EU countries, cases where the source of an EU effect is present with cases where the source of an EU effect is absent. Although neither of these strategies is a panacea for the problem of causality, their careful application will help to get better answers to the question of whether the EU makes a difference.

  17. Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: collected papers on econometrics, operations research, game theory and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin; Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad; Singh, Housila P.; singh, rajesh; Kaymram, F.; Malakar, S.; Salmeron, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cutting-edge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global...

  18. The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Long Liu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content a...

  19. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  20. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  1. Studying Sideways : Displacing the Problem of Power in Research Interviews with Sociologists and Journalists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    One strand of the qualitative interview literature has been concerned with the normative or otherwise problematic implications of studying down or studying up (i.e., interviewing “disadvantaged” people or elites). This interview literature is part of a tradition of taking up the problem of power inequalities in relation to the people we study. This article argues that not all types of social scientific research interviews benefit from an à priori problematization of power and control, ethics and equality, or emancipation. From a constructivist perspective, the article seeks to displace the methodological concern with power related to the ideas of studying up or down and introduce another set of concerns in relation to producing good empirical material when we “study sideways.” The argument is based on analyses of interview situations from a concrete research project, where researcher and researched share professional background to some degree, where negotiations replace a researcher-imposed dialogue, and where the circulation of shared or common concepts messes up an orderly division between researchers’ vocabulary and interviewees’ vocabularies. It is proposed that when we study sideways, we must cultivate interview methods which cause confrontation and disagreement—not to acknowledge asymmetry but to enhance the quality of research.

  2. Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Sarah C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. Methods The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Results Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. Conclusions This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of cervical cancer screening services will inform targeted health promotion efforts.

  3. The Progress, Problems and Forsight of Scholarship of Teaching Research in China Since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong LI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, Chinese researchers have introduced American ideology of scholarship of teaching (SoT, and conduct localizationas analysis on its definition, connotation and assessing standards, and initially form SoT theoretical framework based on Chinese reality. Researchers have carried out empirical investigations for Chinese SoT levels in universities, and discussed on overall design of Chinese university SoT system from such aspects as SoT cultivating system, value acceptance system, teaching administrative and quality guarantee system based on SoT, teachers’ specialty development system in the view of SoT, and SoT communicating and sharing system. Although SoT research has greatly developed in China, there still exist the following problems: just advocating foreign theories without taking consideration of Chinese context; taking old route in research path; more theoretical imagination but less investigation, many difficulties to implementation recommendation. It will be a tendency for future research to further clarify SoT theoretical foundation, explore the practice from the bottom up and probe into new epistemology and research paradigm applied to SoT.

  4. Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Zhilinskaya,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

  5. Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Bianchi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for the conclusion of the courses, this papaer tries to be a guide for the definition of themes and for the organization of a research in Social Sciences. In order to achieve this goal there will be the reconstruction of The power elite by Wright Mills. Keywords: Methodology of research. Scientific research. Scientific problems.

  6. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lightfoot, Penny; Spinola, Carla; Predy, Gerry; Barrett, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  7. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  8. Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Roodt

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts. Opsomming Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

  9. Vybrané problémy ve výzkumu zážitkové pedagogiky Chosen problems in experiential education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji?í Okrouhlý

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available V textu se zabýváme výzkumem v oblasti, kterou pro pot?eby ?lánku nazýváme zážitková pedagogika. Nejd?íve se v?nujeme n?kterým problém?m výzkumu v obecné rovin?. Dále se s využitím p?íklad? z d?íve publikovaných studií zabýváme problémy jak kvantitativního, tak kvalitativního výzkumu. Dotýkáme se mimo jiné i otázky, zda by výzkum v dané oblasti m?l klást d?raz spíše na ov??ování stávajících teorií, ?i tvorbu teorie vlastní. Zejména pro ?eské prost?edí se p?ikláníme k druhé variant?, která m?že spíše p?isp?t k tvorb? spole?ného jazyka a znalostního základu oboru. This paper is concerned with research in the field of experiential education. At first we picked out some problems of research in general. Than using examples from published studies we focused on problems of the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Amongst others we touched on the questions to whether the researchers in the field should put emphasis on verifying existing theories or rather on generating theory peculiar to experential education. Especially in the Czech environment we prefer the latter possibility, which can contribute to the creation of a common language and to our own body of knowledge.

  10. Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process, which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in USNRC licensing of nuclear power plants. It keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process but makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them, which need to be solved to improve the performance. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method by showing a specific example of the application to physical events or phenomena in objects having fatigue or SCC crack(s) under ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. (author)

  11. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have alre...

  12. "What happened to the research?" : Dissemination of research from the International Music Therapy Research Training Program in Aalborg University. An investigation of the publications, the dissemination process, the problems and the expereinces of the researchers.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    From 1998 to 2005 twelve researchers graduated as PhDs from the International Music Therapy Research Training Program in Aalborg. They came from many different countries and clinical areas, and many types of research designs were represented. The researchers are all well-known within the international music therapy scene, but no overview has ever been made of how their research was disseminated or promoted in a wider national or international context. This paper addresses the following questions: “What happened to the research after the defence? How were the results of the research published and otherwise disseminated? What was the time frame and contexts of this dissemination process? What are the most important obstacles? Are we communicating in an appropriate way with professionals outside the music therapy community?” The paper is based on information provided by the researchers. Their results and reflections are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future.

  13. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

  14. The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lugova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further research. Thus, the aim of the article is to determine the key directions in the studies of motivation in the works of Ukrainian scientists, and to make the prospects for studies in this area clear.The theoretical analysis of the abstracts from the thesis for doctor’s degree in economics, which were defended in 1999 – 2010, has shown that in Ukraine the scientists study motivation in the following basic directions: first, motivation is considered as economic incentive, financial stimulus, motivation by payment; second, mainly the problems of motivation in special conditions are studied, namely: motivation in an economy in transition, motivation in agriculture, in banking, in commerce, in small businesses, in the conditions of restructuring as well; third, the idea of motivation is limited to the problem of staff assessment and the results of their work; forth, motivation is treated as a mechanism and some recommendations concerned its effectiveness are given.As a result of the research it has become possible to specify the promising lines of investigation of motivation which haven’t received sufficient attention in the science of economics: first, peculiarities of motivation of executives and managers of different levels, whose role has increased greatly in modern conditions, haven’t been adequately studied; second, the notions of "mechanism of employee motivation" and "mechanism of staff motivation" should be made clear; third, it is necessary to solve one of the most important tasks of forming an efficient mechanism of staff motivation, i. e. to reach harmony of aims of business and staff through integration of mechanism of employee motivation into mechanism of staff motivation; forth, it is necessary to continue studying the problem of assessment of efficiency of staff moti­vation mechanism.The importance of these tasks for personnel management at Ukrainian enterprises dictates the necessity of scientific research in the field of staff motivation that will make the subject of further studies of the authors.

  15. Opening Address (by R. Hojman) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I have the high honour of addressing you in order to express on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile (CCHEN), and also on my own behalf, our pleasure in having the opportunity to welcome to our country this select group of authorities and professionals of the IAEA, and more than 100 representatives of nuclear institutions from some 50 countries. We are certain that this conference will facilitate a valuable exchange of knowledge in areas as important as the use of research reactors, safety related aspects of such use, the fuel cycle, and dismantling and management of radioactive waste. We also value the opportunity provided by this forum to share experi- ences, exchange opinions, and discuss options and priorities during the five technical sessions scheduled as part of the conference and, moreover, to deepen existing and create new bonds of international cooperation. I would like to mention the fact that our country has experience in the operation of its experimental reactors and has managed to make contributions to major applications in various fields including medicine, agriculture, industry and mining, and environment and metrology. Health applications have been given priority among the CCHEN's activities, and this is why the use of the reactor at La Reina Nuclear Studies Center has focused on the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceu- tical applications which have short half-lives and are used in the diagnosis of the dynamic functioning of various organs and as therapeutic agents in some types of cancer. In agriculture, various isotope techniques have been investigated and fine tuned in areas such as soil fertility, fertilizing sources, optimum use of nutrients, rationalization and economy in the use of water, quantification of the degree of soil erosion, and irrigation with fertilizers. More recently, a study of residuality and mobility of agro-chemicals in soil and water was initiated through a project developed jointly with the IAEA and with our country's Agricultural and Livestock Raising Service, for the purposes of contributing regulations and standards in the use of pesticides. (author) In the area of mining, the CCHEN has been using radioactive tracers in mining and metallurgical processes for over two decades in determination of residence times, flow rates, fluid velocity, and characterization of runoff in in situ leaching processes, among other techniques, all of which has made it possible to optimize processes and achieve cost reductions. In the environmental field, isotope techniques have been developed for the study of both surface and underground aquifer resources. Work has also been carried out in determining contaminant sources and, more recently, there has been participation in multi-disciplinary research in order to collaborate in the control of marine toxins responsible for red tides through the use of isotope techniques. In the area of chemical metrology, the CCHEN renders major assistance services to the national export system in terms of sanitary certification, giving support and technical assistance to national laboratories so that the latter may raise their standards and undertake measurements in compliance with the growing requirements imposed by international markets. Worth pointing out are both the organization of aptitude drills and inter-comparison rounds at the national and international levels, and the CCHEN's capacity to prepare reference and control materials in natural matrices and also control materials for chemical analyses, all of which has enabled the CCHEN's laboratories to attain formal recognition as the reference laboratory for determining trace elements in biological samples. I have mentioned only some of the technological developments associated with the operation of our reactors for the purposes of contextual- izing the importance that various topics we are to discuss during the current week have for us. I want to end by reiterating that we feel honoured and experience great pleasure in having a select group of researchers, scientists and p

  16. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

  17. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

  18. Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

  19. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  20. WebMail versus WebApp: Comparing Problem-Based Learning Methods in a Business Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams van Rooij, Shahron

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches on knowledge transfer, problem-solving self-efficacy, and perceived learning gains among four intact classes of adult learners engaged in a group project in an online undergraduate business research methods course. With two of the classes using a text-only PBL workbook…

  1. Using a Brief Form of Problem-Based Learning in a Research Methods Class: Perspectives of Instructor and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional method aimed at engaging students in collaboratively solving an ill-structured problem. PBL has been presented and researched as an overhaul of existing curriculum design, yet a modified version may be attractive to college instructors who desire active learning on the part of their students, but…

  2. Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. I consider this a timely opportunity to reiterate the Government of Chile's iron commitment to exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as our firm opposition to any deviation of this form of energy towards military ends. We also acknowledge the important work achieved through technical cooperation, of which our country has been a beneficiary ever since the initiation of nuclear activity in Chile almost three decades ago. I cannot keep from mentioning the fact that even though nuclear energy represents a major contribution to humanity through the use of isotopes and ionizing radiation, as well as through the generation of electricity throughout the world, our country recognizes that there are some issues pending which must be resolved, taking into account the perspective of developing nations. I refer to the management and final disposal of highly radioactive waste, and also to the cross-border transport of radioactive materials. Both of those issues are rejected by public opinion, making social validation of this form of energy difficult. Esteemed scientists, in closing I would like to convey to you my wishes that the conversations held and agreements entered into during this week may lead to major progress in the use of nuclear research reactors, and that this in turn may contribute to improving the quality of life worldwide, as well as to reinforcing international cooperation. I also hope that your stay in our country will be an enjoyable one, that you may have the opportunity to become a little more acquainted with its natural beauty and culture, and that through the focus on the particular scientific issues which brings you here, it may become possible to achieve progress towards the genuine integration of different peoples and cultures sharing a common ideal: that of putting nuclear science and technology at the service of humankind. Thank you very much. (author)

  3. A top priority problem of national radiation protection - proper disposal of research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents basic facts about RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute. The present state of the RA reactor spent fuel storage pool appears to be a serious safety and radiological problem, which must be solved urgently, independent of the decision about the future status of the reactor itself. The following paragraphs describe current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel. Activities performed so far, concerning identification and improvement of the spent fuel storage conditions are presented. These are verification of radiation protection measures, radiological and chemical analyses, visual inspection and photographing, safety analyses and nuclear criticality studies.A project for long-term solution of the research reactor spent fuel storage is proposed. In order to minimise further corrosion and establish strict control of all the relevant technological parameters of the utility, improvement of conditions for disposal of the fuel in the existing storage, is foreseen in the first phase. New dry storage for long-term storing of the spent fuel should be built during the second phase of the project. Particular attention is paid to the activities related to radiation protection and waste treatment, starting from standard monitoring and control, radiological analyses, regulations and legislation, to complicated handling of high level radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

  5. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

  6. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barthel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

  7. HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, R.

    2014-07-01

    Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

  8. Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

  9. Confusing confusability: on the problems of using psychophysical measures of letter confusability in neuropsychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Lindegaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of letter confusability on reading has received increasing attention over the last decade. Confusability scores for individual letters, derived from older psychophysical studies, have been used to calculate summed confusability scores for whole words, and effects of this variable on normal and alexic reading have been reported. On this basis, letter confusability is now increasingly controlled for in stimulus selection. In this commentary, we try to clarify what letter confusability scores represent and discuss several problems with the way this variable has been treated in neuropsychological research. We conclude that it is premature to control for this variable when selecting stimuli in studies of reading and alexia. Although letter confusability may play a role in (impaired) reading, it remains to be determined how this measure should be calculated, and what effect it may have on word and letter identification.

