WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

Finn, Gregory G.

2

Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. PMID:22525104

Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

2012-05-01

3

Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests that action research provides ownership and often results in a sense of efficacy by engaging practitioners in the change process. Describes the practitioner-based movement in professional development and program improvement in Pennsylvania. (JOW)

Weiracuh, Drucie; Kuhne, Gary

2001-01-01

4

Addressing the Curriculum Problem in Doctoral Education  

Science.gov (United States)

How best to understand the curriculum problem in doctoral research education: that is the question that this paper engages. It begins by noting that curriculum as such is little referenced and inadequately theorised in higher education and certainly in doctoral education, and indeed has been described as a "missing term". The paper then reviews a…

Green, Bill

2012-01-01

5

Islamic Education Research Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

Abdul Muthalib

2012-04-01

6

Islamic Education Research Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three type...

Abdul Muthalib

2012-01-01

7

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

8

Diversity Issues in Educational Research. Keynote Address.  

Science.gov (United States)

To be mindful of diversity issues, educational research must expand its dimensions, analyze assumptions, include researchers with authentic perspective, rethink the impact of research consumption, and redefine parameters of researchers' work. Also important are the gatekeeping function of refereed journals, multidimensionality of diversity, choice…

Boyer, James B.

1998-01-01

9

Problems of research politics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB)

1977-04-01

10

Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

Los, Wouter

2014-05-01

11

Pharmaceutical Research Design Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Through this lesson and its associated activity, students explore the role of biomedical engineers working for pharmaceutical companies. First, students gain background knowledge about what biomedical engineers do, how to become a biomedical engineer, and the steps of the engineering design process. The goal is to introduce biomedical engineering as medical problem solving as well as highlight the importance of maintaining normal body chemistry. Students participate in the research phase of the design process as it relates to improving the design of a new prescription medication. During the research phase, engineers learn about topics by reading scholarly articles written by others, and students experience this process. Students draw on their research findings to participate in discussion and draw conclusions about the impact of medications on the human body.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

12

The problem of causality in cultivation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an up-to-date review of problems in determining causal relationships in cultivation research, and considers the research rationales of various approaches with special reference to causal interpretation. It describes in turn a number of methodologies for addressing the problem and resolving it as far as this is possible. The issue of causal inference arises not only in cultivation research, however, but is basic to all media effects theories and approaches primarily at the ma...

2004-01-01

13

Multi Objective 3-SAT Problems addressed with Message Passing Techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Message passing algorithms have been very successful in solving hard combinatorial problems, and have resulted in breakthrough results in the domain of random K-SAT problems. However, only single-objective SAT problems have been adressed by survey-propagation methods, whereas most real-world problems are indeed multi objective. A first approach to multi objective optimization using a message-passing algorithm is introduced, that aims at sampling the Pareto set, i.e. the set of Pareto-non-domi...

Furtlehner, Cyril; Schoenauer, Marc

2010-01-01

14

Operations research problems statements and solutions  

CERN Multimedia

The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

2014-01-01

15

Addressing the punctuation marks problem in automatic handwriting recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In this work the functionality of a modern handwriting recognition system is explained. The need for a good punctuation detection is briefly motivated. Experiments to enhance the performance of the system on the detection of punctuation marks are developed and analysed. Finally, the unsatisfying results of these experiments are discussed and new ideas for future research are sketched.

Mu?ller, Thomas

2010-01-01

16

Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata (MACA) for Addressing Major Problems in Bioinformatics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CA has grown as potential classifier for addressing major problems in bioinformatics. Lot of bioinformatics problems like predicting the protein coding region, finding the promoter region, predicting the structure of protein and many other problems in bioinformatics can be addressed through Cellular Automata. Even though there are some prediction techniques addressing these problems, the approximate accuracy level is very less. An automated procedure was proposed with MACA (...

Sree, Pokkuluri Kiran; Babu, Inampudi Ramesh; Nedunuri, Sssn Usha Devi

2013-01-01

17

Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the 'spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep. PMID:24738763

Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Nagel, Saskia K

2014-05-01

18

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

19

Addressing the pilot security problem with gLExec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. However, many groups are starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one

2008-07-01

20

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one

2007-09-02

 
 
 
 
21

Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

Morrison, D.L.

1996-12-01

22

Organizational capacity building: addressing a research and practice gap.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to address the gap between evaluation research, and the practice of capacity building with nonprofits. This study describes a 5-year capacity building initiative with grassroots organizations including a longitudinal evaluation of the implementation and outcomes achieved. Formative processes yielded many lessons that were used to improve the capacity building model of services. The results show that the majority of groups met a priori expectations for participation success. Organizational staff valued technology, consultants, and program funding the most. Increases were found in board membership and perceptions of visibility of the organization were enhanced. Executive directors reported greater awareness of needs and improved management knowledge. These small organizations fill many unmet needs and more capacity building evaluation studies are needed to understand the mechanisms that support their efforts and the impact on their sustainability. PMID:17689329

Sobeck, Joanne; Agius, Elizabeth

2007-08-01

23

Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

Paytan, A.

2013-12-01

24

Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

25

A Problem-Solving Approach to Addressing Current Global Challenges in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper begins with an analysis of global problems shaping education, particularly as they impact upon learning and life chances. In addressing these problems a range of philosophical positions and controversies are considered, including: traditional romantic and institutional views of schooling; and more recent maximalist, neo-liberal,…

Chapman, Judith D.; Aspin, David N.

2013-01-01

26

Quantifying the magnitude of environmental exposure misclassification when using imprecise address proxies in public health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spatial epidemiologic and public health research it is common to use spatially aggregated units such as centroids of postal/zip codes, census tracts, dissemination areas, blocks or block groups as proxies for sample unit locations. Few studies, however, address the potential problems associated with using these units as address proxies. The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude of distance errors and accessibility misclassification that result from using several commonly-used address proxies in public health research. The impact of these positional discrepancies for spatial epidemiology is illustrated by examining misclassification of accessibility to several health-related facilities, including hospitals, public recreation spaces, schools, grocery stores, and junk food retailers throughout the City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Positional errors are quantified by multiple neighborhood types, revealing that address proxies are most problematic when used to represent residential locations in small towns and rural areas compared to suburban and urban areas. Findings indicate that the shorter the threshold distance used to measure accessibility between subject population and health-related facility, the greater the proportion of misclassified addresses. Using address proxies based on large aggregated units such as centroids of census tracts or dissemination areas can result in very large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 343 and 2088 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and therefore should be avoided in spatial epidemiologic research. Even smaller, commonly-used, proxies for residential address such as postal code centroids can have large positional discrepancies (median errors up to 109 and 1363 m in urban and rural areas, respectively), and are prone to misrepresenting accessibility in small towns and rural Canada; therefore, postal codes should only be used with caution in spatial epidemiologic research. PMID:22469491

Healy, Martin A; Gilliland, Jason A

2012-04-01

27

Ethical Issues in Addressing Inequity in/through ESL Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines a researcher's struggles with conducting "ethical" research when her case study reveals racializations faced by a minority teacher in a Canadian ESL program. How might becoming privy to research participants' experiences of inequity in ESL education complicate the notion of research ethics when "doing the right thing" runs…

Lee, Ena

2011-01-01

28

No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

Fernando Ornelas Marques

2012-06-01

29

Researching a Problem. (Problem Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Solving Tools Series No. 2).  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem-oriented policing focuses, one-by-one, on specific problems of crime and disorder with the intention of identifying and altering the particular factors giving rise to each problem. The problems addressed in problem oriented policing tend not to be...

R. V. Clarke P. A. Schultze

2005-01-01

30

Advanced Knowledge of the Solution in Quantum Algorithms Addressing Structured Problems  

CERN Document Server

In previous work, we showed that quantum correlation, between selection of the problem on the part of Bob and read out of the solution on the part of Alice, can explain the quantum speed up. All is like Alice's read out contributed to selecting the problem, which becomes Alice knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution. This explanation, developed for unstructured data-base search, was coarsely extended to the quantum algorithms that address structured problems. Now, thanks to a more general representation of Alice's advanced knowledge of the solution, we provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of the speed up also for the latter algorithms. This should significantly increase the plausibility of our argument.

