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SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option's acceptability and its benefits, harms, and costs?

Lavis John N; Wilson Michael G; Oxman Andrew D; Grimshaw Jeremy; Lewin Simon; Fretheim Atle

2009-01-01

2

Addressing problems in complete dentures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have compiled a set of solutions to the most common issues influencing the success of complete denture cases. A brief review and discussion of occlusal vertical dimension is presented, followed by a troubleshooting guide to problems such as inadequate retention and stability, discomfort, and other problems affecting treatment outcome. PMID:18018388

LaBarre, Eugene; Giusti, Lola; Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela

2007-10-01

3

Addressing problems in complete dentures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors have compiled a set of solutions to the most common issues influencing the success of complete denture cases. A brief review and discussion of occlusal vertical dimension is presented, followed by a troubleshooting guide to problems such as inadequate retention and stability, discomfort, and other problems affecting treatment outcome.

LaBarre E; Giusti L; Pitigoi-Aron G

2007-10-01

4

Addressing the call-back problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Service recalls or call-backs are one of the costliest and most persistent of service management problems. Although all service industries have call-back problems each time the oilburner breaks down, the customer has what could be a costly inconvenience. Every customer complaint reduces loyalty and makes the industry more and more vulnerable to competition, not just from each other but, from the utilities and the discounters. A customer who gets prompt, capable service will usually stay with his present company and, just as importantly, he stays with fuel oil. If the industry were to place the blame for call-backs on a particular person or area it would probably be in the individual serviceman. The lack of training, lack of motivation, lack of compassion for the customer or lack of company spirit, is discussed.

Skinner, R.

1985-08-01

5

Islamic Education Research Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

Abdul Muthalib

2012-01-01

6

Can problem-based learning address content and process?*.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Problem-based learning was used to address the learning process and traditional content in a one semester nonmajors biochemistry course. Three different pedagogical strategies were evaluated in three versions of the course. The first version exclusively utilized literature-based learning (analysis of primary literature articles in small groups) with almost no lectures from the instructor. Classroom assessment addressed the research process, not content. In the second version, literature-based learning was supplemented with a 75-min lecture by the instructor before each article was analyzed as well as additional lectures as deemed necessary. Classroom assessment addressed process (70%) over content (30%). The third version was lecture-based, with the emphasis on traditional content; lectures were supplemented with literature analysis. Classroom assessment emphasized content, but about 10% of each exam focused on the research process. Student evaluations of the three versions of the course showed no significant difference in opinions about the format of the course. Postcourse interviews with students 1) confirmed previous studies that showed that the literature-based format greatly increased the involvement of students in their own learning, 2) showed that literature-based learning is compatible with an equal focus on content and process, and 3) showed that supplementing lecture-based teaching with literature-based learning does not empower students to manage their own learning, although student response to this instructional method was positive.

Hintz MM

2005-09-01

7

Can problem-based learning address content and process?*.  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem-based learning was used to address the learning process and traditional content in a one semester nonmajors biochemistry course. Three different pedagogical strategies were evaluated in three versions of the course. The first version exclusively utilized literature-based learning (analysis of primary literature articles in small groups) with almost no lectures from the instructor. Classroom assessment addressed the research process, not content. In the second version, literature-based learning was supplemented with a 75-min lecture by the instructor before each article was analyzed as well as additional lectures as deemed necessary. Classroom assessment addressed process (70%) over content (30%). The third version was lecture-based, with the emphasis on traditional content; lectures were supplemented with literature analysis. Classroom assessment emphasized content, but about 10% of each exam focused on the research process. Student evaluations of the three versions of the course showed no significant difference in opinions about the format of the course. Postcourse interviews with students 1) confirmed previous studies that showed that the literature-based format greatly increased the involvement of students in their own learning, 2) showed that literature-based learning is compatible with an equal focus on content and process, and 3) showed that supplementing lecture-based teaching with literature-based learning does not empower students to manage their own learning, although student response to this instructional method was positive. PMID:21638601

Hintz, Mary McCarthy

2005-09-01

8

Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

Sandfort, Theo G M; Collier, Kate L; Grossberg, Robert

2012-09-11

9

Addressing Social Problems, Focusing on Solutions: The Community Exploration Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintains that when students learn about social problems they often feel depressed and apathetic about their ability to change these problems in society. Describes the Community Exploration Project that addresses the despair expressed by students and utilizes a student-centered approach where students discover and understand community efforts to…

Rundblad, Georganne

1998-01-01

10

Addressing problems and implementation issues of self-managing teams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to the significant challenges organizations face today, many managers have put in place continuous improvement efforts to help the organization enhance its competitive position. A key element of continuous improvement efforts is employee involvement; in a recent survey of Fortune 500 organizations on techniques and approaches to improving quality and productivity, respondents listed employee involvement as their number one priority. One of the more complex and mature forms of employee involvement which many organizations have begun to experiment with recently is self-managing teams. A self-managing team is a group of employees, usually eight to fifteen, who is responsible for not only performing work tasks but also managing their work processes. There are common problems and issues associated with implementing self-managing teams, which we will address in this paper. First, however, we will discuss how self-managing teams fit into the broader concept of employee involvement. Then we will describe the results of a case study research project studying how five organizations implemented self-managing teams. The implementation issues we address are the role of the supervisor, the structure of teams, the information requirements of the g necessary, and the compensation (pay) system most often used. Lastly, we will discuss some future trends for self-managing teams.

Van Aken, E.M.; Sink, D.S.

1992-01-01

11

Addressing problems and implementation issues of self-managing teams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to the significant challenges organizations face today, many managers have put in place continuous improvement efforts to help the organization enhance its competitive position. A key element of continuous improvement efforts is employee involvement; in a recent survey of Fortune 500 organizations on techniques and approaches to improving quality and productivity, respondents listed employee involvement as their number one priority. One of the more complex and mature forms of employee involvement which many organizations have begun to experiment with recently is self-managing teams. A self-managing team is a group of employees, usually eight to fifteen, who is responsible for not only performing work tasks but also managing their work processes. There are common problems and issues associated with implementing self-managing teams, which we will address in this paper. First, however, we will discuss how self-managing teams fit into the broader concept of employee involvement. Then we will describe the results of a case study research project studying how five organizations implemented self-managing teams. The implementation issues we address are the role of the supervisor, the structure of teams, the information requirements of the g necessary, and the compensation (pay) system most often used. Lastly, we will discuss some future trends for self-managing teams.

Van Aken, E.M.; Sink, D.S.

1992-12-31

12

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

13

Pharmaceutical Research Design Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this lesson and its associated activity, students explore the role of biomedical engineers working for pharmaceutical companies. First, students gain background knowledge about what biomedical engineers do, how to become a biomedical engineer, and the steps of the engineering design process. The goal is to introduce biomedical engineering as medical problem solving as well as highlight the importance of maintaining normal body chemistry. Students participate in the research phase of the design process as it relates to improving the design of a new prescription medication. During the research phase, engineers learn about topics by reading scholarly articles written by others, and students experience this process. Students draw on their research findings to participate in discussion and draw conclusions about the impact of medications on the human body.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

14

Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

Tsang, Chin-Fu

2004-09-10

15

Is current hydrogeologic research addressing long-term predictions?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physicochemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

Tsang CF

2005-05-01

16

Addressing the research-practice gap in healthcare management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, renewed attention has been drawn to the gap between research and practice in disciplines within schools of public health. This article addresses the research-practice gap within healthcare management, a key discipline in schools of public health. Barriers and solutions are presented across four stages for converting research to practice-discovery, translation, dissemination, and change. Foremost barriers include low credibility of academic research, inadequate research dissemination, neglect of practitioner concerns, and lack of external pressures for adopting researched practices. Key solutions include educating practitioners about research, collaborative studies with practitioners, adapting research to practitioner needs, and holding organizations accountable for adopting evidence-based change.

Gautam K

2008-03-01

17

Addressing The Up-Link Problem Using RytovProp  

Science.gov (United States)

RytovProp is a new concept for the simulation of optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The concept is based on a felicitous combination of Rytov approximation based analytic results, matrix theory, and Gaussian random variable theory. Though less versatile than a wave optics propagation simulation approach, for those problems which it can accommodate it provides large sets of results orders of magnitude faster than a wave optics propagation simulation. In this work I describe the RytovProp concept and show results demonstrating its applicability to the Up-Link problem.

Fried, D.

18

Helping policy-makers address rural health access problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the key dimensions of access and their significance for the provision of primary health care and a framework that assists policy-makers to evaluate how well policy targets the dimensions of access. Access to health care can be conceptualised as the potential ease with which consumers can obtain health care at times of need. Disaggregation of the concept of access into the dimensions of availability, geography, affordability, accommodation, timeliness, acceptability and awareness allows policy-makers to identify key questions which must be addressed to ensure reasonable primary health care access for rural and remote Australians. Evaluating how well national primary health care policies target these dimensions of access helps identify policy gaps and potential inequities in ensuring access to primary health care. Effective policies must incorporate the multiple dimensions of access if they are to comprehensively and effectively address unacceptable inequities in health status and access to basic health services experienced by rural and remote Australians.

Russell DJ; Humphreys JS; Ward B; Chisholm M; Buykx P; McGrail M; Wakerman J

2013-04-01

19

Addressing the needs of teenagers with continence problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adolescence refers to the period of great physical and emotional change experienced by 11 to 19-year-olds. A recent report aims to raise the profile of adolescent health (British Medical Association, 2003), and it is important to understand the impact of continence problems at a time in life when self-image is so important and wetting and soiling are particularly distressing. This article considers the specific needs of teenagers and ways of encouraging them to seek treatment.

Weaver A; Dobson P; Swithinbank L

2004-05-01

20

Medical errors: how the US Government is addressing the problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract November's Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on medical errors has sparked debate among US health policy makers as to the appropriate response to the problem. Proposals range from the implementation of nationwide mandatory reporting with public release of performance data to voluntary reporting and quality-assurance efforts that protect the confidentiality of error-related data. Any successful safety program will require a national effort to make significant investments in information technology infrastructure, and to provide an environment and education that enables providers to contribute to an active quality-improvement process.

Schulman Kevin A; Kim John J

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

Morrison, D.L.

1996-12-01

22

Addressing the pilot security problem with gLExec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. However, many groups are starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

Sfiligoi, I; Yocum, D; Petravick, D [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Koeroo, O; Venekamp, G; Groep, D [NIKHEF, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sfiligoi@fnal.gov

2008-07-15

23

Addressing the pilot security problem with gLExec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. However, many groups are starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

2008-01-01

24

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

25

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

2007-01-01

26

Addressing the operational problems in a composting and recycling plant.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Istanbul composting and recycling plant, constructed in 2001, is one of the few composting plants in Turkey. During test operations of the plant, it was reported that the weight of the oversize materials (OM) above a 80-mm sieve was about 40% of the total incoming waste. They mainly consist of plastic bags that were full of garbage, which resulted in operational problems in the plant. In this paper, the composition of OM was determined and evaluated, particularly to find the economic losses in the plant. It was determined that approximately 58% of the OM transferred to the landfill area due to operational failures and interruptions could be used at the plant with improved operational conditions. Otherwise, the plant would realize an annual economic loss of about 640,800 US$. Compost quality in the plant has been satisfactory, but source separated collection, at least the separation of the wet from the dry fraction, is needed to increase the amount of compost and recovered materials.

Kanat G; Demir A; Ozkaya B; Sinan Bilgili M

2006-01-01

27

[Research on radiation hygiene problems].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author presents brief historical reference on research in radiation hygiene problems, initiated by scientists in Central Institute for Occupational hygiene and Preventive hygiene (now--Federal State Budgetary Institution "Research Institute of Occupational Health" with Russian Academy of Medical Sciences).

Kirillov VF

2013-01-01

28

Adding obesity to the problem list increases the rate of providers addressing obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a common problem that increases risk of many other diseases, from heart disease to cancer. While counseling by a physician increases patient report of weight loss attempts and increased exercise, primary care physicians do not frequently address obesity. The objectives of this study were to determine how often obesity was included on the problem list and whether adding obesity to the problem list affected the rate at which it was addressed in future visits. METHODS: We conducted an initial assessment, followed by a randomized controlled trial of patient records at a family medicine residency office. The intervention was the addition of obesity to the problem list. The measured outcome was whether or not obesity was listed as an encounter diagnosis in the following 5 months. RESULTS: At baseline, 36.2% of obese patients had obesity on their problem list. A total of 55.5% of these patients had obesity addressed by a provider in the past year, compared with 5.1% of patients who did not have obesity on their problem list. In the 5 months following the intervention, 38 (14.7%) of the 258 patients in the intervention group had obesity addressed, compared with 11 (4.6%) of the 239 patients in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant relationship between the addition of obesity to the problem list and providers addressing obesity at future visits. This simple intervention could be accomplished automatically by the EMR and has the potential to change provider behavior.

Seaton Banerjee E; Gambler A; Fogleman C

2013-10-01

29

Addressing psychological aspects of physical problems through sandplay: a grounded theory study of therapists' views.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore therapists' understanding of how people with a wide range of physical problems address the psychological aspects of these problems through sandplay, what happens for them in the process, what changes they experience and what sandplay can contribute to working with such people. DESIGN: This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to systematically analyse the data and construct a substantive theory of therapists' understanding of the processes and themes involved in sandplay therapy with people with physical problems. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with nine sandplay therapists with the participants asked about their experiences of using sandplay to address physical problems. RESULTS: The participants offered evidence of their clients' ability to address their physical problems and the corresponding psychological issues through symbolic expression in the sand. The emergent theory suggested that such symbolic expression could facilitate access to feelings and experiences that can be difficult to address through verbal therapy alone, thus facilitating the process of integration and recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The theory suggests how therapists thought that clients may address their physical problems through sandplay and what is important in that process. There was also a suggestion that the focus and themes unfolding in sandplay process may vary depending on whether the clients present with somatisation, chronic illness, or terminal illness.

Lagutina L; Sperlinger D; Esterhuyzen A

2013-03-01

30

[Community therapy as a method to address the problem of alcohol abuse in primary care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to identify the potential of community therapy (CT) as a method to address the problem of alcohol abuse in primary care from a user perspective. This study was carried out at the headquarters of the Quatro Varas Project, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. This qualitative, ethnographic study used semi-structured interview and participant observation. Of the 20 interviewed participants, one was chosen for an in-depth interview. Two thematic units were constructed: the effects of the therapy on alcoholism and therapy as a social support resource for problems related to alcohol use. Results indicate that the dialogue established during therapy promotes re-signification of the problem and redirects the therapy course towards management of one's own life and search for citizenship. We concluded that CT favors the elaboration of a network of systemic relationships that broaden the understanding of problems caused by alcoholism and is an effective strategy to address the problem in the community health sphere.

Giffoni FA; dos Santos MA

2011-06-01

31

Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine specification together entail that the requirements are fulfilled. In this paper, we demonstrate how to address certain frame concerns with the use of the formal modelling language coloured Petri nets (CPN). Problem domain description and machine specification are brought together in a CPN model, which is augmented with a graphical animation. The CPN model is executable and we simulate it to address frame concerns. We illustrate the approach on the elevator controller example.

JØrgensen, Jens Bæk

2008-01-01

32

Addressing the community research needs of baccalaureate students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes a course designed to prepare RN-BSN students to assimilate relevant research findings into clinical practice. The course was developed as faculty accepted the challenge of providing didactic content completely online. Guided by two faculty members, two groups of students developed research proposals to respond to community needs identified by a local hospital and a nursing center.

Cannon SB; Boswell C

2001-07-01

33

Addressing informatics challenges in Translational Research with workflow technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interest in Translational Research has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this collision of different data, technologies and cultures lie tremendous opportunities for the advancement of science and business for organisations that are able to integrate, analyse and deliver this information effectively to users. Workflow-based integration and analysis systems are becoming recognised as a fast and flexible way to build applications that are tailored to scientific areas, yet are built on a common platform. Workflow systems are allowing organisations to meet the key informatics challenges in Translational Research and improve disease understanding and patient care.

Beaulah SA; Correll MA; Munro RE; Sheldon JG

2008-09-01

34

No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language), but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems), which we need to identify, equate and solve.

Fernando Ornelas Marques; Maria Teresa Marques

2012-01-01

35

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

Science.gov (United States)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

36

Methodological problems in polydiagnostic research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The growing application of the polydiagnostic approach makes it necessary to examine the methodological problems associated with the simultaneous assessment of multiple competing diagnoses. This paper contrasts the method of nonstandardized consecutive judgement of nonintegrated criteria lists with the method of a structured polydiagnostic interview with integrated criteria lists. The comparison of two polydiagnostic studies using both methods of assessment confirms that the unstructured use of nonintegrated and consecutively judged criteria lists is biased by a halo effect. This halo effect leads to a reduction of differences between the classifications of competing operational diagnoses and influences the type of patient distribution along the diagnostic dimension. This finding is interpreted as an argument to switch over to integrated criteria lists applied on the basis of an unstructured clinical examination or a structured interview.

Philipp M; Maier W

1986-01-01

37

Handshaking Problem Associated with Addressing Scheme for the Nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a practical problem that arises when assigning ID to wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. A WSN is consisted of a number of wireless nodes that collects information from environment by means of different sensors. A gateway server computer acts as a bridge between the WSN and the outside world. The gateway server can essentially have the capability to control any specific node. In any given context, it might be necessary to access any specific node from the gateway server. One of the ways to accomplish this is handshaking. In this paper, a problem with accessing any WSN node is discussed with a possible solution. A critical analysis of the approach is also carried out in conjunction with the suitability of different ways to adopt an addressing scheme for wireless sensor network nodes.

Ahmed, Monjur

2012-10-01

38

Developing a European research network to address unmet needs in anxiety disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anxiety disorders are common, typically have an early onset, run a chronic or relapsing course, cause substantial personal distress, impair social and occupational function, reduce quality of life, and impose a substantial economic burden: they are often comorbid with major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance misuse and physical illness, and are associated with increased risks of suicidal behaviour. As such, anxiety disorders should be regarded as a significant public health problem. However the causes of anxiety disorders remain largely unknown, which hinders accurate diagnosis, the prediction of prognosis, and the development of refined treatment approaches. In clinical practice, many patients with anxiety disorders do not present or are not recognised, the standard of care they receive is often sub-optimal, and the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological treatment interventions in real-world clinical practice can be disappointing. The current substantial unmet public health, clinical and research needs in anxiety disorders could be addressed in part by developing independent collaborative European networks.

Baldwin DS; Pallanti S; Zwanzger P

2013-01-01

39

Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation provision. Results The studies both demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach of research to action, adopting three pillars of assessment and monitoring; advocacy; and community empowerment. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project study, the participation of managers meant that their support for implementation was increased, although the failure to include nurses and communities in the study was noted as a limitation. The development of a community Water and Sanitation Forum to support the Project had some notable successes, but also experienced some difficulties due to lack of capacity in both the community and the municipality. Conclusion The two very different, but connected projects, demonstrate the value of adopting the GEGA approach, and the importance of involvement of all stakeholders at all stages. The studies also illustrate the potential of a research institution as informed 'outsiders', in influencing policy and practice.

Scott Vera; Stern Ruth; Sanders David; Reagon Gavin; Mathews Verona

2008-01-01

40

A pilot study of a primary prevention curriculum to address preschool behavior problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption.

Upshur C; Wenz-Gross M; Reed G

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

A pilot study of a primary prevention curriculum to address preschool behavior problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption. PMID:23897498

Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

2013-10-01

42

GAO's views on DOE's 1991 budget for addressing problems at the nuclear weapons complex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This statement discusses DOE's 1991 budget request as it relates to cleaning up and modernizing the nuclear weapons complex. This report's testimony focuses on the continuing problems of the complex, DOE's progress in addressing these problems, and important budget issues. In 1989 GAO testified on serious problems at the complex and the staggering cost to address them.

Fultz, K.O.

1990-03-01

43

DOE drafts open-quotes action planclose quotes to address problems at weapons plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight Energy Department facilities and burial grounds will receive priority attention under a three-phase open-quotes action planclose quotes announced by DOE to address safety problems associated with spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal. The action plan comes in response to a DOE study released in December which revealed major vulnerabilities at many spent fuel facilities, including leaking fuel elements, badly corroded storage and fuel-handling infrastructure and highly contaminated cooling pools. The eight facilities targeted for near-term remedial action are: the K-East Basin, 200 West Area Burial grounds and the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction plant canyon at the Hanford plant in Washington; the L-Reactor and K-Reactor disassembly basins at the Savannah River plant in South Carolina; the Classified Burial Ground and the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment Disposal Wells at DOE's Oak Ridge site in Tennessee; and the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

1994-02-15

44

Gone… but not away : Addressing the problem of long-term impacts from landfills in LCA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background, aim and scope: Land filling of materials with content of toxic metals or highly persistent organic compounds has posed a problem for life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners for many years. The slow release from the landfill entails a dilution in time, which is dramatic compared to other emissions occurring in the life cycle, and with its focus on the emitted mass, LCA is poorly equipped to handle this difference. As a consequence, the long-term emissions from landfills occurring over thousands of years are often disregarded, which is unacceptable to many stakeholders considering the quantities of toxic substances that can be present. On the other hand, inclusion of all future emissions (over thousands of years) in the inventories potentially dominates all other impacts from the product system. The paper aims to present a pragmatic approach to address this dilemma. Materials and methods: Two new impact categories are introduced representing the stored ecotoxicity and stored human toxicity of thecontaminants remaining in the landfill after a ‘foreseeable’ time period of 100 years. The impact scores are calculated using the normal characterisation factors for the ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories, and they represent the toxicity potentials of what remains in the landfill after 100 years (hence the term ‘stored’ (eco)toxicity). Normalisation references are developed for the stored toxicity categories based on Danish figures to support comparison with indicator scores for the conventional environmental impact categories. In contrast to the scores for the conventional impact categories, it is uncertain to what extent the stored toxicity scores represent emissions, which will occur at all. Guidance is given on how to reflect this uncertainty in the weighting and interpretation of the scores. Results and discussion: In landfills and road constructions used to deposit residuals from incinerators, less than 1% of the content of metals is leached within the first 100 years. The stored toxicityscores are therefore much higher than the conventional impact scores that represent the actual emissions. Several examples are given illustrating the use and potential significance of the stored toxicity categories. Conclusions and perspectives: The methodology to calculate stored human and ecotoxicity is a simple and pragmatic approach to address LCA’s problem of treating the slow´long-term emissions at very low concentrations appropriately. The problem resides in the inventory analysis and the impact assessment, and the methodology circumvents the problem by converting it into a weighting and interpretation issue accommodating the value-based discussion of how to weight potential effects in the far future.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

2008-01-01

45

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

1993-01-01

46

Addressing complex healthcare problems in diverse settings: insights from activity theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the U.K., approaches to policy implementation, service improvement and quality assurance treat policy, management and clinical care as separate, hierarchical domains. They are often based on the central knowledge transfer (KT) theory idea that best practice solutions to complex problems can be identified and 'rolled out' across organisations. When the designated 'best practice' is not implemented, this is interpreted as local--particularly management--failure. Remedial actions include reiterating policy aims and tightening performance management of solution implementation, frequently to no avail. We propose activity theory (AT) as an alternative approach to identifying and understanding the challenges of addressing complex healthcare problems across diverse settings. AT challenges the KT conceptual separations between levels of policy, management and clinical care. It does not regard knowledge and practice as separable, and does not understand them in the commodified way that has typified some versions of KT theory. Instead, AT focuses on "objects of activity" which can be contested. It sees new practice as emerging from contradiction and understands knowledge and practice as fundamentally entwined, not separate. From an AT perspective, there can be no single best practice. The contributions of AT are that it enables us to understand the dynamics of knowledge-practice in activities rather than between levels. It shows how efforts to reduce variation from best practice may paradoxically remove a key source of practice improvement. After explaining the principles of AT we illustrate its explanatory potential through an ethnographic study of primary healthcare teams responding to a policy aim of reducing inappropriate hospital admissions of older people by the 'best practice' of rapid response teams.

Greig G; Entwistle VA; Beech N

2012-02-01

47

How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

2013-04-01

48

DOE drafts {open_quotes}action plan{close_quotes} to address problems at weapons plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eight Energy Department facilities and burial grounds will receive priority attention under a three-phase {open_quotes}action plan{close_quotes} announced by DOE to address safety problems associated with spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal. The action plan comes in response to a DOE study released in December which revealed major vulnerabilities at many spent fuel facilities, including leaking fuel elements, badly corroded storage and fuel-handling infrastructure and highly contaminated cooling pools. The eight facilities targeted for near-term remedial action are: the K-East Basin, 200 West Area Burial grounds and the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction plant canyon at the Hanford plant in Washington; the L-Reactor and K-Reactor disassembly basins at the Savannah River plant in South Carolina; the Classified Burial Ground and the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment Disposal Wells at DOE`s Oak Ridge site in Tennessee; and the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

Lobsenz, G.

1994-02-15

49

Developing a European research network to address unmet needs in anxiety disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anxiety disorders are common, typically have an early onset, run a chronic or relapsing course, cause substantial personal distress, impair social and occupational function, reduce quality of life, and impose a substantial economic burden: they are often comorbid with major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance misuse and physical illness, and are associated with increased risks of suicidal behaviour. As such, anxiety disorders should be regarded as a significant public health problem. However the causes of anxiety disorders remain largely unknown, which hinders accurate diagnosis, the prediction of prognosis, and the development of refined treatment approaches. In clinical practice, many patients with anxiety disorders do not present or are not recognised, the standard of care they receive is often sub-optimal, and the effectiveness of pharmacological and psychological treatment interventions in real-world clinical practice can be disappointing. The current substantial unmet public health, clinical and research needs in anxiety disorders could be addressed in part by developing independent collaborative European networks. PMID:23313646

Baldwin, David S; Pallanti, Stefano; Zwanzger, Peter

2013-01-11

50

Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

Van Aalsvoort, Joke

2004-01-01

51

Addressing methodological and ethical challenges of qualitative health research on persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Qualitative studies of persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may affect clinical practice and social policy. However, methodological and ethical challenges may present during studies of persons with these specific mental illnesses. The purpose of this paper is to increase transparency about how researchers addressed these challenges during a recent grounded theory study about engagement in primary care. As the researchers addressed the challenges, they increased understanding about persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. They also gained insight about the challenges of studying persons with these specific mental illnesses and about the rigor and credibility of qualitative methods.

Graor CH; Knapik GP

2013-04-01

52

Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

2005-12-01

53

Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are eager to see the first successful shipment in this programme, continue to assist it every way we can, and look forward to presentations this week on both the Russian RERTR and spent fuel return efforts

2005-01-01

54

problems seeded attention oil plant allelopathy research?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant a~lclopathy is an active r~earch?ca in recent m?but exists sorne problems and mistmdemtand ings Some important and confused issues on ib ba3ac deftnition and rese~ch content?releasing modes and research mctbuds of atlclochcmic~h?relation +hips of alldopathy with cornpetition and environmental strc~-os·and application potentis]of a[]elopathy wm pointed out anddiscussed in this paper?

?KongChuihu

1998-01-01

55

School nurses can address existing gaps in school-age sleep research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sleep has been linked to a host of physical, behavioral, and emotional outcomes, and research has documented that youth across the globe are experiencing inadequate sleep. Despite this knowledge, however, very little research has been conducted on school-age children; much of the extant research has focused on infants, toddlers, preschoolers, adolescents, and adults. School-age children exhibit increasing independence around health-related behaviors, which provide health professionals the opportunity to educate and promote healthy sleep behaviors. This commentary extends previous research reviews by identifying the current gaps in sleep research, highlighting future directions needed in sleep research, and explaining why school nurses are best suited to address this growing public health issue.