  10. Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

  11. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  12. Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fávero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

  13. A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most modern scholars in the genesis of the aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive factors and factors constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations. At the same time, there are also scientific approaches to understanding the nature of aggression, which in some cases does not focus directly on the structures inhibiting aggressive impulses, and are limited to considering only the aggression catalysts. In the present article we discuss the need to introduce the term "inhibitors of aggression", analyze different positions and views on this problem. We consider not only Russian conceptions of the nature of aggression retarding structures, but also the international research aimed at understanding the psychological analogue of this phenomenon: "protective factors". The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which not only traces the history of the studies of this phenomenon, but also makes an attempt to analyze few up-to-day theories of aggressive behavior, aimed at objectivation of the psychological mechanism of interaction of proagressive and inhibiting personality structures.

  14. Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions' are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author)

  15. Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

  16. The fuel element of the first charge for EL 4; presentation, main problems arising in the research, production problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel element making up the first charge for EL-4 is made of slightly enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel. This fuel element makes it possible to operate the reactor in the safest conditions awaiting the development of the fuel which will be finally adopted; this will have a low absorption can: beryllium, or a zirconium copper alloy. The 500 mm assembly is made up of 19 small rods placed on 3 rings, inside a graphite jacket. The solution adopted was a solution using completely independent small rods. This report deals with possible problems resulting from their study and production. (authors)

  17. Identifying Opportunities for Collaborations in International Engineering Education Research on Problem-and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey D.; Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura

    2010-01-01

    We report on the results of a study to examine the global state of engineering education research on problem-and project-based learning (PBL). This paper has two major aims. First, we analyze a large collection of conference papers and journal articles to report on research trends in PBL, including in specific, leading countries. Second, based…

  18. A study of the control problem of the shoot side environment delivery system of a closed crop growth research chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Blackwell, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The details of our initial study of the control problem of the crop shoot environment of a hypothetical closed crop growth research chamber (CGRC) are presented in this report. The configuration of the CGRC is hypothetical because neither a physical subject nor a design existed at the time the study began, a circumstance which is typical of large scale systems control studies. The basis of the control study is a mathematical model which was judged to adequately mimic the relevant dynamics of the system components considered necessary to provide acceptable realism in the representation. Control of pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the crop shoot environment, along with its oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water concentration is addressed. To account for mass exchange, the group of plants is represented in the model by a source of oxygen, a source of water vapor, and a sink for carbon dioxide. In terms of the thermal energy exchange, the group of plants is represented by a surface with an appropriate temperature. Most of the primitive equations about an experimental operating condition and a state variable representation which was extracted from the linearized equations are presented. Next, we present the results of a real Jordan decomposition and the repositioning of an undesirable eigenvalue via full state feedback. The state variable representation of the modeling system is of the nineteenth order and reflects the eleven control variables and eight system disturbances. Five real eigenvalues are very near zero, with one at zero, three having small magnitude positive values, and one having a small magnitude negative value. A Singular Value Decomposition analysis indicates that these non-zero eigenvalues are not results of numerical error.

  19. An anthropologic study on strategies for addressing health problems among the elderly in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Um estudo antropológico sobre as estratégias para resolver problemas de saúde entre idosos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabeth, Uchôa; Josélia O. A., Firmo; Maria Fernanda, Lima-Costa; Ellen, Corin.

    Full Text Available Este artigo utiliza a abordagem antropológica para examinar mecanismos por meio dos quais a situação socioeconômica influencia as estratégias desenvolvidas por idosos residentes em uma pequena cidade brasileira para enfrentar seus problemas de saúde. Entrevistas com vinte informantes-chave visaram à [...] percepção da comunidade acerca da saúde do idoso. Entrevistas com trinta senhoras idosas objetivaram a percepção que elas possuíam da saúde e estratégias adotadas para resolver tais problemas. As análises mostraram que as narrativas dos dois grupos convergem na ênfase do papel desempenhado por fatores financeiros no acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos medicamentos. As histórias de vida descreveram algumas estratégias prejudiciais à saúde para fazer frente à falta de recursos. As senhoras também destacaram a importância do apoio da família e/ou de vizinhos para superar problemas relacionados à saúde. Assim, a questão da pobreza não é só econômica, mas também a pobreza das redes sociais de apoio. Abstract in english This paper explores the contribution of anthropological perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms through which socioeconomic circumstances influence the strategies developed by elderly for addressing their health problems in a small Brazilian city. Interviews with 20 key-informants explored the co [...] mmunity's broad perception of the health situation of the elderly. Life histories collected from 30 elderly women examined their own perception of their health status and their health strategies. Narratives converge in emphasising the important role played by financial factors in accessing health services and medication. Life histories also describe some damaging strategies resorted to by the elderly to deal with their lack of resources. Elderly women emphasize the crucial support they receive from their family and/or neighbours to overcome health problems. Thus, the issue of poverty is not only a matter of socioeconomic circumstances, but also the poverty of broader social networks.

  20. The problem of analysing the relationship between change and initial value in oral health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Bælum, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between initial disease status and subsequent change following treatment has attracted great interest in dental research. However, medical statisticians have repeatedly warned against correlating/regressing change with baseline because of two methodological concerns known as mathematical coupling and regression to the mean. In general, mathematical coupling occurs when one variable directly or indirectly contains the whole or part of another, and the two variables are then analyzed by using correlation or regression. Consequently, the statistical procedure of testing the null hypothesis - that the coefficient of correlation or the slope of regression is zero - may become inappropriate. Regression to the mean occurs with any variable that fluctuates within an individual or a population, either owing to measurement error and/or to physiological variation. The aim of this article was to clarify the conceptual confusion around mathematical coupling and regression to the mean within the statistical literature, and to correct a popular misconception about the correct analysis of the relationship between change and initial value. As examples that use inappropriate methods to analyze the relationship between change and baseline are still found in leading dental journals, this article seeks to help oral health researchers understand these problems and explain how to overcome them.

  1. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

  2. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRASCU DANUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to solve the identified problems. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus on several directions: when filling out the application form, the technical-financial reporting, at the contracting phase of the projects, problems of partners. This article deals with the problems encountered during the projects’ contracting stage and problems caused by partners. The respondents’ answers place the problems of partners on top of the categories of problems that stood in the way of European funds’ beneficiaries. A series of causes that have led to the occurrence of these problems have also been identified. It should be stated that the information obtained from the conducted research supplies, theoretically speaking, the studied field and brings an important contribution not only to possible beneficiaries of European funds, but to the institutions managing European funds in Romania, who have a lot to learn from the experience of the first period of programmes. The authors’ main contribution is to integrate this study into the logical thread of the thesis entitled “Strategic management in European project funding”. Both articles, part of a research in the field of project management are unique and original and meet a current and pressing requirement of the Romanian society.

  3. Role of organic soils in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armentano, T.V. (ed.)

    1979-01-01

    The following goals were addressed in the workshop: review and analysis of available data on carbon in organic soils from the past century to the present; assessment of the probable flux of carbon to and from organic soils in the near future; identification of major data inadequacies which preclude reliable analysis of the principal processes influencing carbon flux in organic soils; and proposal of research initiatives which could improve understanding of organic deposits in relation to the carbon cycle within a time frame of two to four years. The major finding of the workshop is that the organic soils are important in the overall carbon budget. Histosols and gleysols, the major organic soil deposits of the world, normally sequester organic carbon fixed by plants. They may now be releasing enough carbon to account for nearly 10% of the annual rise in atmospheric content of CO/sub 2/. Current annual release of carbon from organic soils is estimated to fall within the range of 0.03 to 0.37 x 10/sup 9/ t, a release equivalent to 1.3% to 16% of the annual increase of carbon in the atmosphere. Present annual releases of carbon from the Everglades Agricultural Area in Florida and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley in California are estimated at 0.017 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Annual sequestering of carbon by undrained organic soils has been estimated at about 0.045 x 10/sup 9/ tons. Several strategies for peatland management are available, including creation, preservation, functional designation, and use of wetlands for agriculture and energy supply.

  4. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

  5. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

  6. Efficient address translation

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Matthias M.

    2000-01-01

    The address calculation for distributed data access plays a major role for the performance of fine-grained data-parallel applications. This paper reports about the hardware centrifuge of the Cray T3E which enables the shift of the address calculation from software into hardware. This shift minimizes address calculation overhead reducing communication cost of dynamic communication patterns. The centrifuge is compared with complex integer division and modulo and with int...

  7. Undergraduate occupational therapy students' engagement in qualitative research: Identifying research problems and questions through reflection while in a community fieldwork setting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jo-Celene, de Jongh.

    Full Text Available As part of the occupational therapy undergraduate programme at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), students carry out group research projects while in their fieldwork placements. The purpose of the Research module is to introduce them to basic qualitative research methods. Following the progre [...] ss of a group of students in a community fieldwork setting as an example, this article is a commentary on how they use the steps of the community process as a guideline to identify possible research questions. The author will highlight the process that students follow to refine their research questions, the support they require to identify priority problems, the barriers that students face while conducting research in fieldwork, and the positive outcomes for students and the community. In conclusion the community process provided the students with a theoretical guideline, specifically the needs assessment and analysis steps of the process in order for them to conceptualise a research question within a community fieldwork setting.

  8. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    ?AFAKLI, Okan Veli; Mustafa ERTANIN; Hüda HÜDAVERD?

    2013-01-01

    The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC), accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus a...

  9. About a problem of reception of antimatter: possibility of research f properties, synthesis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is of special interest to study a possibility of reception of intensive streams of positrons (probably and other antiparticles) at reorganization of physical vacuum in strong fields (for example, in an electric field of modern super-power laser beams) and on accelerators. This topic can be possible related to creation of space solar factories on the Moon or asteroids, etc. with use of the solar radiation energy transformed into electric energy, and use of space for manufacturing and storages of positrons [1-7]. The essence of the method should consist of fast positron streams reception by means of the transformed solar energy on accelerators, or any other methods, with their subsequent delay up to temperatures of the order 0.5 K in some closed area of space. Thus, very significant stocks of positrons could be created. Gathering of such positrons in magnetic traps in space conditions can become rather effective method of accumulation of antimatter. Present level of technologies does not allow accumulation of received antimatter in large amounts. Besides, this reception process of is very expensive. Therefore, probably, only about ten or hundred nanograms of antimatter is yet received. This quantity of antimatter would be apparently sufficient for creation of space vehicles (SV) with the sizes in nano-or a micron range. These are not some crazy fantastic assumption in a context of modern development of nanotechnologies in the World. All the units and details of such SV should not exceed nano- and micron ranges. The situation can change, if the black holes both natural and created by the human can become 'factories' of antimatter http://www.rian.ru/rian/intro.cfm (A.D.Dolgov (ITEP) et al). Gravitation in vicinities of a black hole so is great, that there is no object, even radiation that can leave. Indeed, gravitation of a black hole acts on protons more strongly, than on electrons as their mass is larger. As a result, the black hole gets a positive electric charge. Thus, if the mass of a black hole is rather small, the electric field at horizon of events can reach critical values. It leads to electron-positron instability of vacuum and generation of pairs. As positrons are thrown out by electric field, and electrons are trapped, the black hole works as a factory of antimatter, transforming protons into antiparticles. Reference: 1. E.P. Svetlov-Prokop'ev // Materials of the international conference. Ed. E.I.Artamonov. M.: Institute of problems of management of the Russian Academy of Science. - 2008. P.100-101.; 2. E.P.Prokop'ev. Possible space technologies of the future and a problem of technical progress. Materials of the Third Belarus space congress. On October 23-25, 2007, Minsk, Belarus. Minsk: Publishing house of the Incorporated institute of problems of computer science NAS of Belarus, 2007. P.383-389. http://www.uiip.bas-net.by/kosmos3/sec10.html, http://www.prokopep.narod.ru; 3. Svetlov-Prokopyev / About a problem of physics and chemistry of antisubstance: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // In book.: Actual problems of modern physics . Materials of the All-Russia remote scientifically-practical conference with the international participation. Russia, Krasnodar, on June, 5th, 2008. Krasnodar: KGU, 2008. P.15-30.; 4. A.L.Suvorov, E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova // Reception of antimatter for use in a modern science, techniques and microelectronics. The Petersburg magazine of electronics. 2007. No 2. P.4 - 16.; 5. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev. The general principles of interaction of matter and antimatter. Not relativistic theory // Bull. Kaz. NU, ser. phys. 2007. No 1 (23). P.169 - 177.; 6. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova. About a problem of physics, chemistry and technology of antimatter: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // 5 International conferences Nuclear and radiating physics. 26 - 29 September, 2005: ICNP' 05. V.1. Nuclear physics. Almaty: Publishing house RK. 2006. P.33 4 - 34

  10. Research on Time Table Problem Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm Combined Chaos and Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    The scheduling problem is a typical time table problem in educational administration. For such a NP complete problems, when the genetic algorithm solves this problem, it has precociousness phenomenon and quickly converges not to the global optimal solution but to the local optimal solution. Therefore, we use the advantage of simulated annealing algorithm to transform the fitness function and chaotic sequence to control the crossover and mutation genetic ope...