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

31

ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to other Universities/Instition/Organisations for case studies. Under the new millennium context resurgence of global interest in web-based Open, distance and e-learning (ODEL has been proved to be potentially useful strategy for human development issues, particularly due to the evolution of fast-growing as well as net-working new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. The study reveals that though ODEL has been found widely used in many reputed and world leading universities in UK for higher studies leading to degrees, diploma and certificates on arts, general & environmental sciences as well the commerce subjects, and trainings for professional developments etc. The application ODEL especially in higher agricultural education and training leading to MScs and PhDs is almost scanty except a few cases of Fisheries and Livestock, the two sections of Agriculture in the Universities like the University of Sterling, University of Edinburgh and the University of London (Royal Veterinary College etc. But in cases of other major areas of Agricultural subjects such as the crop sciences including Agronomy, Soil science, Crop botany, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Genetics & Pl. Breeding, Agric. Extension Education, Agric. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agro forestry, Biotechnology, Seed Sci. & Techno. Farm Structure, Farm Power & Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management, Food Tech. & Rural Farm Industry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable a

. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

2009-10-01

32

Methodological problems in Rorschach research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

?uri?-Jo?i? Dragana

2007-01-01

33

Georgia's Water Problems and Related Research Needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water problems and research needs are discussed by region of the State. They are also discussed under the headings of water quantity, quality, ecology, planning and management, and agriculture. A survey of research capability in Georgia colleges is includ...

G. E. Willeke A. C. Benke A. M. Lumb B. H. Kornegay W. P. Neely

1973-01-01

34

BERA Presidential Address 2013: Educational Research--What's to Be Done?  

Science.gov (United States)

In his inaugural Presidential Address, given to the BERA Conference 2013 at the University of Sussex, Ian Menter addresses a number of issues concerning educational policy and the contributions that educational research might make to policy development. As BERA approaches its fortieth anniversary, he also sets out some of the responsibilities that…

Menter, Ian

2014-01-01

35

No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language), but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the nee...

Fernando Ornelas Marques; Maria Teresa Marques

2012-01-01

36

Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies. (author)

2005-01-01

37

Problems of Personality Development - Problem analysis by research results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the concept of 'personality development' is analyzed. We introduce some important conceptual, professional and ethical problems and go through the questions of consumer protection and quality assurance of personality development. At last, a short report about the results of our own research is presented

Mez? Ferenc; Zuzana Nagyová-Lehocká; Dr. Mez? Ferenc (1973-) (pszichológus)

2011-01-01

38

The problem of appraising qualitative research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?? Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with ...

2004-01-01

39

Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

2005-12-01

40

Defining Educational Research: A Perspective of/on Presidential Addresses and the Australian Association for Research in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the definition of the field of educational research and the changing and developing role of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) in representing and constituting this field. The evidence for the argument is derived from AARE Presidential Addresses across its 40-year history. The paper documents…

Lingard, Bob; Gale, Trevor

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Will REDD+work? The need for interdisciplinary research to address key challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we draw on the contributions to this issue to address the question ‘Will REDD+ work?’. We do so by differentiating between how, where and when REDD+ might work. The article shows how issues of scope, scale and pace of REDD+ are related, and how interdisciplinary research can help to distill the lessons learned from REDD+ efforts currently underway. Important research areas include the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, monitoring, reporting and verification,...

Visseren-hamakers, I. J.; Gupta, A.; Herold, M.; Pen?a Claros, M.; Vijge, M. J.

2012-01-01

42

School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER) programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on thi...

Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

2008-01-01

43

How Can Non-Verbalized Emotions in the Field Be Addressed in Research?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper looks at how emotions in the field move from one context to another and between individuals, and how they change forms in an arctic Finnish village school. During the fieldwork, non-verbalized emotions influenced the events in the field and also penetrated the research. The paper asks how these non-verbalized emotions can be addressed…

Lanas, Maija

2011-01-01

44

Actual problems of research in food science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting from the necessary trend towards development in the field of food production, the author outlines, on the basis of current knowledge, the problems to be solved in food science. A general research conception is deduced for the essential nutrient "protein" (as an example) which is illustrated by results from studies on protein fibre and protein gel formation. PMID:7278944

Schmandke, H

1981-01-01

45

Welcome address to the 26th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the IAEA has been a vigorous supporter of the RERTR programme since its inception. RERTR and the related fresh and spent fuel return efforts have gained new momentum with the launching of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) by U.S. Energy Secretary Abraham here in Vienna on May 25, 2004. All of the activities to be be discussed are included within the framework of the GTRI. The international programmes to qualify high density, LEU, dispersion fuels based on U-Mo alloys have run into unexpected technical difficulties that will delay qualification. A number of the presentations address the problems that have been encountered. At the same time, it is encouraging that the international resolve to reduce and eventually eliminate HEU in international commerce appears to have strengthened. In the past year, fresh HEU at research reactors in different countries have been returned to the country of origin. In all these examples, the return of the fresh fuel was accompanied by plans for conversion of existing reactors or design of new reactors to use LEU, as well as for the repatriation of spent research reactor fuel. The IAEA, particularly the Department of Technical Cooperation and my Department of Nuclear Energy has played an important role in implementing these fresh fuel return activities. In addition, several of the reactor conversion projects will be carried out under the auspices of IAEA technical cooperation projects and with important involvement of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The IAEA has also supported the repatriation of spent fuel to the country of original enrichment. The U.S. spent fuel acceptance programme has been operating for more than eight years, and was originally scheduled to terminate in 2006. Important announcements concerning the extension of the U.S. programme are expected. At the same time, the IAEA has been working hard with the U.S. and Russia to initiate the Russian research reactor spent fuel return programme. We are eager to see the first successful shipment in this programme, continue to assist it every way we can, and look forward to presentations this week on both the Russian RERTR and spent fuel return efforts

2004-11-07

46

Problems, solutions and actions: addressing barriers in acute hospital care for indigenous Australians and New Zealanders.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of cardiovascular disease for Indigenous people in Australia and New Zealand is high and reflects the failings of our health care system to meet their needs. Improving the hospital care for Indigenous people is critical in improving health outcomes. This paper provides the results from a facilitated discussion on the disparities in acute hospital care and workforce issues. The workshop was held in Alice Springs, Australia at the second Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference. Critical issues to be addressed include: addressing systemic racism; reconfiguring models of care to address the needs of Indigenous people; cultural competence training for all health professionals; increasing participation of Indigenous people in the health workforce; improving information systems and facilitating communication across the health care sector and with Indigenous communities. PMID:22980672

Davidson, Patricia M; MacIsaac, Andrew; Cameron, James; Jeremy, Richmond; Mahar, Leo; Anderson, Ian

2012-10-01

47

Identifying and addressing mental health risks and problems in primary care pediatric settings: a model to promote developmental and cultural competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young children, particularly uninsured children of color, suffer from mental health disturbances at rates similar to older children and adults, yet they have higher rates of unmet needs. To address unmet needs, efforts to identify mental health problems in primary care pediatric settings have grown in recent years, thanks in large part to expanded screening efforts. Yet, health disparities in early detection remain. Enhancing understanding of how early childhood mental health problems can be identified and addressed within pediatric settings is an important and growing area of research. The authors draw on theoretical models from public health policy, health psychology, and child development, including health beliefs, help seeking, transtheoretical, motivation to change, and dynamic systems, to better understand and address challenges to and disparities in identifying and addressing mental health problems in pediatric settings. These theories have not previously been applied to early mental health screening and identification efforts. Developmental and sociocultural considerations are highlighted in an effort to address and reduce higher rates of unmet needs among young, uninsured children of color. PMID:23330625