Willgerodt MA; Kieckhefer GM

2013-06-01

56

Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

57

Shaping a new generation of Hispanic clinical and translational researchers addressing minority health and health disparities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2011, research educators face significant challenges. Training programs in Clinical and Translational Research need to develop or enhance their curriculum to comply with new scientific trends and government policies. Curricula must impart the skills and competencies needed to help facilitate the dissemination and transfer of scientific advances at a faster pace than current health policy and practice. Clinical and translational researchers are facing also the need of new paradigms for effective collaboration, and resource sharing while using the best educational models. Both government and public policy makers emphasize addressing the goals of improving health quality and elimination of health disparities. To help achieve this goal, our academic institution is taking an active role and striving to develop an environment that fosters the career development of clinical and translational researchers. Consonant with this vision, in 2002 the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus School of Health Professions and School of Medicine initiated a multidisciplinary post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical Research focused in training Hispanics who will address minority health and health disparities research. Recently, we proposed a curriculum revision to enhance this commitment in promoting competency-based curricula for clinician-scientists in clinical and translational sciences. The revised program will be a post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MCTR), expanding its outreach by actively engaging in establishing new collaborations and partnerships that will increase our capability to diversify our educational efforts and make significant contributions to help reduce and eliminate the gap in health disparities.

Estapé ES; Segarra B; Báez A; Huertas A; Díaz C; Frontera WR

2011-12-01

58

[Beyond the criticism addressed to research ethics committees: a choice of governance].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1998 in Canada and Quebec, two policies regarding research ethics transformed the evaluation approach of clinical research following the Code of Nuremberg and subsequent Declarations of the World Medical Association. Even after almost ten years of implementation, these policies still arouse debate in the research milieu. If for many, these debates essentially reflect the inherent difficulties in any implementation process, in which resistance to change and the modification of policies and action plans, we believe that there is a more fundamental stake, rarely mentioned or debated, that of the choice of governance. In this article we start by proposing a classification of the different modes of governance: professional deontology, and ethical and administrative rights. Secondly, we show how the debates and criticisms addressed to the Research Ethics Committee of Quebec and Canada attains their full meaning in light of this basic stake: the divergence of the mode of governance to favour ethics in research.

Legault GA; Patenaude J

2007-12-01

59

Institute for Physical Problems Research Group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute for Physical Problems (IPP) explores aspects of low-dimensional magnets, non-linear dynamics of magnetically ordered crystals, and magnetic resonance. Researchers can learn how the ESR spectrometers utilized by the group permit flexibility in their experiments. Students and educators can discover the importance of quasi 1D magnet with ladder structure NaV2O5. The site also provides information about spin-Peierls matrices, Antiferromagnetic Stark-effects, and Spin-wave Turbulence.

60

Guide to Using School COP to Address Student Discipline and Crime Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Guide is designed to help school administrators, police officers assigned to a school, and non-sworn school security staff reduce student discipline and crime problems using a new software application called the School Crime Operations Package, or Sc...

T. Rich S. Ward P. Finn

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

2012-01-01

62

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

2012-09-15

63

Addressing the problem of pet overpopulation: the experience of New Hanover County Animal Control Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pet overpopulation is a problem for humans not only because of the increased rabies exposure risk but also because it puts a strain on animal control agencies, which must care for, house, and often euthanize the unwanted animals. New Hanover County, North Carolina, Animal Control Services saw the need to control this problem and developed a plan to diminish the number of unwanted companion animals in its community. With the help of training through the UNC Management Academy for Public Health, they created a successful business plan to build an on-site spay/neuter facility. The facility began operations in 2004. As of January 31, 2006, a total of 1,108 surgeries had been completed in the new facility, with no added cost to taxpayers. The facility has been a success for Animal Control Services, the Health Department, and the community as a whole. PMID:16912607

McNeil, Jean; Constandy, Elisabeth

64

Addressing the problem of pet overpopulation: the experience of New Hanover County Animal Control Services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pet overpopulation is a problem for humans not only because of the increased rabies exposure risk but also because it puts a strain on animal control agencies, which must care for, house, and often euthanize the unwanted animals. New Hanover County, North Carolina, Animal Control Services saw the need to control this problem and developed a plan to diminish the number of unwanted companion animals in its community. With the help of training through the UNC Management Academy for Public Health, they created a successful business plan to build an on-site spay/neuter facility. The facility began operations in 2004. As of January 31, 2006, a total of 1,108 surgeries had been completed in the new facility, with no added cost to taxpayers. The facility has been a success for Animal Control Services, the Health Department, and the community as a whole.

McNeil J; Constandy E

2006-09-01

65

Teacher pedagogical knowledge in mathematics: a tool for addressing learning problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a pedagogical role a classroom teacher is suppose to play in disseminating and imparting of mathematical knowledge. To achieve this, the paper focuses on the concept of teacher pedagogy, pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and mathematical pedagogical knowledge. Problems encountered by teachers as a consequence of mathematical pedagogy have been closely looked at, and possible solutions offered.

A.K. Tsafe

2013-01-01

66

Comparison among the variants of subspace-based optimization method for addressing inverse scattering problems: transverse electric case.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subspace-based optimization method (SOM) is an efficient approach to addressing the inverse scattering problem. In this paper, a comparative study, on the basis of numerical experiments, is conducted to evaluate the performances of variants of SOM, so as to find the optimal method for the determination of the ambiguous portion, which has a dominant influence on the computational cost and the reconstruction capability of the algorithm. PMID:20922011

Pan, Li; Chen, Xudong; Zhong, Yu; Yeo, Swee Ping

2010-10-01

67

Comparison among the variants of subspace-based optimization method for addressing inverse scattering problems: transverse electric case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subspace-based optimization method (SOM) is an efficient approach to addressing the inverse scattering problem. In this paper, a comparative study, on the basis of numerical experiments, is conducted to evaluate the performances of variants of SOM, so as to find the optimal method for the determination of the ambiguous portion, which has a dominant influence on the computational cost and the reconstruction capability of the algorithm.

Pan L; Chen X; Zhong Y; Yeo SP

2010-10-01

68

Post-stroke sexual dysfunction: an overlooked and under-addressed problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Sexual disorders after stroke are thought to be due to multiple etiologies, including both organic and psychosocial causes. Sexual function in post-stroke patients is often disregarded by healthcare professionals although sexuality is a fundamental part of quality of life. Beside pharmacological treatment, one of the most important, but underestimated, success factors of SD therapy is undeniably a proper counseling, which is mandatory to provide correct information on post-stroke sexuality helping the patients and their partners to regain intimacy. Implications for Rehabilitation Sexuality is an integrant and essential part of QoL, and patient affected by stroke should be investigated and treated for sexual disorders. Stroke may alter sexual response by changing the process of sexual stimuli to preclude arousal, decreasing or increasing desire, and curtailing genital engorgement. There is a need for a better management of stroke-related problems, including SD, providing the patients and their partner information useful to achieve a better sexual health.

Calabrò RS; Bramanti P

2013-05-01

69

How multiagency partnerships can successfully address large-scale pollution problems: a Hawaii case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oceanic circulation patterns deposit significant amounts of marine pollution, including derelict fishing gear from North Pacific Ocean fisheries, in the Hawaiian Archipelago [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42(12) (2001) 1301]. Management responsibility for these islands and their associated natural resources is shared by several government authorities. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private industry also have interests in the archipelago. Since the marine debris problem in this region is too large for any single agency to manage, a multiagency marine debris working group (group) was established in 1998 to improve marine debris mitigation in Hawaii. To date, 16 federal, state, and local agencies, working with industry and NGOs, have removed 195 tons of derelict fishing gear from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This review details the evolution of the partnership, notes its challenges and rewards, and advocates its continued use as an effective resource management tool.

Donohue MJ

2003-06-01

70

Practical engineering approaches and infrastructure to address the problem of marine debris in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a solution to the problem of persistent solid marine debris, a nationwide project began in Korea in 1999 to develop and popularize fundamental changes to the infrastructure. The ten year project, called "A Practical Integrated System for Marine Debris," consists of four linked types of technology: prevention, deep-water survey, removal and treatment (recycling). These reflect the characteristics of marine debris, which though widespread, vary by location and time of generation. Each technical component has each representative outcome that has been outreached the local governments and marine debris-related associations. The in situ infrastructures lead to enhance the retrieval of the marine debris and create direct and indirect benefits to industry. Both end-of-pipe technology improvement and the introduction of front-of-pipe technology should be considered as we strive to reduce the generation of marine debris in Korean coastal areas.

Jung RT; Sung HG; Chun TB; Keel SI

2010-09-01

71

Practical engineering approaches and infrastructure to address the problem of marine debris in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a solution to the problem of persistent solid marine debris, a nationwide project began in Korea in 1999 to develop and popularize fundamental changes to the infrastructure. The ten year project, called "A Practical Integrated System for Marine Debris," consists of four linked types of technology: prevention, deep-water survey, removal and treatment (recycling). These reflect the characteristics of marine debris, which though widespread, vary by location and time of generation. Each technical component has each representative outcome that has been outreached the local governments and marine debris-related associations. The in situ infrastructures lead to enhance the retrieval of the marine debris and create direct and indirect benefits to industry. Both end-of-pipe technology improvement and the introduction of front-of-pipe technology should be considered as we strive to reduce the generation of marine debris in Korean coastal areas. PMID:20580774

Jung, Rho-Taek; Sung, Hong Gun; Chun, Tae-Byong; Keel, Sang-In

2010-05-23

72

Threshold-free cluster enhancement: addressing problems of smoothing, threshold dependence and localisation in cluster inference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many image enhancement and thresholding techniques make use of spatial neighbourhood information to boost belief in extended areas of signal. The most common such approach in neuroimaging is cluster-based thresholding, which is often more sensitive than voxel-wise thresholding. However, a limitation is the need to define the initial cluster-forming threshold. This threshold is arbitrary, and yet its exact choice can have a large impact on the results, particularly at the lower (e.g., t, z < 4) cluster-forming thresholds frequently used. Furthermore, the amount of spatial pre-smoothing is also arbitrary (given that the expected signal extent is very rarely known in advance of the analysis). In the light of such problems, we propose a new method which attempts to keep the sensitivity benefits of cluster-based thresholding (and indeed the general concept of "clusters" of signal), while avoiding (or at least minimising) these problems. The method takes a raw statistic image and produces an output image in which the voxel-wise values represent the amount of cluster-like local spatial support. The method is thus referred to as "threshold-free cluster enhancement" (TFCE). We present the TFCE approach and discuss in detail ROC-based optimisation and comparisons with cluster-based and voxel-based thresholding. We find that TFCE gives generally better sensitivity than other methods over a wide range of test signal shapes and SNR values. We also show an example on a real imaging dataset, suggesting that TFCE does indeed provide not just improved sensitivity, but richer and more interpretable output than cluster-based thresholding.

Smith SM; Nichols TE

2009-01-01

73

Research Opportunities for Medications to Treat Alcohol Dependence: Addressing Stakeholders' Needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade.

Litten RZ; Falk D; Ryan M; Fertig J

2013-07-01

74

A New Generation of Vehicle Routing Research: Robust Algorithms, Addressing Uncertainty  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years new insights and algorithms have been obtained for the classical,deterministic, vehicle routing problem as well as for natural stochastic and dynamicvariations of it. These new developments are based on theoretical analysis, combineprobabilistic and combinatorial modelling and lead to (1) new algorithms that producenear optimal solutions and (2) a deeper understanding of uncertainty issues in vehiclerouting. In this paper we survey these new developments with an emphasis on theinsights gained and on the algorithms proposed.Research supported in part by ONR contract N00014-90-J-1649, NSF contracts DDM-8922712, DDM9014751,and by a Presidential Young Investigator award DDM-9158118 with matching funds from DraperLaboratory.ySloan School of Management, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139.zDept. of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Columbia University, NY, NY, 10027 andDepartment of Operations Research and Management Sciences, Northwestern Universi...

Dimitris Bertsimas

75

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

76

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

2013-03-01

77

Artemisinin resistance in Cambodia: a clinical trial designed to address an emerging problem in Southeast Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of failure of artemisinin-based combination therapy have highlighted the possibility of emerging artemisinin resistance along the Thai-Cambodian border. We used an integrated in vivo-in vitro approach to assess the presence of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. This article provides additional data from a clinical trial that has been published in The New England Journal of Medicine. METHODS: Ninety-four adult patients from Battambang Province, western Cambodia, who presented with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive high-dose artesunate therapy (4 mg/kg/day orally for 7 days) or quinine-tetracycline. Plasma concentrations of dihydroartemisinin, in vitro drug susceptibility, and molecular markers were analyzed. Cases meeting all the following criteria were classified as artemisinin resistant: failure to clear parasites within 7 days of treatment or reemergence of parasites within 28 days of follow-up; adequate plasma concentrations of dihydroartemisinin; prolonged parasite clearance; and increased in vitro drug susceptibility levels for dihydroartemisinin. RESULTS: Two (3.3%) of 60 artesunate-treated patients were classified as artemisinin resistant. Their parasite clearance times were prolonged (133 and 95 h, compared with a median of 52.2 h in patients who were cured). These patients had 50% inhibitory concentrations of dihydroartemisinin that were almost 10 times higher than the reference clone W2. Resistance did not appear to be mediated by the pfmdr1 copy number or selected PfATPase6 polymorphisms previously proposed to confer artemisinin resistance. CONCLUSION: Artemisinin resistance has emerged along the Thai-Cambodian border. The potentially devastating implications of spreading resistance to a drug that currently has no successor call for further studies of this emerging problem. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00479206.

Noedl H; Se Y; Sriwichai S; Schaecher K; Teja-Isavadharm P; Smith B; Rutvisuttinunt W; Bethell D; Surasri S; Fukuda MM; Socheat D; Chan Thap L

2010-12-01

78

Emergency Physicians Research Common Problems in Proportion to their Frequency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM) organizations such as the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the Institute of Medicine have called for more clinical research as a way of addressing thescarcity of research in EM. Previous investigations have examined funding and productivity in EM research, but whether EM researchers preferentially concentrate on certain patient-related topics is notknown. We hypothesized that at least part of the scarcity of EM research is from the tendency of EM researchers, like researchers in other fields, to focus on rarer conditions with higher morbidity or mortality instead of on more common conditions with less acuity. This study compared the frequency of specific medical conditions presenting to emergency departments nationwide with the frequency of emergency physician research on those same conditions.Methods: This study is a structured retrospective review and comparison of 2 databases during an 11-year span. Principal diagnoses made by emergency physicians as reported by the National HospitalAmbulatory Medical Care Survey were compared to all first-author publications by emergency physicians as reported in PubMed between 1996 and 2006. Statistics included correlations and linear regression with the number of emergency department (ED) visits per diagnosis as the independent variable and the number of articles published as the dependent variable.Results: During the study period, there was significant concordance between the frequency of presenting conditions in the emergency department and the frequency of research being performed onthose conditions, with a high correlation of 0.85 (P,0.01). More common ED diagnoses such as injury/poisoning, symptoms/ill-defined conditions, and diseases of the respiratory system accounted for 60.9% of ED principal diagnoses and 50.2% of the total research published in PubMed.Conclusion: Unlike researchers in other fields, emergency physicians investigate clinical problems in almost the exact proportion as those conditions are encountered in the emergency department. The scarcity of EM research does not have to do with a skewed focus toward less common patient problems.

Michael P. Wilson; Gary M. Vilke; Prasanthi Govindarajan; Michael W. Itagaki

2012-01-01

79

Radioactive Materials in Scrap Metal, How This Problem is Addressed in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The port of Rotterdam is the biggest trading place of scrap metal in the World. After the introduction of fixed radiation detection systems at the entrance gates of scrap yards, further referred to as portal detectors, incoming loads of scrap metal are inspected for radioactive sources. In the Netherlands exists a legal system in which every suspicion to be in the possession of radioactive materials without a license has to be reported to the authorities, hence also an alarm of a portal detector. A regulation is developed in consensus by the authorities, the scrap metal traders, and RTD (Research, Technology and Development) in order to control this flow of unwanted radioactive materials. At the present the scrap metal traders announce radioactive materials voluntarily, the authorities control, and RTD takes care of the disposal of unwanted radioactive materials. Since 1994 RTD has gained considerable experience in isolating radioactive materials, and assisting the scrap metal traders in deciding on further actions to be taken. In this paper it will be described how inspections are performed on loads of scrap metal that caused the alarm of a portal detector to go off. Some examples, and characteristics of radioactive objects that were intercepted will be given. (author)

2001-01-01

80

Risky, aggressive, or emotional driving: addressing the need for consistent communication in research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PROBLEM: Researchers agree that a consistent definition for aggressive driving is lacking. Such definitional ambiguity in the literature impedes the accumulation of accurate and precise information, and prevents researchers from communicating clearly about findings and implications for future research directions. This dramatically slows progress in understanding the causes and maintenance factors of aggressive driving. SUMMARY: This article critiques prevailing definitions of driver aggression and generates a definition that, if used consistently, can improve the utility of future research. Pertinent driving behaviors have been variably labeled in the literature as risky, aggressive, or road rage. The authors suggest that the term "road rage" be eliminated from research because it has been used inconsistently and has little probability of being clarified and applied consistently. Instead, driving behaviors that endanger or have the potential to endanger others should be considered as lying on a behavioral spectrum of dangerous driving. Three dimensions of dangerous driving are delineated: (a). intentional acts of aggression toward others, (b). negative emotions experienced while driving, and (c). risk-taking. IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The adoption of a standardized definition for aggressive driving should spark researchers to use more explicit operational definitions that are consistent with theoretical foundations. The use of consistent and unambiguous operational definitions will increase the precision of measurement in research and enhance authors' ability to communicate clearly about findings and conclusions. As this occurs over time, industry will reap benefits from more carefully conducted research. Such benefits may include the development of more valid and reliable means of selecting safe professional drivers, conducting accurate risk assessments, and creating preventative and remedial dangerous driving safety programs.

Dula CS; Geller ES

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Addressing the NO{sub x} emission problem via primary methods -- Polish experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New environment protection legislative regulations which will come into force in Poland starting from 1998, impose considerably more stringent requirements concerning the emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Acceptable emission levels for various types of boilers are shown. Recently, Polish market became a place of increased activity of various companies offering the deliveries of low NO{sub x} emission burners. This, increasingly competitive market environment presents customers with much larger possibilities of choice among new burners and combustion systems which guarantee the obtainment of emission levels much lower than those stipulated in norms and standards. RAFAKO Boiler Engineering Company also carries out the extensive research and development programs concerning new burner design and innovative combustion techniques. Starting from 1992, i.e. the year of commissioning of first boiler (in Wroclaw CHP) equipped with low NO{sub x} emission burners supplied by RAFAKO, the reference list had grown to its present shape including more than fifty successful modernization projects. These projects include steam boilers with the capacity ranging from 70 to 1,150 t/h as well as water boilers from 70 to 200 Gcal/h. The majority of modernized boilers is now able to achieve NO{sub x} emission levels below 170 g/GJ, some of them have reduced their emission to the range from 120 to 150 g/GJ. On the other hand, there were two projects in which the specified emission level could not be met. The extensive experience gained during the completion of above mentioned works are now being used as a background knowledge in the design of new burner generations.

Wala, T.

1998-07-01

82

"Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here.) Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

William E. Willmott

2012-01-01

83

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk; Dewald van Niekerk

2009-01-01

84

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

Jernigan VB; Salvatore AL; Styne DM; Winkleby M

2012-08-01

85

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

2011-10-11

86

The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

2010-01-01

87

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation.

1980-03-11

88

Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social mechanisms linking IPV to alcohol use in community settings, and discusses three social mechanisms relevant to these effects: greater numbers of alcohol outlets within a neighborhood may (1) be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence; (2) promote problem alcohol use among at-risk couples, and; (3) provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of critical public health importance for developing environmental strategies aimed at prevention of IPV, such as changes in zoning, community action and education, and policing.

Carol B. Cunradi

2010-01-01

89

Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective  

CERN Multimedia

Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...

Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi

2013-01-01

90

Researching older lesbians: problems and partial solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a lack of research about older lesbians, who can be considered not only a "hidden population" but also a population in hiding. Yet older lesbians hold vital historical and cultural narratives that are, in turn, the heritage of younger lesbians. They also have much to contribute to understandings about gender, sexuality and aging, and to their currently unmet needs in terms of age-related housing, health, and social care provision. This article reflects on some of the issues that make it difficult to access older lesbians for research purposes. It identifies four problematic areas in researching older lesbians: definitions, access, representative sampling, and ethical issues. It suggests that participative action research might offer a means of widening access and engaging with older lesbians in a more collaborative way.

Westwood S

2013-01-01

91

Researching older lesbians: problems and partial solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a lack of research about older lesbians, who can be considered not only a "hidden population" but also a population in hiding. Yet older lesbians hold vital historical and cultural narratives that are, in turn, the heritage of younger lesbians. They also have much to contribute to understandings about gender, sexuality and aging, and to their currently unmet needs in terms of age-related housing, health, and social care provision. This article reflects on some of the issues that make it difficult to access older lesbians for research purposes. It identifies four problematic areas in researching older lesbians: definitions, access, representative sampling, and ethical issues. It suggests that participative action research might offer a means of widening access and engaging with older lesbians in a more collaborative way. PMID:23855948

Westwood, Sue

2013-01-01

92

Computational problems in magnetic fusion research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly.

Killeen, J.

1981-08-31

93

Computational problems in magnetic fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly

1981-08-31

94

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey Peter; Little Julian

2009-01-01

95

Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas/ Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies/ Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logística, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirviera (more) n de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, between 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies du (more) e the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

Varón Sandoval, Alexander

2013-06-01

96

The ozone transport assessment group: Problems it faces in devising effective ways of addressing regional ozone concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

States with chronic ozone nonattainment problems are working in a variety of ways to try to address those problems. The most public approach being taken by the States is participation in the ongoing proceedings of the 37-State Ozone Transport Assessment Group -- OTAG. OTAG is committed to doing massive regional ozone modeling and evaluating regional measures that can be taken to reduce region-wide ozone levels. The OTAG process is moving forward at break-neck speed. OTAG`s current goal is to complete all modeling by the end of February 1997 and to have participating States reach consensus shortly thereafter on the need for any additional regional reductions in ozone precursors. Because of the magnitude of OTAG`s data collection and evaluation effort and the magnitude of the political sensitivities of all involved, many OTAG participants question whether OTAG can be successful in reaching its goal. It won`t be long before we all learn the answer to their question.

Field, A.B. [Hunton & Williams, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

97

To the problem of meteoroid stream research  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of the perturbed two-body problem a criterion for identification of a probable meteoroid parent body is suggested. Analytical solutions of equations of motion take into account radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson effect and its corpuscular part. We found that parent comets for meteor showers beta Cancrids and lambda Cygnids are the comets 3D/Biela and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann correspondingly. For kappa Cygnids we found two associations: 177/P Barnard and C/1905 III F1 Giacobini.

Tikhomirova, E. N.

2011-09-01

98

Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although extensive research shows that the social determinants of health influence the distribution and course of chronic diseases, there is little programming in public health that addresses the social determinants as a disease prevention strategy. This paper discusses different types of health promotion initiatives and differentiates them based on whether they attempt to impact intermediate (environmental) determinants of health or structural determinants of health. We argue for the importance of programming targeted at the structural determinants as opposed to programming targeted solely at the immediate environment. Specifically, the former has more potential to create significant improvements in health, contribute to long-term social change and increase health equity. We urge public health leaders to take this distinction into consideration during public health program planning, and to build capacity in the public health workforce to tackle structural mechanisms that lead to poor health and health inequities.

Gore DM; Kothari AR

2013-01-01

99

Software problems in magnetic fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.).

1982-11-23

100

The variables problem and progress in psychotherapy research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this journal's first article, Strupp (1963) pointed to problems specifying independent and dependent variables as a source of slow progress in psychotherapy outcome research. This commentary agrees, shows how the concept of variable loses its meaning in psychotherapy research because of participants' responsiveness, and notes an alternative research strategy that does not depend on variables.

Stiles WB

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sexual problems in gay men: an overview of empirical research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article summarizes the findings and theoretical perspectives of 19 empirical studies of sexual problems in gay men. In order to understand these problems better, various differences between male homosexual and heterosexual functioning are discussed first. The studies included differ widely in terms of the issues explored, the populations studied, and the way data have been collected. In a few studies, researchers generally have looked at the prevalence and experience of sexual problems. In other studies, researchers have focused on the etiology and treatment of specific problems, such as sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion, excitement and arousal problems, orgasm disorders, sexual pain disorders and sexual compulsivity. Overall it is surprising how little is known about these problems in gay men. This is also true, however, for same-sex sexuality in general. Suggestions are made for studies that will enable us to obtain a better understanding of sexual problems in gay men. PMID:12666738

Sandfort, T G; de Keizer, M

2001-01-01

102

Sexual problems in gay men: an overview of empirical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article summarizes the findings and theoretical perspectives of 19 empirical studies of sexual problems in gay men. In order to understand these problems better, various differences between male homosexual and heterosexual functioning are discussed first. The studies included differ widely in terms of the issues explored, the populations studied, and the way data have been collected. In a few studies, researchers generally have looked at the prevalence and experience of sexual problems. In other studies, researchers have focused on the etiology and treatment of specific problems, such as sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion, excitement and arousal problems, orgasm disorders, sexual pain disorders and sexual compulsivity. Overall it is surprising how little is known about these problems in gay men. This is also true, however, for same-sex sexuality in general. Suggestions are made for studies that will enable us to obtain a better understanding of sexual problems in gay men.

Sandfort TG; de Keizer M

2001-01-01

103

Participation of mental health consumers in research: training addressed and reliability assessed.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: A call for active inclusion of consumers in research; recognising and valuing the knowledge that arises through lived experience, is made in the literature. However, genuine inclusion of consumers as members of the research team remains rare. Opponents present two barriers: lack of required knowledge and skills and lack of capacity to conduct rigorous research. METHODS: This study involved a collaborative process to develop training materials for consumer researchers. Reliability of self-report outcome data collected by five trained consumers was then examined. RESULTS: Quantitative results suggest that trained consumers can facilitate self-report interviews to the high standard expected by the general research community. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides both methods and resources to extend occupational therapy consumer-centred practice into the realm of research.

Hancock N; Bundy A; Tamsett S; McMahon M

2012-06-01

104

Addressing adoption and research design decisions simultaneously: the role of value of sample information analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

METHODS: to estimate the cost-effectiveness of technologies are well developed with increasing experience of their application to inform adoption decisions in a timely way. However, the experience of using similarly explicit methods to inform the associated research decisions is less well developed despite appropriate methods being available with an increasing number of applications in health. The authors demonstrate that evaluation of both adoption and research decisions is feasible within typical time and resource constraints relevant to policy decisions, even in situations in which data are sparse and formal elicitation is required. In addition to demonstrating the application of expected value of sample information (EVSI) in these circumstances, the authors examine and carefully distinguish the impact that the research decision is expected to have on patients while enrolled in the trial, those not enrolled, and once the trial reports. In doing so, the authors are able to account for the range of opportunity cost associated with research and evaluate a number of RESEARCH DESIGN: s including length of follow-up and sample size. The authors also explore the implications for research design of conducting research while the technology is approved for widespread use and whether approval should be withheld until research reports. In doing so, the authors highlight the impact of irrecoverable opportunity costs when the initial costs of a technology are compensated only by later gains in health outcome.