  11. Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Milgram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA prevented it.? It turns out that this is not true.? The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.? The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.? There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

  12. Opening Address (by T. Taniguchi) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: On behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to the Government of Chile, and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile, for hosting this Conference in the beautiful and historic city of Santiago de Chile. I would also like to thank you, the 180 or so registered delegates from around the world, for participating in this conference. I trust that you will have an interesting and enjoyable week. For more than 50 years, research reactors have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 research reactors have been built, and some 270 of these reactors, in 59 countries, continue to operate today. Altogether, over 13 000 reactor years of operational experience have accumulated during this period. Just as important, however, is the fact that those reactors have operated in a remarkably safe manner. The IAEA's statutes charter it to promote the contributions that atomic energy can bring to the health and prosperity of people throughout the world. Thus, the IAEA is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and practical application of research related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. From its inception in 1957, there has been a broad interest at the IAEA in the benefits to be derived by Member States from the safe operation of research reactors. The multi-disciplinary research that a research reactor can support has led to the development of numerous capacities within Member States, many of which have been realized under the umbrella of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. These benefits have been realized in a wide variety of areas within science and technology: nuclear power, radioisotope production, neutron beam research and analysis, nuclear medicine and personnel training, and more recently, materials development, component testing, computer code validation and environmental pollution control. One can cite numerous Member States, for example, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico in the Latin American region, which have developed high quality nuclear programmes indigenously, thanks in no small part to the growth and effective utilization of their research reactor programmes. Thanks to the recognition of these great benefits for human health, welfare and social development, new research reactors are being planned and built. Pre-eminent to the pursuit of these universal gains, however, is the precondition that any and all reactor operations be conducted with a commitment to and an assurance of safety: safety for the operators, safety for the public and safety for the environment. The research reactor community has had a long and successful history of both productive and safe operations; however, nearly two thirds of the world's operating research reactors, i.e. 63% are now over 30 years old. Many of them have been refurbished to meet today's technological standards and safety requirements; however, there are challenges associated with ageing components and materials - and even members of staff - at these facilities. They continue to be serious issues, and are receiving increased attention, worldwide. Likewise, worldwide attention is focused on the serious erosion in governmental support, management commitment and available resources to the infrastructure necessary for effective research reactor operations. Robust utilization plans are not always an inherent part of the decision making process for determining whether a research reactor should be built, in the first place, or should continue to operate, in the long run. This is compounded by the fact that the use of these reactors is no longer an attractive research vehicle for university students and academic researchers. From these facts, it can be seen that there is a need to infuse vitality into this critical part of the nuclear industry and its infrastructure, thereby allowing for broade

  13. Adaptive management of the climate change problem: bridging the gap between research and public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe S?VOIU

    2008-01-01

    There are important differences between adaptation to normal climate and adaptation to climate change. One scientific community is organized to address extreme probabilities in current distributions, and their disaster potential. Another scientific community addresses the longer-term changes in the climate system. There are important differences between natural hazard (extreme and unpredictable events) and disaster as natural hazard with disastrous economic and social consequences as a matter...

  14. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard; Louise A. Rohrbach; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; CATALANO, RICHARD F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; HAWKINS, J. DAVID

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  15. The Use and Overuse of Electronic Research in Freshman Composition Research Papers: Problems in Traditional and Online Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Suzanne L.

    Traditionally, students taking an introductory English composition class have been encouraged to perform their research in the college or university library, but in recent years there has been a trend toward encouraging students to perform part or all of their research for composition research papers on the Internet or within an entirely…

  16. Microplastics: : Addressing Ecological Risk Through Lessons Learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Khan, Farhan

    There is a growing concern over the ecological risk of microplastics (MPs). Intensive use of plastic has led to a widespread distribution of plastics in the aquatic environment, where a significant part is present as MPs – i.e. plastic particles < 5 mm. The apparent magnitude of the problem calls for quickly developing sound scientific guidance on the ecological risks of MPs. In this study we suggest future research into MP risks should be guided by lessons learned from the more advanced and better understood areas of (eco)toxicology of engineered nanoparticles and mixture toxicity. We further proposed an expansion of the understanding of vector effects to include three levels of vector effects, and finally we address the need development of more advanced techniques for environmental sampling

  17. Microplastics: Addressing Ecological Risk Through Lessons Learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Khan, Farhan

    There is a growing concern over the ecological risk of microplastics (MPs). Intensive use of plastic has led to a widespread distribution of plastics in the aquatic environment, where a significant part is present as MPs – i.e. plastic particles < 5 mm. The apparent magnitude of the problem calls for quickly developing sound scientific guidance on the ecological risks of MPs. In this study we suggest future research into MP risks should be guided by lessons learned from the more advanced and better understood areas of (eco)toxicology of engineered nanoparticles and mixture toxicity. We further proposed an expansion of the understanding of vector effects to include three levels of vector effects, and finally we address the need development of more advanced techniques for environmental sampling

  18. Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…

  19. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help is available. Share your concerns with your healthcare provider, who can address the concern or refer ... don’t be afraid to talk with a healthcare professional. Although sexual problems can be complex, there ...

  20. The A3 Problem Solving Report: A 10-Step Scientific Method to Execute Performance Improvements in an Academic Research Vivarium

    OpenAIRE

    Bassuk, James A.; Washington, Ida M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponso...

  1. Evaluating address register assignment and offset assignment algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh J.; Amaral J.N.; Berube P.; Touati S.-A.-A.

    2011-01-01

    In digital signal processors (DSPs), variables are accessed using k address registers. The problem of finding a memory layout, for a set of variables, that minimizes the address-computation overhead is known as the General Offset Assignment (GOA) problem. The most common approach to this problem is to partition the set of variables into k partitions and to assign each partition to an address register. Thus, effectively decomposing the GOA problem into several Simple Offset Assignment (SOA) pr...

  2. Research on the Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm in Web Services Composition Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Shujun Pei; Xi Shi; Daming Hu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of finding the optimal solution for web services composition problem to meet increasingly sophisticated demand of users, an algorithm called Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm (PACA) based on Quality of Service (QoS) is proposed in this article. This algorithm converts the web services composition problem into shortest path problem of QoS-based directed acyclic graph. First, find several suboptimal paths by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA) and initial...

  3. Moving beyond "It Worked": The Ongoing Evolution of Research on Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on Problem-Based Learning in medical education has undergone an evolutionary process from initial proof of concept studies through critiques of the original methods and beyond. Initial studies focused on whether or not the instructional method was effective for medical students and the goals of medical education. Despite much movement…

  4. Taking Power, Politics, and Policy Problems Seriously: The Limits of Knowledge Translation for Urban Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of indi...

  5. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

  6. A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

  7. Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi López Sintas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality

  8. Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

    1993-01-01

    Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

  9. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  10. La antibiótico-resistencia de bacterias de importancia clínica aisladas del río Almendares, Cuba, abordada como problema de salud ecosistémica / The antibiotic-resistance of clinically significant bacteria isolated from Almendares River in Cuba, addressed as an ecosystem health problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yunier, Arpajón-Peña; Rebeca, Doval-García; José Gabriel, Hernández-Carretero; Martha, Pérez-Cosme; Yornaika, Llano-González.

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available La Universidad actual tiene, además de su papel docente, una posición privilegiada en cuanto a la protección del medio ambiente mediante la difusión de los resultados de sus investigaciones. Uno de los problemas medioambientales, y por ende de salud, que más preocupa a los investigadores en la actua [...] lidad es la resistencia a los antibióticos de bacterias que habitan los ecosistemas acuáticos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es demostrar la presencia de bacterias de importancia clínica en el río Almendares, La Habana, Cuba, como problema de salud ecosistémica y así tener una visión más completa en el análisis de situaciones problémicas sobre el estado ecológico real del mismo que se discuten en la docencia de pregrado y postgrado. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de 72 aislados del río Almendares por el método de Bauer- Kirby. Las lecturas fueron realizadas teniendo en los catálogos del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Se obtuvieron aislados resistentes a las cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación, un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a nueve antibióticos distintos, mientras que fueron también multirresistentes aislados de Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis y Streptococcus pneumoniae. La presencia de bacterias de diferentes grupos de importancia clínica, resistentes y multirresistentes a antibióticos, en este río constituye un importante problema de salud ecosistémica, lo cual constituye un riesgo potencial que afecta los servicios ecosistémicos de los cuales depende gran parte de la población de la capital cubana. Abstract in english The current University has, besides its educational paper, a privileged position as for the protection of the environment by means of the diffusion of the results of its investigations. One of the environmental problems, and therefore health, of greatest concern to researchers today is the antibioti [...] c resistance of bacteria that inhabit aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the presence of bacteria of clinical importance from the Almendares River in Havana, Cuba, as an ecosystem health problem and thus have a more complete vision on the analysis of problem situations about the actual ecological status of this ecosystem, which are being discussed in pre and postgraduate teaching. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined from 72 strains isolated in vitro on Almendares River through Bauer-Kirby method. The readings were carried out having in the catalogs of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Isolated resistant to cefalosporins of third and fourth generation were obtained, one isolated of Escherichia coli was resistant to nine different antibiotics, while isolated of Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were also multiresistant. It was concluded that the presence of some resistant and multiresistant to antibiotics bacteria of clinical importance, in this river, constitute an important problem of ecosystem health, which at the same time, establishes a potential risk that affects the ecosystem services from which many people from Cuban capital depend.

  11. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar situations in which a fast and effective task force may be required to evaluate vaccination-related adverse events. PMID:26123389

  12. Why There Are No Dialogues among the Divided: The Problem of Solipsistic Agendas in Literacy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Surveys issues raised in earlier articles in this issue of the journal regarding standards for reading research methodologies. Offers a tentative explanation of why debates, paradigm wars, and parallel play are prevalent in literacy research. (RS)

  13. “These are Good Problems to Have…”: Establishing a Collaborative Research Partnership in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    William M. Tierney; Nyandiko, Winstone N.; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E.; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of a long-term institutional ‘twinning’ partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan–North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributi...

  14. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  15. Welcome address to 30th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, 6 October 2008, Washington, D.C., USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RERTR meetings, of course, have a special role among our activities. They are important not only for what is presented in the formal technical sessions, but also for what takes place in the informal gatherings, side meetings, and personal encounters. The IAEA also has participated as an observer in the International Fuel Development Working Group, a highly important effort that is overseeing the multinational cooperative research and development effort for very high density LEU fuel. Remarkable achievements of GTRI are the conversion to LEU or final shutdown prior to conversion of 62 research reactors, the return to the United States of more than 1100 kg of spent HEU fuel and more than 1800 kg of spent LEU fuel and the return to Russia of more than 600 kg of spent and fresh HEU fuel. But while much has been achieved so far, vulnerabilities remain. HEU continues to be used for military purposes in a number of States; about 150 civilian and military research reactors are still using HEU and important quantities of fresh; and spent HEU fuel continues to be stored in different countries. All this calls for continued efforts, with a sense of urgency and more coherent global action. Some of the measures that might be taken are as follows: The countries involved should join forces to step up their efforts towards minimizing and eventually eliminating the civilian and in due course the military use of HEU. Financing and other incentives should be made available where needed to assist countries with conversion operations. All countries should agree to stop producing fissile material for use in nuclear weapons. The elements are already in place for such an agreement, in the form of the proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. It is high time to negotiate and conclude such a treaty. To build confidence, countries with civilian and military HEU stockpiles should declare the size of those stockpiles and publish a schedule under which the remaining HEU will be verifiably down blended. By investing in these measures, we could alleviate proliferation concerns associated with the continued uses of HEU and help reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism. I believe that this is an initiative in which all countries - Nuclear Weapon States and Non-Nuclear Weapon States alike - could play a role, and from which all would clearly benefit. The Agency stands ready to continue to take its share of this work through supporting and assisting its Member States in their efforts

  16. The Need for an Information Communication and Advocacy Strategy to Guide a Research Agenda to Address Burden of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Khan, M; Freeman, Alexander J; Gessner, Bradford D; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant

    2015-11-01

    Invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis (iNTS) is often not recognized clinically, and prevention of iNTS is largely ignored by policy planners and decision makers. During 2010, an estimated 3.4 million cases and 681 316 deaths occurred worldwide due to iNTS, with the largest estimated disease burden in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa. These figures likely underestimate global burden for several reasons, further complicating efforts to raise awareness of iNTS. To increase disease recognition and facilitate development of interventions, a communication and advocacy plan should be developed and implemented by actors in different sectors of global health, including researchers and scientists, funders, vaccine manufacturers, civil society organizations, and government officials from highly affected countries. PMID:26449955

  17. Problems of metrological research automation in the field of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal problems are considered of a measuring-computing complex development for automation of metrological investigations in the field of ionizing radiations. The structural diagram of such a complex is given

  18. A survey of waterfowl problems in Alaska for the purpose of identifying research needs: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the many and varied problems facing the waterfowl resource of Alaska. Current waterfowl investigations and management programs aimed at...

  19. Research on Existing Problem of China's MBA Education and the Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyong Ma

    2010-01-01

    This article started with a brief review of the history and current situation of Chinese MBA education, Moreover, the major problems of Chinese MBA education and the reasonable resolution were presented on improving the MBA education in China as well.

  20. Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research

    OpenAIRE

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.; Struik, P. C.; Jacobsen, E.

    2003-01-01

    By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining sufficient quantities of adequate quality are reviewed. For successful production of organic seed and planting material intensive communication between and mutual commitment of farmers, traders, breed...