Godoy, Leandra; Carter, Alice S

2013-01-01

48

A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

1997-01-01

49

Prioritization of research addressing antipsychotics for adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a paucity of high-quality evidence about benefits and harms, antipsychotic medication use among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder is increasing. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute tasked the Duke Evidence Synthesis Group with creating a prioritized agenda for research in this area that would incorporate the perspectives of relevant stakeholders. We identified a list of potential evidence gaps by reviewing existing literature and engaged a diverse group of 9 stakeholders to expand and refine this list. Using a forced-ranking prioritization method, stakeholders prioritized 10 of 23 potential evidence gaps as the most pressing for future research. These evidence gaps relate to 3 areas: the comparative effectiveness of intervention strategies, the effect of antipsychotics on patient-centered outcomes, and the influence of various patient characteristics on antipsychotic effectiveness. In addition to presenting these findings, we suggest appropriate study designs for addressing the stakeholder-prioritized research questions. PMID:24567115

Crowley, Matthew J; McCrory, Douglas C; Chatterjee, Ranee; Gierisch, Jennifer M; Myers, Evan R; Schmit, Kristine M; Coeytaux, Remy R; Correll, Christoph U; Kendrick, Amy S; Sanders, Gillian D

2014-04-01

50

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

2012-09-01

51

Addressing the Wicked Problem of Quality in Higher Education: Theoretical Approaches and Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the wicked problem of quality in higher education, arguing for a more robust theorising of the subject at national, institutional and local department level. The focus of the discussion rests on principles for theorising in more rigorous ways about the multidimensional issue of quality. Quality in higher education is proposed…

Krause, Kerri-Lee

2012-01-01

52

Teacher pedagogical knowledge in mathematics: a tool for addressing learning problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a pedagogical role a classroom teacher is suppose to play in disseminating and imparting of mathematical knowledge. To achieve this, the paper focuses on the concept of teacher pedagogy, pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK and mathematical pedagogical knowledge. Problems encountered by teachers as a consequence of mathematical pedagogy have been closely looked at, and possible solutions offered.

A.K. Tsafe

2013-01-01

53

The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12). According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any...

Michael Le Cordeur

2011-01-01

54

Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada’s remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow’s milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the preva...

Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H.

2005-01-01

55

Addressing the net balances problem as a prerequisite for EU budget reform: A proposal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conflict among member states regarding the distribution of net financial burdens has been allowed to contaminate the entire design of the EU budget with very negative consequences in terms of equity, efficiency and transparency. To get around this problem and pave the way for a substantive budget reform, we propose to decouple distributional negotiations from the rest of the budget process by linking member state net balances in a rigid manner to relative prosperity. This would be achieved th...

Fuente, A?ngel La

2008-01-01

56

Addressing the Net Balances Problem as a Prerequisite for EU Budget Reform: A Proposal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conflict among member states regarding the distribution of net financial burdens has been allowed to contaminate the entire design of the EU budget with very negative consequences in terms of equity, efficiency and transparency. To get around this problem and pave the way for a substantive budget reform, we propose to decouple distributional negotiations from the rest of the budget process by linking member state net balances in a rigid manner to relative prosperity. This would be achieved th...

Fuente, A?ngel La; Dome?nech, Rafael; Rant, V.

2009-01-01

57

Noticing and Uptake: Addressing Pre-Articulated Covert Problems in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumption underlying research on feedback is that, in writing, feedback is something provided for what actually shows up in the learner's text. However, a new dimension may need to be added to the debate in light of the Noticing Hypothesis, the Output Hypothesis, and the emerging evidence on what L2 learners actually notice as they produce…

Hanaoka, Osamu; Izumi, Shinichi

2012-01-01

58

Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

Croney, C C; Anthony, R

2010-04-01

59

Prioritization of research addressing management strategies for ductal carcinoma in situ.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ductal carcinoma in situ is a common finding in women having mammography screening, and there is considerable uncertainty about the balance of harms and benefits of different management options. This article outlines the process for developing a prioritized research agenda for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute as informed by a diverse group of stakeholders on the management of ductal carcinoma in situ. Evidence gaps were identified by reviewing existing literature and engaging diverse stakeholders to refine these gaps. Stakeholders ranked evidence gaps by importance from their perspectives using a forced-ranking prioritization method. PubMed was searched for relevant recent studies, and ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for relevant ongoing trials for the 10 highest-ranked evidence gaps. Strengths and limitations of different study designs were assessed to address gaps. Stakeholders prioritized evidence gaps related to incorporation of patient-centered outcomes into future research, development of better methods to predict risk for invasive cancer, evaluation of a strategy of active surveillance, and testing of decision-making tools. The degree to which prioritized evidence gaps may have already been addressed is uncertain because a comprehensive systematic review has not been done. PMID:24567146

Gierisch, Jennifer M; Myers, Evan R; Schmit, Kristine M; Crowley, Matthew J; McCrory, Douglas C; Chatterjee, Ranee; Coeytaux, Remy R; Kendrick, Amy; Sanders, Gillian D

2014-04-01

60

Problem Statements in Research Proposals and Published Research: A Case Study of Researchers' Viewpoints.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines and compares the purpose, content, and form of the problem statement by researchers in disciplines other than library and information science (LIS). Their assessments of the attributes of a problem statement were compared to the literature and an evaluation of problem statements evidenced by researchers within LIS. (Contains 16…

Metoyer-Duran, Cheryl; Hernon, Peter

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluating a problem based learning course: an action research study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem based learning (PBL) has been widely used in the United States, United Kingdom and Australasia in undergraduate nursing education to develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. PBL has been used since 1996 in a Bachelor of Nursing course at a New Zealand tertiary institution, and several modifications have been made to foster effective learning. The 'pure' PBL process has been adapted to move students gradually from teacher direction to taking responsibility for their learning. This has provided the opportunity for students to develop critical thinking, problem solving, information retrieval and evaluation skills, and group process skills over an 18-week period. Because rigorous evaluation of these changes had not been formally undertaken, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how the current format was developing students' understanding and integration of knowledge. Two cycles of the action research method (Cardno and Piggot-Irvine, 1994) were used, involving 4 lecturers and 17 students. Data was collected both quantitatively and qualitatively over a 16-week period. Findings indicated the importance of: explaining the purpose and process of PBL; communicating in detail the role of both students and lecturers; keeping communication lines open; addressing timetabling issues and valuing this method of learning for nursing practice. Implications for nursing education are addressed. PMID:11855017

Walker, J; Bailey, S; Brasell-Brian, R; Gould, S

2001-03-01

62

Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

2009-12-01

63

Addressing the NO{sub x} emission problem via primary methods -- Polish experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New environment protection legislative regulations which will come into force in Poland starting from 1998, impose considerably more stringent requirements concerning the emissions of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Acceptable emission levels for various types of boilers are shown. Recently, Polish market became a place of increased activity of various companies offering the deliveries of low NO{sub x} emission burners. This, increasingly competitive market environment presents customers with much larger possibilities of choice among new burners and combustion systems which guarantee the obtainment of emission levels much lower than those stipulated in norms and standards. RAFAKO Boiler Engineering Company also carries out the extensive research and development programs concerning new burner design and innovative combustion techniques. Starting from 1992, i.e. the year of commissioning of first boiler (in Wroclaw CHP) equipped with low NO{sub x} emission burners supplied by RAFAKO, the reference list had grown to its present shape including more than fifty successful modernization projects. These projects include steam boilers with the capacity ranging from 70 to 1,150 t/h as well as water boilers from 70 to 200 Gcal/h. The majority of modernized boilers is now able to achieve NO{sub x} emission levels below 170 g/GJ, some of them have reduced their emission to the range from 120 to 150 g/GJ. On the other hand, there were two projects in which the specified emission level could not be met. The extensive experience gained during the completion of above mentioned works are now being used as a background knowledge in the design of new burner generations.

Wala, T.

1998-07-01

64

Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus  

Science.gov (United States)

In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

2013-12-01

65

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

66

Research reactors fuel cycle problems and dilemma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During last 10 years, some problems appeared in different steps of research reactors fuel cycle. Actually the majority of these reactors have been built in the 60s and these reactors were operated during all this long period in a cycle with steps which were dedicated to this activity. Progressively and for reasons often economical, certain steps of the cycle became more and more difficult to manage due to closing of some specialised workshops in the activities of scraps recycling, irradiated fuel reprocessing, even fuel fabrication. Other steps of the cycle meet or will meet difficulties, in particular supplying of fissile raw material LEU or HEU because this material was mostly produced in enrichment units existing mainly for military reason. Rarefaction of fissile material lead to use more and more enriched uraniums said 'of technical quality', that is to say which come from mixing of varied qualities of enriched material, containing products resulting from reprocessing. Actually, problems of end of fuel cycle are increased, either consisting of intermediary storage on the site of reactor or on specialised sites, or consisting of reprocessing. This brief summary shows most difficulties which are met today by a major part of industrials of the fuel cycle in the exercise of their activities

1995-09-17

67

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

2013-03-01

68

Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and co [...] nflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

Vasconcelos, S.M.R.; Cassimiro, M.C.; Martins, M.F.M.; Palacios, M..