McKenna C; Claxton K

2011-11-01

105

A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

106

Research of Sumy population relation to present ecological problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of marketing research of Sumy population relation to current ecological problems in social, sexual and age cuts are stated. The priority of these problems to the population is determined. The received results can be used to substantiate programs of a territory sustainable development.

S.M. Illiashenko; N.M. Haityna; T.V. Kyrychenko; M.V. Rybalka

2012-01-01

107

Reporting of Health Promotion Research: Addressing the Quality Gaps in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality of health behavior research determines usefulness of the findings for application.The authors individually scrutinized quality of a representative sample of abstracts (n=315)submitted to the 1st International and 4th National Congress on Health Education and Promotion,held in Tabriz, Iran on 16-19 May, 2011. Among the assessed abstracts, introductionsection had the standard format in 18.1% (CI: 14.2-22.7%), sampling method and samplesize were concurrently explained in 56.3% (CI: 50.3-62.1%), and the data in 40.6% (CI:35.4-46.1%) were insufficient to support the conclusion section. The observed heterogeneityin the quality of Iranian research may reflect gaps in research methodology education.Revision in the current research performance is recommended to ensure a more stringentnational research output.

Abdolreza Shaghaghi; Hossein Matlabi1

2012-01-01

108

1998 Proceedings: Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The Proceedings of the 1998 Puerto Rico conference on Solving Forest Insect Problems Through Research (sponsored in part by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations) are available at this Website. The proceedings include the program, abstracts from presentations and posters, and contact information for presenters.

109

Teaching and learning mathematical problem solving multiple research perspectives  

CERN Multimedia

A provocative collection of papers containing comprehensive reviews of previous research, teaching techniques, and pointers for direction of future study. Provides both a comprehensive assessment of the latest research on mathematical problem solving, with special emphasis on its teaching, and an attempt to increase communication across the active disciplines in this area.

Silver, Edward A

2013-01-01

110

Generating science by training future scholars in nursing research addressing the needs of vulnerable populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter focuses on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) T32 National Research Service Award (NRSA) funding mechanism, designed to enhance the development of nurse scientists. The general history and principles underlying NIH funding for T32s as well as the National Institute of Nursing Research's (NINR) involvement in the NRSA program is described, highlighting the University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing's T32 training program in vulnerable populations research and the program and career trajectory data from close to two-thirds of NINR-funded T32s directors. Recommendations for the improvement of NINR-funded T32 training programs are identified. Findings include the need for increased collaboration between institutions receiving T32 funding from the NINR.

Dixon EL; Strehlow AJ; Davis CM; Copeland D; Jones T; Robinson LA; Shoultz J; Flaskerud JH

2007-01-01

111

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

1991-01-01

112

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

1991-11-01

113

Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum : Research methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the curriculum and a mean to choose cases for further case study (third phase).

Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

114

A proposed reductionist solution to address the methodological challenges of inconsistent reflexology maps and poor experimental controls in reflexology research: a discussion paper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reflexology is a complex massage intervention, based on the concept that specific areas of the feet (reflex points) correspond to individual internal organs within the body. Reflexologists trained in the popular Ingham reflexology method claim that massage to these points, using massage techniques unique to reflexology, stimulates an increase in blood supply to the corresponding organ. Reflexology researchers face two key methodological challenges that need to be addressed if a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect is to be scientifically demonstrated. The first is the problem of inconsistent reflexology foot maps; the second is the issue of poor experimental controls. This article proposes a potential experimental solution that we believe can address both methodological challenges and in doing so, allow any specific hemodynamic treatment effect unique to reflexology to experimentally reveal itself.

Jones J; Thomson P; Lauder W; Leslie SJ

2013-03-01

115

NCI Director John E. Niederhuber's Address to the American Association for Cancer Research on Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Text of the speech that NCI Director John E. Niederhuber delivered to the American Association for Cancer Research meeting in Denver on April 20, 2009, follows. The speech describes NCI's plans to accelerate cancer research with increased funding from fiscal year 2009 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

116

2006 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address: Observations about Music Education Research in MENC's First and Second Centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an acceptance speech by Jere T. Humphreys, the recipient of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) 2006 Senior Researcher Award. Humphreys discusses his observations about music education research in MENC's first and second centuries. Most of his observations focus on the present--the nexus of the two centuries: first…

Humphreys, Jere T.

2006-01-01

117

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): Interventions Addressing Multiple Influences in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1,700 children and adolescents (~ 50%female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

Pratt CA; Boyington J; Esposito L; Pemberton VL; Bonds D; Kelley M; Yang S; Murray D; Stevens J

2013-08-01

118

ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected.

Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

2003-02-27

119

NCI MEDIA AVAILABILITY: Dr. John E. Niederhuber to Address the American Association for Cancer Research on NCI Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

John E. Niederhuber, M.D., director of the NCI, addressed the American Association for Cancer Research 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver Monday, April 20, 2009, during a Special Session. The talk focused on opportunities to hasten our progress against cancer and to conduct exciting new science, made possible, in part, by NCI's nearly three percent budget increase this year.

120

General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure.

Bart, G

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

General problems specific to hot nuclear materials research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During the sixties, governments have installed hot nuclear materials research facilities to characterize highly radioactive materials, to describe their in-pile behaviour, to develop and test new reactor core components, and to provide the industry with radioisotopes. Since then, the attitude towards the nuclear option has drastically changed and resources have become very tight. Within the changed political environment, the national research centres have defined new objectives. Given budgetary constraints, nuclear facilities have to co-operate internationally and to look for third party research assignments. The paper discusses the problems and needs within experimental nuclear research facilities as well as industrial requirements. Special emphasis is on cultural topics (definition of the scope of nuclear research facilities, the search for competitive advantages, and operational requirements), social aspects (overageing of personnel, recruitment, and training of new staff), safety related administrative and technical issues, and research needs for expertise and state of the art analytical infrastructure

1996-01-01

122

Adult Illiteracy in Canada: Identifying and Addressing the Problem = L'analphabetisme chez les adultes au Canada: definition et traitement de la question.  

Science.gov (United States)

This statement of the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, focuses on the approaches that provincial ministers have taken to address the problem of adult illiteracy. First, it sets out concisely the nature and extent of functional illiteracy in Canada. Second, it describes a sample of the initiatives already under way to create effective…

Canadian Council of Ministers of Education, Toronto (Ontario).

123

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

2011-01-01

124

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

2011-05-25

125

Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation). However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

Christoph Kueffer; Evelyn Underwood; Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn; Rolf Holderegger; Michael Lehning; Christian Pohl; Mario Schirmer; René Schwarzenbach; Michael Stauffacher; Gabriela Wuelser; Peter Edwards

2012-01-01

126

Difficult life situations of the minors and the parent involvement in interdepartmental interaction addressing to solving problems of children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical and methodological problems of establishing inter-agency cooperation in providing social assistance to minors. The author proposes a principles for the model of the mobilization of parents to solve problems of their children. To analyze the structure of social and pedagogical work, distinguished types of difficult life situations that require special efforts to ensure children's education. Proceedings of the publication permit to develop and implement social technologies.

Dudkin A. S.

2011-01-01

127

Theoretical foundations of organizational problem solving methodologies in Operational Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paradigms are some principles and assumptions, which define frameworks and research priorities in each discipline. Many believe that operational research (OR) is not a science and like many other sciences does not have any paradigm. However, since OR is committed to scientific methods, therefore it contains a methodological paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to consider theoretical methodologies in the field of OR. This paper performs a review on the existing literature based on interpretive hermeneutic approach. Based on literature review, the study determines four principles and assumptions for each OR paradigms and a classification of the methods are presented. The results show that OR has four main paradigms and there are many methods in OR fields to tackle a particular problem where each problem belongs to a particular paradigm. In addition, instead of using a particular method in problem situations, we can implement a combination of methodologies.

Ali Mohaghar; Ahmad Jafarnejad; Seyyed Hasan Ghodsipoor; Mohammad Hasan Maleki

2013-01-01

128

Barriers to communication and cooperation in addressing community impacts of radioactive releases from research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two instances of research facilities responding to public scrutiny will be discussed. The first concerns emissions from a tritium labeling facility operated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); the second deals with releases of plutonium from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). There are many parallels between these two cases, both of which are still ongoing. In both, the national laboratory is the acknowledged source of low-level (by regulatory standards) radioactive contamination in the community. A major purpose of both investigations is to determine the degree of the contamination and the threat it poses to public health and the environment. The examining panel or committee is similarly constituted in the two cases, including representatives from all four categories of stakeholders: decision makers; scientists and other professionals doing the analysis/assessment; environmental activist or public interest groups; and ordinary citizens (nearly everyone else not in one or more of the first three camps). Both involved community participation from the beginning. The levels of outrage over the events triggering the assessment are comparable; though discovered or appreciated only a few years ago, the release of radiation in both cases occurred or began occurring more than a decade ago. The meetings have been conducted in a similar manner, with comparable frequency, often utilizing the services of professional facilitators. In both cases, the sharply contrasting perceptions of risk commonly seen between scientists and activists were present from the beginning, though the contrast was sharper and more problematical in the Berkeley case. Yet, the Livermore case seems to be progressing towards a satisfactory resolution, while the Berkeley case remains mired in ill-will, with few tangible results after two years of effort. We perceive a wide gap in negotiation skills (at the very least), and a considerable difference in willingness to compromise, between the environmental activist groups participating in the two cases. A degree of contentiousness existed from the start among the participants in the Berkeley case-particularly between the environmental activists and the scientists/regulators that was not approached in the Livermore case, and which was and still is severe enough to stifle meaningful progress. The Berkeley activists are considerably more aggressive, we believe, in arguing their points of view, making demands about what should be done, and verbally assailing the scientists and government regulators. We offer the following comments on the barriers to communication and cooperation that distinguish the Berkeley and Livermore cases. In no particular order, they are (a) the presence of a higher degree of polarization between the Berkeley activists and the establishment, as represented by government scientists and regulators, (b) the absence, in the Berkeley case, of an activist leader with skills and effectiveness comparable to a well-known leader in Livermore, (c) frequent displays by several of the Berkeley activists of incivility, distrust, and disrespect for the regulators and scientists, (d) extraordinary difficulties in reaching consensus in the Tritium Issues Work Group meetings, perhaps because goals diverged among the factions, (e) a considerable degree of resentment by the Berkeley activists over the imbalance in conditions of participation, pitting well-paid, tax-supported professionals against citizen volunteers, (f) the brick wall that divides the perspectives of no safe dose and levels below regulatory concern when trying to reach conclusions about radiation dangers to the community, and (g) unwillingness to consider both sides of the risk-reward coin: benefits to the community and society at large of the tritium labeling activity, vs. the health risk from small quantities of tritium released to the environment

1999-01-01

129

The virtual network supporting the front lines: addressing emerging behavioral health problems following the tsunami of 2004.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The devastation wreaked by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean required extensive multinational and nongovernmental relief efforts to address the massive loss of infrastructure, people, and society. This article addresses approaches to behavioral incident management from a process perspective, through the lens of one official stateside channel of emergency operations. The process highlights the formation and connectivity of multidisciplinary teams that virtually supported the efforts of a seven-person, on-scene, behavioral health team aboard the USNS Mercy as part of Operation Unified Assistance in the Indian Ocean. Frontline health diplomacy and behavioral health relief efforts were greatly augmented by the virtual network of support from leading experts around the globe. Future disaster response and recovery efforts ought to build on the success of such virtual support networks, by planning for appropriate technology, expertise, and mutual aid partnerships.

Reissman DB; Schreiber M; Klomp RW; Hoover M; Kowalski-Trakofler K; Perez J

2006-10-01

130

Problems in cancer treatment and major research of integrative medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There exist some problems in the present cancer treatment, such as: (1) prevalence of excessive treatment; (2) lack of long-term research plan; (3) lack of reasonable comprehensive treatment; (4) lack of operative individualized treatment; (5) the superiority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was undervalued and underused. Integrative medicine should play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further research should be carried out in the following aspects: (1) enrich and improve the theoretical knowledge of TCM on cancer; (2) enhance the research on rationalization and standardization of cancer treatment program of integrative medicine; (3) enhance the research on criterion of therapeutical effect of integrative medicine in treating cancer; (4) enhance the research on prevention and treatment of postoperative recurrence and metastasis of cancer by integrative medicine.

LING Chang-Quan

2003-01-01

131

The problem of creative activity in of social work research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity?–?the researcher in social work?–?can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

Vilks A.; Vilka L.

2012-01-01

132

Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

Warren KR; Murray MM

2013-08-01

133

The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

2011-01-01

134

METHODS FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TIME OF FLIGHT ON TRANSVERSE AMPLITUTE IN LINEAR NON-SCALING FFAGs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Because the time of flight in a linear non-scaling FFAG depends on the transverse amplitude, motion in the longitudinal plane will be different for different transverse particle amplitudes. This effect, if not considered, will lead the failure of a substantial portion of the beam to be accelerated. I will first briefly review this effect. Then I will outline some techniques for addressing the problems created by the effect. In particular, I will discuss partially correcting the chromaticity and increasing the energy gain per cell. I will discuss potential problems with another technique, namely the introduction of higher harmonic cavities

2006-01-01

135

The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

Eliana Rodríguez; Claudia Piccini; Vanessa Sosa; Pablo Zunino

2012-01-01

136

Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a) a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b) an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c) a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d) failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

Moubarac JC

2013-02-01

137

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges.

McKeown RE

2013-10-01

138

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges. PMID:23972899

McKeown, Robert E

2013-08-21

139

Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The paper has important theory and practice value. Key words: Integer Linear Programming (ILP), Cutting plane equation, Export Equation Résumé: Comment résoudre les problèmes ILP est toujours un sujet chaud dans le milieu de la Recherche d’Opération. L’auteur de cet essai, à travers la méthode de démonstration, a analysé les fautes de la Méthode de Coupe Plane utilisée pour résoudre ILP et a proposé un nouveau principe, par exemple : « il est comme une équation de coupe plane qui a plus de restrictions sur un problème donné. ». En même temps, l’auteur indique qu’il y a deux problèmes qui seraient notés au cours de l’utilisation. Cet article revêtit une valeur importante théorique et pratique. Mots-Clés: ILP( Integer Linear Programming /programmation linéaire du nombre entier), équation de coupe plane, équation d’exportation

Yi-jie XIONG; Jing REN

2006-01-01

140

Application of an engineering problem-solving methodology to address persistent problems in patient safety: a case study on retained surgical sponges after surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite innumerable attempts to eliminate the postoperative retention of surgical sponges, the medical error persists in operating rooms worldwide and places significant burden on patient safety, quality of care, financial resources, and hospital/physician reputation. The failure of countless solutions, from new sponge counting methods to radio labeled sponges, to truly eliminate the event in the operating room requires that the emerging field of health-care delivery science find innovative ways to approach the problem. Accordingly, the VA National Center for Patient Safety formed a unique collaboration with a team at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College to evaluate the retention of surgical sponges after surgery and find a solution. The team used an engineering problem solving methodology to develop the best solution. To make the operating room a safe environment for patients, the team identified a need to make the sponge itself safe for use as opposed to resolving the relatively innocuous counting methods. In evaluation of this case study, the need for systematic engineering evaluation to resolve problems in health-care delivery becomes clear.

Anderson DE; Watts BV

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation  

CERN Document Server

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

2013-01-01

142

Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless motion and a spring collision during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper representations could not.

Goh, Khoon S.; Wee, Loo K.; Yip, Kim W.; Toh, Ping Y.; Lye, Sze Y.

2013-06-05

143

Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

Karen Sobel; Jeffrey Beall

2011-01-01

144

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs.

1991-01-01

145

Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management. PMID:21877255

Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

2011-10-01

146

Addressing the social and environmental determinants of urban health equity: evidence for action and a research agenda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges--economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management.

Friel S; Akerman M; Hancock T; Kumaresan J; Marmot M; Melin T; Vlahov D

2011-10-01

147

Parallel algorithm research on several important open problems in bioinformatics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High performance computing has opened the door to using bioinformatics and systems biology to explore complex relationships among data, and created the opportunity to tackle very large and involved simulations of biological systems. Many supercomputing centers have jumped on the bandwagon because the opportunities for significant impact in this field is infinite. Development of new algorithms, especially parallel algorithms and software to mine new biological information and to assess different relationships among the members of a large biological data set, is becoming very important. This article presents our work on the design and development of parallel algorithms and software to solve some important open problems arising from bioinformatics, such as structure alignment of RNA sequences, finding new genes, alternative splicing, gene expression clustering and so on. In order to make these parallel software available to a wide audience, the grid computing service interfaces to these software have been deployed in China National Grid (CNGrid). Finally, conclusions and some future research directions are presented.

Niu BF; Lang XY; Lu ZH; Chi XB

2009-09-01

148

High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

2012-05-14

149

High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

Lustenberger C; Huber R

2012-01-01

150

Behavioral toxicology in risk assessment: problems and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Behavioral methods are being used with increasing frequency in toxicology to assess the deleterious effects of chemicals to which we are exposed. The impetus for the use of behavioral techniques in risk assessment resulted from the presumption that they were more sensitive than other tests in detecting toxicity. A more logical reason for the use of behavioral tests is the fact that behavior is the functional indicator of the net sensory, motor, and integrative processes occurring in the central and peripheral nervous system. Thus, the functional capacity of the nervous system cannot be determined independent of behavioral analysis. Some of the problems confronting behavioral toxicology are (1) the translation of human subjective complaints into behavioral tests in animals; (2) determining subtle effects on the nervous system in the face of the well-known functional reserve and adaptability of the system; (3) dealing with the variety of statistical problems resulting from the use of multiple tests, multiple measurements using the same test and the (relatively) large variability inherent in some behavioral phenomena; and (4) selecting the proper tests. Three critical research needs in behavioral toxicology as they relate to risk assessment are (1) development and validation of methods, (2) determining subpopulations at greatest risk, and (3) developing a strategy for determining interactions between two or more agents.

Mitchell, C.L.; Tilson, H.A.

1982-10-01

151

Valedictory address.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Janet Clarke was installed as President of the British Dental Association at last year's 2011 British Dental Conference and Exhibition held in Manchester. At this year's conference, also in Manchester, she gave the following valedictory address.

Clarke J

2012-05-01

152

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

Connell Janice; Brazier John; O’Cathain Alicia; Lloyd-Jones Myfanwy; Paisley Suzy

2012-01-01

153

Parallel algorithm research on several important open problems in bioinformatics.  

Science.gov (United States)

High performance computing has opened the door to using bioinformatics and systems biology to explore complex relationships among data, and created the opportunity to tackle very large and involved simulations of biological systems. Many supercomputing centers have jumped on the bandwagon because the opportunities for significant impact in this field is infinite. Development of new algorithms, especially parallel algorithms and software to mine new biological information and to assess different relationships among the members of a large biological data set, is becoming very important. This article presents our work on the design and development of parallel algorithms and software to solve some important open problems arising from bioinformatics, such as structure alignment of RNA sequences, finding new genes, alternative splicing, gene expression clustering and so on. In order to make these parallel software available to a wide audience, the grid computing service interfaces to these software have been deployed in China National Grid (CNGrid). Finally, conclusions and some future research directions are presented. PMID:20640837

Niu, Bei-Fang; Lang, Xian-Yu; Lu, Zhong-Hua; Chi, Xue-Bin

2009-08-07

154

Addressing healthcare.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Though President Barack Obama has rarely made healthcare references in his State of the Union addresses, health policy experts are hoping he changes that strategy this year. "The question is: Will he say anything? You would hope that he would, given that that was the major issue he started his presidency with," says Dr. James Weinstein, left, of the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health system.

Daly R

2013-02-01

155

A Compendium of Research Addressing Barriers to Student Recruitment and Retention in Vocational Education in Florida. Final Report from September 1, 1984 to December 31, 1984.  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the issues of student recruitment and retention in Florida, a three-year research study was conducted. The three phases of the study sought the following: (1) to describe barriers to recruitment and retention of disadvantaged, unemployed, underemployed, out-of-school youth as perceived by students, teachers, counselors, and…

Waltz, Freddie C.; Beeman, Carl E.

156

Research in School Psychology: The Problem and the Promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of research in school psychology is discussed. An intervention perspective is developed, and its uses and limitations are analyzed. The author discusses the characteristics of different research strategies and gives examples that illustrate the nature of interaction research and its educational implications. Criteria for evaluating…

Phillips, Beeman N.

157

TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha; Mamudi, William; Henderson, Charles R.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2012-05-15

158

Barriers to health care research for children and youth with psychosocial problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The 1999 surgeon general's report on mental health concluded that insufficient attention to mental health disorders is being paid in children's primary medical care services. This lack of attention has occurred despite considerable attention to this issue in the planning documents of many federal agencies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which federal agencies' portfolios of funded research grants were consistent with the directives for primary care-based mental health services for children and adolescents featured in their planning documents. DATA SOURCE: A cross-sectional review of the 66 749 abstracts listed in the April 2001 Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) database of currently funded research grants supported by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Abstracts were rated by whether they targeted primary care, examined behavioral or emotional issues, and examined or modified a facet of primary care. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the 45 022 research abstracts in the CRISP database, 2720 (6%) contained the words children, adolescents, or youth. Sixty-three abstracts contained work on children, adolescents, or youth in primary care (0.14% of the portfolio). Of these 63 abstracts, only 21 (0.05% of the portfolio) addressed behavioral or emotional issues. Of the 21 projects, only 11 examined aspects of the primary care process. When the distribution of child and adult studies on the treatment of depression within primary care settings was examined, it was found that adults received 15 times the research attention compared with children. CONCLUSION: Even though the importance of primary care as a system for identifying and treating behavioral and emotional problems in children has been recognized for more than 20 years, little attention is being paid to this topic in the research portfolios of the National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies that support research.

Horwitz SM; Kelleher K; Boyce T; Jensen P; Murphy M; Perrin E; Stein RE; Weitzman M

2002-09-01

159

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA).

1985-01-01

160

Research on Team Orienteering Problem with Dynamic Travel Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the team orienteering problem (TOP) a set of locations is given, each with a score. The goal is to determine a fixed number of routes, limited in length, that visit some locations and maximize the sum of the collected scores. The team orienteering problem is often used as a starting point for modeling many combinatorial optimization problems. This paper studies the dynamic team orienteering problem considering the travel cost varying with times and visiting time constraints. After a mixed integer programming model is proposed, a novel optimal dynamic labeling algorithm is designed based on the idea of network planning and dynamic programming. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the validity and feasibility of this algorithm.

Jin Li

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Looking within and beyond the community: Lessons learned by researching, theorising and acting to address urban poverty and health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urban poverty and health inequalities are inextricably intertwined. By working in partnership with service providers and communities to address urban poverty, we can enhance the wellness of people in need. This article reflects on lessons learned from the Family100 project that explores the everyday lives, frustrations and dilemmas faced by 100 families living in poverty in Auckland. Lessons learned support the need to bring the experiences and lived realities of families to the fore in public deliberations about community and societal responses to urban poverty and health inequality.

Hodgetts D; Chamberlain K; Tankel Y; Groot S

2013-09-01

162

Keynote addresses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two keynote addresses emphasizing the structural and environmental aspects of electricity restructuring were summarized. Donald Macdonald, former Chairman of the Committee on Competition in Ontario`s Electricity Sector, congratulated the government for its decision to get on with the restructuring. He cited three concerns that independent producers will have to address as the restructuring unfolds, the independence of the transmission system, fair competition and rehabilitation of Ontario Hydro`s nuclear system. Ralph Cavanaugh, Co-Director of the Energy Program at the Natural Resources Defense Council in San Francisco, suggested five approaches to environmental protection that would be consistent with the principles set out in the Ontario White Paper. These are: (1)targeted financial incentives, (2) minimum content rules, (3) uniform pollution standards, (4) minimum efficiency standards for buildings and appliances, and (5) mandatory disclosure. He warned against being misled by some power sector analysts who claim that restructuring will automatically lead to the replacement of older, dirtier facilities with newer generation, generate incentives for investment in energy efficiency and open the door for customers to choose cleaner energy sources. The experiences in California are wholly at odds with such optimistic predictions. In his view, for the foreseeable future, the power sector will continue to be driven by a 300,000 MW coal-fired generation portfolio in the United States. These older facilities are subject to the least stringent environmental controls, are the worst polluters and receive substantial competitive advantages.

Macdonald, D.; Cavanagh, R.

1998-04-01

163

Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-08

164

Handling intensity and the short- and long-term survival of elephant seals: addressing and quantifying research effects on wild animals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study addresses the consequences of repeated human handling on the survival of an endangered phocid, the southern elephant seal and the implications for wildlife research. Southern elephant seal pups were repeatedly handled during the first six weeks of their lives. The possibility that such anthropogenic research may have altered the very parameters that were being investigated is a topical and relevant study area that we address here. Our results show that there were no measurable effects on pups that were repeatedly handled and subjected to invasive research methods with respect to survivorship in the short term (the 24-day nursing period) nor in the long term (the first year of life and beyond) and hence fitness one year after handling. In support of this conclusion we were unable to detect any significant differences in the survival rates of the most intensively handled seals and the least intensively handled seals.

McMahon C; van den Hoff J; Burton H

2005-08-01

165

A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development) where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1) definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2) systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3) definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4) analysis of local context; 5) identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1) evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2) uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3) exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4) mapping of local context; 5) recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to outline a research course of action. Decision makers wishing to tie coverage policies to the development of scientific evidence could find this method a useful aid to the governance of innovations.

Ballini Luciana; Minozzi Silvia; Negro Antonella; Pirini Giampiero; Grilli Roberto

2010-01-01

166

Luncheon address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Public policy responses to climate change are discussed from a global viewpoint. The public policy issue is one of unprecedented scope and complexity, and concerns the interaction of two vast and complex systems: the physical planetary system, and the human economic system. Decision making is required in the face of uncertainty, and scientific knowledge is lagging behind policy issues. Continuing world development is going to drastically change the balance of global population, trade, and economic power. Environmental quality performance requirements should be set with a great deal of attention paid to how they will affect the process of innovation, and must encourage demand for emerging technologies, products and services. Effective solutions can come only from effective international agreement. Governments, citizens and industry must become partners in action, and improved education and communication is required. Science, public policy and social consensus must converge, as climate change is not merely a scientific or technical problem, but is also a social and political problem

1991-01-01

167

Theiler and the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' Introductory keynote address : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Theiler became internationally known for his pioneering veterinary research a distant century ago, there are probably few veterinary researchers today who have not heard of him. Onderstepoort, the research institute he created, is equally well, if not even better, known. Moreover, the name Onderstepoort is not only associated with his institute but also with the only South African faculty of veterinary science, another Theiler 'baby'. The purpose of this presentation is to determine why this was so, and to what extent the fame was justified. Was it due to the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' sometimes referred to by Theiler in the early as well as later stages of his career, or was there perhaps more to it, and what was Theiler's share in the development of that spirit, that fame

R.D. Bigalke

2010-01-01

168

Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

169

Shock-interface interaction: Current research on the Richtmyer- Meshkov problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The basis for the study of the evolution of a shocked interface stems from the question of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability (Taylor 1950). Starting in the late 18th century, the stability of an interface submitted to gravitational forces was investigated for the case in which the density of one of the materials across the interface was negligible compared to the other. Taylor analyzed the case in which the Atwood number (ratio of the difference of the densities to their sum) is less than 1, and the acceleration of the system is constant. He determined that the interface was unstable to small perturbations only if the direction of the acceleration normal to the interface coincides with that of the density gradient. Richtmyer (1960) extended Taylor's analysis to the case of an implusive acceleration. His results implied that the interface would be unstable irrespective of the relative orientation of the velocity impulse and the density gradient. His predictions were verified experimentally by Meshkov (1969), and the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability became a subject of research in its own right. Experimental, numerical, and theoretical works address this problem. The RM problem has been studied with both the shock-tube and laser experiments. In this paper, only shock-tube work is considered. 48 refs., 6 figs.