  1. Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Durrance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

  2. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  3. On the Knowledge-sociological Problems in using Philosophy of Science Methods to solve Transdisciplinary Problems : Andur’s Contribution to Interdisciplinary Research Across Knowledge Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, SØren

    In 1979 I was almost kicked out of biology for making a philosophy and historical analysis of Konrad Lorenz work in developing Ethology. I was saved by Jesper Hoffmeyer and Iven Reventlow, who was a behavioral psychologist, who then created a prize essay in the problem area, which I answered and got a Gold medal in psychology, which helped me getting three years of research in comparative psychology at Psychological Laboratory Coph. U. My main interdisciplinary problem was how to conceptualize the causal role of experience in cognitive and communicative behavior. At the time the dialectical materialism of Leontjev was a possible way of making a common philosophical framework for biology and psychology that really did not share a common ontological framework at the time. But when I realized that diamat could not contain a phenomenological aspect in its ontological framework I suddenly found myself in conflict with the Marxists that dominated the professional framework of rationality in the psychology department. I had no way to go further within that professional setting. I got a job at the royal Danish Library School. Here I discovered the same type of interdisciplinary problem in information science. Suddenly there was research money to upgrade your position by making a PhD I was looking for a supervisor. But who would support such a project falling outside all professional areas and without any formal PhD study and any economic compensation for the work? Andur of course. We had deep discussions about Daniel Dennet’s take on this problem and on Prigogine and Stengers revolutionary work in physics and how its introduction of irreversible time changed the ontology of the natural sciences. It was very inspirational and confirmed that I was onto something valid and interesting after all. After a couple of years I managed to finish and a year after it was published as a book. "Information er sølv ...: om muligheden for en pragmatisk informationsteori baseret på anden ordens kybernetik, semiotik og sprogspilsteori" Forlaget Biblioteksarbejde 1994. It saved my possibility of having a carrier in Academia and the rest of it has only been possible through people like Andur that had the intellectual capacity and the courage to go across knowledge borders and still keep their position in their own field. I know I am not the only one in that situation Andur has supported over the years. He became an institution in fostering interdisciplinarity in Danish academia. He gave us courage: In 2006 I became Doctor of Philosophy with "Cybersemiotics: Why Information is not Enough" published at Toronto Univ. P. in 2008, (2010, 2013).

  4. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

  5. The communication problems of Spanish researchers to get research articles published in Applied Linguistics English-medium journals: proposal and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Ana I

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...

  6. Ethical review of biomedical research in Belarus: Current status, problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Famenka, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides description of the system of ethical review for biomedical research in Belarus, with special emphasis on its historical background, legal and regulatory framework, structure and functioning. It concludes that the situation with research ethics in Belarus corresponds to the tendency of bureaucratic approach to establishment of systems of ethical review for biomedical research, observed in a number of countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Different social, economical and p...

  7. Language and rigour in qualitative research: Problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Jing; Smith Helen J; Liu Xiaoyun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence r...

  8. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Michael Conn; F.T., Rantin.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and s [...] uggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  9. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Michael Conn

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  10. Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem

    OpenAIRE

    P. Michael Conn; F.T. Rantin

    2010-01-01

    Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

  11. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  12. Teachers’ Problems and Misconceptions Relate to “Solar System And Beyond: Space Puzzle” Unit: A Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay ?ENEL ÇORUHLU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to emerge science and technology teachers problems and misconceptions relate to “The Solar System and Beyond: Space Puzzle” Unit. Case study research method was used in this study. The sample of the study consisted of 10 science and technology teachers. Semi structured interview question and observation form were used in the data collection process. Semi structured interview conducted with 10 science and technology teachers. Observation study was done in 2 science and technology teachers’ class. These observations take 14 hours. At the end of the study; it was found that teachers faced problems to attract students’ attention to the unit. Also half of the teachers faced difficulty to answer students’ problems because of the insufficient content knowledge. Textbook including misconception relate to planet orbits can led to teachers’ misconceptions

  13. A mathematical approach to research problems of science and technology theoretical basis and developments in mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. Addressing Global Data Sharing Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, George C; Vardigan, Mary

    2015-07-01

    This issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics highlights the ethical issues that arise when researchers conducting projects in low- and middle-income countries seek to share the data they produce. Although sharing data is considered a best practice, the barriers to doing so are considerable and there is a need for guidance and examples. To that end, the authors of this article reviewed the articles in this special issue to identify challenges common to the five countries and to offer some practical advice to assist researchers in navigating this "uncharted territory," as some termed it. Concerns around informed consent, data management, data dissemination, and validation of research contributions were cited frequently as particularly challenging areas, so the authors focused on these four topics with the goal of providing specific resources to consult as well as examples of successful projects attempting to solve many of the problems raised. PMID:26297753

  16. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-10-26

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  17. Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009. Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent efforts at PNNL to conduct confirmatory research, development, and evaluation of advanced NDE methods for characterizing CASS microstructures and inspecting welds in these materials. This paper describes results from recent assessments using low-frequency, phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) techniques as applied to both small-bore pressurizer (PZR) surge line components and larger-bore primary coolant piping components. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. Advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased-array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at lower frequencies than conventionally applied PA-UT (500 kHz and 800 kHz) and composite volumetric images of these samples were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization, and sizing effectiveness are discussed. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping, piping segments used in PISC-III round robin tests, and practice specimens from the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. Interim results from sound-field mapping in CASS microstructures as a function of frequency, incident angle, and microstructure parameters are presented. This paper also describes progress and recent developments resulting from laboratory studies focused on developing effective in-situ methods for microstructural characterization (classification) in CASS components from the outside surface. A study of past CASS fabrication processes and their impact on resultant microstructures will also be discussed.

  18. Research on Water Resource Problems of Capital Economic Circle Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Jinghua; Xiang, Nan; Guo, Lin; Gu, Runbo

    2010-01-01

    Capital Economic Circle that is located in north of China belongs to water resources shortage regions. The per capita water of it is only 1/7 of the per capita water of the whole country, and 1/30 of the per capita water of the whole world. Thus water resources problems become one of the key factors that restrict regional development. According to the analysis of water resources situation in Capital Economic Circle, in this paper we find out some main problems existing in regional water resou...

  19. Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Snyman

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

  20. The Problem of Truth in Educational Research: The Case of the Rigoberta Menchu "Controversy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John A.

    2007-01-01

    In our descriptions of things, we normally think that truth plays an important part; we value true statements over false ones and we prefer people to be truthful rather than deceitful. If these two facets of truth are important in our everyday lives, they assume even more significance in educational research because of the commitment researchers…

  1. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  2. Ethical problems in health research with indigenous or originary peoples in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Gabriela; Roque, Joel

    2015-07-01

    The varied, abrupt and amazing geography of the land of Peru is home of one of the major concentrations of indigenous peoples in the world. The asymmetry of power, however, in their relationship with the rest of society and the State is still very evident in their social exclusion, their gap in social and economic development, barriers in their access to health services as well as their marginalization and exploitation as subjects of health research. In this paper, we analyse two cases of research on indigenous populations in Peru, discuss them from the point of view of bioethics and reflect on important issues for researchers, research participants and the society, such as the need to respect different cultures, the need that the research being done is relevant to the needs of the population in which it is conducted and the necessity to empower indigenous communities in participatory research, to strengthen the institutions and to protect human rights, namely through ethics committees for research and the free, informed and meaningful informed consent. This approach should foster quality research, while at the same time fully respecting human rights and bioethics. We cannot forget that advancements in genetics, throughout the world, are very much in debt to indigenous populations. PMID:26103916

  3. Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug

    2008-01-01

    Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

  4. Review of experimental results of upper floodings at research reactors and problems of further investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One analyzed problems dealing with investigation into follow-up upper flooding using both foreign and Russian testing units devoted to efficiency of cooling, chocking phenomenon occurring at steam and water counterflow and installation scale. One determined tasks to be tackled in course of further experiments to obtain correlations in designed programs for coolant loss accidents

  5. Exploring quantum mechanics a collection of 700+ solved problems for students, lecturers, and researchers

    CERN Document Server

    Galitski, Victor; Kogan, Vladimir; Galitski, Victor Jr

    2013-01-01

    A series of seminal technological revolutions has led to a new generation of electronic devices miniaturized to such tiny scales where the strange laws of quantum physics come into play. There is no doubt that, unlike scientists and engineers of the past, technology leaders of the future will have to rely on quantum mechanics in their everyday work. This makes teaching and learning the subject of paramount importance for further progress. Mastering quantum physics is a very non-trivial task and its deep understanding can only be achieved through working out real-life problems and examples. It is notoriously difficult to come up with new quantum-mechanical problems that would be solvable with a pencil and paper, and within a finite amount of time. This book remarkably presents some 700+ original problems in quantum mechanics together with detailed solutions covering nearly 1000 pages on all aspects of quantum science. The material is largely new to the English-speaking audience. The problems have been collect...

  6. Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

    During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

  7. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  8. A Research on Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics Outsourcing for Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Logistics outsourcing, as a form of outsourcing, not only adapt to the requirements of the economic situation but also can bring the economic benefits for enterprise, however, it is not a common phenomenon in China. The aim of this paper is to put forward several suggestions for Chinese enterprises by analyzing the problems existing in the development of logistics outsourcing.

  9. A Research on Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics Outsourcing for Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shuxia Xu; Yiwen Li

    2009-01-01

    Logistics outsourcing, as a form of outsourcing, not only adapt to the requirements of the economic situation but also can bring the economic benefits for enterprise, however, it is not a common phenomenon in China. The aim of this paper is to put forward several suggestions for Chinese enterprises by analyzing the problems existing in the development of logistics outsourcing.

  10. Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy- A research paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for children undergoing radiotherapy and their parents, a paediatric radiographer may be one welcome solution to relieve the anxiety and stress during this difficult time in their lives. given the various factors, no one solution can be deemed ultimate in dealing with this complex situation. thus further efforts are needed to bring about workable solutions to this problem depending on the circumstances and situation

  11. Experiments in Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a complication of the short status reports on current experiments on intermediate energy physics and on high energy physics. The projects of new facilities and the results of radiobiological researches are presented

  12. Numerical research of the optimal control problem in the semi-Markov inventory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, Russia MIREA, Faculty of Information Technology (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vasily V. [Institute of Informatics Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shnourkoff, Peter V.; Ivanov, Alexey V. [National research university Higher school of economics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-10

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of stochastic system for inventory management products using controlled semi-Markov process. The results of a special software for the system’s research and finding the optimal control are presented.

  13. Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor IRT-M and problems connected with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear research reactor IRT-2000 is described, along with modifications and upgrades made over the past three decades. Considerations are outlined which followed a decision to shut-down the reactor and to dismantle it. (author)

  14. Holographic content addressable storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  15. Problem posing in teacher training and as a research object in didactics: two complementary perspectives.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, Marie

    Montréal : Université de Montréal, 2009, s. 357-360. ISSN 1592-5137. [Pre-Proceedings CIEAEM 61: Mathematical activity in classroom practice and as a research object in didactics : two complementary perspectives. For the Memory of Claude Janvier. Montréal (CA), 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA406/08/0710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : mathematical education * teacher training * subject didactical competence Subject RIV: AM - Education

  16. Is Problem-Based Learning (PBL) An Effective Teaching Method? : A Study Based on Existing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pagander, Lisa; Read, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the empirical research supporting the effectiveness, orineffectiveness of PBL as a teaching method. Secondly, if PBL is an effective method, what does researchsay about the relevance of PBL in connection to the Swedish secondary school curriculum. We took an indepth,critical look at the existing research to find any commonalities or any major contradictory findings.Results show that there is contradictory evidence regarding the effectiveness of...

  17. Cooperation between Russian research organizations and industrial companies: factors and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Simachev, Yuri; Kuzyk, Mikhail; Feygina, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The study is focused on the cooperation of Russian companies with research organizations in implementing R&D projects during technological innovation. Taking into account behavioral changes, authors carry out a micro-level analysis based on empirical data of executive survey of over 600 Russian industrial firms (2011—2012) and about 350 research organizations and universities (2012). The authors emphasize the key factors of firms’ demand for outsourcing R&D reveal the main barriers to the dev...

  18. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  19. Present status of design, research and development of nuclear fusion reactors and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven years have elapsed since the publication of ''Progress of nuclear fusion research and perspective toward the development of power reactors'' by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in August, 1976. During this period, the research and development of nuclear fusion have changed from plasma physics to reactor technology, being conscious of the realization of fusion reactors. There are the R project in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, and the design and construction of JT-60 in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, to put it concretely. Now the research and development taking the economical efficiency into account are adopted. However, the type of fusion reactors is not reduced to tokamak type, accordingly the research and development to meet the diverse possibilities are forwarded. The progress of tokamak reactor research, core plasma design, nuclear design and shielding design, thermal structure design, the design of superconducting magnets, disassembling and repair, safety, economical efficiency, the conceptual design of other types than tokamak and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Current fouling problems of PVC film fills and research into new designs to eliminate fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fouling of film fills in power plant cooling towers represents a major problem in loss of performance of the cooling tower and loss of efficiency of the power plant. The results of this loss in performance is higher energy consumption to drive the fans to move air through the cooling tower in mechanical draft towers. Higher fuel consumption in plant operations or reduced peak load output and the discharge of warmer water which poses environmental concerns to our rivers and lakes. This paper discusses the effects of fouling on cooling tower performance and the current knowledge of how this fouling may occur, industry practices of controlling cleaning and eliminating the problem using new film fill products

  1. Experiencias de vida y de trabajo de un grupo de epidemiólogos en formación acerca del abordaje local y departamental de problemas y situaciones de salud mental. Medellín, 2013 / Experiences of Life and Work of a Group of Epidemiologists in Training in Order to Address Mental Health Problems and Issues at Local and Departmental Level. Medellin, 2013

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Osley, Garzón Duque; Diana, Restrepo Bernal; Doris Alejandra, Segura Cardona; Alejandra, Valencia Vargas; Ivony, Agudelo Salas; Lina Marcela, Salazar Quintero.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar desde la mirada de un grupo de epidemiólogos en formación sus experiencias de vida y de trabajo relacionadas con el abordaje de problemas y situaciones de salud mental. Métodos: Estudio exploratorio, cualitativo-descriptivo. Se utilizaron herramientas etnográficas: observación, di [...] ario de campo y entrevistas grupales (GF). Resultados: Refirieren los participantes que salud mental y problemas de salud mental son temas manejados indistintamente y poco diferenciados por ellos y por la comunidad en general. También manifestaron no estar preparados para el manejo de problemas mentales ni contar con el apoyo de servicios para la atención de pacientes; los temas de salud mental aún no han sido claramente dimensionados por la sociedad. La epidemiología tiene sus limitaciones, se centra más en el conocimiento de lo físico-biológico y la utilización del enfoque cuantitativo, con escasa integración del enfoque cualitativo, lo que dificulta comprender un fenómeno que supera los límites del enfoque de investigación. Conclusiones: El abordaje de problemas de salud y enfermedad mental supera ampliamente la mirada desde un solo enfoque del conocimiento. Se debe incluir la comprensión de lo cualitativo como opción para avanzar en el conocimiento y el reconocimiento de un problema de salud pública opacado por el estigma y la desidia de la sociedad. Abstract in english Objective: To examine, from the point of view of a group of epidemiologists in training, their life experiences and work related to addressing mental health problems and mental health issues. Methods: An exploratory qualitative-descriptive study was conducted using ethnographic tools, non-participan [...] t observation, note-taking, and group interviews (FG). Results: The participants mentioned that mental health and mental health issues are managed and poorly differentiated either by them and the community in general. They also said they were not ready to handle mental problems, or have the support of services for patient care, as mental health issues have not yet been clearly dimensioned by society. Epidemiology has its limitations, it focuses on knowledge of the physical-biological aspects and the use of quantitative approach with poor integration of the qualitative approach, thus hindering the understanding of a phenomenon that exceeds the limits of a research approach. Conclusions: This approach to issues of health and mental illness widens the view of knowledge from only a single focus. It includes an understanding of the qualitative approach as an option to advance the knowledge and recognition of a public health problem overshadowed by stigma and apathy of society.