2013-02-12

69

Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program. PMID:20623348

Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter

2011-03-01

70

Digital instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technologies: Issues and current research [Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plantwide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology. To respond to technology challenges, roadmaps for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) are being developed. These roadmapping efforts address technology gaps, technology maturity, and technology experience by establishing a comprehensive, systematic approach to meet high-priority technological needs. The first RD and D objective is to identify and eliminate technology gaps that may constrain measurement, monitoring, control, or protection. The second RD and D objective is to ensure technology maturity so that needed methods, tools, equipment, or other products are available with a sound infrastructure. The third RD and D objective is to demonstrate performance and resolve licensing and usage uncertainty. This presentation summarizes the key elements of an ICHMI technology roadmap and discusses current research activities. (author)

2007-11-02

71

Emergency Physicians Research Common Problems in Proportion to their Frequency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency medicine (EM organizations such as the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine and the Institute of Medicine have called for more clinical research as a way of addressing thescarcity of research in EM. Previous investigations have examined funding and productivity in EM research, but whether EM researchers preferentially concentrate on certain patient-related topics is notknown. We hypothesized that at least part of the scarcity of EM research is from the tendency of EM researchers, like researchers in other fields, to focus on rarer conditions with higher morbidity or mortality instead of on more common conditions with less acuity. This study compared the frequency of specific medical conditions presenting to emergency departments nationwide with the frequency of emergency physician research on those same conditions.Methods: This study is a structured retrospective review and comparison of 2 databases during an 11-year span. Principal diagnoses made by emergency physicians as reported by the National HospitalAmbulatory Medical Care Survey were compared to all first-author publications by emergency physicians as reported in PubMed between 1996 and 2006. Statistics included correlations and linear regression with the number of emergency department (ED visits per diagnosis as the independent variable and the number of articles published as the dependent variable.Results: During the study period, there was significant concordance between the frequency of presenting conditions in the emergency department and the frequency of research being performed onthose conditions, with a high correlation of 0.85 (P,0.01. More common ED diagnoses such as injury/poisoning, symptoms/ill-defined conditions, and diseases of the respiratory system accounted for 60.9% of ED principal diagnoses and 50.2% of the total research published in PubMed.Conclusion: Unlike researchers in other fields, emergency physicians investigate clinical problems in almost the exact proportion as those conditions are encountered in the emergency department. The scarcity of EM research does not have to do with a skewed focus toward less common patient problems.

Michael P. Wilson

2012-09-01

72

"Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost the beginning of my academic career: my doctoral fieldwork in Cambodia fifty years ago. (It was preceded by fieldwork in an Inuit community in the Ungava, Northern Canada; not relevant here. Rereading my publications from that research has allowed me to relive the excitement of my Cambodian year, living with my wife and child in Phnom Penh apart from a month in Siem Reap, where I could hire a cyclo for ten riels and visit the various ruins of Angkor every afternoon. Research on overseas Chinese was informed by different paradigms in those days. Bill Skinner was a leading thinker in the field, and Maurice Freedman, my mentor and supervisor, was another. Our issues focused on community social structure and nationalism—many of us were supporters of the national liberation movements in Southeast Asian countries. For most of us, Chinese identity was simply a methodological issue...

William E. Willmott

2012-09-01

73

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk

2009-04-01

74

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

1980-03-11

75

Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social mechanisms linking IPV to alcohol use in community settings, and discusses three social mechanisms relevant to these effects: greater numbers of alcohol outlets within a neighborhood may (1 be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence; (2 promote problem alcohol use among at-risk couples, and; (3 provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of critical public health importance for developing environmental strategies aimed at prevention of IPV, such as changes in zoning, community action and education, and policing.

Carol B. Cunradi

2010-03-01

76

Research approaches to address uncertainties in the risk assessment of arsenic in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs), an environmental drinking water contaminant, is a human toxicant and carcinogen. The public health community has developed recommendations and regulations that limit human exposure to iAs in drinking water. Although there is a vast amount of information available to regulators on the exposure, disposition and the health-related effects of iAs, there is still critical information about the toxicology of this metalloid that is needed. This necessary information includes identification of the chemical species of arsenic that is (are) the active toxicant(s), the mode(s) of action for its various toxicities and information on potentially susceptible populations. Because of these unknown factors, the risk assessment of iAs still incorporates default assumptions, leading to uncertainties in the overall assessment. The characteristics of a scientifically defensible risk assessment for iAs are that it must: (1) quantitatively link exposure and target tissue dose of active metabolites to key events in the mode of action for major health effects and (2) identify sources of variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced health effects and quantitatively evaluate their impact wherever possible. Integration of research to address these goals will better protect the health of iAs-exposed populations

2007-08-01

77

What is the 'problem' that outreach work seeks to address and how might it be tackled? Seeking theory in a primary health prevention programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive approaches to health are disproportionately accessed by the more affluent and recent health improvement policy advocates the use of targeted preventive primary care to reduce risk factors in poorer individuals and communities. Outreach has become part of the health service response. Outreach has a long history of engaging those who do not otherwise access services. It has, however, been described as eclectic in its purpose, clientele and mode of practice; its effectiveness is unproven. Using a primary prevention programme in the UK as a case, this paper addresses two research questions: what are the perceived problems of non-engagement that outreach aims to address; and, what specific mechanisms of outreach are hypothesised to tackle these. Methods Drawing on a wider programme evaluation, the study undertook qualitative interviews with strategically selected health-care professionals. The analysis was thematically guided by the concept of 'candidacy' which theorises the dynamic process through which services and individuals negotiate appropriate service use. Results The study identified seven types of engagement 'problem' and corresponding solutions. These 'problems' lie on a continuum of complexity in terms of the challenges they present to primary care. Reasons for non-engagement are congruent with the concept of 'candidacy' but point to ways in which it can be expanded. Conclusions The paper draws conclusions about the role of outreach in contributing to the implementation of inequalities focused primary prevention and identifies further research needed in the theoretical development of both outreach as an approach and candidacy as a conceptual framework.

Mackenzie Mhairi

2011-12-01

78

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey Peter

2009-10-01

79

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate. PMID:19884687

Mossey, Peter; Little, Julian

2009-10-01

80

Addressing the challenges of cleft lip and palate research in India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian sub-continent remains one of the most populous areas of the world with an estimated population of 1.1 billion in India alone. This yields an estimated 24.5 million births per year and the birth prevalence of clefts is somewhere between 27,000 and 33,000 clefts per year. Inequalities exist, both in access to and quality of cleft care with distinct differences in urban versus rural access and over the years the accumulation of unrepaired clefts of the lip and palate make this a significant health care problem in India. In recent years the situation has been significantly improved through the intervention of Non Governmental Organisations such as SmileTrain and Transforming Faces Worldwide participating in primary surgical repair programmes. The cause of clefts is multi factorial with both genetic and environmental input and intensive research efforts have yielded significant advances in recent years facilitated by molecular technologies in the genetic field. India has tremendous potential to contribute by virtue of improving research expertise and a population that has genetic, cultural and socio-economic diversity. In 2008, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised that non-communicable diseases, including birth defects cause significant infant mortality and childhood morbidity and have included cleft lip and palate in their Global Burden of Disease (GBD) initiative. This will fuel the interest of India in birth defects registration and international efforts aimed at improving quality of care and ultimately prevention of non-syndromic clefts of the lip and palate.