Rupert, V.

1991-07-17

170

Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex. PMID:10693029

Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; McMahon, R J; Lengua, L J

2000-03-01

171

Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Examined the hypothesis that distinct parenting practices may be associated with type and profile of a child's disruptive behavior problems (e.g., oppositional, aggressive, hyperactive). Parents of 631 behaviorally disruptive children described the extent to which they experienced warm and involved interactions with their children and the extent to which their discipline strategies were inconsistent and punitive and involved spanking and physical aggression. As expected from a developmental perspective, parenting practices that included punitive interactions were associated with elevated rates of all child disruptive behavior problems. Low levels of warm involvement were particularly characteristic of parents of children who showed elevated levels of oppositional behaviors. Physically aggressive parenting was linked more specifically with child aggression. In general, parenting practices contributed more to the prediction of oppositional and aggressive behavior problems than to hyperactive behavior problems, and parenting influences were fairly consistent across ethnic groups and sex.

Stormshak EA; Bierman KL; McMahon RJ; Lengua LJ

2000-03-01

172

Problems in SLA. Second Language Acquisition Research Series  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language acquisition has an identity problem. It is a young field struggling to emerge from the parent fields of education and applied linguistics. In this book, the author proposes a way to help second language acquisition develop a systematic and coherent focus using the philosophy of science as the lens. The structure of the book allows…

Long, Michael H.

2006-01-01

173

Ancient Document Analysis : A Set of New Research Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with the problem of ancient document analysis. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a kind of state of art concerning french community projects, the purpose of which deals with the preservation and the exploitation of heritage documents. The second part focusses on a set of o...

Ogier, J.-M.

174

Chairperson's address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power industry responsibilities for generation, transmission and retailing have been split and many nuclear power stations have been transferred to private companies. This has produced a clear focus on good management and the need for a top class safety culture if nuclear stations are to be run successfully. There are, however, two specific aspects of nuclear power generation which appear to cause private companies considerable concern: the unique health and safety issue related to ionizing radiation in normal operation and potential accidents; and the technical, economic and socio-political problems attached to disposing of radioactive waste

1998-09-04

175

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

1981-06-09

176

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of the Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. (author)

2004-01-01

177

(Some basic research problems related to energy: Progress report)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brief descriptions are given for three research areas: transport properties of multicomponent fluid mixtures, fluctuations in a Rayleigh-Benard cell, and light and neutron scattering of simple fluids. (WRF)

Cohen, E.G.D.

1987-01-01

178

[Some basic research problems related to energy: Progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brief descriptions are given for three research areas: transport properties of multicomponent fluid mixtures, fluctuations in a Rayleigh-Benard cell, and light and neutron scattering of simple fluids.

1987-01-01

179

Problems of high purity materials in the research of solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pure substances form the basis for the preparation of high-quality research materials. The supply of the research sector with pure substances requires therefore a continual interaction between suppliers, processors and users. One should point out that even at a very low mean impurity level foreign atoms can drastically influence the preparation and the properties of the material as a consequence of their tendency to segregate.

Welter, J.M.; Wenzl, H.

1985-02-01

180

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Keynote address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are` beating up on their only customer`, at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro`s monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report`s assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market.

Farlinger, W.

1997-05-01

182

Banquet address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The theme of the address is the position of nuclear power following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After acknowledging the Russian openness over the accident, Lord Marshall explains why a similar accident could not happen in the United Kingdom. The pressure tube design at Chernobyl had been investigated in 1976 but had been rejected because of three major disadvantages - the reactor had a positive void coefficient, it had zonal instabilities and local criticality in the core and it had a very high graphite temperature. In addition the British report of 1976 listed two other concerns - that the Russian design appeared to have insufficient shut-down margin and there was no back-up for the control rods for reactivity shutdown. The Russian safety philosophy is also seen as different from that of most Western reactor operators. It is thus concluded that Chernobyl could not happen in the West. However, the confidence of the public has to be won back and communication is important in this. The effects of Chernobyl should be seen in perspective - compared, for instance, against other accidents where a greater number of lives were lost. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

183

Research on Near-Fault Problems in Earthquake Engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The state-of-the-art of near-fault problems in earthquake engineering is comprehensive reviewed. Strong ground motions in the near-fault region exhibit several new characteristics, which cause the attentions of both seismologists and engineers who zealously studied these ground motions during the last two deceases. The investigation on ground motions can interpret the mechanism of the earthquake. Also the ground motions, which are usually assigned by engineers as a type of input loading for seismic design of structures, can sometimes control the final design result. Hence, the characteristics of the loading and the corresponding response of structures are desired for studying. This paper deals with the inherent characteristics of near-fault ground motions and the influences of near-fault ground motions on civil structures. Existing problems are pointed out and work needing further investigation in the future is also discussed.

Chengjiang Lu

2012-01-01

184

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

1980-03-11

185

Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH), and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. Objective: As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries – Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa – as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. Methods: SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. Results: SDH-relevant training is available, but 1) the number of places available for students is limited; 2) the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3) insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the current quality of the Internet services remains mixed. Conclusions: SDH training is currently in short supply, and there is a clear role for INTREC to contribute to the training of a critical mass of African researchers on the topic. This work will be accomplished most effectively by building on pre-existing networks, institutions, and methods.

Karen Hofman; Yulia Blomstedt; Sheila Addei; Rose Kalage; Mandy Maredza; Osman Sankoh; Martin Bangha; Kathleen Kahn; Heiko Becher; Joke Haafkens; John Kinsman

2013-01-01

186

Research and Development Activity of Polish Enterprises. Selected Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research and development activity is one of the most compound functions in the industry. The article presents an attempt of analysis RD activity conducted by Polish enterprises. Author describes expenditure on the RD in Poland – their structure, participation of foreign means, directions of activity and confronted amounts of the expenditure incurred by enterprises in Poland relating to world companies.

Pawe? Kupczak

2010-01-01

187

Research and Development Activity of Polish Enterprises. Selected Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research and development activity is one of the most compound functions in the industry. The article presents an attempt of analysis RD activity conducted by Polish enterprises. Author describes expenditure on the RD in Poland their structure, participation of foreign means, directions of activity and confronted amounts of the expenditure incurred by enterprises in Poland relating to world companies.

Pawe? Kupczak

2010-01-01

188

The Problem with ADHD: Researchers' Constructions and Parents' Accounts  

Science.gov (United States)

An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents' decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed…

Pajo, Bora; Cohen, David

2013-01-01

189

Fisheye Interfaces—Research Problems and Practical Challenges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fisheye interfaces give access to a large information structure by providing users with both local detail and global context. Despite decades of research in fisheye interfaces, their design and use are not well understood. To foster a discussion of fisheye views and their theoretical foundations, we identify five challenging areas in designing fisheye interfaces.

Jakobsen, Mikkel RØnne; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders SØren

2011-01-01

190

The problem of school bullies: what the research tells us.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article includes an overview of the history of research on school bullying, its nature and prevalence, characteristics of bullies and victims, and teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward bullying. Also, two model interventions designed to reduce this harmful behavior are examined.

Beaty LA; Alexeyev EB

2008-01-01

191

The problem of school bullies: what the research tells us.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an overview of the history of research on school bullying, its nature and prevalence, characteristics of bullies and victims, and teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward bullying. Also, two model interventions designed to reduce this harmful behavior are examined. PMID:18447077

Beaty, Lee A; Alexeyev, Erick B

2008-01-01

192

Problems in research into spontaneous combustion of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to specify the relative ease of spontaneous combustion in coal, a study was made of the temperature rise experiments that have previously been carried out on coal under various conditions, and the data that have been obtained were examined. Problems associated with these experiments are discussed, and the rationality of the experiments commented on. Accounts are given of experiments for controlling spontaneous combustion of coal by surfactants, on the use of catalysts in preventing spontaneous combustion, and on the early discovery of spontaneous combustion by the detection of gases evolved by heating. The effect of these various techniques is discussed. (5 refs.)

Tashiro, Y.

1982-01-01

193

PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI). Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan), which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc.) that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE) and included in the Database ?library.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to the program package in use only in 17,5% of works. Thus shown that non-compliance with international standards in the preparation of scientific papers, primarily statistical requirements directly affect the quality and ratings of domestic articles.

Botagoz Turdalieva; Aigulsum Izekenova; Gulshara Aimbetova; Elmira Abdraimova; Aizhan Raushanova; Manshuk Ramazanova; Alfiya Igissenova; Zarina Sagyndykova; Dinara Kenessary; Bolat Zhanturiev

2013-01-01

194

Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques.

Selye H

1976-07-01

195

Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. METHODS: The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. RESULTS: Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. CONCLUSIONS: German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated.

Ludwig M; Kräplin A; Braun B; Kraus L

2013-09-01

196

Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

Bauer, Travis LaDell

2009-12-01

197

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

198

Current research on the major nematode problems in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AMONG IMPORTANT NEMATODE SPECIES OCCURRING IN JAPAN, CURRENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS WITH THE FOLLOWING FOUR NEMATODES ARE REVIEWED: 1) Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines - breeding for resistance, race determination, association with Cephalosporium gregatum in azuki bean disease, and isolation of hatching stimulant. 2) Potato-cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis - pathotype determination (Ro 1), breeding for resistance, and control recommendations. 3) Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus - primary pathogen in pine wilt disease, life cycle exhibiting a typical symbiosis with Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, and project for control. 4) Rice root nematodes (RRN), Hirschmanniella imamuri and H. oryzae - distribution of species, population levels in roots, and role of these nematodes in rice culture.

Ichinohe M

1988-04-01

199

The Research on the Problems of Integer Matrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the element on the metal ring may not have the inverse, so the theorems on the matrix in field would perhaps incorrect. In this article, I mainly do research on the eigenvalue, eigenvector and similar diagonalization. These results are: integer matrix can change into upper triangular matrix through integer elementary row operation; two necessary and sufficient conditions about similarity diagonalization of integer matrix; if the integer matrix has different eigenvalue, it can diagonalizable if and only if it is an integer diagonal matrix.

SUN Chun-tao,; JIAN Hong

2013-01-01

200

[Problems in Life-event research from its psychodynamic aspects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present essay gives a survey of theory of the Life-Event-research up to now with special relevance to psychiatric diseases, which was developed by sociology and behaviourism. There is some evidence that the originally epidemiologic orientated approach, which is restricted to relation Life-Event - disease, will now be extended by establishing of a "subjective" and social factor in form of Coping Processes, the Cognitive Models, the interactions are resources of Social Network. But till now there was no possibility for any differentiation between cause and result. This traditional approach, which is restricted to the objectives, covers differences in individual characters and creates arbitrariness in research whereby a wrong praemiss was taken as a basis, namely the postulated homogeneous of characters by which each event will produce the same deleterious effect. In comparison with that a psychodynamic viewpoint favours the "Selbst-Relvanz" of events. By this mean an interpretation of events is senseless if they are not applied to individual character structure and development through which "early" Life Events will be of great account. With the aid of a clinical example it will be demonstrated by a psychodynamic viewpoint how the deleterious effects of specific Life Events are comprehensible by applying them to individual development and object relations. By that there is possibility of calling specific triggering events for the break out of Schizophrenia (beginning/finishing of a "love relation"; a new daily burden) and of associating certain clinical pictures of Schizophrenia to certain macroscopic and microscopic Life Events.

Schloss G

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Problems in Life-event research from its psychodynamic aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present essay gives a survey of theory of the Life-Event-research up to now with special relevance to psychiatric diseases, which was developed by sociology and behaviourism. There is some evidence that the originally epidemiologic orientated approach, which is restricted to relation Life-Event - disease, will now be extended by establishing of a "subjective" and social factor in form of Coping Processes, the Cognitive Models, the interactions are resources of Social Network. But till now there was no possibility for any differentiation between cause and result. This traditional approach, which is restricted to the objectives, covers differences in individual characters and creates arbitrariness in research whereby a wrong praemiss was taken as a basis, namely the postulated homogeneous of characters by which each event will produce the same deleterious effect. In comparison with that a psychodynamic viewpoint favours the "Selbst-Relvanz" of events. By this mean an interpretation of events is senseless if they are not applied to individual character structure and development through which "early" Life Events will be of great account. With the aid of a clinical example it will be demonstrated by a psychodynamic viewpoint how the deleterious effects of specific Life Events are comprehensible by applying them to individual development and object relations. By that there is possibility of calling specific triggering events for the break out of Schizophrenia (beginning/finishing of a "love relation"; a new daily burden) and of associating certain clinical pictures of Schizophrenia to certain macroscopic and microscopic Life Events. PMID:6485588

Schloss, G

1984-01-01

202

Automated mailer envelope addressing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An envelope for conveying an item from a sender to a recipient and back with a window and unique identifying indicia. The envelope comprises a base panel with a window, a sender address panel, and a recipient address panel. The sender address panel is affixed to the base panel by an adhesive region, which defines a pocket sized to accept an item. The adhesive region extends laterally on the base panel to ensure that a postal cancellation is not applied to an area overlying the item. The recipient address panel is joined to the base panel by a detachable joint. A fragile item may be conveyed from the sender to the recipient and back without damage to the item. The base panel includes indicia that uniquely identify the envelope among a plurality of envelopes. Reading the indicia assists in resolving inventory problems, for example, when unknown items are returned.

RENDICH ANDREW; DILLON THOMAS R; JOHNSON JON; KINNEY GREGORY

203

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

204

Policy options addressing the climate and their implications for policy oriented scientific research; Opties voor klimaatbeleid en hun implicatie voor beleidsgericht wetenschappelijk onderzoek  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project on the title subject focuses on five policy options for addressing the greenhouse effect in The Netherlands. The options are referred to as No-Regrets, Least-Regrets, Acceleration, Technological Innovation and Institutional-Cultural Change, reflecting the choices of policy stakeholders who represent diverging ideas and interests regarding the climate change issue. The project identifies the implications of the five policy options for policy oriented scientific research. Information needs and research priorities were discussed at five round table discussions, each dealing with one option separately. Participants were selected from various government ministries, environmental NGOs, businesses and the science-policy interface. The project reveals that different policy options yield different policy strategies and different strategic information needs. 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendices, 20 refs.

Hisschemoller, M.; Klabbers, J.; Berk, M.; Swart, R.; Van Uden, A.; Vellinga, P. [IVM, Free University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-12-31

205

Moving beyond the "male perpetrator, female victim" discourse in addressing sex and relationships for HIV prevention: peer research in Eastern Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the resources put into HIV education programmes with young people in sub-Saharan Africa in the past two decades, there is little clear evidence of impact. Many programmes continue to be oriented towards individual behaviour change (and in reality, often sexual abstinence) with insufficient focus on understanding how societies constrain or enable individual agency in sexual decision-making and how this is affected by social norms. If education programmes do address gender they often reinforce a "male perpetrator, female victim" discourse, where girls and women are held responsible for boys' and men's sexuality as well as their own. This paper discusses the discourses around gender, sexuality and HIV constructed by young women and men (aged 16-29) in a rural Eastern Zambia village. Data on young women's and men's narratives were gathered using a participatory peer approach. Research uncovered numerous and sometimes conflicting discourses (cultural, moral, economic, and sexual) influencing young women's and men's thinking about sexuality and sexual behaviour, in particular the limited possibilities for safe consensual sex, and thus their vulnerability to HIV. The research suggests that the realities young people face are much more complex than HIV prevention strategies address. We recommend a more nuanced approach, tailored to the community contexts involved.

Heslop J; Banda R

2013-05-01

206

[Problems in transferring a research institute of ophthalmology to new economic system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction of new economic principles in the activities of medical research institutions helps extend the rights and responsibilities of the institutes' stuff and make them economically interested in the results of their activity; these principles provide high quality of treatment and prophylaxis work and permit concentrating all the resources on the priority trends in medical research. The authors discuss the pressing problems in introducing the cost accounting system in the activity of a research institute in ophthalmology.

Travkin AG; Zolotova OA; Kiseleva OA; Ter-Grigorian MG; Megreladze TS; Mazurova LM

1991-01-01

207

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems. Workshop proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

1991-11-01

208

Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

2012-01-01

209

"These are Good Problems to Have…": Establishing a Collaborative Research Partnership in East Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.'

Tierney WM; Nyandiko WN; Siika AM; Wools-Kaloustian K; Sidle JE; Kiplagat J; Bell A; Inui TS

2013-06-01

210

Language and rigour in qualitative research: Problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

Smith Helen J; Chen Jing; Liu Xiaoyun

2008-01-01

211

The conduct of in vitro studies to address time-dependent inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a perspective of the pharmaceutical research and manufacturers of America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes caused by new molecular entities (NMEs) is of concern because such compounds can be responsible for clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDI). Although the biochemistry underlying mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of P450 enzymes has been generally understood for several years, significant advances have been made only in the past few years regarding how in vitro time-dependent inhibition data can be used to understand and predict clinical DDI. In this article, a team of scientists from 16 pharmaceutical research organizations that are member companies of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America offer a discussion of the phenomenon of TDI with emphasis on the laboratory methods used in its measurement. Results of an anonymous survey regarding pharmaceutical industry practices and strategies around TDI are reported. Specific topics that still possess a high degree of uncertainty are raised, such as parameter estimates needed to make predictions of DDI magnitude from in vitro inactivation parameters. A description of follow-up mechanistic experiments that can be done to characterize TDI are described. A consensus recommendation regarding common practices to address TDI is included, the salient points of which include the use of a tiered approach wherein abbreviated assays are first used to determine whether NMEs demonstrate TDI or not, followed by more thorough inactivation studies for those that do to define the parameters needed for prediction of DDI. PMID:19359406

Grimm, Scott W; Einolf, Heidi J; Hall, Steven D; He, Kan; Lim, Heng-Keang; Ling, Kah-Hiing John; Lu, Chuang; Nomeir, Amin A; Seibert, Eleanore; Skordos, Konstantine W; Tonn, George R; Van Horn, Robert; Wang, Regina W; Wong, Y Nancy; Yang, Tian J; Obach, R Scott

2009-04-09

212

Newly arising problems in the research of SU UMa-type dwarf novae from VSNET collaborations  

CERN Multimedia

Our research on variable objects based on the VSNET collaborations has achieved much progress in understanding the nature of many kinds of phenomena. Many problems have appeared, instead. Among them, we here review three newly arising problems in the research of SU UMa-type dwarf novae: 1) how do EI Psc and V485 Cen evolve as a cataclysmic variable?, 2) is the early superhump a particular phenomenon for WZ Sge-type dwarf novae?, and 3) what parameters determine variations of the superhump period?

Nogami, D

2006-01-01

213

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed.

E Birch AN; Begg GS; Squire GR

2011-06-01

214

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed. PMID:21669880

E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

2011-06-08

215

How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research  

CERN Multimedia

Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

2012-01-01

216

Port virtual addressing for PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

1997-01-01

217

Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

1999-01-01

218

[Randomised controlled trials in mental health services research: practical problems of implementation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article outlines problems of implementation and clinical practice of randomised controlled trials in mental health services. Furthermore, it offers practical solutions taking into account the experiences with a randomisation process in a multi-site EC-funded (EDEN-) study on the evaluation of acute treatment in psychiatric day hospitals. Identification of the problems follows the time-course of a research project: 1. Problems to be solved prior to the study's commencement: Definition of the eligibility criteria, information of clinically working colleagues. 2. Problems referring to the process of randomisation: Influence of clinical experience of the research fellows, precise time-point of implementing the randomisation into the process of admission, assessment of the patient's ability to give informed consent, patient's refusal of randomisation but agreement to study participation, availability of treatment places. 3. Problems which might occur after randomisation: Early break-off of treatment, transfer from one treatment setting to another. General conclusion: Detailed definitions of the randomisation procedure do not guarantee high performance quality and randomisation rates. Continuous precise assessment of the implementation into the clinical routines of every study centre, adaptation according to specific conditions and personal discussions with all participants are obligatory to establish and maintain a high quality of this important research procedure.

Kallert TW; Schützwohl M

2002-12-01

219

Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

1994-06-01

220

Some results and open problems in research on low dimensional organic conductors  

CERN Multimedia

This is a broad reviw of some of the fundamental results of research on the Bechgaard salts.To a lesser extent Q2D salts will also be discussed.Apart from known results,based on the author's work and the literature,some open problems will also be presented.

Celebonovic, V

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryon...

Moller, Mark S

222

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1) Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2) Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo; Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso

2007-01-01

223

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1) Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2) Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo; Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal Sasso

2007-01-01

224

Personal factors influence use of cervical cancer screening services: epidemiological survey and linked administrative data address the limitations of previous research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background National screening programs have reduced cervical cancer mortality; however participation in these programs varies according to women's personal and social characteristics. Research into these inequalities has been limited by reliance on self-reported service use data that is potentially biased, or administrative data that lacks personal detail. We address these limitations and extend existing research by examining rates and correlates of cervical screening in a large epidemiological survey with linked administrative data. Methods The cross-sectional sample included 1685 women aged 44-48 and 64-68 years from the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, Australia. Relative risk was assessed by logistic regression models and summary Population Attributable Risk (PAR) was used to quantify the effect of inequalities on rates of cervical cancer screening. Results Overall, 60.5% of women participated in screening over the two-year period recommended by Australian guidelines. Screening participation was associated with having children, moderate or high use of health services, employment, reported lifetime history of drug use, and better physical functioning. Conversely, rates of cervical screening were lower amongst women who were older, reliant on welfare, obese, current smokers, reported childhood sexual abuse, and those with anxiety symptoms. A summary PAR showed that effective targeting of women with readily observable risk-factors (no children, no partner, receiving income support payments, not working, obese, current smoker, anxiety, poor physical health, and low overall health service use) could potentially reduce overall non-participation in screening by 74%. Conclusions This study illustrates a valuable method for investigating the personal determinants of health service use by combining representative survey data with linked administrative records. Reliable knowledge about the characteristics that predict uptake of cervical cancer screening services will inform targeted health promotion efforts.

Olesen Sarah C; Butterworth Peter; Jacomb Patricia; Tait Robert J

2012-01-01

225

Beyond Kinsey: The committee for research on problems of sex and American psychology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This introduction to the Special Section of History of Psychology argues for greater attention to psychological research on sex in the decades before the publication of the Kinsey volumes. Drawing on scholarship by Adele Clarke, Donna Haraway and Wade Pickren, this introduction argues for the centrality of the psychological research projects funded by the Committee for Research on Problems of Sex (CRPS), chaired by psychologist Robert Yerkes after 1921. The three individual papers all speak to opposition to the functionalist approach to sex often attributed to Yerkes' CRPS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

Hegarty P

2012-08-01

226

Instruction texts and problems for the training and examination of selected personnel at research nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication comprises 6 separate brochures: (1) Selected chapters in reactor theory; (2) Experimental education methods; (3) Research and experimental reactors; (4.1) Technical description of the LVR-15 reactor; (4.2) Technical description of the LR-0 reactor; (4.3) Technical description of the VR-1 reactor; (5) Research reactor safety and operation; and (6) Database of problems for qualification examinations. Brochure No. 4 consists of 3 separate parts. The publication is intended for the training and examination of the following research reactor staff: reactor operator, shift engineer, control physicist, and start-up group head. (J.B.)

1994-01-01

227

Solving the lost in translation problem: improving the effectiveness of translational research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Translational research frequently fails to replicate in the clinic what has been demonstrated in the laboratory. This has been true for neuroprotection in the central nervous system, neuroprotection in glaucoma, as well as many other areas of medicine. Two fundamental reasons for this 'Lost in Translation' problem are the 'Butterfly Effect' (chaotic behavior of many animal models) and the 'Two Cultures' problem (differences between the methodologies for preclinical and clinical research). We propose several strategies to deal with these issues, including the use of ensembles of animal models, adding intraocular pressure lowering to preclinical neuroprotection studies, changing the way in which preclinical research is done, and increasing interactions between the preclinical and clinical teams.

Ergorul C; Levin LA

2013-02-01

228

Fundamentalism, multiculturalism and problems of conducting research with populations in developing nations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A growing number of nurse researchers travel globally to conduct research in poor and underserved populations in developing nations. These researchers, while well versed in research ethics, often find it difficult to apply traditional ethical standards to populations in developing countries. The problem of applying ethical standards across cultures is explained by a long-standing debate about the nature of ethical principles. Fundamentalism is the philosophical stance that ethical principles are universal, while the anthropologically-based 'multicultural' model claims the philosophical position that principles are culturally bound. The authors explicate the two philosophical stances and advocate a morally sensitive but moderate position of 'ethical multiculturalism' rather than favouring either of the above philosophical positions. The final section suggests ways to promote ethical multiculturalism while planning and conducting nursing research.