  2. A Research on Structural Characteristics and Problems of Goat Breeding in Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.

  3. Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chilkoti, G.; M. Mohta; Wadhwa, R.; SAXENA A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the ch...

  4. State and problems of scientific research automation in radiation damage physics in KFTI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems of automatization of theoretical and experimental investigations into physics of radiation damages at KhFTI of UkSSR Academy of Sciences have been considered. Main peculiarity is a complex approach to the automatization of experiment on materials technology envisaging the modelling of radiation effects, monitoring and control of materials irradiation at accelerators, centralized experimental data processing and interpretation of the results using mathematical models

  5. Dengue haemorrhagic fever — a public health problem and a field for research*

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) is an enigmatic and growing public health problem which is confined at present to countries of South-East Asia. Since 1956, over 350 000 patients have been hospitalized and nearly 12 000 deaths have been reported. Dengue viruses, a group of four flaviviruses, are transmitted to man by Aedes aegypti. Currently, dengue viruses are actively transmitted in 61 countries which circle the globe in the tropical zone and have a combined populat...

  6. Overview of research trends and problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steels for pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cr-Mo low alloy steels have been used for a long time for pressure vessel due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high temperature strength and toughness. The paper reviewed the latest trends on material development and some problems on Cr-Mo low alloy steel for pressure vessel, such as elevated temperature strength, hardenability, synergetic effect between temper and hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen attack and hydrogen induced disbonding of overlay weld-cladding

  7. Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of China's Service Trade in the New Era

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijun Sheng; Kuo Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the 21st century, global trade competitions focus point has shifted from commodity trade to service trade. International trade in services shows some new trends. Although China's service trade has obtained fast development in recent years, they also have many problems. To adapt to the new trend of the development of international service trade, China should take some countermeasures to promote China's service trade has a high level of development. These countermeasures include accelerat...

  8. Research on the Optimal Layout Problem for NC Machining Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuqing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of NC machining, the optimization processing of graphic layout is a well-studied problem which has practical application value for improving the utilization rate of raw materials and saving the cost of production. In this paper, a new design of genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for solving this problem. This improved genetic algorithm combines GA with the improved crossover operator and mutation operator. Moreover, the best individual preservation method is integrated into the algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm expands the search space and enhances the GA’s search capabilities. Furthermore, the maximum matching algorithm is proposed based on the lowest horizontal line algorithm, which effectively avoids blind elevating horizontal lines and improves the utilization rate of the lowest horizontal line. It is integrated with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the two-dimensional rectangular parts optimal layout problem which combines the advantages of two kinds of algorithms. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get a good optimization result.    

  9. Way Search to Research: from Academic Exercises in Architecture to Scientific Investigations into Actual Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Stauskis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An interest in doctoral studies reflects the overall status of the scientist in the country in general and the role of science in the architect profession in particular. The article analyses the basic channels of how the students of architecture search for and find the ways to transfer themselves from the study area into an academic research environment. In order to figure out general trends and to outline the differences and similarities of doctoral studies that could further facilitate cooperation, the paper presents the thematic outputs of doctoral programmes in architecture schools in Vilnius, Riga, Venice, Jelgava and Weimar. With reference to the example of the Faculty of Architecture, VGTU, the trends towards developing research activities are analysed taking into account three interconnected branches of architecture: urban design, building architecture and landscape architecture. The cooperation and coordination of academic and research activities in wider European space is taking place upon common interest based on the specificities of each school and priorities of the chosen region. The awareness of global and regional processes in architectural research is an important point for the present and coming generations of researchers in Europe as they are building their careers on the basis of investigation into the options of the local applications of global competences in a cross-professional and inter-disciplinary way.

  10. The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990

  11. Radiobiological research for improving cancer therapy in India: rationale, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is emerging as a very important health hazard in India. According to recent studies by the Indian Council of Medical Research, about 2.25 million patients are presently suffering from different types of cancer in India. Approximately one million new cases are diagnosed, and nearly 0.3 million deaths occur every year on account of this disease. About 2/3rd of the cancers are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. However, the allocation of funds for healthcare in India to support the research efforts for developing more potent radio-chemotherapy protocols for cancer treatment is too little. Studies by the W.H.O. have estimated that less developed countries including India use less than 5% of world resources destined for cancer control. It follows from the above discussions that it is imperative to further encourage and diversify the radiobiological research in India. This can be achieved by creating radiobiological research facilities, mainly in all the cancer centers and post graduate medical institutions, and further expanding the upcoming laboratories in the universities such as Bikaner. Collaborative research programs between laboratories at different centers could facilitate systematic evaluation of various pharmacological agents and neutraceuticals for potential application for treatment of different cancers. Our studies on combination of radiation with temozolomide and certain adjuvants with selective effects on brain tumour cells will be very briefly discussed in this presentation. Finally the possible administrative set up and multi dimensional collaborations for cost effective utilization of existing resources to further augment radiation biology research will also be discussed

  12. Where to remove radioactive waste? Perspective for a problem-oriented sociological repository research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for a final disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Germany is to characterize as an enduring and politicised conflict causing a blocked process of decision making. A social science based research on final disposals, reflecting this stalemate situation in Germany, did not take place since the middle of the 1980s. This book persues three aims, it analyses the conflict situation in an historical and a systematic view, it discusses the new decision- and participation procedures and it formulates a socio-scientific research perspective on waste disposal. Th volume directs to political decision makers, representants from industry and economy, scientists and actors from the citizen sector. (GL)

  13. Strategies for capacity building for health research in Bangladesh: Role of core funding and a common monitoring and evaluation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Shakeel; Hort Krishna; Ahmed Shakil; Salam Mohammed; Cravioto Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increasing interest in building the capacity of researchers in low and middle income countries (LMIC) to address their national priority health and health policy problems. However, the number and variety of partnerships and funding arrangements can create management problems for LMIC research institutes. This paper aims to identify problems faced by a health research institute in Bangladesh, describe two strategies developed to address these problems, and identify...

  14. Address Resolution Protocol Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adnan Yahaya

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved Address Resolution Protocol (ARP for Ethernet-based networks. Inthe proposed alternative method, the ARP request packets are not broadcasted but instead unicastedto an ARP server which will have all the mappings of all the hosts connected to the network.This significantly reduces ARP signaling and processing overhead. The ARP server obtains the mappingsthrough a novel passive method that does not introduce additional overhead in the network. Furthermore,the use of the ARP server makes it much easier to secure the network against certain attacks like ARPpoisoning.

  15. Can arguments address concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, M

    2005-10-01

    People have concerns, and ethicists often respond to them with philosophical arguments. But can conceptual constructions properly address fears and anxieties? It is argued in this paper that while it is possible to voice, clarify, create and-to a certain extent-tackle concerns by arguments, more concrete practices, choices, and actions are normally needed to produce proper responses to people's worries. While logical inconsistencies and empirical errors can legitimately be exposed by arguments, the situation is considerably less clear when it comes to moral, cultural, and emotional norms, values, and expectations. PMID:16199603

  16. Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. (Fanie) Snyman

    1997-01-01

    Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed soluti...

  17. Mutation research with ionizing radiations and chemicals using drosophila: problems, results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of mutagenesis studies with Drosophila are examined in order to inquire the extent to which the genetic responses to ionizing radiations and to chemical mutagens share common features, to identify those findings that may have validity beyond the confines of this species, and to assess the contributions and implications of Drosophila results to the problems of mutagenicity testing and of the evaluation of genetic hazards to man from exposure to environmental chemicals. The results obtained in the studies permit the estimation of X-irradiation equivalent doses of EMS for the induction of sex-linked recessive lethals and specific locus mutations in mature spermatozoa. (Auth.)

  18. Paradigms, Praxis, Problems, and Promise: Grounded Theory in Counseling Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of the qualitative research approach termed grounded theory (B. G. Glaser, 1978, 1992; B. G. Glaser & A. L. Strauss, 1967; A. L. Strauss, 1987; A. L. Strauss & J. Corbin, 1990, 1998). The author first locates the method conceptually and paradigmatically (paradigms) and then outlines the procedures…

  19. Brain Oscillations Forever--Neurophysiology in Future Research of Child Psychiatric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Aribert

    2009-01-01

    For decades neurophysiology has successfully contributed to research and clinical care in child psychiatry. Recently, methodological progress has led to a revival of interest in brain oscillations (i.e., a band of periodic neuronal frequencies with a wave-duration from milliseconds to several seconds which may code and decode information). These…

  20. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  1. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

  2. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  3. Solving Multiple Timetabling Problems at Danish High Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Planning problems at educational institutions are often time-consuming and complex tasks. Educational planning problems are studied using operational research techniques, which have been used with success and resulting in great improvements on the field. Educational planning problems are often divided into four main categories; University Course Timetabling, High School Timetabling, Examination Timetabling and Student Sectioning. This Ph.D. thesis addresses some of the planning problems the high...

  4. Prospects for Research Training Activities in the Context of the Problems of the Modern Practice of Primary School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruzhapov V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the current problems of research training activities in terms of the requirements of the Federal state educational standard of primary education. The initial methodological basis for the formulation of the problems is the theory of developmental education by Davydov and his followers. The article raises the question of the possibility of using the ideas of Dewey and Maslow to develop research training activities. There is the analysis of such subjects as formulating and performing learning tasks as a way of mastering theoretical knowledge in «from abstract to particular» microcycle; the content of theoretical generalizations formed before training activities (naive scientific concepts; forms of assimilation into the collective training activities; forms of cooperation in teaching and project activities; the content and form of requirements for training activities. Possible practical use of the study results are described. This area provides a lot of topics for Master’s thesis in the “Cultural-Historical Psychology and Activity Approach in Education” research Master’s program

  5. Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

  6. Parental Attachment Style and Severity of Emotional/Behavioral Problems in Toddlerhood Research Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Karabekiro?lu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal and paternal attachment style and severity of emotional and behavioral problem severity in toddlers and to explore the effect of toddlers’ gender, presence of autism, and parental depression on this relation.Methods: All patients (n=103 (male=75; female=28 younger than 43 months old (range: 14-43, mean: 30.93±8.26 months were included from a clinical sample. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Beck Depression Inventory, and Adult Attachment Scale (AAS were used for assessing mothers and fathers; the Child Behavior Checklist/ 2-3 (CBCL and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC were applied to evaluate associated psychopathology in toddlers.Results: Both maternal and paternal AAS-avoidance scores were found to be significantly correlated with ABC-hyperactivity and ABC-irritability scores of the toddler (p<.001. A multiple regression model significantly predicted ABC-hyperactivity scores, F(4.47=5.74, p<.001, with two variables (higher paternal BDI score, and maternal insecure attachment style significantly contributing to the prediction.Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that maternal (but not paternal insecure attachment style is significantly associated with the severity of toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity, and irritability. Especially when combined with paternal depression, this association becomes stronger. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 147-54

  7. Significant problems in FITS limit its use in modern astronomical research

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian; Economou, Frossie; Greenfield, Perry; Hirst, Paul; Berry, David S; Bray, Erik; Gray, Norman; Turner, Demitri Muna James; Borro, Miguel de Val; Vela, Juande Santander; Shupe, David; Good, John; Berriman, G Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard has been a great boon to astronomy, allowing observatories, scientists and the public to exchange astronomical information easily. The FITS standard is, however, showing its age. Developed in the late 1970s the FITS authors made a number of implementation choices for the format that, while common at the time, are now seen to limit its utility with modern data. The authors of the FITS standard could not appreciate the challenges which we would be facing today in astronomical computing. Difficulties we now face include, but are not limited to, having to address the need to handle an expanded range of specialized data product types (data models), being more conducive to the networked exchange and storage of data, handling very large datasets and the need to capture significantly more complex metadata and data relationships. There are members of the community today who find some (or all) of these limitations unworkable, and have decided to move ahead with storin...