Mossey, Peter; Little, Julian

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

82

Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

Bebout, I. Lee

2005-01-01

83

Problem Complexity Research from Energy Perspective  

CERN Document Server

Computational complexity is a particularly important objective. The idea of Landauer principle was extended through mapping three classic problems (sorting,ordered searching and max of N unordered numbers) into Maxwell demon thought experiment in this paper. The problems'complexity is defined on the entropy basis and the minimum energy required to solve them are rigorous deduced from the perspective of energy (entropy) and the second law of thermodynamics. Then the theoretical energy consumed by real program and basic operators of classical computer are both analyzed, the time complexity lower bounds of three problems'all possible algorithms are derived in this way. The lower bound is also deduced for the two n*n matrix multiplication problem. In the end, the reason why reversible computation is impossible and the possibility of super-linear energy consumption capacity which may be the power behind quantum computation are discussed, a conjecture is proposed which may prove NP!=P. The study will bring fresh an...

Feng, Pan; Jie, Qi

2013-01-01

84

Computational problems in magnetic fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical calculations have had an important role in fusion research since its beginning, but the application of computers to plasma physics has advanced rapidly in the last few years. One reason for this is the increasing sophistication of the mathematical models of plasma behavior, and another is the increased speed and memory of the computers which made it reasonable to consider numerical simulation of fusion devices. The behavior of a plasma is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used for short times give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used for much longer times compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. The computer models used in fusion research are surveyed. One of the most active areas of research is in time-dependent, three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic models. These codes are reviewed briefly

1981-08-31

85

Alcohol and alcohol problems research. 17. Malta.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is an enquiry into the current status of alcohol in Maltese culture. The responses of society to alcoholism depend on the way members of the community perceive the problems incurred by the use and abuse of a dependence producing substance like alcohol. These perceptions and subsequent responses are very much influenced by prevailing attitudes and beliefs. Malta is a melting point of cultures. This factor, together with a high density population and Malta's geopolitical strategic position, combine to make Malta a tolerant society. There is a laissez-faire response to alcoholism, at least partly due to the present inability to identify the need to take appropriate measures. The police force, medical profession and politicians still do not feel the responsibility or the need to provide effective laws and regulations, specialized treatment services or educative programmes on alcohol-related issues. A systematic enquiry is needed urgently to determine the severity and degree of the problems posed by alcohol abuse among the Maltese. Such an enquiry should be followed by a well planned national policy which includes local approaches and interventions. Finally, these interventions must be evaluated frequently and developed to achieve better results in the future. PMID:1912749

Baldacchino, A M

1991-08-01

86

Age-sex registers as a screening tool for general practice: size of the wrong address problem.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Age-sex registers were compiled and updated for the east London general practices participating in a screening study for hypertension. Of 1435 addresses in the registers of two practices that were checked, 228 (16%) were incorrect, according to the return by the post office of the screening invitations and checking the addresses of the non-responders using telephone directories and the medical records. The non-responders to the screening invitation for whom a new address was not found, were v...

1984-01-01

87

Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007 while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further deaths. The Investigate Maternal Deaths and Act (IMDA approach was designed to address these deficiencies and is comprised of four components; identification of maternal deaths; investigation of factors contributing to the deaths; recommendations for action drawn up by multiple stakeholders and monitoring of progress through existing systems. Methods A pilot was conducted in one district of Zambia. Maternal deaths occurring over a period of twelve months were identified and investigated. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with family, focus group discussions and hospital records. The information was summarized and presented at eleven data sharing meetings to key decision makers, during which recommendations for action were drawn up. An output indicator to monitor progress was included in the routine performance assessment tool. High impact interventions were identified using frequency analysis. Results A total of 56 maternal deaths were investigated. Poor communication, existing risk factors, a lack of resources and case management issues were the broad categories under which contributing factors were assigned. Sixty three recommendations were drawn up by key decision-makers of which two thirds were implemented by the end of the pilot period. Potential high impact actions were related to management of AIDS and pregnancy, human resources, referral mechanisms, birth planning at household level and availability of safe blood. Conclusion In resource constrained settings the IMDA approach promotes the use of existing systems to reduce maternal mortality. In turn the capacity of local health officers to use data to determine, plan and implement relevant interventions that address the local factors contributing to maternal deaths is strengthened. Monitoring actions taken against the defined recommendations within the routine performance assessment ensures sustainability. Suggestions for further research are provided.

Hadley Mary B

2011-05-01

88

Using lectins in biomarker research: addressing the limitations of sensitivity and availability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carbohydrates have fundamental roles throughout biology, yet they have not been as well studied as proteins and nucleic acids, in part due to limitations in the experimental tools. Improved methods for studying glycans could spur significant advances in the understanding and application of glycobiology. The use of affinity reagents such as lectins and glycan-binding antibodies is a valuable complement to methods involving mass spectrometry and chromatography. This article addresses two limita...

Haab, Brian B.

2012-01-01

89

The Role of Translational Research in Addressing Health Disparities: a Conceptual Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Translational research has tremendous potential as a tool to reduce health disparities in the United States, but a lack of common understanding about the scope of this dynamic, multidisciplinary approach to research has limited its use. The term “translational research” is often associated with the phrase “bench to bedside,” but the expedited movement of biomedical advances from the laboratory to clinical trials is only the first phase of the translational process. The second phase of...

Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, Jose G.; Baker, Richard S.; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C.; Mcclure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

2008-01-01

90

CYANOBACTERIA, CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS & USEPA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as th...

91

Collection of NIDA Notes Articles that Address Research on Anabolic Steroids Abuse. Revised August 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) supports most of the worlds research on drug abuse and addiction. NIDA-funded research enables scientists to apply the most advanced techniques available to the study of every aspect of drug abuse, including: ge...

2009-01-01

92

Reporting of Health Promotion Research: Addressing the Quality Gaps in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality of health behavior research determines usefulness of the findings for application.The authors individually scrutinized quality of a representative sample of abstracts (n=315submitted to the 1st International and 4th National Congress on Health Education and Promotion,held in Tabriz, Iran on 16-19 May, 2011. Among the assessed abstracts, introductionsection had the standard format in 18.1% (CI: 14.2-22.7%, sampling method and samplesize were concurrently explained in 56.3% (CI: 50.3-62.1%, and the data in 40.6% (CI:35.4-46.1% were insufficient to support the conclusion section. The observed heterogeneityin the quality of Iranian research may reflect gaps in research methodology education.Revision in the current research performance is recommended to ensure a more stringentnational research output.

Hossein Matlabi1

2012-07-01

93

Addressing transportation energy and environmental impacts: technical and policy research directions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is establishing a local chapter of the University of California Energy Institute (UCEI). In order to most effectively contribute to the Institute, LLNL sponsored a workshop on energy and environmental issues in transportation. This workshop took place in Livermore on August 10 and brought together researchers from throughout the UC systems in order to establish a joint LLNL-UC research program in transportation, with a focus on energy and environmental impacts.

Weissenberger, S.; Pasternak, A.; Smith, J.R.; Wallman, H.

1995-08-01

94

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, wit...

2009-01-01

95

Private Property Rights and Selective Private Forest Conservation: Could a Nordic Hybrid Policy Address a United States Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia’s current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

Mortimer, Michael J.

2008-05-01

96

Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. PMID:24431134

Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

2014-03-01

97

Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web (“Web”) is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies.

Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

2014-01-01

98

Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

1976-04-01

99

Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three current questions for qualitative researchers: The first I will refer to as “ethical progressivism versus new ethical challenges”. Is qualitative research as such more ethical and progressive than quantitative research (as some have argued, or do qualitative researchers on the contrary face more elusive and perhaps difficult ethical challenges? The second question is called “solid evidence versus subjective anecdotes”. How should qualitative researchers respond to the current call for evidence? Should they seek legitimacy by accepting the dominant politics of evidence, or should they play by their own rules with the risk of increasing marginalization? The third question is “method versus intuition”. Should qualitative researchers strive for maximum transparency by following accepted methods, or should they proceed more intuitively like artists to create their stories? Both sides of the questions have their influential advocates today. I will argue that all three questions are handled most fruitfully by conceiving of qualitative research as a craft.