Crigger NJ; Holcomb L; Weiss J

2001-09-01

229

Variation in Swedish Address Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores variation in address in contemporary Swedish in Sweden-Swedish and Finland-Swedish. The research is part of a large-scale Australian project on changes in the address systems of French, German and Swedish. The present article focuses on results from 72 social network interviews conducted in Sweden (Gothenburg) and Finland…

Norrby, Catrin

2006-01-01

230

Tagungsessay: Probleme qualitativer Sozialforschung im Visier: Ein Gespräch Conference Essay: Tackling Problems of Qualitative Social Research: A Conversation Ensayo: Abordando problemas de la investigación social cualitativa: Una conversación  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert auf den Diskussionsbeiträgen des Symposiums "Methods in Dialogue", das im Mai 2005 in der Nähe von Cambridge stattfand. Das Symposium wurde als Abschlussveranstaltung einer Seminarserie des London East Research Institute und des Centre for Narrative Research der University of East London veranstaltet und wurde unterstützt vom Economic and Social Research Council. Die öffentliche Unterstützung der Sozialforschung hängt zunehmend von ihrer Fähigkeit ab, gültige und zuverlässige Studien zu liefern, um diese der Politik und Praxis an die Hand zu geben. Die theoretischen Grundlagen der Sozialforschung scheinen sich jedoch in einem kritischen Zustand zu befinden. Sowohl durch qualitative als auch durch quantitative Methoden erzielte Ergebnisse werden immer mehr als widersprüchlich angesehen, offen für verschiedene Interpretationen. Ziel des Symposiums war es, qualitativ Forschende aus verschiedenen sozialwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen zusammenzubringen, um den theoretischen Unterbau qualitativer Sozialforschung zu diskutieren. Viele der Teilnehmenden verbindet narrative Forschung mittels Erzählungen als methodischer Zugang oder Forschungsgegenstand, bei anderen liegt der Fokus beispielsweise auf (Auto-) Biografieforschung, Diskursanalyse, Grounded Theory Methodologie, visuellen Methoden oder Ethnografie. Die Narration fungierte in den Diskussionen häufig als Ausgangspunkt für methodologische Auseinandersetzungen und Überlegungen bezüglich Objektivität, Evidenz, Interpretation und Kontext. Weiterhin beschäftigten sich die Diskussionen mit "subjektiven" Interaktionen zwischen Forschenden und InformantInnen, mit Interdisziplinarität und mit den Wechselbeziehungen zwischen den Sozialwissenschaften und ihrem Umfeld. Die Diskussionen wurden geführt bezüglich Fragen wie beispielsweise: Welche Ziele verfolgt Sozialforschung und welchen Stimmen verleiht sie Gehör? Wie ist das Verhältnis von Forschenden und Forschungsteilnehmenden bezüglich der "Interpretationsrechte" an Daten? Wie kann "dichte Beschreibung" und die damit einhergehende umfassende soziale Interpretation mit der Notwendigkeit zusammengebracht werden, präzise Erklärungsmethoden zu verwenden und generalisierbare Ergebnisse zu erzielen? Welche spezifischen Probleme des Forschungsdesigns oder der Konzeption von Forschungsberichten treten bei dem Versuch des Empowerments von InformantInnen auf, wenn diese befähigt werden (sollen), die Forschung zu hinterfragen oder die Forschungsgeschichte zu ko-konstruieren? URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801416This paper comprises discussions from a residential symposium, "Methods in Dialogue", that took place near Cambridge, UK, in May 2005. The symposium concluded a series of seminars organised by the London East Research Institute and the Centre for Narrative Research at the University of East London and supported by the Economic and Social Research Council. Public support for social research increasingly depends on its ability to deliver scientifically valid and reliable studies to guide policy and practice. The theoretical foundations of social research, however, seem to be in a critical state. Evidence generated by both qualitative and quantitative methods is more and more seen to be conflicting, open to many interpretations. The aim of the event was to bring together qualitative researchers in the social sciences, many working in the field of narrative but also a number working with life history and auto/biography, discourse analysis, grounded theory methodology, visual methods and ethnography, to discuss the theoretical foundations of qualitative social research. The discussions addressed narrative itself as an index case for methodological debate; methodological considerations of objectivity and evidence, interpretation and context; appropriate levels of research focus and their interactions; the role of dialogue between disciplines; and the interaction between social science and the wider environment of which it is a part. Questions such as the following were dis

Paul Sebastian Ruppel; Martin Dege; Molly Andrews; Corinne Squire

2008-01-01

231

[Drug research in Germany--problems and chances--from the viewpoint of the drug industry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A trend can be observed for multinational research-based drug companies shifting their resources away from Germany (and partly also from Europe) and expanding their preclinical and clinical drug research and development programmes and organizations in the USA. The main reasons, which are presently under discussion in Germany, are the image and public acceptance of clinical drug research, professionalism of clinical studies (i.e. availability of an adequate infrastructure), the process of ethics committees votes, the citation impact of publications, the legal obstacles, the implementation of Good Clinical Practice (GCP), the regulatory and institutional situation and the political environment. These problems have been recognised and appraised recently by the pharmaceutical industry, universities, scientific associations, and governmental institutions. Prerequisites to improve the basic conditions of clinical research in Germany to make it internationally competitive are proposed in this paper.

Weihrauch TR; Baumbauer E

1998-11-01

232

Computational Modeling in Applied Problems: collected papers on econometrics, operations research, game theory and simulation  

CERN Multimedia

Computational models pervade all branches of the exact sciences and have in recent times also started to prove to be of immense utility in some of the traditionally 'soft' sciences like ecology, sociology and politics. This volume is a collection of a few cutting-edge research papers on the application of variety of computational models and tools in the analysis, interpretation and solution of vexing real-world problems and issues in economics, management, ecology and global politics by some prolific researchers in the field.

Smarandache, F; Kaymram, F; Khoshnevisan, M; Malakar, S; Salmeron, J L; Singh, H P; Singh, R; Bhattacharya, Sukanto; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad; Salmeron, Jose L.; Singh, Housila P.; Singh, Rajesh; Smarandache, Florentin

2006-01-01

233

Research priorities for non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal problems: nationally and internationally agreed recommendations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a clear trend towards large, high quality trials testing the effectiveness of common non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions showing, at best, small to moderate benefits. This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from recent trials of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions in primary care and provides agreed research priorities for future clinical trials. Methods Consensus development using nominal group techniques through national (UK) and international workshops. During a national Clinical Trials Thinktank workshop in April 2007 in the UK, a group of 30 senior researchers experienced in clinical trials for musculoskeletal conditions and 2 patient representatives debated the possible explanations for the findings of recent high quality trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Using the qualitative method of nominal group technique, these experts developed and ranked a set of priorities for future research, guided by the evidence from recent trials of treatments for common musculoskeletal problems. The recommendations from the national workshop were presented and further ranked at an international symposium (hosted in Canada) in June 2007. Results 22 recommended research priorities were developed, of which 12 reached consensus as priorities for future research from the UK workshop. The 12 recommendations were reduced to 7 agreed priorities at the international symposium. These were: to increase the focus on implementation (research into practice); to develop national musculoskeletal research networks in which large trials can be sited and smaller trials supported; to use more innovative trial designs such as those based on stepped care and subgrouping for targeted treatment models; to routinely incorporate health economic analysis into future trials; to include more patient-centred outcome measures; to develop a core set of outcomes for new trials of interventions for musculoskeletal problems; and to focus on studies that advance methodological approaches for clinical trials in this field. Conclusion A set of research priorities for future trials of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions has been developed and agreed through national (UK) and international consensus processes. These priorities provide useful direction for researchers and research funders alike and impetus for improvement in the quality and methodology of clinical trials in this field.

Foster Nadine E; Dziedzic Krysia S; Windt Danielle; Fritz Julie M; Hay Elaine M

2009-01-01

234

Earthquake Engineering Research - 1982.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate cha...

1982-01-01

235

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

Moller Mark S

2008-01-01

236

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

2007-01-01

237

[Risk/protective factors, and their indices in research on adolescents problem behaviours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Description and explanation of adolescent problem behaviours are in a great part based on risk and protective factor analysis. Research on these factors provides many important data, but due to diversity and complexity of the variables analyzed, it is difficult to summarize their results. One way to deal with this problem is the utilization of risk and protective factor indices, which shows individuals' exposure to the sum of risk and protective factors.In this article eight studies explaining adolescent problem behaviours (mainly: substance use) based on risk/protective factor indices are discussed.The review indicates that study results are strongly influenced by authors' arbitraly decisions on risk/protective factors definitions, the initial list of studied variables, way of determining significant intensity of factors. The most undisputed is the result indicating that after controlling for other variables, both indices (risk and protective) are significant in cross-sectional explanations of problem behaviours. This finding strongly supports the argument for enhancement of protective factors in preventive interventions. However, the main disadvantage of studies based on indices is the "averaging" of importance of various factors, which makes it difficult to assess their specific impact on problem behaviours. PMID:19390638

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Bobrowski, Krzysztof

2008-11-19

238

[Risk/protective factors, and their indices in research on adolescents problem behaviours.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Description and explanation of adolescent problem behaviours are in a great part based on risk and protective factor analysis. Research on these factors provides many important data, but due to diversity and complexity of the variables analyzed, it is difficult to summarize their results. One way to deal with this problem is the utilization of risk and protective factor indices, which shows individuals' exposure to the sum of risk and protective factors.In this article eight studies explaining adolescent problem behaviours (mainly: substance use) based on risk/protective factor indices are discussed.The review indicates that study results are strongly influenced by authors' arbitraly decisions on risk/protective factors definitions, the initial list of studied variables, way of determining significant intensity of factors. The most undisputed is the result indicating that after controlling for other variables, both indices (risk and protective) are significant in cross-sectional explanations of problem behaviours. This finding strongly supports the argument for enhancement of protective factors in preventive interventions. However, the main disadvantage of studies based on indices is the "averaging" of importance of various factors, which makes it difficult to assess their specific impact on problem behaviours.

Okulicz-Kozaryn K; Bobrowski K

2008-11-01

239

[Methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV /AIDS in Bolivia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses the methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV/AIDS in Bolivia, both in the areas of epidemiology and social sciences. Studies associated with this research served as the basis for the implementation of health programs run by The Global Fund, The Pan-American Health Organization, International Cooperation, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Bolivian Ministry of Health and Sports. An analysis of the methodological contradictions and weaknesses was made by reviewing the bibliography of the studies and by conducting qualitative methodological research, that was focused on the quality of health care available to people living with HIV/AIDS in public hospitals and health centers, and looked at how programs targeted at this sector of the population are designed and delivered. In this manner, it was possible to observe the shortcomings of the methodological design in the epidemiological and social science studies which serve as the basis for the implementation of these health programs.

Hita SR

2013-05-01

240

[Methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV /AIDS in Bolivia].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the methodological problems in the scientific research on HIV/AIDS in Bolivia, both in the areas of epidemiology and social sciences. Studies associated with this research served as the basis for the implementation of health programs run by The Global Fund, The Pan-American Health Organization, International Cooperation, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Bolivian Ministry of Health and Sports. An analysis of the methodological contradictions and weaknesses was made by reviewing the bibliography of the studies and by conducting qualitative methodological research, that was focused on the quality of health care available to people living with HIV/AIDS in public hospitals and health centers, and looked at how programs targeted at this sector of the population are designed and delivered. In this manner, it was possible to observe the shortcomings of the methodological design in the epidemiological and social science studies which serve as the basis for the implementation of these health programs. PMID:23670460

Hita, Susana Ramírez

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

Hoskinson AM; Caballero MD; Knight JK

2013-01-01

242

Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for the conclusion of the courses, this papaer tries to be a guide for the definition of themes and for the organization of a research in Social Sciences. In order to achieve this goal there will be the reconstruction of The power elite by Wright Mills. Keywords: Methodology of research. Scientific research. Scientific problems.

Alvaro Bianchi

2007-01-01

243

Vybrané problémy ve výzkumu zážitkové pedagogiky Chosen problems in experiential education research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available V textu se zabýváme výzkumem v oblasti, kterou pro pot?eby ?lánku nazýváme zážitková pedagogika. Nejd?íve se v?nujeme n?kterým problém?m výzkumu v obecné rovin?. Dále se s využitím p?íklad? z d?íve publikovaných studií zabýváme problémy jak kvantitativního, tak kvalitativního výzkumu. Dotýkáme se mimo jiné i otázky, zda by výzkum v dané oblasti m?l klást d?raz spíše na ov??ování stávajících teorií, ?i tvorbu teorie vlastní. Zejména pro ?eské prost?edí se p?ikláníme k druhé variant?, která m?že spíše p?isp?t k tvorb? spole?ného jazyka a znalostního základu oboru. This paper is concerned with research in the field of experiential education. At first we picked out some problems of research in general. Than using examples from published studies we focused on problems of the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Amongst others we touched on the questions to whether the researchers in the field should put emphasis on verifying existing theories or rather on generating theory peculiar to experential education. Especially in the Czech environment we prefer the latter possibility, which can contribute to the creation of a common language and to our own body of knowledge.

Petr Zappe; Ji?í Okrouhlý

2007-01-01

244

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 4: Using research evidence to clarify a problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them often find themselves in situations that spur them on to work out how best to define a problem. These situations may range from being asked an awkward or challenging question in the legislature, through to finding a problem highlighted on the front page of a newspaper. The motivations for policymakers wanting to clarify a problem are diverse. These may range from deciding whether to pay serious attention to a particular problem that others claim is important, through to wondering how to convince others to agree that a problem is important. Debates and struggles over how to define a problem are a critically important part of the policymaking process. The outcome of these debates and struggles will influence whether and, in part, how policymakers take action to address a problem. Efforts at problem clarification that are informed by an appreciation of concurrent developments are more likely to generate actions. These concurrent developments can relate to policy and programme options (e.g. the publication of a report demonstrating the effectiveness of a particular option) or to political events (e.g. the appointment of a new Minister of Health with a personal interest in a particular issue). In this article, we suggest questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying a problem and characterising its features. These are: 1. What is the problem? 2. How did the problem come to attention and has this process influenced the prospect of it being addressed? 3. What indicators can be used, or collected, to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 4. What comparisons can be made to establish the magnitude of the problem and to measure progress in addressing it? 5. How can the problem be framed (or described) in a way that will motivate different groups?

Lavis John N; Wilson Michael G; Oxman Andrew D; Lewin Simon; Fretheim Atle

2009-01-01

245

Communicating Academic Research Findings to IS Professionals: An Analysis of Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because research findings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in industry, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mechanisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their work are prone to numerous communication breakdowns, and that much work which could potentially make valuable contributions to practice is haplessly lost within the vaults of academia. Using the well-known Shannon & Weaver communication model, three major problems are analyzed: the choice of dissemination channels, language barriers, and the alienation of academia from industry.

Michael Lang

2003-01-01

246

The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment. PMID:9741677

Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

1998-01-01

247

The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

Stormshak EA; Bierman KL

1998-01-01

248

The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further research. Thus, the aim of the article is to determine the key directions in the studies of motivation in the works of Ukrainian scientists, and to make the prospects for studies in this area clear.The theoretical analysis of the abstracts from the thesis for doctor’s degree in economics, which were defended in 1999 – 2010, has shown that in Ukraine the scientists study motivation in the following basic directions: first, motivation is considered as economic incentive, financial stimulus, motivation by payment; second, mainly the problems of motivation in special conditions are studied, namely: motivation in an economy in transition, motivation in agriculture, in banking, in commerce, in small businesses, in the conditions of restructuring as well; third, the idea of motivation is limited to the problem of staff assessment and the results of their work; forth, motivation is treated as a mechanism and some recommendations concerned its effectiveness are given.As a result of the research it has become possible to specify the promising lines of investigation of motivation which haven’t received sufficient attention in the science of economics: first, peculiarities of motivation of executives and managers of different levels, whose role has increased greatly in modern conditions, haven’t been adequately studied; second, the notions of "mechanism of employee motivation" and "mechanism of staff motivation" should be made clear; third, it is necessary to solve one of the most important tasks of forming an efficient mechanism of staff motivation, i. e. to reach harmony of aims of business and staff through integration of mechanism of employee motivation into mechanism of staff motivation; forth, it is necessary to continue studying the problem of assessment of efficiency of staff moti­vation mechanism.The importance of these tasks for personnel management at Ukrainian enterprises dictates the necessity of scientific research in the field of staff motivation that will make the subject of further studies of the authors.

V. Lugova; D. Serikov

2011-01-01

249

[Problems in primary and secondary selection of personnel for scientific research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author presents his own observations and reflections about the problems which appear with primary and secondary selection and election, in other words, with the selection, election and reelection of candidates, meaning personnel for scientific-research work at institutes and clinics of medical faculties in our country. He is in favor of the introduction of unique, agreed on, scientific and professional criteria, and with that, their strict obeying, without the influence of para-scientific factors, with the elimination of the attempts of such negative occurrences and attempted activities. In the process of secondary selection (reelection) the author recommends the strict obedience of principles of expertly proven scientific and professional qualities of the candidate, with giving priority and propulsive direction to the young, contemporarily educated and efficient workers in scientific research, and the principled elimination from institutes and clinics of such people which have not, up to now, actually proven themselves in the scientific and professional field. With this, broad spaces open for the constant selection of new young personnel and the removal of the insufficiently qualified "plethora" which blocks the further development and efficient work of scientific-research institutions at medical faculties.

Beri? BM

1990-01-01

250

Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

251

To the problem of research of the gender in the history of social thought  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a huge layer of the literature on a problem of floors which however, is not absolutely in regular intervals distributed in historical chronology. Interest to the social status as men, and women was formed depending on ???????????? fluctuations of values of this or that floo r i n publi c consciousness . I n th e lead position of this or that floor was defined in the subsequent as patriarchy or matriarchy, as influenced formation of corresponding ideology and socially-psychological stereotypes about this or that field. Researchers during different historical times, estimating a role and a place in a society of this or that floor, proceeded just from similar stereotypes. Besides it, development of ideas, various doctrines and theories about mutual relations of floors was influenced by development of those or other sections of social studies.

Shenay Eldar qizi Kuliev?

2010-01-01

252

Reducing alcohol problems through community action research projects: contexts, strategies, implications, and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based action research projects may include a number of challenges. The secular context may impede a project; for example, reducing aggregate rates of drinking-related problems may involve curtailing very popular high-risk drinking occasions. These projects may also embrace important but unrealistic goals, require matching competing goals emerging from multifoci project teams, or involve convoluted funding arrangements. Attention to team development, priority setting, and project design and evaluation issues is essential. Many projects downplay conceptual issues, such as understanding the nature of communities, organizations, systems, their operation, and social change and prevention models. Focus populations, community members and leaders, change agents team members, funding agencies, and policymakers can benefit from these projects.

Giesbrecht N; Rankin J

2000-01-01

253

Reducing alcohol problems through community action research projects: contexts, strategies, implications, and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based action research projects may include a number of challenges. The secular context may impede a project; for example, reducing aggregate rates of drinking-related problems may involve curtailing very popular high-risk drinking occasions. These projects may also embrace important but unrealistic goals, require matching competing goals emerging from multifoci project teams, or involve convoluted funding arrangements. Attention to team development, priority setting, and project design and evaluation issues is essential. Many projects downplay conceptual issues, such as understanding the nature of communities, organizations, systems, their operation, and social change and prevention models. Focus populations, community members and leaders, change agents team members, funding agencies, and policymakers can benefit from these projects. PMID:10677874

Giesbrecht, N; Rankin, J

2000-01-01

254

Computational researches about a problem of experiments on target complex TS-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A benchmark problem presented at the '10th International meetings of the working group on advanced nuclear reactors thermal-hydraulics' in Obninsk, Russia, in 2001, is the starting point for some computational researches validated against experiments on target complex TS-1. The window model of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) target TS-1, is under development in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) and Joint Design Bureau 'Gidropress' for accelerator LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The experiments were carried out with sodium-potassium eutectic alloy: 22% Na + 78% K. Different grids, different turbulence models, and different assumptions were tried using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes STAR-CD and FLUENT. It is a big challenge for these CFD codes, to simulate flows with low Prandtl number fluids, such as the liquid metals. (author)

2005-01-01

255

The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content and basic program, regarding the advanced repair maintenance concept as the guidance, establish the scientific management system, clarify the professional requirements and perfect effective management mechanism, so as to ensure that its maintenance work into effect.

Fei-Long Liu

2013-01-01

256

Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

1982-01-01

257

Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000) is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000) which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990) – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999) developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

Maria Helena Fávero; Célia Maria Soares Gomes de Sousa

2001-01-01

258

Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

2006-01-01

259

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple chemical sensitivity versus bioaerosols (aerosolized microbes), or the contribution of the microorganisms to the chemical sensitivities, is not yet understood. If the inhabitants of a building exhibit similar symptoms of a clearly defined disease with a nature and time of onset that can be related to building occupancy, the disease is generally referred to as ''building-related illness.'' Once the SBS has been allowed to elevate to this level, buildings are typically evacuated and the costs associated with disruption of the building occupants, identification of the source of the problem, and eventual remediation can be significant. Understanding the primary causes of IAQ problems and how controllable factors--proper HVAC system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert the problems may help all building owners, operators, and occupants to be more productive (Arens and Baughman 1996). This paper provides a comprehensive summary of IAQ research that has been conducted in various types of facilities. However, it focuses primarily on school facilities because, for numerous reasons that will become evident, they are far more susceptible to developing IAQ problems than most other types of facilities; and the occupants, children, are more significantly affected than adults (EPA 1998).

Bayer, C.W.

2001-02-22

260

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

NONE

1998-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

The relation between behavior problems and peer preference in different classroom contexts. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested two alternative hypotheses regarding the relations between child behavior and peer preference. The first hypothesis is generated from the person-group similarity model, which predicts that the acceptability of social behaviors will vary as a function of peer group norms. The second hypothesis is generated by the social skill model, which predicts that behavioral skill deficiencies reduce and behavioral competencies enhance peer preference. A total of 2895 children in 134 regular first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare four different behaviors as predictors of peer preference in the context of classrooms with varying levels of these behavior problems. The results of the study supported both predictive models, with the acceptability of aggression and withdrawal varying across classrooms (following a person-group similarity model) and the effects of inattentive/hyperactive behavior (in a negative direction) and prosocial behavior (in a positive direction) following a social skill model and remaining constant in their associations with peer preference across classrooms. Gender differences also emerged, with aggression following the person-group similarity model for boys more strongly than for girls. The effects of both child behaviors and the peer group context on peer preference and on the trajectory of social development are discussed. PMID:10191521

Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L; Bruschi, C; Dodge, K A; Coie, J D

262

The relation between behavior problems and peer preference in different classroom contexts. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study tested two alternative hypotheses regarding the relations between child behavior and peer preference. The first hypothesis is generated from the person-group similarity model, which predicts that the acceptability of social behaviors will vary as a function of peer group norms. The second hypothesis is generated by the social skill model, which predicts that behavioral skill deficiencies reduce and behavioral competencies enhance peer preference. A total of 2895 children in 134 regular first-grade classrooms participated in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to compare four different behaviors as predictors of peer preference in the context of classrooms with varying levels of these behavior problems. The results of the study supported both predictive models, with the acceptability of aggression and withdrawal varying across classrooms (following a person-group similarity model) and the effects of inattentive/hyperactive behavior (in a negative direction) and prosocial behavior (in a positive direction) following a social skill model and remaining constant in their associations with peer preference across classrooms. Gender differences also emerged, with aggression following the person-group similarity model for boys more strongly than for girls. The effects of both child behaviors and the peer group context on peer preference and on the trajectory of social development are discussed.

Stormshak EA; Bierman KL; Bruschi C; Dodge KA; Coie JD

1999-01-01

263

How explicable are differences between reviews that appear to address a similar research question? A review of reviews of physical activity interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews are promoted as being important to inform decision-making. However, when presented with a set of reviews in a complex area, how easy is it to understand how and why they may differ from one another? Methods An analysis of eight reviews reporting evidence on effectiveness of community interventions to promote physical activity. We assessed review quality and investigated overlap of included studies, citation of relevant reviews, consistency in reporting, and reasons why specific studies may be excluded. Results There were 28 included studies. The majority (n = 22; 79%) were included only in one review. There was little cross-citation between reviews (n = 4/28 possible citations; 14%). Where studies appeared in multiple reviews, results were consistently reported except for complex studies with multiple publications. Review conclusions were similar. For most reviews (n = 6/8; 75%), we could explain why primary data were not included; this was usually due to the scope of the reviews. Most reviews tended to be narrow in focus, making it difficult to gain an understanding of the field as a whole. Conclusions In areas where evaluating impact is known to be difficult, review findings often relate to uncertainty of data and methodologies, rather than providing substantive findings for policy and practice. Systematic ‘maps’ of research can help identify where existing research is robust enough for multiple in-depth syntheses and also show where new reviews are needed. To ensure quality and fidelity, review authors should systematically search for all publications from complex studies. Other relevant reviews should be searched for and cited to facilitate knowledge-building.

Woodman Jenny; Thomas James; Dickson Kelly

2012-01-01

264

Readings in computer vision. Issues, problems, principles, and paradigms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each chapter of the book addresses a problem, provides a survey of major issues, ideas, and research projects, and presents reprints of key papers. In total, the book presents sixty research papers, most written since 1980.

Fischler, M.A.; Firschein, O.

1987-01-01

265

RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to solve the identified problems. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus on several directions: when filling out the application form, the technical-financial reporting, at the contracting phase of the projects, problems of partners. This article deals with the problems encountered during the projects’ contracting stage and problems caused by partners. The respondents’ answers place the problems of partners on top of the categories of problems that stood in the way of European funds’ beneficiaries. A series of causes that have led to the occurrence of these problems have also been identified. It should be stated that the information obtained from the conducted research supplies, theoretically speaking, the studied field and brings an important contribution not only to possible beneficiaries of European funds, but to the institutions managing European funds in Romania, who have a lot to learn from the experience of the first period of programmes. The authors’ main contribution is to integrate this study into the logical thread of the thesis entitled “Strategic management in European project funding”. Both articles, part of a research in the field of project management are unique and original and meet a current and pressing requirement of the Romanian society.

RANF DIANA ELENA; DUMITRASCU DANUT

2012-01-01

266

Radon measurements in Austria and some basic problems in earthquake prediction research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic problems in earthquake prediction research are discussed in connection with the analysis of spring water radon (222Rn) measurements in Austria. Two possibilities for the definition of an anomaly are proposed. In the analysed data two periods of outstanding radon concentration could be observed. The data were carefully analyzed using different methods but the extreme radon concentrations could not be explained by an influence of vadose water or by meteorological effects or other non-tectonic disturbances. These two periods were identified as anomalies when using the proposed definition of anomaly. Contingency table tests give high probabilities (>90%) for a correlation between certain earthquakes and the observed radon anomalies. The investigations result in the following hypothesis: The probability for the occurrence of an earthquake in the area 42 deg. N???47.5 deg. N, 13 deg. E???20 deg. E, Friuli area excluded, with a magnitude M greater as a certain well defined level, increases during the time of an anomaly in the radon concentration of the Freibadquelle by about a factor of ten. To test this hypothesis a new set of radon data is necessary. However this new set of radon data is still not large enough to reach a sufficient statistical proof. Finally, some recommendations are given in order to improve the possibilities for comparing and judging predictions. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab.

1993-01-01

267

Researching accessible and affordable treatment for common dermatological problems in developing countries. An Ethiopian experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are very common in rural and urban areas of Ethiopia, and traditional preparations of plant origin might represent the only alternative to synthetic drugs. Improving knowledge of traditional medicines and assessing their safety and effectiveness is necessary. METHODS: We conducted a two-arm, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of some cosmetic herbal preparations for common dermatologic problems: a 3% thyme essential oil antifungal cream and a 10% chamomile extract cream for eczema-like lesions. RESULTS: Ten subjects (66.5%) treated with the 3% thyme active cream were completely healed vs. four subjects (28.5%) from the placebo group (P=0.040). A large number of subjects treated with the chamomile cream were healed or improved, but no significant differences were found between active cream and placebo. A high rate of treatment acceptance was registered in both groups, no adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: A 3% thyme essential oil cream could represent a cheap and easily available opportunity to treat and heal mild to moderate cases of fungal infections; a common emollient cream could be a very effective intervention when treating mild to moderate cases of pityriasis alba and eczema-like lesions. Further research is needed.