  8. Biomedical research on the International Space Station postural and manipulation problems of the human upper limb in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .

  9. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

  10. Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

  11. Next-generation sequencing in aging research: emerging applications, problems, pitfalls and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    de Magalhães, João Pedro; Finch, Caleb E; Janssens, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Recent technological advances that allow faster and cheaper DNA sequencing are now driving biological and medical research. In this review, we provide an overview of state-of-the-art next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and their applications, including in genome sequencing and resequencing, transcriptional profiling (RNA-Seq) and high-throughput survey of DNA-protein interactions (ChIP-Seq) and of the epigenome. Particularly, we focus on how new methods made possible by NGS can help un...

  12. Present state of research and development of nuclear fusion reactors and future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of so-called zero-power reactor or critical plasma testing facility is the first barrier to get over for the realization of power reactors in the research and development of controlled nuclear fusion power, and full efforts are exerted to it in each country. Now the stage to demonstrate from pure scientific standpoint the realizability of core plasma in view of energy balance is beginning. This tendency has been fomented by promising experimental results with Tokamak type torus plasma facilities, and efforts are exerted to establish the scaling law by clarifying the properties of superhigh temperature core plasma, to compare the features and relative superiority of Tokamak and other plasma-generating and containing types, and to decide the candidate of the core type for power reactors. In the Tokamak type facilities, the increase of the dimensions and magnetic field of the facilities, the temperature raising by second stage heating such as the injection of high energy neutral particles, and the improvement of plasma stability by means of noncircular plasma cross section are under consideration. Recently the conceptual design of whole reactors has been carried out in U.S.A. In the research and development of nuclear fusion, many scientific and technical trials and errors are necessary, accordingly the researchers should be courageous and flexible. (Kako, I.)

  13. O problema da análise em pesquisa cartográfica / The problem of analysis in cartographic research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia Maria Renault de, Barros; Maria Elizabeth Barros de, Barros.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o papel da análise em uma pesquisa de abordagem cartográfica. Ao equivocar a noção de "dado", entendemos que a análise em cartografia leva a uma redefinição das fronteiras entre subjetividade e objetividade. A análise em cartografia está afinada com outras abordagens de pesquisa e [...] intervenção, assumindo diferentes procedimentos que permitem a análise de implicação na pesquisa e, por conseguinte, a análise da participação. Como efeito da análise, há o reposicionamento do lugar dos participantes na pesquisa. A análise em cartografia permite, ao longo de toda a realização da pesquisa, o acesso a uma objetividade que, em lugar de fixar um sentido unívoco, tende a proliferar sentidos. A cartografia afirma tal paradoxo por meio de uma atitude analítica, agente de singularização. Abstract in english This article discusses the role of analysis in a study of cartographic approach. When we question the notion of "data" we mean that the analysis in cartography leads to a redefinition of the boundaries between subjectivity and objectivity. The mapping analysis is tuned to other research approaches a [...] nd intervention, assuming different procedures that enable the analysis of implication in the research and therefore the analysis of the participation. As a result of the analysis, there is a repositioning of the place of the participants in the study. The mapping analysis allows, throughout the research, access to an objectivity that, instead of fixing unambiguously, tends to proliferate directions. Cartography supports this paradox through an analytic attitude, a singling agent.

  14. Address Points, Address point layer located within address geodatabase, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Address point layer located within address geodatabase'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Earth Rotation : Solved and Unsolved Problems

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    The idea for organl.zl.ng an Advanced Research Workshop entirely devoted to the Earth rotation was born in 1983 when Professor Raymond Hide suggested this topic to the special NATO panel of global transport mechanism in the Geosciences. Such a specialized meeting did not take place since the GEOP research conference on the rotation of the Earth and polar motion which was held at the Ohio State University (USA) in 1973. In the last ten years, highly precise measurements of the Earth's rotation parameters and new global geophysical data have become available allowing major advance to be made in the under­ standing of the various irregularities affecting the Earth's rotation. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists who have made important contributions in this field during the last decade both at the observational and geophysical interpretation levels. The confe­ rence was divided into four main topics. The first session was dedicated to the definition, implementation and maintenance of the te...

  16. Fusion power: massive research program aims at formidable problems, almost limitless potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article surveys extensively fusion development under the following topics: US research directions; inertial confinement fusion; foreign fusion efforts; fusion issues; fusion applications; and arguments for fusion development. Dr. Dingee points out that, despite persuasive arguments for development, fusion has as yet attracted no substantial constituency; and that winning greater support for fusion may thus require a considerable technical breakthrough (namely, proof of scientific feasibility or achievement of energy breakeven) - or a new focus on an energy source such as hybrids, which offer a nearer-term payoff than pure fusion. Dr. Dingee says the next major facility for magnetic confinement research (to be built in late 1980s) has not yet been selected, but will probably be an engineering test facility; there are similar plans for inertial confinement. Whichever type is chosen, the first experimental power reactor is scheduled for the first few years of the 2000's, this to be followed by commercial demonstration of fusion power in the 2010 to 2020 time frame. He points out, finally, that the complex technical and institutional issues are being considered in a climate in which the benefits of nuclear energy itself are being questioned; and that there is little doubt that future development is tied to overall decisions the nation will make regarding the value of nuclear energy

  17. Conceptual Problems in Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Kiefer

    2013-01-01

    The search for a consistent and empirically established quantum theory of gravity is among the biggest open problems of fundamental physics. The obstacles are of formal and of conceptual nature. Here, I address the main conceptual problems, discuss their present status and outline further directions of research. For this purpose, the main current approaches to quantum gravity are briefly reviewed and compared.

  18. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  19. Problems and research issues associated with the hybrid control of force and displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The hybrid control of force and position is basic to the science of robotics but is only poorly understood. Before much progress can be made in robotics, this problem needs to be solved in a robust manner. However, the use of hybrid control implies the existence of a model of the environment, not an exact model (as the function of hybrid control is to accommodate these errors), but a model appropriate for planning and reasoning. The monitored forces in position control are interpreted in terms of a model of the task as are the monitored displacements in force control. The reaction forces of the task of writing are far different from those of hammering. The programming of actions in such a modeled world becomes more complicated and systems of task level programming need to be developed. Sensor based robotics, of which force sensing is the most basic, implies an entirely new level of technology. Indeed, robot force sensors, no matter how compliant they may be, must be protected from accidental collisions. This implies other sensors to monitor task execution and again the use of a world model. This new level of technology is the task level, in which task actions are specified, not the actions of individual sensors and manipulators.

  20. Quantum-mechanical research on nonlinear resonance and the problem of quantum chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulava, A; Chotorlishvili, L; Nickoladze, K

    2004-08-01

    The quantum-mechanical investigation of nonlinear resonance in terms of approximation to moderate nonlinearity is reduced to the investigation of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation. The eigenstates of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation are nondegenerate in a certain area of pumping amplitude values in the neighborhood of the classical separatrix. Outside this area, the system finds itself in a degenerate state for both small and large pumping amplitude values. Degenerate energy terms arise as a result of merging and branching of pairs of nondegenerate energy terms. Equations are obtained for finding the merging points of energy terms. These equations are solved by numerical methods. The main objective of this paper is to establish a quantum analog of the classical stochastic layer formed in the separatrix area. With this end in view, we consider a nonstationary quantum-mechanical problem of perturbation of the state of the Mathieu-Schrodinger equation. It is shown that in passing through the branching point the system may pass from the pure state to the mixed one. At multiple passages through branching points there develops the irreversible process of "creeping" of the system to quantum states. In that case, the observed population of a certain number of levels can be considered, in our opinion, to be a quantum analog of the stochastic layer. The number of populated levels is defined by a perturbation amplitude. PMID:15447577

  1. Problems of research into basic machines used in Polish brown coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkiewicz, W.; Szepietowski, W. (IGO Poltegor-Instytut, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1992-01-01

    Reviews machines used in Polish brown coal mining where production and stripping are 67.4 Mt/a and 292 million m[sup 3]/a respectively. The number of bucket wheel excavators, chain excavators and dumping conveyors used in domestic brown coal mining and their age structure are evaluated. The program of research on earthmoving equipment and the possibilities of realizing the program are discussed. The topics are: improved protection from overloads, modernized caterpillars, balancing of machine bodies and evaluation of the state of repair. Investigations into cutting parts and new machine design are considered. Construction of the big LWL 1500s excavators for the Turow mine is being continued despite economic difficulties. Development of the KWK 1250 excavator approaches completion. Demand for other earthmoving equipment is discussed.

  2. Opening Keynote address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    The paper questions earlier archaeological approaches to conceptualising the past in the Middle East and evaluates the impact of some of these concepts on contemporary thought. The paper highlights the direct relevance of modern archaeological research to understanding and enhancing contemporary society.

  3. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanchenko Anton Leonidovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.

  4. STUDYING OF THE PROBLEM SUPERSTITION STUDENTS AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN WORK RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN RESEARCHERS IN XX – XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ?????????? ??????????

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In given article due to studies a number of scientists (sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists is done attempt to mark main purpose of superstition in our modern culture, where students faces with lacking of time, which does not give the student properly to prepare the material for passing of the session. The students have to apply by superstition in order to reduce the psychological pressure, study the culture of folk past, be prepared by session in order to pass all exams more successfully. Among patterns for analyzing of problem superstitious perception the gender aspect was chosen in our society. It is important to underline in article a general features both man superstitions and female superstitions of student environment, mentioned in work. Female (girl student superstitious views are horoscopes, fortune-telling, predicting of dreams. Man (youth is prohibition at shaving of beard before session, anecdotes, «money superstitions». It is importantly to notice in article a contribution not only Russian researches (Kondrya, Razumova, Mezencev and etc. in development of problem contemporary superstitions, but also and foreign researchers – Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, Vyse. This problem is brilliantly described by Mark Griffiths, Carolyn Bingham, who concern life of people, superstitious perception of players «bingo». Student life in during passing of exams is also «gambling». Before exam students don’t know numbers of tickets, which they will take. This procedure is lot, «gambling». Here isn’t importantly knowledge of student. It is important a fortune and chance, which will be beside with student in minutes of exam. All students have to take tickets. «To catch a fortune for tail» is a main task of student in passing of exams.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-7

  5. Conceptual Problems in the Foundations of Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2012-01-01

    There has been much research on principles and fundamental concepts of mechanics. Problems concerning the law of inertia, the concepts of force, fictitious force, weight, mass and the distinction between inertial and gravitational mass are addressed in the first part of the present paper. It is argued in the second that the law of inertia is the…

  6. Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

  7. Addressing the envelope

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Hand; D., Wiseman.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Most coal plants must run under conditions of varying feed conditions or are asked to produce qualities different from that used in the design. This can cause overloaded conditions as the 'bottlenecks' within the plant, depending on plant operation or as the feed changes. During plant design, geolog [...] ical information can be used to determine washability envelopes and blends that may be expected. Historical data can also be used to develop a size distribution envelope as well as to assign reasonable models for each of the unit processes. In operation, a plant can be sampled to determine changes and to refine process models. The information obtained can then be used in an accurate simulation to define how the plant can deal with the changing environment. This paper uses Limn:The Flowsheet Processor to simulate the coal plant in detail and will produce an accurate model, in terms of equipment sizing as well as water, medium, and solids balance, for each change in feed condition. It will show examples of running the simulation through complete density and size ranges and will determine the equipment required to address each part of the performance envelope.

  8. Using Ideation Tools for Face-to-face Collaboration Within Complex Design Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Spellman, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this research are ideation tools and their ability to catalyse ideas to address complex design problems. Complex design problems change over time and the interactions among the components of the problem and the interaction between the problem and its environment are of such that the system as a whole cannot be fully understood simply by analyzing its components (Cilliers 1998, pp. I). Ideation for this research is defined as a process of generating, developing and communicating i...

  9. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea,use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasifications and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by CO2-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e. g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or direct reduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland), shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reduced-iron by H2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behaviour ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modern shaft furnaces are shown. (Author) 76 refs

  10. Research on the Coal Energy of Coal Enterprise and Environmental Problem Under Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyue LIU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Coal as a pillar of energy, which contributes a lot in our social economy. The coal enterprises are the representatives of our energy enterprises. In the long course of development, the traditional economic development model, such as overexploitation, over waste, insufficient utilization, has not only created serious wasting of resources and environmental destruction, but also hardly satisfy the need of economic development, and restrict the sustainable development process of the coal enterprises. The coal enterprises must transform from the traditional extensive coal industry to the circular economy multipurpose use sustainable industry to achieve sustainable development. Circular economy which can urge energy, environment and economy to coordinated development is an advanced development pattern. It is the inevitable choice when the coal enterprises research the new industrialization. This paper sets out from the coal enterprise develops circular economy, to illustrate strategic importance of circular economy to coal industry, to demonstrate the coal enterprises coal energy’s effects to the environment, and propose related policies and measures, to realized a win-win situation of energy conservation and environmental conservation.

    Key words: Coal enterprise; Circular economy; Coal; Environment

  11. Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric Corrosion Problems of Steel Industries in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.