Svend Brinkmann

2012-04-01

100

Opening address at the international meeting on reduced enrichment for research and test reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Meeting was to exchange and discuss the most up-to-date information on the progress of variuos programs related to research and test reactor core conversion from high enriched uranium to lower enriched uranium. More detailed status of the RERTR program in Japan, as the host country is covered in this presentation

1984-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

What Impedes Cancer Research?: NCI Director Harold Varmus to address National Press Club  

Science.gov (United States)

The barriers that impede greater and faster progress against cancer include the inherent biological properties of tumors; the difficulties of developing new ways to prevent, diagnose and treat cancers; and economic and social factors that slow the nation’s cancer research efforts

102

Panel: Strategies for addressing common concerns in collaborative research and how to maximize existing resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two main concerns regarding collaboration in DCIS research. The first is access to resources and the priorities of the data collector versus the collaborator. Data resources include questionnaires, blood-based samples, and tissue samples. Questionnaire data are combined easily. DNA samples can be shared, although blood is less readily shared as a result of its nonrenewable nature.

103

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

104

Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

National Literacy Trust, 2011

2011-01-01

105

Research of Sumy population relation to present ecological problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of marketing research of Sumy population relation to current ecological problems in social, sexual and age cuts are stated. The priority of these problems to the population is determined. The received results can be used to substantiate programs of a territory sustainable development.

S.M. Illiashenko

2012-06-01

106

Addressing Oral Health Disparities in Settings Without a Research-Intensive Dental School: Collaborative Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research suggests that oral health is linked to systemic health, and those with poor oral health are potentially at greater risk for important diseases, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in Hawaii have high rates of many such diseases. Studies in children in Hawaii have revealed disparities in dental health; for example, API children have significantly higher rates of cavities than other groups. Hen...

Easa, David; Harrigan, Rosanne; Hammatt, Zoe?; Greer, Mark; Kuba, Carolyn; Davis, James; Beck, James D.; Offenbacher, Steven

2005-01-01

107

Addressing children's oral health inequalities in Northern Ireland: a research-practice-community partnership initiative.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Northern Ireland has a high prevalence of childhood dental caries, reflecting heavy consumption of cariogenic snack foods. To develop a policy to promote and facilitate healthier eating, researchers, practitioners, and the school community formed a partnership, together creating the Boost Better Breaks (BBB) school-based policy. The policy was developed with and supported by dieticians, health promotion officers, teachers, school meal advisors, and local suppliers of school milk. E...

Freeman, R.; Oliver, M.; Bunting, G.; Kirk, J.; Saunderson, W.

2001-01-01

108

Integrating movement ecology with biodiversity research - exploring new avenues to address spatiotemporal biodiversity dynamics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Movement of organisms is one of the key mechanisms shaping biodiversity, e.g. the distribution of genes, individuals and species in space and time. Recent technological and conceptual advances have improved our ability to assess the causes and consequences of individual movement, and led to the emergence of the new field of ‘movement ecology’. Here, we outline how movement ecology can contribute to the broad field of biodiversity research, i.e. the study of processes and ...

Jeltsch, F.; Bonte, D.; Pe Er, G.; Reineking, B.; Leimgruber, P.; Balkenhol, N.; Schro?der, B.; Buchmann, C. M.; Mueller, T.; Blaum, N.; Zurell, D.; Bo?hning-gaese, K.; Wiegand, T.; Eccard, J. A.; Hofer, H.

2013-01-01

109

Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indices of heavy drinking have consistently been linked with increased risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among couples in the general household population. Because IPV is a ‘private’ event, most IPV research has focused on individual-level risk factors, but current social ecological theory suggests that alcohol outlets can act with neighborhood conditions to increase risks for IPV. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literatures relevant to identifying specific social ...

Cunradi, Carol B.

2010-01-01

110

NCI Director John E. Niederhuber's Address to the American Association for Cancer Research on Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Text of the speech that NCI Director John E. Niederhuber delivered to the American Association for Cancer Research meeting in Denver on April 20, 2009, follows. The speech describes NCI's plans to accelerate cancer research with increased funding from fiscal year 2009 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

111

ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected

2003-02-23

112

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program: addressing the challenge of infections related to war injuries and skin and soft tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) is a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded network of military treatment and research facilities coordinated through USU and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (HJF). IDCRP functions in collaboration with the NIAID, universities, and industry to address infectious diseases threats to the U.S. military and to the nation. Although IDCRP has projects in diseases from HIV to tuberculosis, a major focus has been on skin, soft-tissue, and war-related infections. PMID:23634479

Martin, Gregory J; Tribble, David R

2010-07-01

113

ADDRESSING POLLUTION PREVENTION ISSUES IN THE DESIGN OF A NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH FACILITY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chemistry and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility was designed in 1949 and built in 1952 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support analytical chemistry, metallurgical studies, and actinide research and development on samples of plutonium and other nuclear materials for the Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear weapons program. These primary programmatic uses of the CMR Facility have not changed significantly since it was constructed. In 1998, a seismic fault was found to the west of the CMR Facility and projected to extend beneath two wings of the building. As part of the overall Risk Management Strategy for the CMR Facility, the Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to replace it by 2010 with what is called the CMR Facility Replacement (CMRR). In an effort to make this proposed new nuclear research facility environmentally sustainable, several pollution prevention/waste minimization initiatives are being reviewed for potential incorporation during the design phase. A two-phase approach is being adopted; the facility is being designed in a manner that integrates pollution prevention efforts, and programmatic activities are being tailored to minimize waste. Processes and procedures that reduce waste generation compared to current, prevalent processes and procedures are identified. Some of these ''best practices'' include the following: (1) recycling opportunities for spent materials; (2) replacing lithium batteries with alternate current adaptors; (3) using launderable contamination barriers in Radiological Control Areas (RCAs); (4) substituting mercury thermometers and manometers in RCAs with mercury-free devices; (5) puncturing and recycling aerosol cans; (6) using non-hazardous low-mercury fluorescent bulbs where available; (7) characterizing low-level waste as it is being generated; and (8) utilizing lead alternatives for radiological shielding. Each of these pollution prevention initiatives are being assessed for their technical validity, relevancy, and cost effectiveness. These efforts partially fulfill expectations of the DOE, other federal agencies, and the State of New Mexico for waste minimization. If the improvements discussed here are implemented, an estimated 1.8 million dollars in cost savings is expected.

Cournoyer, Michael E.; Corpion, Juan; Nelson, Timothy O.

2003-02-27

114

The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship  

CERN Document Server

The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

Djeflat, Abdelkader

2013-01-01

115

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

1990-06-16

116

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

2011-05-25

117

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

2011-05-25

118

NCI MEDIA AVAILABILITY: Dr. John E. Niederhuber to Address the American Association for Cancer Research on NCI Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

John E. Niederhuber, M.D., director of the NCI, addressed the American Association for Cancer Research 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver Monday, April 20, 2009, during a Special Session. The talk focused on opportunities to hasten our progress against cancer and to conduct exciting new science, made possible, in part, by NCI's nearly three percent budget increase this year.

119

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

2008-03-01

120

Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

Michael Stauffacher

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Data, Problems, Heuristics and Results in Cognitive Metaphor Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Cognitive metaphor research is characterized by the diversity of rival theories. Starting from this observation, the paper focuses on the problem of how the unity and diversity of cognitive theories of metaphor can be accounted for. The first part of the paper outlines a suitable metascientific approach which emerges as a modification of B. von…

Kertesz, Andras; Rakosi, Csilla; Csatar, Peter

2012-01-01

122

APPLICATIONS OF RESEARCH TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY.  

Science.gov (United States)

SELECTED RESEARCH ON THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL FLEXIBILITY IS SURVEYED AND DISCUSSED. BROAD TOPICS OF DISCUSSION ARE DEPARTMENTALIZATION, HOMOGENEOUS SECTIONING, INTERCLASS ABILITY SECTIONING, THE EXTENT OF VARIABILITY IN READING DEVELOPMENT, AND PRACTICES THAT MAY INCREASE FLEXIBILITY. AMONG THOSE PRACTICES TO INCREASE FLEXIBILITY ARE TEAM…

SARTAIN, HARRY W.