Shimelis ND; Asticcioli S; Baraldo M; Tirillini B; Lulekal E; Murgia V

2012-07-01

268

Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA) prevented it.? It turns out that this is not true.? The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.? The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.? There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

R. James Milgram

2012-01-01

269

About a problem of reception of antimatter: possibility of research f properties, synthesis and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is of special interest to study a possibility of reception of intensive streams of positrons (probably and other antiparticles) at reorganization of physical vacuum in strong fields (for example, in an electric field of modern super-power laser beams) and on accelerators. This topic can be possible related to creation of space solar factories on the Moon or asteroids, etc. with use of the solar radiation energy transformed into electric energy, and use of space for manufacturing and storages of positrons [1-7]. The essence of the method should consist of fast positron streams reception by means of the transformed solar energy on accelerators, or any other methods, with their subsequent delay up to temperatures of the order 0.5 K in some closed area of space. Thus, very significant stocks of positrons could be created. Gathering of such positrons in magnetic traps in space conditions can become rather effective method of accumulation of antimatter. Present level of technologies does not allow accumulation of received antimatter in large amounts. Besides, this reception process of is very expensive. Therefore, probably, only about ten or hundred nanograms of antimatter is yet received. This quantity of antimatter would be apparently sufficient for creation of space vehicles (SV) with the sizes in nano-or a micron range. These are not some crazy fantastic assumption in a context of modern development of nanotechnologies in the World. All the units and details of such SV should not exceed nano- and micron ranges. The situation can change, if the black holes both natural and created by the human can become 'factories' of antimatter http://www.rian.ru/rian/intro.cfm (A.D.Dolgov (ITEP) et al). Gravitation in vicinities of a black hole so is great, that there is no object, even radiation that can leave. Indeed, gravitation of a black hole acts on protons more strongly, than on electrons as their mass is larger. As a result, the black hole gets a positive electric charge. Thus, if the mass of a black hole is rather small, the electric field at horizon of events can reach critical values. It leads to electron-positron instability of vacuum and generation of pairs. As positrons are thrown out by electric field, and electrons are trapped, the black hole works as a factory of antimatter, transforming protons into antiparticles. Reference: 1. E.P. Svetlov-Prokop'ev // Materials of the international conference. Ed. E.I.Artamonov. M.: Institute of problems of management of the Russian Academy of Science. - 2008. P.100-101.; 2. E.P.Prokop'ev. Possible space technologies of the future and a problem of technical progress. Materials of the Third Belarus space congress. On October 23-25, 2007, Minsk, Belarus. Minsk: Publishing house of the Incorporated institute of problems of computer science NAS of Belarus, 2007. P.383-389. http://www.uiip.bas-net.by/kosmos3/sec10.html, http://www.prokopep.narod.ru; 3. Svetlov-Prokopyev / About a problem of physics and chemistry of antisubstance: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // In book.: Actual problems of modern physics . Materials of the All-Russia remote scientifically-practical conference with the international participation. Russia, Krasnodar, on June, 5th, 2008. Krasnodar: KGU, 2008. P.15-30.; 4. A.L.Suvorov, E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova // Reception of antimatter for use in a modern science, techniques and microelectronics. The Petersburg magazine of electronics. 2007. No 2. P.4 - 16.; 5. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev. The general principles of interaction of matter and antimatter. Not relativistic theory // Bull. Kaz. NU, ser. phys. 2007. No 1 (23). P.169 - 177.; 6. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova. About a problem of physics, chemistry and technology of antimatter: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // 5 International conferences Nuclear and radiating physics. 26 - 29 September, 2005: ICNP' 05. V.1. Nuclear physics. Almaty: Publishing house RK. 2006. P.33 4 - 34

2009-01-01

270

Is there a role for expectation maximization imputation in addressing missing data in research using WOMAC questionnaire? Comparison to the standard mean approach and a tutorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard mean imputation for missing values in the Western Ontario and Mc Master (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index limits the use of collected data and may lead to bias. Probability model-based imputation methods overcome such limitations but were never before applied to the WOMAC. In this study, we compare imputation results for the Expectation Maximization method (EM) and the mean imputation method for WOMAC in a cohort of total hip replacement patients. Methods WOMAC data on a consecutive cohort of 2062 patients scheduled for surgery were analyzed. Rates of missing values in each of the WOMAC items from this large cohort were used to create missing patterns in the subset of patients with complete data. EM and the WOMAC's method of imputation are then applied to fill the missing values. Summary score statistics for both methods are then described through box-plot and contrasted with the complete case (CC) analysis and the true score (TS). This process is repeated using a smaller sample size of 200 randomly drawn patients with higher missing rate (5 times the rates of missing values observed in the 2062 patients capped at 45%). Results Rate of missing values per item ranged from 2.9% to 14.5% and 1339 patients had complete data. Probability model-based EM imputed a score for all subjects while WOMAC's imputation method did not. Mean subscale scores were very similar for both imputation methods and were similar to the true score; however, the EM method results were more consistent with the TS after simulation. This difference became more pronounced as the number of items in a subscale increased and the sample size decreased. Conclusions The EM method provides a better alternative to the WOMAC imputation method. The EM method is more accurate and imputes data to create a complete data set. These features are very valuable for patient-reported outcomes research in which resources are limited and the WOMAC score is used in a multivariate analysis.

Ghomrawi Hassan MK; Mandl Lisa A; Rutledge John; Alexiades Michael M; Mazumdar Madhu

2011-01-01

271

Secondary analysis of qualitative interview data (in Germany) – problems and open issues of a new research strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qualitative data are a rich and often not fully exploited source of research material. Nonetheless they are seldom reanalysed. The analysis of a nationwide German survey of qualitative researchers shows that there are some concerns and open issues associated with this new and unfamiliar research strategy secondary analysis. On the methodological side specificity and context sensitivity of qualitative research are raised as objections against secondary analysis. On the ethical side concerns relate to an assumed breach of the confidential relationship to the research subject constituted within an interview. Furthermore, considerations concerning competition play also a role when researchers are asked to provide their data for reuse by others. This article provides a first step for a discussion about qualitative secondary analysis (in Germany), by pointing out the critical aspects of secondary analysis based on the conducted expert interviews. But experiences of the interviewed researchers with secondary analysis show as well that these problems do not necessarily constitute unsolvable obstacles.

Irena Medjedovic

2007-01-01

272

'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-01-01

273

Understanding the Processes that Regulate Positive Emotional Experience: Unsolved Problems and Future Directions for Theory and Research on Savoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on unanswered questions and future directions in positive psychology, with a special emphasis on savoring processes that regulate positive emotions. To advance our understanding of the savoring processes underlying positive experience, we highlight three unresolved issues that must be addressed: (1) discriminating the distinctive neuropsychological profiles associated with different savoring processes; (2) developing viable methods of measuring and analyzing the mediational mechanisms involved in real-time savoring; and (3) clarifying the developmental processes through which people acquire different strategies to savor positive experiences across the life span. We propose several potentially fruitful lines of attack aimed at addressing these unsolved problems, each of which requires new methods of assessment to advance theory and refine our conceptual understanding of savoring.

Fred B. Bryant; Erica D. Chadwick; Katharina Kluwe

2011-01-01

274

Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining suf...

Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Struik, P.C.; Jacobsen, E.

275

Challenges – An Open Access Scientific Journal for Research Proposals and Open Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the unique features of several journals launched by me is that manuscripts regarding research proposals and research ideas are particularly welcomed for presentation. Now, a journal Challenges is created for this purpose. [...

Shu-Kun Lin

2010-01-01

276

Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality

Ercilia García-Álvarez; Jordi López Sintas

2012-01-01

277

A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC), accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

Okan Veli ?AFAKLI; Mustafa ERTANIN; Hüda HÜDAVERD?

2013-01-01

278

Earthquake Engineering Research - 1982: Overview and Recommendations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate cha...

1982-01-01

279

Research Projects for Solving the Red Mud Problem in the Aluminium Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the production of alumina from bauxite large quantities of a moist residue - so-called red mud - are separated. Deposotion of this material represents an increasing problem. Within the scope of the sponsored project possibilities of utilization of red ...

G. Wargalla

1980-01-01

280

Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns.

1981-10-29

 
 
 
 
281

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

282

Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns.

Cornish, D.N.

1981-11-05

283

Research on Excessive Road Fuel Problem Based on Extension Strategy Generating Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase of the demand for gasoline in transportation and traffic vehicles results in excessive fuel consumption problem. However, by the extension strategy generating methods, the way of urban transportation changing from bus into metro may be analyzed and evaluated through extension reasoning, extension transformation and optimal calculation in order to solve the problem of excessive fuel consumption of the urban roads.

Li Shu fei; Ye Guang zai

2012-01-01

284

Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1) information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2) approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1) how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions) combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2) how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

Joan C. Durrance; Maria Souden; Dana Walker; Karen E. Fisher

2006-01-01

285

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Hutton Jane L; Eccles Martin P; Grimshaw Jeremy M

2008-01-01

286

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

P. Michael Conn; F.T. Rantin

2010-01-01

287

Twenty Years of Cultural Imperialism Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the notion of "cultural imperialism" has received significant attention in communication studies since the early 1970s, researchers have ignored analyses of message systems and audience cultivation in favor of institutional analysis. Likewise, researchers have concentrated on the technologies, media products and processes of Western…

Burrowes, Carl Patrick

288

Research on multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem under constraint conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Aim at choosing a relative good vehicle routing in emergency conditions under constraint conditions when disaster happens. Rapid response and rescue can save a lot of people. Design/methodology/approach: Modeling analysis: establishing a mathematical model of multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem. And in end of the paper, we intend to use genetic algorithms to solve the problem. Findings: Considering time requirement and cost limit both while choosing vehicle routing when the disasters happens is meaningful. We can get a relative good result and give a guidance to rescue teams. Originality/value: Consider cost and time objectives and kinds of realistic conditions (such as the road congestion) in the model when solving the problem, having expanded the theory scope.

Miaomiao Du; Hua Yi

2013-01-01

289

Research on the Algorithm for Solving Unconstraint Optimization Problems Utilizing Knowledge Evolution Principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the evolutionary epistemology idea, an algorithm called UOP-KEA for solving unconstraint optimization problems utilizing knowledge evolution principle is proposed in this study. The main idea of this algorithm can be described as follows. Firstly, an initial knowledge base is formed. The next work is to inherit excellent knowledge individuals by inheritance operator, produce new knowledge individuals by innovation operator, update knowledge base by update operator and accordingly the knowledge evolution is realized. At last, the problem’s optimal solution can be gained from the optimal knowledge individual. Experiments were taken on optimization of unconstraint nonlinear test functions. The successful experimental results show that this algorithm is feasible and valid. The algorithm can search the global optimal solution with less population and less reiteration. The global convergence speed and the global optimal solution quality are all satisfactory.

Yan Taishan; Cui Duwu

2010-01-01

290

Clinician suspicion of an alcohol problem: an observational study from the AAFP National Research Network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians' office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient's anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, "Does this patient have problems with alcohol?" with answer options including "yes, hazardous drinking" and "yes, alcohol abuse or dependence." Analyses assessed the associations between patients' responses to screening questions and clinician's suspicions. RESULTS: Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians' suspicions, which already provide reasonable positive predictive value.

Vinson DC; Turner BJ; Manning BK; Galliher JM

2013-01-01

291

The importance of systems thinking to address obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is clearly a complex problem for both the individual and for society. Complex or 'wicked' problems have common characteristics such as heterogeneity, nonlinearity, interdependence, and self-organization. As such they require solutions appropriate for complex problems, rather than a reductionist search for the causes. 'Systems thinking' provides new ways to consider how to collectively address complex societal problems like obesity, where biology interacts with social, cultural and built environmental factors in infinite permutations and combinations. The systems that give rise to the obesity epidemic function at multiple levels, and there are important interactions between these levels. At any given level, individual actors and organizations matter and system function is optimized when individual and organizational capacity to respond is well matched to the complexity of individual tasks. Providing system supports to help networks of individuals become 'communities of practice' and 'systems of influence' may also help to accelerate the pace of effective action against obesity. Research efforts need to move away from the relentless search for the specific isolated causes of obesity and focus on solutions that have been shown to work in addressing other 'wicked' problems.

Finegood DT

2012-01-01

292

Problem-Based Learning and Action Research in Postgraduate Teaching: The Interdisciplinary Core  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this article is to describe innovatory online teaching carried out in the inter-university master's "Educational Innovation Policies and Practices for the Knowledge Society", with the participation of Malaga, Almeria and Internacional de Andalucia Universities. The master's focuses on the exploration of a problem-based learning…

Servan, M. J.; Soto, E.; Murillo, J. F.; Sola, M.; Perez, A. I.

2009-01-01

293

The Rise and Fall of a Social Problem: Critical Reflections on Educational Policy and Research Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines a growing and distressing social phenomenon, namely, bullying, the historical development, social dimensions, and political impact of which are taken into account and subjected to reflection and critical consideration. It describes both the progress of and problems with the concept of bullying. It also reflects on the…

Franberg, Gun-Marie; Wrethander, Marie

2012-01-01

294

The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

2011-10-26

295

Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

Yokoyama, O.

1993-12-31

296

Current fouling problems of PVC film fills and research into new designs to eliminate fouling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fouling of film fills in power plant cooling towers represents a major problem in loss of performance of the cooling tower and loss of efficiency of the power plant. The results of this loss in performance is higher energy consumption to drive the fans to move air through the cooling tower in mechanical draft towers. Higher fuel consumption in plant operations or reduced peak load output and the discharge of warmer water which poses environmental concerns to our rivers and lakes. This paper discusses the effects of fouling on cooling tower performance and the current knowledge of how this fouling may occur, industry practices of controlling cleaning and eliminating the problem using new film fill products.

1992-01-01

297

Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

2003-01-01

298

Research on Existing Financial Predicament Problems of China's Small-Medium Business Enterprises and Its Countermeasures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, SMEs' financing difficulties have become a major problem threatening the Chinese economy, especially for the Small-Medium business enterprises (SMBEs).This article laid out current situation of SMBEs' Financial Predicament and analysis the factors influencing the SMBEs' financial Predicament. At the end of this article, the authors summarized the countermeasures to the SMBEs' financial Predicament according the actual situation of China.

Haiyong Ma

2010-01-01

299

State and problems of scientific research automation in radiation damage physics in KFTI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Problems of automatization of theoretical and experimental investigations into physics of radiation damages at KhFTI of UkSSR Academy of Sciences have been considered. Main peculiarity is a complex approach to the automatization of experiment on materials technology envisaging the modelling of radiation effects, monitoring and control of materials irradiation at accelerators, centralized experimental data processing and interpretation of the results using mathematical models

1981-01-01

300

[Keynote address: Climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

Forrister, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
301

Research on the Optimal Layout Problem for NC Machining Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of NC machining, the optimization processing of graphic layout is a well-studied problem which has practical application value for improving the utilization rate of raw materials and saving the cost of production. In this paper, a new design of genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for solving this problem. This improved genetic algorithm combines GA with the improved crossover operator and mutation operator. Moreover, the best individual preservation method is integrated into the algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm expands the search space and enhances the GA’s search capabilities. Furthermore, the maximum matching algorithm is proposed based on the lowest horizontal line algorithm, which effectively avoids blind elevating horizontal lines and improves the utilization rate of the lowest horizontal line. It is integrated with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the two-dimensional rectangular parts optimal layout problem which combines the advantages of two kinds of algorithms. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get a good optimization result.    

Wang Shuqing; Lei Lei; Wang Bing

2013-01-01

302

Way Search to Research: from Academic Exercises in Architecture to Scientific Investigations into Actual Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract. An interest in doctoral studies reflects the overall status of the scientist in the country in general and the role of science in the architect profession in particular. The article analyses the basic channels of how the students of architecture search for and find the ways to transfer themselves from the study area into an academic research environment. In order to figure out general trends and to outline the differences and similarities of doctoral studies that could further facilitate cooperation, the paper presents the thematic outputs of doctoral programmes in architecture schools in Vilnius, Riga, Venice, Jelgava and Weimar. With reference to the example of the Faculty of Architecture, VGTU, the trends towards developing research activities are analysed taking into account three interconnected branches of architecture: urban design, building architecture and landscape architecture. The cooperation and coordination of academic and research activities in wider European space is taking place upon common interest based on the specificities of each school and priorities of the chosen region. The awareness of global and regional processes in architectural research is an important point for the present and coming generations of researchers in Europe as they are building their careers on the basis of investigation into the options of the local applications of global competences in a cross-professional and inter-disciplinary way.

Gintaras Stauskis; Frank Eckardt

2012-01-01

303

Technical problems in case of utilizing uranium of medium enrichment for a research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Usually, highly enriched uranium of 90 - 93% is used for research reactors, but the US government proposed the strong policy to use low enriched uranium of the uranium of medium enrichment in unavoidable case from the viewpoint of the resistance to nuclear proliferation in November, 1977. This policy is naturally applied to Japan also. The export of highly enriched uranium will be permitted only when the President approves it after the technical and economical evaluations by the government. The Kyoto University high flux reactor has the features which are not seen in other research reactors, such as medical irradiation, and it is hard to attain the objectives of researches unless HEU is used. The application for the export of HEU was accepted in February, 1978. The nuclear characteristics of the KUHFR when medium or low enriched uranium is used, the criticality experiment in the KUCA using the uranium of medium enrichment, and the burning test on the uranium fuel plates of medium enrichment are described. The research project to lower the degree of enrichment in the fuel for research and test reactors is expected to be continued down to less than 20%. The MEU of 45% enrichment will be actually used in 1983. (Kako, I.)

1979-01-30

304

Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

Risti? Jovan D.; Leki? Predrag N.

2009-01-01

305

Some methodological problems of biodemographic investigations. A sampling research on menopausal age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of menopausal age is nowadays of great interest for anthropologists and biodemographers since, together with the menarche age, it defines the duration of the fertile period of a female population. The two methods of analysis most used for such researches are compared in this work the longitudinal (retrospective) method and the transversal ("status quo") method. The two criteria are deeply different both for methodological characteristics and research aims; they are therefore not interchangeable. The former describes an historically ended situation and estimates the probability that a woman will reach such condition at age x. The latter considers the phenomenon from the viewpoint of its composite actuality and estimates the probability that a woman of age x is undergoing menopause. The different numerical results obtained by applying the two methods to the data of the same women sample are compared and discussed in this research.

Paola Monari; Fosca Martuzzi Veronesi

1986-01-01

306

The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants?

Monshi B; Zieglmayer V

2004-01-01

307

The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990

Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena

2004-01-01

308

Patient-reported outcome measures for sleep disorders and related problems: clinical and research applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with sleep disorders are most concerned with the impact of these diseases on their quality of life. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurement tools, which assess aspects of a patient's health status that come directly from the patient, are well suited to evaluate quality of life related to sleep disorders. Although PRO data are subjective, they can be quantified, evaluated for reliability and reproducibility, and used to answer questions of clinical and research importance. This article reviews various PRO measure tools used for sleep disorders in clinical and research settings. These instruments may play a role in screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of various sleep disorders.

Medarov BI; Victorson DE; Judson MA

2013-06-01

309

Research results of Soviet scientists in some problems of occupational medicine. Review of the years 1981-1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reviews the extensive and manifold research of Soviet scientists in occupational medicine. Monographs published in 1981-1984 have been referred to. The data on the maximum allowable concentrations of 23 substances are presented. It should especially be emphasized that, at present, great attention is being paid in the Soviet Union to the mutagenic, gonadotoxic and embryotoxic, as well as other biological, effects of the substances under study. A short review has been presented of the research dealing with the setting of standards for substances coming in contact with the skin of the hands. Occupational hygiene aspects of problems related to the introduction of new substances and technological processes have been considered, and research on the effects of harmful factors (toxic substances, vibration, etc) on health and the early diagnosis of occupational pathology has also been reviewed. 61 references.

Kahn, H.

1985-08-01

310

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy.

1992-01-01

311

Systems thinking research - principles and methodologies to grapple with complex real world problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Topic – Systems thinking (see the INCOSE UK Z7 Guide) provides a common language for needs driven process integration. We take the thinking further and present the principles and methodologies used by the Systems Centre to integrate research processes drawn from fields as diverse as physical and so...

Yearworth, M; Terry, AJ; Godfrey, PS; Edwards, G

312

Methodological and Measurement Issues in School Violence Research: Moving beyond the Social Problem Era  

Science.gov (United States)

|School violence became a topic of broad national concern in the United States in reaction to a series of tragic school shootings during the 1990s. Efforts to understand and prevent school shootings have stimulated the rapid development of a broader interest in school safety with an emerging multidisciplinary research agenda. The maturation and…

Furlong, Michael J.; Morrison, Gale M.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Skiba, Russell

2004-01-01

313

[Animal and man--the problems of experimental and clinical research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The freedom of science includes human rights and animal rights and allows experimentation in both animals and human beings in case of ethical approval. The interpretation of results should be based on phylogenetic comparisons. Animal experiments can fulfill goals in human and veterinary situations, as it is demonstrated by caries and periodontal research.

Gängler P

1991-01-01

314

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

2008-01-01

315

Two-group randomised, parallel trial of cognitive and exposure therapies for problem gambling: a research protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Problem gambling is a serious public health concern at an international level where population prevalence rates average 2% or more and occurs more frequently in younger populations. The most empirically established treatments until now are combinations of cognitive and behavioural techniques labelled cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). However, there is a paucity of high quality evidence for the comparative efficacy of core CBT interventions in treating problem gamblers. This study aims to isolate and compare cognitive and behavioural (exposure-based) techniques to determine their relative efficacy. METHODS: A sample of 130 treatment-seeking problem gamblers will be allocated to either cognitive or exposure therapy in a two-group randomised, parallel design. Repeated measures will be conducted at baseline, mid and end of treatment (12 sessions intervention period), and at 3, 6 and 12 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome measure is improvement in problem gambling severity symptoms using the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) harm to self-subscale. VGS measures gambling severity on an extensive continuum, thereby enhancing sensitivity to change within and between individuals over time. DISCUSSION: This article describes the research methods, treatments and outcome measures used to evaluate gambling behaviours, problems caused by gambling and mechanisms of change. This study will be the first randomised, parallel trial to compare cognitive and exposure therapies in this population. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Southern Adelaide Health Service/Flinders University Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12610000828022.

Smith DP; Battersby MW; Harvey PW; Pols RG; Ladouceur R

2013-01-01

316

A research on analysis method of mining subsidence parameters for space problem and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the example of subsidence model of probability integration, the paper studied the analysis of parameters of spatial problem during subsidence when mining rectangular and arbitrary-shaped panels, and developed the corresponding software. Based on these studies, the paper presents some examples to show how to use the analysis method to process the field data obtained from irregular observation stations and to discriminate mining subsidence models. The examples show that the analysis method and software are correct, easy to use, and can be widely applied to process mining subsidence data. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Ling, G.; Wu, K. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Department of Mining Engineering

1994-06-01

317

Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of China's Service Trade in the New Era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 21st century, global trade competitions focus point has shifted from commodity trade to service trade. International trade in services shows some new trends. Although China's service trade has obtained fast development in recent years, they also have many problems. To adapt to the new trend of the development of international service trade, China should take some countermeasures to promote China's service trade has a high level of development. These countermeasures include accelerating to develop the service industry, perfecting the legal system and management system of service trade, strengthening the personnel training work and so on.

Zhijun Sheng; Kuo Wang

2012-01-01

318

The efficiency of the production – the analyse of problems based on the literature research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The production efficiency is one of the most important problems of the present-day logistics, both at operational as well as strategic levels. Increasing the level of the efficiency of the production process can be achieved in many ways. The reason of the selection of the issues covering the problems of the production efficiency is the lack of a comprehensive model for analyzing the efficiency of the production process, both in the scientific literature and in the business practice. Methods: The main aim of this paper is to systematize the process of obtaining input data for the assessment model of the production efficiency. The methodology for building the assessment model of production efficiency at the initial stage of the analysis was presented.  Results and conclusions:  The basic goal of a preliminary analysis of the model is to coordinate decision-making targets at all levels of the management. The presented assumptions should be regarded as a preliminary analysis, indispensable for the multivariate analysis of the production process efficiency, focused on the operational level.  

2012-01-01

319

Parental Attachment Style and Severity of Emotional/Behavioral Problems in Toddlerhood Research Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal and paternal attachment style and severity of emotional and behavioral problem severity in toddlers and to explore the effect of toddlers’ gender, presence of autism, and parental depression on this relation.Methods: All patients (n=103) (male=75; female=28) younger than 43 months old (range: 14-43, mean: 30.93±8.26 months) were included from a clinical sample. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Beck Depression Inventory, and Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) were used for assessing mothers and fathers; the Child Behavior Checklist/ 2-3 (CBCL) and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) were applied to evaluate associated psychopathology in toddlers.Results: Both maternal and paternal AAS-avoidance scores were found to be significantly correlated with ABC-hyperactivity and ABC-irritability scores of the toddler (p<.001). A multiple regression model significantly predicted ABC-hyperactivity scores, F(4.47)=5.74, p<.001, with two variables (higher paternal BDI score, and maternal insecure attachment style) significantly contributing to the prediction.Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that maternal (but not paternal) insecure attachment style is significantly associated with the severity of toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems, such as hyperactivity, and irritability. Especially when combined with paternal depression, this association becomes stronger. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 147-54)

Koray Karabekiro?lu; Ay?e Rodopman-Arman

2011-01-01

320

Addressing the municipal market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most municipalities employ simple, fairly inexpensive water treatment regimes, which is why some large industrial treatment firms stay away from the municipal market, despite rapid growth in the sector. Of the $625 million/year spent for US wastewater treatment, 46% is for municipalities, up 14.5% from 1987. Waste treatment in general grew by 12% in that period, according to Kline Co. (Fairfield, NJ). Some of the challenges facing municipalities in the Clean Water Act reauthorization bills are metals-contaminated sediments and storm water containment and treatment. Bill Tullos, business manager for chlor-alkali at Elf Atochem North America, does not foresee a phaseout of chlorine-based products used as disinfectant in drinking water treatment by municipalities, or as a wastewater treatment in municipal and industrial use. [open quotes]Alternatives are not as effective and are more expensive,[close quotes] says Tullos. [open quotes]There was some promise with ozone, but unfortunately it tends to tear apart your corrosion and scale inhibitors. Chlorine also provides residual protection from contamination all along the water line system.[close quotes] Tullos adds that the formation of tetrahydromethane-one of the problems of using chlorine-based products-can be avoided by screening out the hydrocarbons first and then adding chlorine.

Mullin, R.

1993-05-12

 
 
 
 
321

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

1992-01-01

322

Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

1980-03-14

323

O problema da análise em pesquisa cartográfica/ The problem of analysis in cartographic research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda o papel da análise em uma pesquisa de abordagem cartográfica. Ao equivocar a noção de "dado", entendemos que a análise em cartografia leva a uma redefinição das fronteiras entre subjetividade e objetividade. A análise em cartografia está afinada com outras abordagens de pesquisa e intervenção, assumindo diferentes procedimentos que permitem a análise de implicação na pesquisa e, por conseguinte, a análise da participação. Como efeito da (more) análise, há o reposicionamento do lugar dos participantes na pesquisa. A análise em cartografia permite, ao longo de toda a realização da pesquisa, o acesso a uma objetividade que, em lugar de fixar um sentido unívoco, tende a proliferar sentidos. A cartografia afirma tal paradoxo por meio de uma atitude analítica, agente de singularização. Abstract in english This article discusses the role of analysis in a study of cartographic approach. When we question the notion of "data" we mean that the analysis in cartography leads to a redefinition of the boundaries between subjectivity and objectivity. The mapping analysis is tuned to other research approaches and intervention, assuming different procedures that enable the analysis of implication in the research and therefore the analysis of the participation. As a result of the analy (more) sis, there is a repositioning of the place of the participants in the study. The mapping analysis allows, throughout the research, access to an objectivity that, instead of fixing unambiguously, tends to proliferate directions. Cartography supports this paradox through an analytic attitude, a singling agent.