  12. Problems in complying with regulations related to low activity materials: Industry, medical, research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. In many cases, these exemption levels differ orders of magnitude, higher or lower, compared to those from the old standards. For the natural radionuclides, the exempted specific activity is much lower (10 or even 1 Bq/g, depending on the radionuclide, compared to 500 Bq/g in the old BSS). As a consequence, industrial activities with certain minerals or raw materials containing elevated concentrations of radionuclides, which were exempted from the radiation protection control system under the old BSS, may have to be declared as radiologically relevant activities and may now come under regulatory control. Examples of these activities are the phosphate ore processing, the refining of a number of metals, the use of slag, and the oil and natural gas production. This might give rise, in some cases, to large volumes of waste which should be treated, conditioned and disposed of in a controlled way. For artificial radionuclides with higher exemption levels, the use of such radionuclides for industrial, medical or research purposes, such as tracers, sealed sources and beta lights, may increase considerably without being controlled any longer by the regulatory system. (author)

  13. Joint custody: parental problems and satisfactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, B

    1983-03-01

    Joint custody, the total care of children by each parent part of the time, enables both parents to be "custodial" parents after divorce. Increasingly it has become a solution to custody problems, allowing both parents major involvement in their childrens' lives as well as freedom for themselves. This research addresses joint custody from the parents' perspective, exploring the salient issues. The problems and satisfactions are discussed, and the sex differences are highlighted. PMID:6840260

  14. Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, George

    1999-01-11

    A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

  15. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter

    2001-08-27

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be economi cally installed even in existing buildings that were not wired for dual-level lighting.

  16. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be economi cally installed even in existing buildings that were not wired for dual-level lighting

  17. Tutoring Mathematical Word Problems Using Solution Trees: Text Comprehension, Situation Comprehension, and Mathematization in Solving Story Problems. Research Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, Kurt; And Others

    The main concern of this paper is on the psychological processes of how students understand and solve mathematical word problems, and on how this knowledge can be applied to computer-based tutoring. It is argued that only a better understanding of the psychological requirements for understanding and solving those problems will lead to…

  18. Psychosocial Problems among Truant Youths: A Multi-Group, Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Wareham, Jennifer; Belenko, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Truant youths represent a critical group needing problem-oriented research and involvement in effective services. The limited number of studies on the psychosocial functioning of truant youths have focused on one or a few problem areas, rather than examining comorbid problem behaviors. The present study addresses the need to examine the…

  19. Making Sense of Context as a Basis for Trust : The Problem of Context in Organizational Trust Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, SØren

    The concept of interpersonal trust has been important in organizational trust research for at least a decade, but recently a growing literature is stressing the need to focus more on the institutional dimensions of trust-creation. The opposition between traditions stressing either interpersonal or institutional trust raises the more general question of how we may understand the role of context in interpersonal trust relations. The paper attempts to fill the gap in the organizational trust literature, between interpersonal and institutional trust research, by investigating the more general problem of the link between context and organizational trust processes. The notion of context is highly important for understanding trust processes in modern organizations, but remains largely absent in trust research. The present study proposes applying the sensemaking approach as a ‘bridging construct’ (Floyd et al., 2011) between institutions and interactions to explore how context may be relevant for trust processes. Weargue that people must actively and consciously “make sense of context” as a basis for trust. The importance of understanding how actors make sense of context in order to understand organizational trust is illustrated by reference to two earlier reported case studies on trust in organizations.

  20. CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland, shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reducediron by H2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behavior ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modem shaft furnaces are shown

    En una breve introducción se describen las pruebas y cálculos referentes a bloques de hielo de CO2 en el mar profundo, el uso del CO2 para la gasificación de carbón subterráneo y procesos terciarios para aumentar la producción de aceite por medio del torrente de CO2. Dentro de las nuevas actividades se presentan, por ejemplo, la inyección de CO2 en el homo eléctrico de arco (HEA combinado con la inyección de carbón, coque o de finos de los procesos de reducción directa. Después de la investigación de la inyección de carbones, se comparan, por un lado, la inyección de los minerales finos o polvos en los hornos altos y otras actividades en los hornos de cuba con la inyección del gas reductor caliente generado por la gasificación del carbón o de los residuos o reciclado del gas del tragante combinado con la inyección de finos de combustibles sólidos. En el presente trabajo se discuten los resultados de la inyección de los plásticos preparados (Sistema Dual Alemán, de la separación de fracciones ligeras del reciclado de autos y de carbón no reaccionado de cenizas de la estación de poder. En el área de la producción de hierro reducido directamente en el reactor de lecho fluidizado de H2 son mostrados los resultados del comportamiento de la reducción de mineral con carbón o pellets de polvo con carbón o briquetas para el uso en el homo rotatorio o en modernos hornos de cuba

  1. Critical Qualitative Research Reader. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…

  2. Conference President's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the issues and trends arising from the relevant contributed papers. A total of 72 contributed papers have been accepted for inclusion in the Book of Contributed Papers, available to participants upon registration. The papers will be presented as posters and displayed during poster sessions, as indicated in the programme

  3. Research of the problems of Ukrainian intellectual and innovative technologies market and development of the ways of their solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Kosenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to justify the methodical recommendations on formation and implementation of a mechanism for assessing the current state of technological market of Ukraine, to identify the problems of its development and to form the ways to eliminate them. The results of the analysis. The analysis of current state and prospects of the Ukrainian market of intellectual and innovative technologies development is made. It is proposed a set of indicators that can characterize the current state of modern technological market. The author offered to include indicators of intellectual and innovative activity of Ukraine, which will characterize he level of patent activity, the level of inventive activity, the level of implementation of inventive capacity, the level of technological dependence of the country, the level of intellectual independence of the country, the level of technological distribution, the quality level of domestic scientific and technological developments. It is proposed to assess the state of technological market of the country using citation indexes of scientific research (Hirsch index. The author conducted a questionnaire survey of machine-building industrial enterprises of Kharkiv region to clarify the most significant constraint on industrial enterprises innovative development, adversely affect patent activity, not conducive to the development of inventions and the development of intellectual and innovative technologies. It is identified the most significant factors hindering innovation development, adversely affect patent activity, not conducive to the development of inventions and the development of intellectual and innovative technologies. The ways of solving problems of technological development of machine-building enterprises are suggested. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The following provisions of innovation policy subject are proposed on the basis of the research: (a innovation policy of the industrial enterprise should organically combine the possibilities of international and national technology transfer and create the own process of innovation or the improvement of existing innovations; (b to enhance the processes of creative and innovative ideas generation the main provisions of the innovation policy should be brought not only to representatives of senior management, but also to every researcher; (? the formation of innovation policy should be implemented with the available feedback, including specific proposals of innovative processes leaders and their direct perpetrators; (d important component of the innovation policy of the country and individual companies should be creative and stimulating creative activity; (e inventive activity of industrial enterprises researchers must make a tangible contribution to current and future development of an enterprise. The proposals in the article can be real only if creating and maintaining of favorable conditions of scientific research and inventive activity is the important basis of innovative development of industrial enterprises and inventive activities. It is an important basis of industrial enterprise’s innovative development. Further research in this direction should be associated with the identification of functioning features of technological sphere in several sectors of Ukrainian economy. It is extremely important to conduct this kind of research at engineering enterprises, which are the basis and bearer of scientific and technical progress.

  4. Houston...We have a problem! Measurement of parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    While there has been long-term recognition of parents' important influences on children's diet, physical activity, and screen media behaviors, these relationships have only recently received careful research attention. A problem in this research has been the quality of measurement. To address this...

  5. An eight component decision-making model for problem gambling: a systems approach to stimulate integrative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, David; Honarmand, Kimia; Govoni, Richard; Kalahani-Bargis, Martina; Bass, Stephanie; Ni, Xinqun; Laforge, Kaitlyn; Burden, Andrea; Romero, Kristoffer; Basarke, Sonya; Courbasson, Christine; Deamond, Wade

    2011-12-01

    Problem Gambling (PG) represents a serious problem for affected individuals, their families and society in general. Previous approaches to understanding PG have been confined to only a subset of the psychobiological factors influencing PG. We present a model that attempts to integrate potential causal factors across levels of organization, providing empirical evidence from the vast literature on PG and complimentary literatures in decision-making and addiction. The model posits that components are arranged systematically to bias decisions in favor of either immediately approaching or avoiding targets affording the opportunity for immediate reward. Dopamine, Testosterone and Endogenous Opioids favor immediate approach, while Serotonin and Cortisol favor inhibition. Glutamate is involved in associative learning between stimuli and promotes the approach response through its link to the DA reward system. GABA functions to monitor performance and curb impulsive decision-making. Finally, while very high levels of Norepinephrine can induce arousal to an extent that is detrimental to sound decision-making, the reactivity of the Norepinephrine system and its effects of Cortisol levels can shift the focus towards long-term consequences, thereby inhibiting impulsive decisions. Empirical evidence is provided showing the effects of each component on PG and decision-making across behavioural, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging and genetic levels. Last, an effect size analysis of the growing pharmacotherapy literature is presented. It is hoped that this model will stimulate multi-level research to solidify our comprehension of biased decision-making in PG and suggest pharmacological and psychological approaches to treatment. PMID:21191637

  6. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing their Earth observing needs but it has left a big void in the developing world who have very limited resources to invest in the space measurements. This paper gives some serious thoughts in what options are there in undertaking this tremendous challenge. The problem is multi-dimensional in terms of budget, technology availability, environmental legislations, public awareness, and communication limitations. Some of these issues are introduced, discussed and possible implementation strategies are provided in this paper to move out of this predicament. A strong emphasis is placed on international cooperation and collaboration to see a collective benefit for this effort

  7. Notes for an address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, the Canadian government has invested heavily in the nuclear industry. More than $2 billion has been spent on research and development, which now costs upward of $140 million annually. The federal government shared the costs of the first two Pickering reactors and of the heavy water plants. Government loans and international assistance programs have helped the financing of reactor sales to India, Pakistan, Korea, Argentina and Romania. In the late 1940s the federal government purchased Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., and since then has spent over $100 million to help uranium producers. The costs of all these programs have been borne by all Canadian taxpayers, while the considerable benefits have accrued mainly to the provinces with nuclear power programs or significant elements of the nuclear industry: Ontario, and to a lesser extent Quebec, Nova Scotia, and soon New Brunswick. Recent events have dimmed prospects for the nuclear industry, and it appears that more help may be needed. Although the Canadian nuclear industry will not be allowed to die, the financial burdens are going to have to be shared more fairly by those who benefit

  8. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  9. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research. PMID:25095394

  10. The use of fuzzy logic control in solving problems related to the control of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuzzy logic control technique is used in nuclear engineering technology, especially application to control the nuclear research reactors. Hence in an attempt to introduce the role of fuzzy logic in solving control problems and their postulation, we use one of the main idea of fuzzy logic control techniques for implementation on the first egyptian research reactor ETRR-1. We are to control not only the reactor power, but also upgrading the reactor control functions. Such as automation of the power compensation due to some aspects of fuel burn up, feedback reactivity and poisons effect by applying control action via one of the manual control rods. The control processes applied also to the core water temperature limits with taking into account the safety design rules to avoid shutdown or scram the reactor. Finally, it is developed a package of software program to simulate and implement the fuzzy logic control technique for the following applications; reactor power control, automatic power compensation control, and the control of core water temperature limits. During the reactor shift, some experiments are applied to the reactor and via the data acquisition system, we compare the calculation results of fuzzy logic control model and the deduction results from those experiments

  11. Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)

  12. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Mosome; Marie Poggenpoel; Chris Myburgh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng.Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi...

  13. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  14. The abstracts of the lecture on the topic «the sociological approach to public opinion research at the system of sciences» for the course «sociological problems of the public opinion researches»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva-Nesevria N. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an abstract of the first lecture for the course «Sociological problems of public opinion researches» that is included in the state standard of professional education on the speciality 020300 «Sociology». Two main questions are discussed: the subject of public opinion sociology and the specific of sociological approach to public opinion research.

  15. Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and high out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 -- Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department`s 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research.

  16. Web Sites that Address Gestational Diabetes and Perinatal Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    Obesity contributes to multiple health problems during pregnancy and predisposes a woman to develop gestational diabetes. This column reviews the currently best Web sites that address gestational diabetes and obesity during the perinatal period.

  17. Deterministic operations research models and methods in linear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rader, David J

    2013-01-01

    Uniquely blends mathematical theory and algorithm design for understanding and modeling real-world problems Optimization modeling and algorithms are key components to problem-solving across various fields of research, from operations research and mathematics to computer science and engineering. Addressing the importance of the algorithm design process. Deterministic Operations Research focuses on the design of solution methods for both continuous and discrete linear optimization problems. The result is a clear-cut resource for understanding three cornerstones of deterministic operations resear

  18. Contemporary European historiography of Stalinism: Tradition and new Research Strategies for Central and Eastern Europe (Statement of the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viachaslau Menkouski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors reviews Central and Eastern European scholar’s scientific papers of Soviet history and the history of communism in which Stalinism is treated as a special object of study or considered in the context of the other problems of Soviet, European and world history. The study focuses on the scientific literature (monographs, journal articles, collections of articles, prepared and published in the Central and Eastern Europe in the second half of the 1980s to the present day. Thus, it is possible to speak of a new component of the European historiography of Stalinism. The conditions of modern methodological pluralism provide a choice of integrated multi-disciplinary approach as a concrete methodology of historiographical research. This allows attracting theoretical ideas and techniques of other fields of scientific knowledge for the study of historical processes. Today, the situation in science is such that it is necessary to hear different voices, to be able let in the "other" in your discourse. The study of European historiography of Stalinism enables us to connect the historical, political, anthropological, psychological, and cultural components. Each of them played a role in a particular segment of the discipline development, and in the formation of a collective historical memory.