123

On the RA research reactor fuel management problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 25 years of operation, the Soviet-origin 6.5-MW heavy water RA research reactor was shut down in 1984. Basic facts about RA reactor operation, aging, reconstruction, and spent-fuel disposal have been presented and discussed in earlier papers. The following paragraphs present recent activities and results related to important fuel management problems

1997-11-16

124

Theoretical foundations of organizational problem solving methodologies in Operational Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paradigms are some principles and assumptions, which define frameworks and research priorities in each discipline. Many believe that operational research (OR is not a science and like many other sciences does not have any paradigm. However, since OR is committed to scientific methods, therefore it contains a methodological paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to consider theoretical methodologies in the field of OR. This paper performs a review on the existing literature based on interpretive hermeneutic approach. Based on literature review, the study determines four principles and assumptions for each OR paradigms and a classification of the methods are presented. The results show that OR has four main paradigms and there are many methods in OR fields to tackle a particular problem where each problem belongs to a particular paradigm. In addition, instead of using a particular method in problem situations, we can implement a combination of methodologies.

Seyyed Hasan Ghodsipoor

2013-06-01

125

Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical statistical errors in submitted manuscripts. Findings The Editors-in-Chief and statistical reviewers of the 38 medical journals with the highest impact factor in the 2007 Science Journal Citation Report and the 2007 Social Science Journal Citation Report were invited to complete an online survey about the statistical and design problems they most frequently found in manuscripts. Content analysis of the responses identified major issues. Editors and statistical reviewers (n = 25 from 20 journals responded. Respondents described problems that we classified into two, broad themes: A. statistical and sampling issues and B. inadequate reporting clarity or completeness. Problems included in the first theme were (1 inappropriate or incomplete analysis, including violations of model assumptions and analysis errors, (2 uninformed use of propensity scores, (3 failing to account for clustering in data analysis, (4 improperly addressing missing data, and (5 power/sample size concerns. Issues subsumed under the second theme were (1 Inadequate description of the methods and analysis and (2 Misstatement of results, including undue emphasis on p-values and incorrect inferences and interpretations. Conclusions The scientific quality of submitted manuscripts would increase if researchers addressed these common design, analytical, and reporting issues. Improving the application and presentation of quantitative methods in scholarly manuscripts is essential to advancing medical research.

Harris Alex HS

2011-08-01

126

ATM addressing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requirements for addressing in an ATM network were discussed, including a description of the different addressing formats adopted by the ATM Forum. Guidelines for selecting an ATM address plan were provided. Ease of administration, unique identification of an ATM endpoint, ability to integrate addresses, and to accommodate the interworking between public and private networks, should be the principal objectives in selecting an address plan.2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Baillargeon, S. [Bell Canada Northern Electric Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

1996-07-01

127

Problems in cancer treatment and major research of integrative medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: There exist some problems in the present cancer treatment, such as: (1 prevalence of excessive treatment; (2 lack of long-term research plan; (3 lack of reasonable comprehensive treatment; (4 lack of operative individualized treatment; (5 the superiority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM was undervalued and underused. Integrative medicine should play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Further research should be carried out in the following aspects: (1 enrich and improve the theoretical knowledge of TCM on cancer; (2 enhance the research on rationalization and standardization of cancer treatment program of integrative medicine; (3 enhance the research on criterion of therapeutical effect of integrative medicine in treating cancer; (4 enhance the research on prevention and treatment of postoperative recurrence and metastasis of cancer by integrative medicine.

LING Chang-Quan

2003-09-01

128

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges. PMID:23972899

McKeown, Robert E

2013-10-01

129

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

Ward Paul R

2011-08-01

130

Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation  

CERN Multimedia

We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

2013-01-01

131

Artificial intelligence and design: Opportunities, research problems and directions  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of industrial productivity and economic competitiveness are of major significance in the U.S. at present. By advancing the science of design, and by creating a broad computer-based methodology for automating the design of artifacts and of industrial processes, we can attain dramatic improvements in productivity. It is our thesis that developments in computer science, especially in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and in related areas of advanced computing, provide us with a unique opportunity to push beyond the present level of computer aided automation technology and to attain substantial advances in the understanding and mechanization of design processes. To attain these goals, we need to build on top of the present state of AI, and to accelerate research and development in areas that are especially relevant to design problems of realistic complexity. We propose an approach to the special challenges in this area, which combines 'core work' in AI with the development of systems for handling significant design tasks. We discuss the general nature of design problems, the scientific issues involved in studying them with the help of AI approaches, and the methodological/technical issues that one must face in developing AI systems for handling advanced design tasks. Looking at basic work in AI from the perspective of design automation, we identify a number of research problems that need special attention. These include finding solution methods for handling multiple interacting goals, formation problems, problem decompositions, and redesign problems; choosing representations for design problems with emphasis on the concept of a design record; and developing approaches for the acquisition and structuring of domain knowledge with emphasis on finding useful approximations to domain theories. Progress in handling these research problems will have major impact both on our understanding of design processes and their automation, and also on several fundamental questions that are of intrinsic concern to AI. We present examples of current AI work on specific design tasks, and discuss new directions of research, both as extensions of current work and in the context of new design tasks where domain knowledge is either intractable or incomplete. The domains discussed include Digital Circuit Design, Mechanical Design of Rotational Transmissions, Design of Computer Architectures, Marine Design, Aircraft Design, and Design of Chemical Processes and Materials. Work in these domains is significant on technical grounds, and it is also important for economic and policy reasons.

Amarel, Saul

1990-01-01

132

Update: Health Status of Iranian Victims of Chemical Weapons / Ongoing Research Projects Addressing CW Health Effects in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of chemical weapons against Iran during the 1980s was a horrifying epic in the annals of modern warfare, inflicting enormous suffering during the conflict that continues to the present day in the form of latent illness among survivors. Surviving victims suffer from a diverse range of chronic illnesses placing an enormous strain on the nation's medical infrastructure. To define the scope of this problem, the National Organization for Veteran's Affairs (Janbazan) established a subsidiary research department called Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC). Beginning in 2000 JMERC has conducted epidemiological, clinical and basic scientific studies to characterize disease among chemical attack survivors and develop new therapeutic strategies. The primary JMERC mission has been to identify where resources may be allocated so as to most effectively treat patients with the greatest need - requiring a comprehensive picture of the major medical problems among this population. Accordingly, JMERC's initial task was to define the nature and distribution of serious chronic illness among CW survivors. Therefore epidemiological studies in CW-exposed Iranian populations are currently underway. Ultimately these studies will allow management of illness among CW-exposed populations that is both compassionate and cost-effective. A summary of the above mentioned research projects will be reported in this article. (author)

2007-04-14

133

Problems and Opportunities of First-Person Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article is twofold. First, it aims to overview current empirical methods in the area of first-person research. Such a review cannot overlook epistemological and ontological issues, but must at the same time keep in mind methodological and almost technical nature of the problem. Empirical experience research is positioned within the frame of cognitive science and the overview of approaches and techniques of empirical phenomenology is presented, together with epistemological considerations. The second aim of the paper is concerned with the future of research in the discussed area. It suggests that in-depth, existentially liable introspection and self-inquiry should be considered as serious scientific research tools.

Urban Kordeš

2013-10-01

134

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

1991-03-25

135

Ultra-brief intervention for problem drinkers: research protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Helping the large number of problem drinkers who will never seek treatment is a challenging issue. Public health initiatives employing educational materials or mass media campaigns have met with mixed success. However, clinical research has developed effective brief interventions to help problem drinkers. This project will employ an intervention that has been validated in clinical settings and then modified into an ultra-brief format suitable for use as a public health intervention. The major objective of this study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial to establish the effectiveness of an ultra-brief, personalized feedback intervention for problem drinkers. Methods/design Problem drinkers recruited on a baseline population telephone survey conducted in a major metropolitan city in Canada will be randomized to one of three conditions – a personalized feedback pamphlet condition, a control pamphlet condition, or a no intervention control condition. In the week after the baseline survey, households in the two pamphlet conditions will be sent their respective pamphlets. Changes in drinking will be assessed post intervention at three-month and six-month follow-ups. Drinking outcomes will be compared between experimental conditions using Structural Equation Modeling. The primary hypothesis is that problem drinkers from households who receive the personalized feedback pamphlet intervention will display significantly improved drinking outcomes at three and six-month follow-ups as compared to problem drinkers from households in the no intervention control condition. Secondary hypotheses will test the impact of the intervention on help seeking, and explore the mediating or moderating role of perceived drinking norms, perceived alcohol risks and the problem drinker's social reasons for drinking. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of a pamphlet-based personalized feedback intervention for problem drinkers in a community setting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration #NCT00688584.