Barros, Letícia Maria Renault de; Barros, Maria Elizabeth Barros de

2013-08-01

324

Research projects for solving the red mud problem in the aluminium industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the production of alumina from bauxite large quantities of a moist residue - so-called red mud - are separated. Deposotion of this material represents an increasing problem. Within the scope of the sponsored project possibilities of utilization of red mud were studied. By making use of a pilot spray-drier erected for this purpose, a filler was developed from red mud and put on the market for use in bituminous road-construction and in plastics. 600.000 m/sup 2/ road surface with 2.500 t red mud filler have been constructed. The basic know-how for the production of lightweight aggregates from the tailings of coal dressing by addition of red mud was worked out. By recovery of valuable caustic soda from red mud a residue of low alkaline content was produced Bricks of this material can be used as prefabricated steel works slag.

Wargalla, G.

1980-12-01

325

Research on Location Routing Problem (LRP) Based on Chaos Search (CS) and Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the problem complexity, simultaneous solution methods are limited. A hybrid algorithm is emphatically proposed for LRP. First, the customers are classified by clustering analysis with preference-fitting rules. Second, a chaos search (CS) algorithm for the optimal routes of LRP scheduling is presented in this paper. For the ergodicity and randomness of chaotic sequence, this CS architecture makes it possible to search the solution space easily, thus producing optimal solutions without local optimization. A case study using computer simulation showed that the CS system is simple and effective, which achieves significant improvement compared to a recent LRP with nonlinear constrained optimization solution. Lastly the pratical anlysis is presented relationship with regional logistics and its development in Fujianprovince.

Qian Zhang; Zhongming Shen; Xianji Zhang

2013-01-01

326

New frontiers in reproductive immunology research: bringing bedside problems to the bench.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Immunology provided an excellent platform for basic and clinical scientists to brainstorm on current reproductive health issues such as repeated implantation and pregnancy failure, preterm birth, preeclampsia and genital tract infections such as HIV. The goal of the meeting was to foster cross-pollination of ideas as well as to encourage participation of young investigators in the field. The conference was preceded by the 4th Annual Post-Graduate Workshop with the theme of bringing bedside problems to the bench and facilitating collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists. Christopher Davies and Richard Bronson chaired the conference, which hosted approximately 180 delegates representing more than 26 countries across Asia, Australia, Latin America, Europe and North America.

Joukhadar J; Nevers T; Kalkunte S

2011-09-01

327

Problem-based and project-oriented learning : an other way of implementing research based teachin2 in power electronics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities is steadily increasing. One example is renewable energy, which is enabled by power electronics. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which makes it possible very fast for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. In this paper the necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels also are presented.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus

2005-01-01

328

Notes for an address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the years, the Canadian government has invested heavily in the nuclear industry. More than $2 billion has been spent on research and development, which now costs upward of $140 million annually. The federal government shared the costs of the first two Pickering reactors and of the heavy water plants. Government loans and international assistance programs have helped the financing of reactor sales to India, Pakistan, Korea, Argentina and Romania. In the late 1940s the federal government purchased Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., and since then has spent over $100 million to help uranium producers. The costs of all these programs have been borne by all Canadian taxpayers, while the considerable benefits have accrued mainly to the provinces with nuclear power programs or significant elements of the nuclear industry: Ontario, and to a lesser extent Quebec, Nova Scotia, and soon New Brunswick. Recent events have dimmed prospects for the nuclear industry, and it appears that more help may be needed. Although the Canadian nuclear industry will not be allowed to die, the financial burdens are going to have to be shared more fairly by those who benefit

1981-06-09

329

Efficient Network Layer Addressing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents an addressing scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). This addressing scheme facilitates effective and efficient solutions to the challenging problems of 1) address re-configuration when two previously independent MANETs collide, 2) the attachment of a MANET to a wired gateway or entry point, and 3) unique address assignment to new nodes joining a network. In addition, this addressing scheme consists of variable length addresses that are efficient in terms of storage and bandwidth. This variable length addressing scheme can yield significant storage and transmission overhead savings.

Je Boleng

330

Main problems regarding the decommissioning of VVR-S research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Romanian VVR-S research reactor has been put in operation in 1957 and it worked continuously without major events up to the present moment. During this period, there were not made major modifications concerning the core and the main circuits. The reactor works with the original equipment and control instrumentation supplied by the Soviets. Taking into account the long time of operation (over 35 years), the limited fuel reserve (for about 3-4 years), the low neutron flux performances (about 1013 n/cm2 s) and the safety aspects, a decommissioning project is imposed. This complex activity began in Romania in 1992. This paper presents the major aspects of our activity in this field: preparation of up-to-date libraries of nuclear data including all materials in the real composition of the reactor structures; the reactor calculation system adaptation at the specific activities of decommissioning; technical analysis of VVR-S Bucharest research reactor; safety analysis; the improvement of decontamination methods; modern method for waste management and disposal. There are also provided some preliminary results regarding calculated radioactive inventory, measured primary circuit contamination, technical and safety analysis. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs.

1995-01-01

331

Research program with no ''measurement problem''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

1985-07-01

332

Psychodynamic theory and narcissistically related personality problems: Support from case study research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An introductory overview of central psychodynamic theories relevant to narcissistically related personality problems and disorders of the self is provided, focusing on the central role of the child's relationship with primary care givers in the development of the self. A psychodynamic formulation is described for a 45-year-old woman experiencing depression, anxiety and despair following a severe rift in her previously enmeshed/merged relationship with her teenage daughter. The subsequent two and a half years of therapy were monitored using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and the Object Relations Technique (ORT), producing data supportive of psychodynamic theory and therapy. A pattern of depression emerged during therapy which was in keeping with the concept of abandonment depression, as the client came to experience herself as more separate from her daughter and others. Changes in the functioning of primitive defences were also illustrated, plus the expression of previously denied anger, and increased abilities to be assertive, set limits and take care of herself.

Hingley SM

2001-03-01

333

Psychodynamic theory and narcissistically related personality problems: Support from case study research.  

Science.gov (United States)

An introductory overview of central psychodynamic theories relevant to narcissistically related personality problems and disorders of the self is provided, focusing on the central role of the child's relationship with primary care givers in the development of the self. A psychodynamic formulation is described for a 45-year-old woman experiencing depression, anxiety and despair following a severe rift in her previously enmeshed/merged relationship with her teenage daughter. The subsequent two and a half years of therapy were monitored using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and the Object Relations Technique (ORT), producing data supportive of psychodynamic theory and therapy. A pattern of depression emerged during therapy which was in keeping with the concept of abandonment depression, as the client came to experience herself as more separate from her daughter and others. Changes in the functioning of primitive defences were also illustrated, plus the expression of previously denied anger, and increased abilities to be assertive, set limits and take care of herself. PMID:11802826

Hingley, Susan M.

2001-03-01

334

Psychodynamic theory and narcissistically related personality problems: support from case study research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An introductory overview of central psychodynamic theories relevant to narcissistically related personality problems and disorders of the self is provided, focusing on the central role of the child's relationship with primary care givers in the development of the self. A psychodynamic formulation is described for a 45-year-old woman experiencing depression, anxiety and despair following a severe rift in her previously enmeshed/merged relationship with her teenage daughter. The subsequent two and a half years of therapy were monitored using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and the Object Relations Technique (ORT), producing data supportive of psychodynamic theory and therapy. A pattern of depression emerged during therapy which was in keeping with the concept of abandonment depression, as the client came to experience herself as more separate from her daughter and others. Changes in the functioning of primitive defences were also illustrated, plus the expression of previously denied anger, and increased abilities to be assertive, set limits and take care of herself.

Hingley SM

2001-03-01

335

Integration of research results in the solution of production problems of titanium semi-finished products; Integration des resultats de recherche dans les problemes de fabrication des demi-produits en titane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cesus has used the results of research obtained during various Titanium Scientific Groups and Titanium Research Groups, or during work undergone outside of these committees, by integrating them into the production problems of titanium semi- finished products.The authors, after having insisted either on the phenomenology or on the physical bases of the scientific results, show how these results were used to settle certain problems in the shop. (authors)

Combres, Y.; Champin, B. [Compagnie Europeenne du Zirconium Cezus, 75 - Paris (France)

1996-09-01

336

Neural network and genetic algorithms for optimizing the plate element of Egyptian research reactor problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Second Egyptian Research Reactor ET-RR-2 went critical on the 27th of November 1997. The National Center of Nuclear Safety and radiation Control 'NCNSRC' has the responsibility of the evaluation and the assessment of the safety of this reactor. Multi-objective optimization is a powerful tool for resolving conflicting objectives in engineering design and numerous other fields. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to the optimization of the fuel element plate, which is designed with a view to improve reliability and lifetime and it is one of the most important elements during the shut down. In this paper, we present a conceptual design approach for fuel element plate, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm and comparing with neural networks to obtain a fuel plate that maximizes a fitness value to optimize the safety design of the fuel plate.

2010-01-01

337

Problems of research into basic machines used in Polish brown coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reviews machines used in Polish brown coal mining where production and stripping are 67.4 Mt/a and 292 million m[sup 3]/a respectively. The number of bucket wheel excavators, chain excavators and dumping conveyors used in domestic brown coal mining and their age structure are evaluated. The program of research on earthmoving equipment and the possibilities of realizing the program are discussed. The topics are: improved protection from overloads, modernized caterpillars, balancing of machine bodies and evaluation of the state of repair. Investigations into cutting parts and new machine design are considered. Construction of the big LWL 1500s excavators for the Turow mine is being continued despite economic difficulties. Development of the KWK 1250 excavator approaches completion. Demand for other earthmoving equipment is discussed.

Kolkiewicz, W.; Szepietowski, W. (IGO Poltegor-Instytut, Wroclaw (Poland))

1992-01-01

338

Research on the Coal Energy of Coal Enterprise and Environmental Problem Under Circular Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal as a pillar of energy, which contributes a lot in our social economy. The coal enterprises are the representatives of our energy enterprises. In the long course of development, the traditional economic development model, such as overexploitation, over waste, insufficient utilization, has not only created serious wasting of resources and environmental destruction, but also hardly satisfy the need of economic development, and restrict the sustainable development process of the coal enterprises. The coal enterprises must transform from the traditional extensive coal industry to the circular economy multipurpose use sustainable industry to achieve sustainable development. Circular economy which can urge energy, environment and economy to coordinated development is an advanced development pattern. It is the inevitable choice when the coal enterprises research the new industrialization. This paper sets out from the coal enterprise develops circular economy, to illustrate strategic importance of circular economy to coal industry, to demonstrate the coal enterprises coal energy’s effects to the environment, and propose related policies and measures, to realized a win-win situation of energy conservation and environmental conservation.Key words: Coal enterprise; Circular economy; Coal; Environment

Meiyue LIU; Hongyu LI; Xiuchao SONG

2011-01-01

339

Recent Research and Development in Solving Atmospheric Corrosion Problems of Steel Industries in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A rust layer, so called 'protective' rust layer, on a weathering low-alloy steel has strong protective ability for atmospheric corrosion of the steel. We have recently found through a large number of spectroscopic studies including Moessbauer spectroscopy that the protective rust layer forms after long-term phase transformation. The phase and structure of the rust definitely control the protective ability of the rust layer. From this recent knowledge, some new technologies have been developed. One is the surface-treatment technique that provides a possibility for obtaining the protective rust layer in a relatively short period even in the severe environments such as in marine and chloride (de-icing salts) containing environments. Others are based on selection of effective alloying elements for steel materials. These are particularly important for application in areas where protective rust layer formation may be hindered or prevented. In this paper, we mention recent progress in research and development on rusting protection by rust for atmospheric corrosion of steels in Japan.

2002-01-01

340

Addressing the effect of social life cycle assessments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: In the recently published ‘Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products’, it is stated that the ultimate objective of developing the social life cycle assessment (SLCA) is to promote improvements of social conditions for the stakeholders in the life cycle. This article addresses how the SLCA should be developed so that its use promotes these improvements. Methods: Hypotheses of how the use of SLCA can promote improvement of social conditions in the life cycle are formulated, after which theories and empirical findings from relevant fields of research are used to address the validity of these hypotheses. Results: Three in some cases potentially overlapping SLCA approaches are presented, assumed to create a beneficial effect in the life cycle in different ways. However, empirical and theoretical findings show that the beneficial effects proposed to arise from the use of each of these three approaches may all be problematic. Some of these problems may be mitigated through methodological modifications. Conclusions: Given the significant problems in relation to creating an effect through the use of the SLCAs, and given the significant practical problems in applying the SLCAs, it is questioned whether the development of SLCA is a fruitful approach for improving social conditions in the product life cycle.

JØrgensen, Andreas; Dreyer, Louise C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

2007-01-01

342

Efficient Network Layer Addressing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents an addressing scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). This addressing scheme facilitates effective and efficient solutions to the challenging problems of 1) address re-configuration when two previously independent MANETs collide, 2) the attachment of a MANET to a wired gateway or entry point and 3) unique address assignment to new nodes joining a network. In addit#S tdi addressing scheme consist of variablelengt addressestse are e#cient int erms ofst age and bandwidt# This variablelengt addressing scheme can yield significant st age and t ansmission overhead savings.

Addressingfo Modre Adho

343

Collaborative Problem-Solving Environments; Proceedings for the Workshop CPSEs for Scientific Research, San Diego, California, June 20 to July 1, 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A workshop on collaborative problem-solving environments (CPSEs) was held June 29 through July 1, 1999, in San Diego, California. The workshop was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the High Performance Network Applications Team of the Large Scale Networking Working Group. The workshop brought together researchers and developers from industry, academia, and government to identify, define, and discuss future directions in collaboration and problem-solving technologies in support of scientific research.

Chin, George

1999-01-11

344

The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post) one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP), Research Project Conduct (RPC), Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001) before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the highest intensity. Thus, after intervention the magnitude of the problem was reduced. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that bureaucratic rules, shortage of research budget, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and personal skills are the reasons which hinder doing research activities. But the findings of this current study reveal that through reforming the administrative-management procedures and appropriate planning with regard to the current problems we can overcome the barriers and ameliorate the magnitude of the problems.Keywords: Intervention Studies; Organization and Administration; Operations Research; Research Personnel; Faculty; Universities; Qom, Iran.

Darabi Sh.; Koohpaie A.R; Yosefi M.H.; Komali T.; Ahmari Tehran H.

2009-01-01

345

State of the art: Multi-fuel reformers for automotive fuel cell applications. Problem identification and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.

Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

1999-12-01

346

Decision Making in T1 Translational Research Natcher Conference Center National Institutes of Health. Final Workshop Report, February 10-11, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify common problems encountered during the practice of T1 translational research and potential solutions to those problems. The workshop addressed the following topics: Pathways of T1 transaltional research, use of...

2009-01-01

347

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of temperate zone forests in the world carbon cycle: problem definition and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuing rise in the CO/sub 2/ content of the atmosphere has produced concern that in the next half-century, climatic, ecological and societal effects may occur throughout the world which will not easily be reversed. This prospect has encouraged a critical assessment of the many elements of the global carbon cycle and the influence of man on it. The role of the terrestrial biosphere has been underscored by recent evidence that reduction of the world's biota may be adding as much or more carbon to the atmosphere as combustion of fossil fuels. The diversity of world ecosystems, and the lack of data on carbon content in many of them, have led to different interpretations of how much the terrestrial biosphere contributes to carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. A detailed review is needed of the principal elements of biospheric influence on the carbon cycle, of where the accumulating atmospheric carbon is originating, and of the options there may be to control it. The Office of Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment of the US Department of Energy has funded The Institute of Ecology to evaluate three terrestrial biospheric components which may be important in the world carbon cycle. These components are: the temperate zone forest, particularly over the past 100 years; organic soils of the world; and freshwater systems subject to eutrophication. From 10 to 12 researchers have participated in each panel. Data review, problem definition and recommendations for research have been the focus in each workshop. The results reported here cover the temperate forest component.

Amentano, T.V.; Hett, J. (ed.)

1980-02-01

348

Addressing the Specific Behavioral Health Needs of Men  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) is a companion to TIP 51, Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women. These two volumes look at how gender-specific treatment strategies can improve outcomes for men and women, respectively. The physical, psychological, social, and spiritual effects of substance use and abuse on men can be quite different from the effects on women, and those differences have implications for treatment in behavioral health settings. Men are also affected by social and cultural forces in different ways than women, and physical differences between the genders influence substance use and recovery as well. This TIP, Addressing the Specific Behavioral Health Needs of Men, addresses these distinctions. It provides practical information based on available evidence and clinical experience that can help counselors more effectively treat men with substance use disorders. Historically, standard behavioral health services for substance abuse have been designed with male clients in mind. As the number of women presenting for substance abuse services increased, clinicians began to understand that women had different treatment needs than men, related to differences in their patterns of substance use and their perceptions of both the problem of substance abuse and its treatment. Researchers began to investigate how standard substance abuse treatment in a variety of behavioral health settings can be altered to improve outcomes for women. In the process, they have gained insight into how men's and women's responses to substance abuse and substance abuse treatment differ. These insights can also improve treatment for men. New research in the areas of gender studies and men's studies can help providers understand why men abuse substances and how to address masculine values in treatment.

349

Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two common problems in image analysis are described-the region-labeling problem and the clustering problem. Both are shown to be instances of a search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. That architecture, a novel type of content-addressable memory, is described, and its application to search-and-rename problems is discussed. 16 references.

Snyder, W.E.; Savage, C.D.

1982-10-01

350

The use of fuzzy logic control in solving problems related to the control of nuclear research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The fuzzy logic control technique is used in nuclear engineering technology, especially application to control the nuclear research reactors. Hence in an attempt to introduce the role of fuzzy logic in solving control problems and their postulation, we use one of the main idea of fuzzy logic control techniques for implementation on the first egyptian research reactor ETRR-1. We are to control not only the reactor power, but also upgrading the reactor control functions. Such as automation of the power compensation due to some aspects of fuel burn up, feedback reactivity and poisons effect by applying control action via one of the manual control rods. The control processes applied also to the core water temperature limits with taking into account the safety design rules to avoid shutdown or scram the reactor. Finally, it is developed a package of software program to simulate and implement the fuzzy logic control technique for the following applications; reactor power control, automatic power compensation control, and the control of core water temperature limits. During the reactor shift, some experiments are applied to the reactor and via the data acquisition system, we compare the calculation results of fuzzy logic control model and the deduction results from those experiments

2001-01-01

351

A Research About the Contribution of Vocational Education Centers (VEC) on Apprentices’ Professional Development and Current Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to identify the effectiveness of education served for apprentices in Vocational Education Centers (VEC), problems faced by apprentices, what the teachers do in terms of their vocational developments. This research is designed as mixed model and is used sample of the research includes 270 apprentices, 51 teachers and 152 craftsmen. Stratified sampling method is utilized for determining the sample of apprenticeship and craftsmen. As data gathering tool, “Contribution of VEC t Vocational Development of Apprentices Survey” developed by Tonbul and K?l?ço?lu (2011) was used in the study. The questionnaire consists of likert type questions, open ended questions and metaphors In data analysis, descriptive statistics (%, f) and content analysis technique for qualitative data were utilized. The results of the study are given in the following:Apprentices perceive VEC predominantly visit working places once a month, half of the participated teachers do not provide information about the status of the students in the school and they do not take the craftsmen’ expectations into account. Great majority of the craftsmen are not interested in what the apprentices learned. Participants are in the consensus that there is no healthy interaction with working places and Vocational Education Centers. In instructional behaviors of teachers, there are also differences between apprentices’ and teachers’ point of views. For the aim of self-development, teachers are participated academic quality vocational development activities in very low levels. Differentiation is observed in the developed metaphors by apprentices and teachers about Vocational Education Centers.

Y?lmaz Tonbul; Gökhan K?l?ço?lu

2013-01-01

352

Factoids, factettes and fallacies: the problem of crossover research in the analysis of consumer responses to biotechnology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sound appreciation of the factors governing community acceptance of innovation in biotechnology is crucially important to the ability of biotechnology to deliver solutions to problems of socio-economic and public health importance. However, much of the research on consumer acceptance has been carried out by individuals with formal expertise in fields other than the analysis of human behaviour. This crossover research results in a body of work that is based substantially on a relatively naïve, untutored approach to human behavioural science rather than on a thorough grounding in the subject. This paper describes, with examples, the potential for fundamental conceptual and methodological deficiencies to give rise to apparently plausible but misguided conclusions about consumer attitudes and behaviour and how they could be influenced. It is argued that, for biotechnological innovations to achieve their full potential for benefit, the appraisal of consumer and community reactions should be conducted using the same methodological standards and scientific rigour as those used to generate the innovations themselves.

Mohr P; Topping D

2010-12-01

353

An address by AECL's president  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy.

1997-01-01

354

Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

|Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

Barrett, Steven

2005-01-01

355

Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration  

Science.gov (United States)

If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views. This can be achieved through the introduction of boundary objects (Star and Griesemer, 1989) that are weakly structured in common use while strongly structured in individual use. In our experience, these are very effective in coordinating collaborative work, creating a map of activities, tasks, concepts or events that can be used to drive through the collaborative space in order to locate information. The collaborative work itself, populating this space with information, will build the contingent meaning of the represented features. We report on the use of several types of maps, from geographical maps that are inborn in the geosciences, to mind maps, event bushes and workflows, and we describe then how this space can be populated through messaging and data upload, access and analysis.

Diviacco, P.

2012-04-01

356

The abstracts of the lecture on the topic «the sociological approach to public opinion research at the system of sciences» for the course «sociological problems of the public opinion researches»  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper represents an abstract of the first lecture for the course «Sociological problems of public opinion researches» that is included in the state standard of professional education on the speciality 020300 «Sociology». Two main questions are discussed: the subject of public opinion sociology and the specific of sociological approach to public opinion research.

Lebedeva-Nesevria N. A.

2010-01-01

357

[Characteristics and adaptive problems of adults with subthreshold ASD in cognitive-behavioral intervention research for emotion regulation].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are developmental disorders that have social communication deficits as a core symptom. Even adults with high-functioning ASD have difficulties in social communication and, therefore, have deficits in understanding others' minds. Recent research has found that they are unable to understand not only others' minds, but also their own minds. This could lead to difficulties in self-regulation. Some studies have reported the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving self-regulation, especially in reducing anxiety in children and teenagers with ASD. However, few studies have examined adults with ASD. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of group-based CBT for adults with ASD. Our hypothesis is that adults with ASD can understand their own emotions. exercise self-regulation, and thus alleviate their own secondary symptoms, such as anxiety and depression. The study is a randomized open-blind study with centralization using minimization and blind assessors. In this paper, we introduce the protocol for this study and examine the characteristics and adaptive problems of people with subthreshold ASD interested in joining this study.

Kuroda M; Kawakubo Y; Kuwabara H; Kano Y; Kamio Y

2013-01-01

358

Beam port leakage problem in the BAEC TRIGA Mark-II research reactor and the corrective measures implemented  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor (RR) of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), which has been in operation since 1986, has four Beam Ports (BPs). One of the BPs, which remained plugged with the beam port plugs (mainly a graphite shield plug) for about 23 years, was found to be leaking when its plugs were removed for installation of a high resolution powder diffractometer in it. The leak, which was developed because of corrosion, was found in the aluminum part of the BP, which is located inside the reactor pool at a depth of about 8 m. Condensate accumulated in the annular space between the graphite plug and inner wall of the aluminum beam port initiated the corrosion. The graphite plug, which got stuck very tightly inside the BP, was removed using locally designed and fabricated hand tools. Leakage of water came to the notice of the reactor operation personnel a couple of days after the beam port had been cleared. Water leakage was stopped by installing a split type encirclement clam around the damaged part of the BP by some remote handling mechanisms, designed and fabricated locally. The paper presents in detail the description of the leakage problem and the remedial measures implemented so as to make the reactor operational again after about 16 months. (author)

2010-01-01

359

Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Swift JK; Derthick AO

2013-09-01

360

Web Sites that Address Gestational Diabetes and Perinatal Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity contributes to multiple health problems during pregnancy and predisposes a woman to develop gestational diabetes. This column reviews the currently best Web sites that address gestational diabetes and obesity during the perinatal period.

Montgomery, Kristen S.

 
 
 
 
361

Addressing Malnutrition in Hospitalized Adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Established guidelines and standardized protocols exist to assist clinicians in effectively addressing disease-related malnutrition in hospitalized adults. The goals of this treatment vary according to the disease state and the severity of the malnutrition. In starvation-related malnutrition, the goal of nutrition therapy is to restore healthy levels of lean body mass and body fat. For chronic disease-related malnutrition, the goals of treatment are to maintain and improve lean body mass and body fat. In acute-disease-related malnutrition, the goals of nutrition therapy are to support vital organ function and preserve the host response through the acute episode. The success of addressing malnutrition in hospitalized patients depends not just on the nutrition therapy selected, but also on the timely and appropriate application of guidelines and protocols by the clinicians dedicated to caring for malnourished patients. Coordination of nutrition care among providers is highly desirable, and usually includes a multidisciplinary team of clinicians typically comprising a physician, nurse, dietitian, and pharmacist. For greatest success, this attention to recognizing and addressing malnutrition begins at admission and continues beyond discharge to the community. When addressing malnutrition in hospitalized patients, oral feeding through diet enrichment or oral nutrition supplementation (ONS) is the first line of defense. ONS has consistently been demonstrated to provide nutrition, clinical, functional, and economic benefits to malnourished patients in both individual trials and meta-analyses. In an era when the cost of healthcare is rising as the population ages, addressing malnutrition in hospitalized patients is an important priority.

Hamilton C; Boyce VJ

2013-08-01

362

An address generation unit for array accessing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most current systems have an undesirable large semantic gap in that the objects and operations reflected in their architectures are not closely reflected to the objects and operations provided in programming languages. The authors maintain that far more effort than in the past should be spent on the design of novel computer architectures, supporting modern software concepts better than the traditional Von Newmann designs, or with other words, which can narrow the semantic gap. In this paper, the authors propose an address generation unit for array accessing. One major research effort in this research may be to narrow this semantic gap between architecture and array concepts.

Hsu, T.-C.; Kung, L.-Y. (Institute of Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (TW))

1989-12-01

363

The Use of Action Research in the Management of Environmental Problems - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.37en  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and discuss the possibilities for using participatory methodologies and action research in studies with a socioenvironmental focus, particularly in the rural context. Special emphasis is given to problems which occur as a result of interactions between researchers and communities and ways of building a shared vision are suggested. Finally, the article presents some results from a participatory project involving communities in a microbasin in the north-west region of Rio de Janeiro state, relating in particular to the health problems resulting from the use of pesticides. The procedures used to deal with the organization of the communities are also highlighted.

Michel Thiollent; Generosa de Oliveira Silva

2007-01-01

364

Multiline Addressing by Network Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider an optimization problem arising in the design of controllers for OLED displays. Our objective is to minimize amplitude of the electrical current through the diodes which has a direct impact on the lifetime of such a display. Modeling the problem in mathematical terms yields a class of ne...

Eisenbrand, Friedrich; Karrenbauer, Andreas; Skutella, Martin; Xu, Chihao

365

Qualitative computing and qualitative research: addressing the challenges of technology and globalization Qualitative Forschung, Software und die Herausforderungen durch Technologie und Globalisierung Computación cualitativa e investigación cualitativa: abordar los retos de la globalización y la tecnología  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qual...