  19. Recent advances in hopanoids analysis: Quantification protocols overview, main research targets and selected problems of complex data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Pawe? K; Portka, Joanna K

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenoids, particularly hopanoids, are organism-specific compounds and are generally considered as useful biomarkers that allow fingerprinting and classification of biological, environmental and geological samples. Simultaneous quantification of various hopanoids together with battery of related non-polar and low-molecular mass compounds may provide principal information for geochemical and environmental research focusing on both modern and ancient investigations. Target compounds can be derived from microbial biomass, water columns, sediments, coals, crude fossils or rocks. This create number of analytical problems due to different composition of the analytical matrix and interfering compounds and therefore, proper optimization of quantification protocols for such biomarkers is still the challenge. In this work we summarizing typical analytical protocols that were recently applied for quantification of hopanoids like compounds from different samples. Main steps including components of interest extraction, pre-purification, fractionation, derivatization and quantification involving gas (1D and 2D) as well as liquid separation techniques (liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, planar and low resolution column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography) are described and discussed from practical point of view, mainly based on the experimental papers that were published within last two years, where significant increase in hopanoids research was noticed. The second aim of this review is to describe the latest research trends concerning determination of hopanoids and related low-molecular mass lipids analyzed in various samples including sediments, rocks, coals, crude oils and plant fossils as well as stromatolites and microbial biomass cultivated under different conditions. It has been found that majority of the most recent papers are based on uni- or bivariate approach for complex data analysis. Data interpretation involves number of physicochemical parameters and hopanoids quantities or given biomarkers mass ratios derived from high-throughput separation and detection systems, typically GC-MS and HPLC-MS. Based on quantitative data reported in recently published experimental works it has been demonstrated that multivariate data analysis using e.g. principal components computations may significantly extend our knowledge concerning proper biomarkers selection and samples classification by means of hopanoids and related non-polar compounds. PMID:25958047

  20. The Use of Action Research in the Management of Environmental Problems - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.37en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thiollent

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and discuss the possibilities for using participatory methodologies and action research in studies with a socioenvironmental focus, particularly in the rural context. Special emphasis is given to problems which occur as a result of interactions between researchers and communities and ways of building a shared vision are suggested. Finally, the article presents some results from a participatory project involving communities in a microbasin in the north-west region of Rio de Janeiro state, relating in particular to the health problems resulting from the use of pesticides. The procedures used to deal with the organization of the communities are also highlighted.

  1. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  2. Addressing the Wicked Problem of Responsible Innovation through Design Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Pavie, Xavier; Carthy, Daphné

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted with several major actors from the French financial industry, which aimed at developing a process for developing responsible innovations by deploying a Design Thinking method. We begin by presentingthe context for the study which includes a brief description of our approach for understanding and exploring the issues raised by responsible innovation. This first part also includes a comparative analysis of the characteristics of RI (res...

  3. Problems of global warming and role of micropaleontologists - Presidential Address

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    figures of anticipated sea level rise due to greenhouse effects for estimating socio-economic implications for our country. Since the common aim of the oceanography and archaeology lies in the illumination of the past, it is apparent to bring coherence... dockyard (first Naval dockyard of the world as claimed by archaeologists) in Gujarat and drowning of Dwarka (on west coast) and Pumphar (on east coast) of India are the glaring examples of the role of the sea level fluctuations in shaping the history...

  4. Addressing selected problems of the modelling of digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of digital systems to practical activities at nuclear power plants brings about new requirements for their modelling for the purposes of reliability analyses required for plant licensing as well as for inclusion into PSA studies and subsequent use in applications for the assessment of events, limits and conditions, and risk monitoring. It is very important to assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the effect of this change on operational safety. The report describes selected specific features of reliability analysis of digital system and recommends methodological procedures. The chapters of the report are as follows: (1) Flexibility and multifunctionality of the system. (2) General framework of reliability analyses (Understanding the system; Qualitative analysis; Quantitative analysis; Assessment of results, comparison against criteria; Documenting system reliability analyses; Asking for comments and their evaluation); and (3) Suitable reliability models (Reliability models of basic events; Monitored components with repair immediately following defect or failure; Periodically tested components; Constant unavailability (probability of failure to demand); Application of reliability models for electronic components; Example of failure rate decomposition; Example modified for diagnosis successfulness; Transfer of reliability analyses to PSA; Common cause failures - CCF; Software backup and CCF type failures, software versus hardware). (P.A.)

  5. Research electives in rural health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly L; Rourke J

    2002-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: As academic medical institutions being to address the education and service needs of rural Canadians, research will make its way to the foreground. Rural physicians are well positioned to lead in this venture, but often have little time or energy to take on extra duties. Rural populations differ in essential ways from urban populations. Certainly, the limitations of geography, funding, and population density alter medical surveillance, treatment, and research in ways ...

  6. IPV6 Address and Quality of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan nagaraj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The internet is the one of the greatest revolutionary innovation of the twentieth century.It made the ‘global village utopia’ a reality in a rather short span of time and the ways that computers communicate have, in many cases, changed dramatically. The core problem, the 32-bit address space that is too small for the current and future size of the Internet, can only be addressed by moving to a larger address space. To speed up the transition IPV4 compatible IPV6 addressing scheme has been worked out. This was the primary motivating factor in creating the next version of the Internet Protocol, IPv6. IPv6 is destined to be the future of the Internet Protocol, and due to IP's critical importance, it will form the basis for the future of TCP/IP and the Internet as well. ICMPv6 can provide new version of ICMP - additional message types, e.g. “Packet Too Big” and multicast group management functions and Support for security ,Support for mobility and a real IPv6 internetwork has been used for testing for a number of years as well. This paper describes the quality of services keeping features of IPV6. Many vendors are now writing softwares for various computing environments to support IPV6 functionality.

  7. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, S; Bote, M; Meadows, R

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

  8. The Knowledge Level: Presidential Address

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Allen

    1981-01-01

    This is the first presidential address of AAAI, the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. In the grand scheme of history of artificial intelligence (AI), this is surely a minor event. The field this scientific society represents has been thriving for quite some time. No doubt the society itself will make solid contributions to the health of our field. But it is too much to expect a presidential address to have a major impact. So what is the role of the presidential address and wha...

  9. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to inv...

  10. Implementing a comprehensive program for the prevention of conduct problems in rural communities: the Fast Track experience. The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, K L

    1997-08-01

    Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure, delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway in four demographically diverse areas of the United States, testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes some lessons learned about the implementation of this program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and regional communities that constitute their service area. Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values, limited recreational, educational and mental health services, and politically conservative climates are all more likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both pose particular challenges to the implementation of prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation are described in detail: (a) community entry and program initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural prevention program. PMID:9338956

  11. Problemas y retos de la investigacion en el siglo XXI (El caso de la RIEMS y la conformación de la antropoética Problems and challenges of research in the XXI century (The case of the RIEMS and conformation of the anthropoetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Alvarado Hernández

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación en el siglo XXI enfrenta un sin número de retos y problemas, en esta centuria en que vivimos, el reto no sólo de la investigación si no de la educación, es que debe conciliarse la materia y el espíritu, la naturaleza y la cultura, la ciencia y las humanidades, propiciando un reencuentro entre la tecnología y el humanismo, integrando la memoria y el proyecto. Por ello creemos que el nuevo paradigma de la investigación y educación es la conformación de la antropoética. En este documento abordamos la problemática que representa la Reforma Integral de la Educación Media Superior (RIEMS, no sólo para la investigación, sino también para el proceso de conformación de la antropoética. Para ello se abordan sus términos conceptuales, como antropoética, competencias transversales y las nociones de conformación, complejidad. Hemos seleccionado el escenario de la educación media superior, específicamente el bachillerato, porque es en este nivel de la educación, donde se generan diversas modalidades educativas que derivan en prácticas neoliberalistas de capacitación e instrucción, tal es el caso de la RIEMS, lo que inhibe el proceso de formación humana y por ende su posibilidad de formación antropoética. Esta ultima como una opción clave para la educación de las futuras generaciones.Research in the XXI century faces a myriad of challenges and problems, in this century in which we live, the challenge not only of research but also of education, is that they must reconcile matter and spirit, nature and culture, science and humanities, leading to an reencounter between technology and humanism, integrating memory and project. We therefore believe that the new paradigm of research and education is the conformation to anthropoetics. In this paper we address the problem posed by the Comprehensive Reform for Middle and Higher Education (Riems, not only for research but also for the process of shaping the anthropoetics. This will address conceptual terms, as anthropoetics, generic skills and concepts of structure, complexity. We have chosen the scenario of higher education, undergratuate specifically, because it is at this level of education, that are generated various types of education that result in practical neoliberal training and instruction, such is the case of Riems, which inhibits human education processes and thus their ability of anthropoetic training. This latter as a key option for the education of future generations.

  12. Problemas y retos de la investigacion en el siglo XXI (El caso de la RIEMS y la conformación de la antropoética) / Problems and challenges of research in the XXI century (The case of the RIEMS and conformation of the anthropoetics)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Víctor Manuel Alvarado, Hernández; Martin Manjarrez, Betancourt.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación en el siglo XXI enfrenta un sin número de retos y problemas, en esta centuria en que vivimos, el reto no sólo de la investigación si no de la educación, es que debe conciliarse la materia y el espíritu, la naturaleza y la cultura, la ciencia y las humanidades, propiciando un reencue [...] ntro entre la tecnología y el humanismo, integrando la memoria y el proyecto. Por ello creemos que el nuevo paradigma de la investigación y educación es la conformación de la antropoética. En este documento abordamos la problemática que representa la Reforma Integral de la Educación Media Superior (RIEMS), no sólo para la investigación, sino también para el proceso de conformación de la antropoética. Para ello se abordan sus términos conceptuales, como antropoética, competencias transversales y las nociones de conformación, complejidad. Hemos seleccionado el escenario de la educación media superior, específicamente el bachillerato, porque es en este nivel de la educación, donde se generan diversas modalidades educativas que derivan en prácticas neoliberalistas de capacitación e instrucción, tal es el caso de la RIEMS, lo que inhibe el proceso de formación humana y por ende su posibilidad de formación antropoética. Esta ultima como una opción clave para la educación de las futuras generaciones. Abstract in english Research in the XXI century faces a myriad of challenges and problems, in this century in which we live, the challenge not only of research but also of education, is that they must reconcile matter and spirit, nature and culture, science and humanities, leading to an reencounter between technology a [...] nd humanism, integrating memory and project. We therefore believe that the new paradigm of research and education is the conformation to anthropoetics. In this paper we address the problem posed by the Comprehensive Reform for Middle and Higher Education (Riems), not only for research but also for the process of shaping the anthropoetics. This will address conceptual terms, as anthropoetics, generic skills and concepts of structure, complexity. We have chosen the scenario of higher education, undergratuate specifically, because it is at this level of education, that are generated various types of education that result in practical neoliberal training and instruction, such is the case of Riems, which inhibits human education processes and thus their ability of anthropoetic training. This latter as a key option for the education of future generations.

  13. A Heuristic Routing Mechanism Using a New Addressing Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Ravanbakhsh, Mohsen; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of routing are based on network information in the form of routing tables, in which routing protocols determine how to update the tables according to the network changes. Despite the variability of data in routing tables, node addresses are constant. In this paper, we first introduce the new concept of variable addresses, which results in a novel framework to cope with routing problems using heuristic solutions. Then we propose a heuristic routing mechanism based on the application of genes for determination of network addresses in a variable address network and describe how this method flexibly solves different problems and induces new ideas in providing integral solutions for variety of problems. The case of ad-hoc networks is where simulation results are more supportive and original solutions have been proposed for issues like mobility.

  14. Refugees and Migrants: Problems and Program Responses. A Look at the Causes and Consequences of Today's Major International Population Flows, and at the Ford Foundation's New Programs to Address the Problems of Refugees and Migrants in the United States and Elsewhere in the World. A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The paper reflects the Ford Foundation's emphasis since 1980 on long-term problems of refugees and migrants across national borders, and the desire of the Foundation staff to strengthen the long-term capacity of key institutions and communities to cope with population flows. Focus is first on the consequences of migrant flows for sending and…

  15. Research and Teaching: Fostering Collaborative Problem Solving and 21st Century Skills Using the DEEPER Scaffolding Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Jahanzad, Farzaneh; Greenwood, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative problem solving is an essential component of any 21st century science career. Scientists are hired, retained, and promoted for solving problems in dynamic and interdisciplinary teams. They discuss issues, explain and justify their opinions, debate, elaborate, and reflect on their collective knowledge. At the same time, both…

  16. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  17. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  18. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  19. Second Language Writing. Research Insights for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Barbara, Ed.

    This book is addressed to those about to embark on the teaching of second language writing as well as to those already engaged in the field. Teachers are dedicated to postering growth in writing; researchers want to investigate the questions that shed the greatest light on the problem in the field. The concerns of both these groups are addressed…

  20. NEW DIRECTIONS IN SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT WORKSHOP, AUGUST 29, 1960, DETROIT, MICHIGAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLUSKY, HOWARD

    IN AN ADDRESS DELIVERED TO A WORKSHOP IN THE GREAT CITIES PROJECT, IT WAS NOTED THAT SCHOOL PERSONNEL SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO RESEARCH THE PROBLEM OF IN-MIGRATION. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT, AS A KEY TO MIGRATION AND CHANGING NEIGHBORHOODS, A CUMULATIVE RECORD FOR THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND SCHOOL DISTRICT BE KEPT. THERE IS A NEED FOR TEACHERS TO…