Cisneros Puebla, César A.; Davidson, Judith

366

Introduction to IP address management  

CERN Document Server

"The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

Rooney, Tim

2010-01-01

367

Major developments in conulariid research: problems of interpretation and future perspectives/ Principales avances en la investigación de conuláridos (Cnidaria): problemas de interpretación y perspectivas futuras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El renovado interés en los conuláridos ha dado como resultado la clarificación de los problemas sobre su paleobiología. Descubrimientos sobre la morfología del peridermo y especímenes preservados in situ, juntamente con la aplicación de la teoría cladística en el análisis de afinidades de los conuláridos, contribuyeron a revivir las ideas de Kiderlen (1937), de que los conuláridos fueron afines a los Scyphozoa. Hasta 1979, las investigaciones sobre los conulá (more) ridos estuvieron concentradas en la descripción y propuesta de nuevas especies, fundamentadas en criterios fenéticos. Pocos trabajos abarcaron la paleobiología y afinidades filogenéticas de los conuláridos. En los años 80, el enfoque cambió y se publicaron artículos sobre la paleoecología, siendo ampliamente aceptada la hipótesis de que este grupo fue formado por organismos sésiles. En ese período se presentaron ideas sobre sus afinidades evolutivas, incluyendo la propuesta de que los conuláridos representaban un linaje evolutivo independiente. Durante la década de 90, el problema de las afinidades de los conuláridos fue intensamente debatido. En ese período, muchos autores obtuvieron nuevas evidencias que reforzaron conclusivamente la idea de que los conuláridos son afines a los Cnidaria. Evidencias tafonómicas indicaron que los conuláridos fueron organismos bentónicos fijados o anclados al substrato. Sin embargo, varios problemas permanecen aún no resueltos por lo que recomendamos (1) los especialistas en conuláridos deben aclarar los diversos términos morfológicos y (2) la estratigrafía secuencial debe ser integrada a los estudios sobre la paleoecología de los conuláridos. Abstract in english Renewed interest in conulariids has resulted in clarification of problems in the paleobiology of this group. Discoveries of skeletal structures and specimens preserved in situ, coupled with cladistic analyses, have led to a revival of Kiderlen's (1937) hypothesis that conulariids were polypoid scyphozoans or a sister taxon of this class. Until 1979, research on conulariids centered on the description of new species and on the erection of subgroups using phenetic approache (more) s. Few papers addressed the paleobiology and phylogenetic affinities of conulariids, and none employed cladistics. In contrast, the 1980's saw the publication of major papers on the paleoecology of conulariids, and during this decade the hypothesis that conulariids were benthic organisms was corroborated. Also, new ideas concerning the affinities of conulariids, including the proposal that conulariids represent an extinct phylum, were presented. During the 1990's, the problem of conulariid affinities was widely debated, with authors advocating either that conulariids represent a separate phylum or that they were cnidarians. Near the close of that decade, certain advocates of a cnidarian affinity argued that conulariids were most closely related to Cnidaria. Taphonomic evidence indicates that conulariids were benthic animals originally oriented with their aperture opening upward and that they attached to or were embedded in hard and soft substrates. To understand unresolved problems we recommend that (1) conulariid specialists develop a standard morphological nomenclature based on rigorous definitions; and (2) studies on conulariid paleoecology be carried out using a sequence stratigraphy approach.

Leme, Juliana de Moraes; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Rodrigues, Sabrina Coelho; Van Iten, Heyo; Marques, Antonio Carlos

2008-06-01

368

What is important, what needs treating? How GPs perceive older patients’ multiple health problems: a mixed method research study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background GPs increasingly deal with multiple health problems of their older patients. They have to apply a hierarchical management approach that considers priorities to balance competing needs for treatment. Yet, the practice of setting individual priorities in older patients is largely unexplored. This paper analyses the GPs’ perceptions on important and unimportant health problems and how these affect their treatment. Methods GPs appraised the importance of health problems for a purposive sample of their older patients in semi-structured interviews. Prior to the interviews, the GPs had received a list of their patients’ health problems resulting from a geriatric assessment and were asked to rate the importance of each identified problem. In the interviews the GPs subsequently explained why they considered certain health problems important or not and how this affected treatment. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis and quantitative methods. Results The problems GPs perceive as important are those that are medical and require active treatment or monitoring, or that induce empathy or awareness but cannot be assisted further. Unimportant problems are those that are well managed problems and need no further attention as well as age-related conditions or functional disabilities that provoke fatalism, or those considered outside the GPs’ responsibility. Statements of professional actions are closely linked to explanations of important problems and relate to physical problems rather than functional and social patient issues. Conclusions GPs tend to prioritise treatable clinical conditions. Treatment approaches are, however, vague or missing for complex chronic illnesses and disabilities. Here, patient empowerment strategies are of value and need to be developed and implemented. The professional concepts of ageing and disability should not impede but rather foster treatment and care. To this end, GPs need to be able to delegate care to a functioning primary care team. Trial Registration German Trial Register (DRKS): 00000792

Junius-Walker Ulrike; Wrede Jennifer; Schleef Tanja; Diederichs-Egidi Heike; Wiese Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier Eva; Dierks Marie-Luise

2012-01-01

369

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and high out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 -- Appendix C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department`s 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research.

NONE

1998-04-01

370

Research on the inverse scattering problem for the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Final report 1 October 1977-30 September 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Principal Investigator's principal research direction has been to find appropriate triangularity conditions for the Gelfand-Levitan kernel in three-dimensions. The Gelfand-Levitan kernel for the one-dimensional problem has served as a model.

Moses, H.E.

1980-12-15

371

A Heuristic Routing Mechanism Using a New Addressing Scheme  

CERN Multimedia

Current methods of routing are based on network information in the form of routing tables, in which routing protocols determine how to update the tables according to the network changes. Despite the variability of data in routing tables, node addresses are constant. In this paper, we first introduce the new concept of variable addresses, which results in a novel framework to cope with routing problems using heuristic solutions. Then we propose a heuristic routing mechanism based on the application of genes for determination of network addresses in a variable address network and describe how this method flexibly solves different problems and induces new ideas in providing integral solutions for variety of problems. The case of ad-hoc networks is where simulation results are more supportive and original solutions have been proposed for issues like mobility.

Ravanbakhsh, Mohsen; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

2007-01-01

372

Addressing the Obesity Epidemic: A Genomics Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Genomics is the study of the entire human genome and involves not only studying the actions of single genes but also the interactions of multiple genes with each other and with the environment. This article emphasizes the multifactorial nature of common obesity, which is caused by the interaction of genes, environment, and lifestyle. Individual variation in genes that influence behavior, satiety, and taste suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach to reducing or preventing obesity may be ineffective. Data are not yet available to allow for personalized obesity interventions based on genetic predisposition. However, a genomics approach may provide a useful framework for addressing the obesity epidemic. More research is needed before specific targeted public health interventions that include genomic strategies can be effectively integrated into addressing obesity in public health practice.

Astrid Newell, MD; Amy Zlot, MPH; Kerry Silvey, MA; Kiley Ariail, MPH

2007-01-01

373

Address Prefix Discovery Technique in IDMaps Project  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we are going to describe our techniqueto discover the Internet Address Prexes(APs). This technique is based on idistancej. Byidistancej we mean latency or hop count. Differenttechniques have been previously used toimapj the Internet. Most of those techniques dependon hop-limited probes, which increase thenetwork load around the hosts that are doing themapping. Our technique is based mostly on latencywhich tries to aggregate those IP addressesthat have almost the same idistancej into thesame Address Prex (AP). By using that technique,only a few packets are sent to infer thedistance to a specic host. The grouping techniquecan be rened by doing some hop-limitedprobes.1 IntroductionIn recent years, a lot of research projects start toexplore the map of the Internet. People now startwondering iHow does Internet look like?j [1].Nowadays, mirroring data on dioeerent servers [2]is becoming quite a famous technique. This willdecrease the service time for th...

Amgad A. Zeitoun

374

Data Protection and the Promotion of Health Research: If the Laws Are Not the Problem, Then What Is?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data protection laws offer such broad exemptions for research that research ethics boards and data custodians lack sufficient guidance as to when it may be acceptable to release data to researchers without consent. The result: idiosyncratic institutional policies that create major challenges for res...

Willison, Donald J.

375

Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and organization problems which SME’s face is high for SME’s to survive and develop.At this investigation, it is aimed to search management and organization problems of textile enterprises which are considered as SME that is activating at Denizli Industrial Zone. For this, survey and interview method is used. By looking at investigation results; some suggestions are emphasized by gaining some findings about planning, harmonization, auditing, devolution of authority, decision making, organization related problems, institutionalization related problems, human resources related problems and education related problems that takes place in SME management and organization problems.

Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

2008-01-01

376

Turning Workstation in the AMRF (Automated Manufacturing Research Facility),  

Science.gov (United States)

The Turning Workstation is a flexible manufacturing workstation developed in the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (A.M.R.F.) at the National Bureau of Standards. The development of the workstation addressed some of the problems associated with an...

A. M. Donmez R. J. Gavin L. Greenspan K. B. Lee V. J. Lee

1988-01-01

377

The Global Environment: Invitation for RITE Research Proposals  

Science.gov (United States)

Japan's Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) invites basic research proposals for the year 2000. Research proposals should address (the resolution of) global environmental problems. The deadline for FY2000 proposals is October 29, 1999. Examples of past funded research and proposal guidelines are available at the site.

378

Metodología de una Investigación sobre Métodos de Enseñanza de Problemas Aditivos con Números Negativos (Methodology for a Research about Teaching Methods of Additive Problems with Negative Numbers)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta la metodología de una investigación de aula donde se contrastan dos métodos de enseñanza de problemas aditivos con números negativos. En el “método redactar” los alumnos enuncian los problemas, aprenden sus estructuras y resuelven problemas propuestos por sus compañeros. En el “método resolver” se practican los problemas en una secuencia marcada por un orden de dificultad. El conocimiento adquirido se contrastó con el de otros alumnos que resolvieron problemas del libro de texto como aplicación de reglas operatorias. La metodología conjuga un tratamiento estadístico para contrastar la efectividad de los métodos con base en el éxito en la resolución y un estudio cualitativo de ciertos aspectos del “método redactar”. We present a research methodology used in a classroom study in which two different learning methods of additive problems with negative numbers are compared. With the “writing method” students write the problems, learn their structures and solve problems that have been written by their partners. With the “solving method” students practice additive problems in a given sequence, according to the problems level of difficulty. The knowledge acquired was compared with the one obtained by other students who solved additive problems from the textbook, as application of operational rules. We have used a mixed methodology: A statistical treatment to contrast the effectiveness of the methods for solving problems and a qualitative study of certain aspects of the “writing method”.

Alicia Bruno

2009-01-01

379

Implications for Problem-Solving Groups of Empirical Research on "Brainstorming": A Critical Review of the Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines brainstorming as an aid to creative group problem solving. Presents a history of its practice, a survey of empirical studies, and theoretical explanations for the superiority of individual over group brainstorming. (PD)

Jablin, Frederic M.; Seibold, David R.

1978-01-01

380

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

Bond, L.; Kostelnik, K.; Holman, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3898 (United States)

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

2006-11-01

382

Problemas y retos de la investigacion en el siglo XXI (El caso de la RIEMS y la conformación de la antropoética)/ Problems and challenges of research in the XXI century (The case of the RIEMS and conformation of the anthropoetics)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La investigación en el siglo XXI enfrenta un sin número de retos y problemas, en esta centuria en que vivimos, el reto no sólo de la investigación si no de la educación, es que debe conciliarse la materia y el espíritu, la naturaleza y la cultura, la ciencia y las humanidades, propiciando un reencuentro entre la tecnología y el humanismo, integrando la memoria y el proyecto. Por ello creemos que el nuevo paradigma de la investigación y educación es la conformaci? (more) ?n de la antropoética. En este documento abordamos la problemática que representa la Reforma Integral de la Educación Media Superior (RIEMS), no sólo para la investigación, sino también para el proceso de conformación de la antropoética. Para ello se abordan sus términos conceptuales, como antropoética, competencias transversales y las nociones de conformación, complejidad. Hemos seleccionado el escenario de la educación media superior, específicamente el bachillerato, porque es en este nivel de la educación, donde se generan diversas modalidades educativas que derivan en prácticas neoliberalistas de capacitación e instrucción, tal es el caso de la RIEMS, lo que inhibe el proceso de formación humana y por ende su posibilidad de formación antropoética. Esta ultima como una opción clave para la educación de las futuras generaciones. Abstract in english Research in the XXI century faces a myriad of challenges and problems, in this century in which we live, the challenge not only of research but also of education, is that they must reconcile matter and spirit, nature and culture, science and humanities, leading to an reencounter between technology and humanism, integrating memory and project. We therefore believe that the new paradigm of research and education is the conformation to anthropoetics. In this paper we address (more) the problem posed by the Comprehensive Reform for Middle and Higher Education (Riems), not only for research but also for the process of shaping the anthropoetics. This will address conceptual terms, as anthropoetics, generic skills and concepts of structure, complexity. We have chosen the scenario of higher education, undergratuate specifically, because it is at this level of education, that are generated various types of education that result in practical neoliberal training and instruction, such is the case of Riems, which inhibits human education processes and thus their ability of anthropoetic training. This latter as a key option for the education of future generations.

Hernández, Víctor Manuel Alvarado; Betancourt, Martin Manjarrez

2010-07-01

383

Terapia comunitária como recurso de abordagem do problema do abuso do álcool, na atenção primária/ Terapia comunitaria como medio de abordar el problema del abuso de alcohol en la atención primaria/ Community Therapy as a Method to Address the Problem of Alcohol Abuse in Primary Care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar potencialidades da terapia comunitária (TC) como recurso de abordagem do problema do abuso do álcool na atenção primária, sob a perspectiva de um usuário. A pesquisa foi realizada na sede do Projeto Quatro Varas, Fortaleza, CE. Empregou-se a abordagem qualitativa de cunho etnográfico, utilizando entrevista semiestruturada e observação participante. Dos 20 participantes da terapia entrevistados, um foi escolhido para entre (more) vista de aprofundamento. Construíram-se dois núcleos temáticos: os efeitos da terapia na abordagem do alcoolismo e terapia como recurso de apoio social, na abordagem dos problemas relacionados ao uso de álcool. Resultados indicam que o diálogo estabelecido na terapia promove ressignificação da problemática e redirecionamento de itinerários terapêuticos, no sentido da gestão da própria vida e busca da cidadania. Conclui-se que a TC favorece a formação de teia de relações sistêmicas, que amplia a compreensão dos problemas decorrentes do uso de álcool, constituindo-se em efetiva estratégia para sua abordagem no campo da saúde comunitária. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar el potencial de la terapia comunitaria (TC) como medio de abordar el problema del abuso de alcohol en la atención primaria desde la perspectiva del usuario. La investigación fue realizada en la Sede del Proyecto Cuatro Varas, Fortaleza-CE, Brasil. Fue empleado un abordaje cualitativo de tipo etnográfico, utilizando la entrevista semiestructurada y la observación participante. De los 20 participantes de la terapia entrevistad (more) os, uno fue escogido para la entrevista en profundidad. Construimos dos núcleos temáticos: los efectos de la terapia en el abordaje del alcoholismo y la terapia como recurso de apoyo social en el abordaje de los problemas relacionados al uso de alcohol. Los resultados indican que el diálogo establecido en la terapia promueve resignificación de la problemática y reorientación de itinerarios terapéuticos en el sentido de la gestión de la propia vida y la búsqueda de la ciudadanía. Concluimos que la TC favorece la formación de una red de relaciones sistémicas, que amplia la comprensión de los problemas provenientes del uso de alcohol, constituyéndose en efectiva estrategia para su abordaje en el campo de la salud comunitaria. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the potential of community therapy (CT) as a method to address the problem of alcohol abuse in primary care from a user perspective. This study was carried out at the headquarters of the Quatro Varas Project, Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. This qualitative, ethnographic study used semi-structured interview and participant observation. Of the 20 interviewed participants, one was chosen for an in-depth interview. Two thematic units were constructed: the (more) effects of the therapy on alcoholism and therapy as a social support resource for problems related to alcohol use. Results indicate that the dialogue established during therapy promotes re-signification of the problem and redirects the therapy course towards management of one's own life and search for citizenship. We concluded that CT favors the elaboration of a network of systemic relationships that broaden the understanding of problems caused by alcoholism and is an effective strategy to address the problem in the community health sphere.

Giffoni, Francinete Alves de Oliveira; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos

2011-06-01

384

MELCOR 1.8.3. Code Assessment and Validation in Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava a.s., International Standard Problem 37 Code Comparison Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava a.s. (Slovakia) implementation of MELCOR 1.8.3 code in 1995. In an effort to introduce and to validate the code for severe accident analysis of Slovak WWER 440 several activities were carried out, starting from sample tests and aiming to development of complex WWER-440 V-213 model. In the frame of the MELCOR code validation Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava a.s. (Slovakia) participated in the International Standard Problem 37 (VANAM M3 - A Multi Compartment Aerosol Depletion Test). Brief description of International Standard Problem 37 is given in the paper together with Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava a.s. (Slovakia) MELCOR model of the experiment. Summary of final evaluation of the International Standard Problem 37 results from Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Trnava a.s. (Slovakia) MELCOR participation is presented. Present status of WWER-440/V-213 MELCOR model is briefly described as well as the plans for next steps in the MELCOR code validation

1997-01-01

385

Qualitative Forschung, Software und die Herausforderungen durch Technologie und Globalisierung Qualitative Computing and Qualitative Research: Addressing the Challenges of Technology and Globalization Computación cualitativa e investigación cualitativa: Abordar los retos de la globalización y la tecnología  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computergestützte qualitative Methoden gehören seit ca. 30 Jahren zu unserem wissenschaftlichen Alltag. Aus unserer Perspektive ist es nun an der Zeit, deren Einfluss auf qualitative Forschung auf einer internationalen Ebene neu zu bewerten. Dies zu tun, macht einen Überblick über sehr weite Teile qualitativer Forschung und Technologie erforderlich und auch über deren sehr ungleichen Nutzungsstand für unterschiedliche Untersuchungsfelder und geografische Regionen – es geht um eine Bewertung, die sich der digitalen Kluft und der teilweise massiven Differenz zwischen Zentren und Peripherien gewahr sein muss.Genau um diese Fragen geht es in den hier versammelten Beiträgen, die auf die "Qualitative Computing: Diverse Worlds and Research Practices Conference" zurückgehen. In unserer Einleitung versuchen wir, etwas von den Zielen, der Motivation und der Atmosphäre dieser Konferenz einzufangen, die 2011 in Istanbul stattgefunden hat. Die dort begonnenen Dialoge sind sicher nur ein Startpunkt, und wir verstehen diese Einleitung auch als Anstoß, sie aufzugreifen und weiterzuführen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study and geographical regions. To understand the international impact of qualitative computing requires evaluation of the digital divide and the huge differences between center and peripheries. The international impact of qualitative research, and, in particular qualitative computing, is the question at the heart of this array of selected papers from the "Qualitative Computing: Diverse Worlds and Research Practices Conference." In this article, we introduce the reader to the goals, motivation, and atmosphere at the conference, taking place in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011. The dialogue generated there is still in the air, and this introduction is a call to spread that voice.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285La computación cualitativa ha formado parte de nuestras vidas pro treinta años. Hoy día, reclamamos urgentemente una evaluación de sus impactos internacionales sobre la investigación cualitativa. Evaluar el impacto internacional de la investigación cualitativa y la computación cualitativa requiere una consideración de la vasta producción de investigación cualitativa de las últimas décadas y aún la forma desigual y combinada en la que la investigación cualitativa y la computación cualitativa se presentan en diferentes campos de estudio y regiones geográficas. Entender este impacto internacional requiere evaluar la brecha digital y las enormes diferencias entre centro y periferias. El impacto internacional de la investigación cualitativa y, en particular, la computación cualitativa, es la pregunta toral de este conjunto de artículos seleccionados de la Conferencia Computación Cualitativa: Prácticas de investigación y mundos diversos.  En este artículo, presentamos al lector los objetivos, motivación y atmósfera de tal Conferencia en Estambul, Turquía. El diálogo generado allí está, todavía, en el aire y esta introducción es una llamada, para correr la voz.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285

César A. Cisneros Puebla; Judith Davidson

2012-01-01

386

Addressing chronic disease within supportive housing programs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Tenants of supportive housing have a high burden of chronic health conditions. OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility of developing a tenant-involved health promotion initiative within a "housing first" agency using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework. METHODS: Qualitative analyses of nine research capacity-building group meetings and fifteen individual pre- and post-interviews with those who completed a chronic disease self-management program, resulting in the development of several themes. RESULTS: Tenants of supportive housing successfully partnered with health care providers to implement a chronic disease self-management program, noting that "health care becomes 'relevant' with housing." CONCLUSIONS: Supportive housing organizations are well-situated to implement health promotion initiatives. Such publicly subsidized housing that is accompanied by comprehensive supports must also include self-management training to help people overcome both internal and external barriers to addressing chronic health needs.

Henwood BF; Stanhope V; Brawer R; Weinstein LC; Lawson J; Stwords E; Crossan C

2013-01-01

387

Zur Gültigkeit von Qualitativer Sozialforschung On the Problem of Validity of Qualitative Research On the Problem of Validity of Qualitative Research [Acerca del problema de la validez en la investigación cualitativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aus wissenssoziologischer Sicht wird anfangs die Frage gestellt, ob die Erkenntnisse, die von Wissenschaftlern/innen in Ausübung ihres Berufs und in Befolgung ihrer Professionsstandards erlangt wurden, auch beanspruchen können, 'gültig' zu sein. Durch die Anwendung der Wissenssoziologie auf die Forschung wird die unhintergehbare Perspektivengebundenheit von Forschung gezeigt (wahrlich keine überraschende Erkenntnis). Das Ziel von Forschung – so die These – kann deshalb nur die systematische und organisierte Produktion von Zweifeln und die dadurch erreichte Fehlerausmerzung sein – und Forschung hat darin auch ihren Sinn. Abschließend werden Vorschläge gemacht, wie angesichts einer verstärkten Konkurrenz um Drittmittel und trotz der heiklen erkennntistheoretischen Position qualitativ arbeitende Projekte verteidigungsfähig gemacht werden können. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002324Whether the research results put forth by (social) scientists on behalf of their professional vocation and on behalf of their professional standards they adhere to, can be regarded as valid, shall be examined from the perspective of the sociology of knowledge. By means of applying the sociology of knowledge to its own research results, it shall be shown that research and research results are inevitably bound to perspective (in fact, not a surprising insight). Therefore—so the underlying thesis of the argument—, research must be aimed at the systematic production of doubt in order to facilitate maximum extinction of fault. Suggestions are advanced of how qualitative research projects can be defended despite the increasing competition regarding research grants and despite the problematic epistemological position. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002324URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002324

Jo Reichertz

2000-01-01

388

World practical use plan getting into full swing and solution of problems in our country. Activities of 'HTGR plant research team'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HTGR Plan Research Team represents specialists and experts from universities, industry and government research organizations for a HTGR Project, in order to identify fresh approaches to and develop of its solutions appropriate for the radically transformed technological world. Development of a HTGR founds a way in not only high efficiency generation but also heat utilization for hydrogen production. The practical use plan is pushed forward in various countries in the world. Technical standard of a Japanese HTGR now is the highest. However, research and development for the practical use does not become a national policy. This article introduces movement to a latest development trend/practical use of the world and also describes activities of the HTGR Plant Research Team for the solution of problems in a practical use. (T. Tanaka)

2007-01-01

389

Addressing childhood overweight through schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rates of childhood obesity in have reached alarming proportions in many countries. Sixteen percent of school-aged children and adolescents in the U.S. are overweight. Legislation implemented in 2004 in the U.S. requires local education agencies (LEAs) that sponsor school meal programs to establish local wellness policies to address childhood obesity. Project PA, a collaboration between a state agency and a university providing school-based interventions focuses on the school environment and policy changes. Interventions have targeted foodservice personnel, administrators, teachers, parents and students. In two recent projects schools assessed their school nutrition environments, developed nutrition policies, and implemented strategies to encourage healthier food selections. Schools identified weaknesses in the areas of marketing and communication of policies. Media attention on the childhood obesity facilitated policy changes. Time and cost were identified as barriers to policy development and there were concerns about weak enforcement of policies. These themes are discussed.

Probart C; McDonnell E; Weirich JE; Birkenshaw P; Fekete V

2007-03-01

390

Examining Factors in the Research Institute on Addictions Self-Inventory (RIASI): Associations with Alcohol Use and Problems at Assessment and Follow-Up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impaired driving is a leading cause of alcohol-related deaths and injuries. Rehabilitation or remedial programs, involving assessment and screening of convicted impaired drivers to determine problem severity and appropriate programs, are an important component of society’s response to this problem. Ontario’s remedial program, Back on Track (BOT), involves an assessment process that includes administration of the Research Institute on Addictions Self-Inventory (RIASI) to determine assignment to an education or treatment program. The purpose of this study is to identify factors within the RIASI and examine how factor scores are associated with alcohol use and problem indicators at assessment and six-month follow-up. The sample included 22,298 individuals who completed BOT from 2000 to 2005. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on RIASI data and an eight factor solution was retained: (1) Negative Affect, (2) Sensation Seeking, (3) Alcohol-Quantity, (4) Social Conformity, (5) High Risk Lifestyle, (6) Alcohol Problems, (7) Interpersonal Competence, and (8) Family History. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between factors and alcohol and problem measures obtained at assessment and at follow-up. Most factors, except for Interpersonal Competence, were associated with more alcohol use and problems at assessment. A similar pattern was observed at 6-month follow-up, but interestingly some factors (Negative Affect, Sensation Seeking, Alcohol-Quantity and Family History) predicted fewer days of alcohol use. The Interpersonal Competence factor was associated with significantly lower levels of alcohol use and problems at both assessment and follow-up. This work suggests that the RIASI provides information on several domains that have important relationships with alcohol problem severity and outcomes.

Robert E. Mann; Gina Stoduto; Rosely Flam Zalcman; Thomas H. Nochajski; Louise Hall; Patricia Dill; Elisabeth Wells-Parker

2009-01-01

391

Annual Research Review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has suggested that the presence of significant levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a clinically important and etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Based on this research, CU traits have been included in the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) - as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. In this review, we attempt to understand CU traits within a developmental psychopathological framework. Specifically, we summarize research on the normal development of the prosocial emotions of empathy and guilt (i.e., conscience) and we illustrate how the development of CU traits can be viewed as the normal development of conscience gone awry. Furthermore, we review research on the stability of CU traits across different developmental periods and highlight factors that can influence this stability. Finally, we highlight the implications of this developmental psychopathological framework for future etiological research, for assessment and diagnostic classification, and for treatment of children with serious conduct problems.

Frick PJ; Ray JV; Thornton LC; Kahn RE

2013-10-01

392

Evaluation of mid-to-long term basic research for environmental restoration: Preliminary analysis to characterize DOE waste problems in a 5- to 20-year timeframe and to identify research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes a long-term basic research program for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that complements departmental initiatives in waste management and site cleanup. The most important problems faced by DOE are environmental restoration of waste sites and cleanup of inactive facilities. Environmental restoration is defined in this report as characterization, assessment, remediation, and post-closure verification within the waste/environmental system at DOE sites. Remediation of inactive, contaminated waste-disposal sites is the largest and most expensive task facing DOE. Immobilization, isolation, separation, and destruction of waste, either aboveground or in situ, are difficult and costly tasks. Technologies for these tasks are primitive or do not exist. Departmental problems in the long term are being analyzed scientifically and research needs are being identified. When completed, the Office of Energy Research's (OER's) basis research plan will describe potential scientific research needs for universities, national laboratories, and others as a basis for research proposals to DOE. Extensive interaction with the scientific community is planned to further refine and prioritize research<