Wild Cameron

2008-08-01

136

Present and perspective problems of the radioactive product research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper emphasizes the main problems in choosing the appropriate radionuclides to be used in different fields as medicine, life science, industry, standardization. The present world status, as well as the possibilities reached in IPNE-Bucharest in satisfying the requirements imposed upon radioactive products together with the most important directions of research are presented. The main results in research activity due to the whole past and present staff of chemists, physicists, pharmacists, biologists, physicians, and technicians of the IPNE-Bucharest, whose achievements made possible the development of the field in Romania, is reviewed. (Author)

1994-09-21

137

The problem of deception in embryonic stem cell research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of embryonic stem cell research has been plagued by exaggeration and misrepresentation, as three major journals have had to retract significant claims about progress in this field. This problem is exacerbated by the politicized climate in which the research is conducted and defended; it may also lie deeper, in a utilitarian ethic that in principle could justify unethical actions for admittedly worthwhile long-term goals. Such an ethic risks undermining the credibility of science, which must show a commitment to the facts that is independent of social and political goals. PMID:18181947

Doerflinger, R M

2008-02-01

138

Research on parallelism in problem-solving systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes SRI International's third year of research on a system for automatically generating hierarchical plans containing parallel (concurrent) actions. This is a general planning and problem-solving system that is not tied to a particular domain. Results of this research might eventually be used in the development of systems for automatically generating plans to coordinate the activities of military personnel engaged in a common mission. Other domains of applications could include logistical planning, planning the concurrent use of many computers on a single network, and planning the movements of a robot arm.

Wilkins, D.E.

1982-09-01

139

Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

140

?heoretical analysis researches of problem cultures of health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existing in literature approaches to the problem of health culture is conducted. Are presented the scientific approaches to the determination of essence «Culture of health» concept and terms attended with it on the basis of content-analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical literature. The analysis of modern researches allowed to systematize and estimate factors that influence on the health culture, to differentiate and describe components and principles of culture of health.

Preobrazhenskaya O.?.

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
141

Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

1986-01-01

142

Inaugural address  

Science.gov (United States)

From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This was how IAGRG was born, and currently the association has about 350 members, both from within India and abroad. The full inaugural address is available in the PDF

Joshi, P. S.

2014-03-01

143

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards would not be enough unless they are understood and applied by all. In order to attain this objective, the IAEA should spare no effort for the provision of training. Thus, Morocco has put at the disposal of the IAEA the National Centre for Nuclear Energy, Science, and Techniques for the organization of a post-graduate training course on radiation safety and the safety of nuclear waste for African French-speaking countries. Morocco has also elaborated, with the assistance of the IAEA, a law aimed at unifying and harmonizing the existing legislation and creating a regulatory body. In addition, Morocco has acquired scientific know-how and technical expertise in the field of nuclear research that allow him to serve as a centre of excellence for Africa

2003-09-01

144

Presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

Vohra, U

1993-07-01

145

Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions in this fact sheet provide snapshots of our three research emphases, followed by descriptions of select current projects.

Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

2013-01-01

146

Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

Karen Sobel

2011-01-01

147

Radiation and lung cancer: problems and topics of future research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was the purpose of this critical review to outline the main uncertainties of present risk estimates for radiation-induced lung cancer and the resulting topics of future research in this field. The main emphasis was the actual problems of dose and risk estimates for indoor exposure to radon daughters. The discussion indicates that the conclusions of the ICRP and the BEIR IV studies, which proceed from data of radon-exposed miners, are based on models and assumptions that are too simple. Comparison with the lung cancer data from the atomic bomb survivors indicates that these uncertainties concern mainly the transfer of the data from male miners to the female population and the influence of smoking. This underlines the importance of large direct case-control studies on lung cancer from indoor radon. A detailed list of topics for future research in this field is presented in the summary of this session. (author)

1991-03-04

148

Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students constructed dozens of research questions informed by class readings, presentations, and discussions. A technical report is in progress on the resulting research agenda covering: data standards; infrastructure; research context; data reuse; sharing and access; preservation; and conceptual foundations. This presentation will discuss the agenda and its importance for the geosciences, highlighting high priority research questions. It will also introduce the related research to be undertaken by two DCERC doctoral students at NCAR during the 2013-2014 academic year and other data curation research in progress by the doctoral DCERC team.

Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.

2013-12-01

149

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The largest volumes of radioactive waste currently generated in Member States fall into the category of LILW. During the past few decades, much of this waste has been placed in near surface repositories. Consequently, methods and technologies for the disposal of LILW have developed and evolved considerably. An issue of current interest in many countries is the management of large volumes of very low activity waste, mostly generated as a result of the decommissioning of nuclear installations, but also arising from research laboratories, research reactors and nuclear power plants. Decommissioning and radioactive waste management are interrelated activities that must be properly coordinated; they need careful strategic planning if decommissioning projects are to be taken forward successfully. In this context, it is generally recognized that the lack of suitable disposable routes for all waste types generated during the dismantling of nuclear installations may hinder decommissioning plans. Several countries, such as, Japan, Sweden, France, and in the near future, Spain, have opted for simple and cost effective surface or near surface repositories with minimum engineering, which will be dedicated to receiving the largest part, by volume, of the decommissioning waste. Other countries may be interested in following their example. The IAEA has recently published a Safety Guide on providing guidance to national authorities on the application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. This publication contains specific levels of activity concentration for both radionuclides of natural origin and those of artificial origin which may be used to determine the levels at which bulk amounts of material may be released from regulatory control. Low activity radioactive waste, primarily those containing long lived radionuclides, are unsuitable for disposal in a typical near surface disposal facility and hence require alternative disposal options. The IAEA has reviewed the current situation of residues and waste containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with its extremely large volumes and long lived radionuclides in a recent Technical Report Series document and is currently developing guidance on the safe management of this kind of waste. A particularly attractive and cost effective solution for sealed radioactive sources presently being investigated is the borehole disposal concept, which seems to be especially suitable for high activity sources and those containing long lived radionuclides. Member States with only non-power applications face the problem of setting up proper infrastructures to deal with radioactive waste and of acquiring the technologies that serve the purpose. For these countries, shared solutions for the disposal of their limited amounts of waste would make sense. The IAEA has recently published a technical document elaborating a framework dealing with institutional and other aspects of such multinational initiatives

2005-06-01

150

High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High density EEG (hdEEG during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g. the traveling of slow waves and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g. consciousness and cognitive abilities. Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

CarolineLustenberger

2012-05-01

151

Treatment for alcohol-related problems: special populations: research opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the subgroups indicated, a few questions/issues are relevant to all three (women, elderly, minorities): 1. Heterogeneity of the special populations, for example, Hispanic-Americans are from different countries with different cultures. Women and the elderly vary by age, education, income, social class, health status, etc., to say nothing of ethnicity/color/religion. 2. Of therapy modalities, professional and indigenous, which are more efficacious? 3. Are group-specific therapies needed, or will sensitivity to a particular group work as well? WOMEN: Stereotypes and myths have prevailed, for example, the long-standing belief that women have poorer prognoses than male alcoholics. When female and male alcoholics are compared, women report more positive family history, a later onset of drinking and problems, more marital disruption, more comorbidity, etc. The review of treatment outcomes (Vannicelli, 1986) showed few significant gender differences in outcomes. Research recommendations include biological and genetic studies, women's view of and use of therapeutic modalities, and outcome studies of different modalities, including all female facilities. ELDERLY: Medications are used more by older patients, and such patients are more likely to experience adverse drug reactions. In the moderate social use of alcohol, there are conflicting reports and the extent of elderly use awaits decisive study. The etiology of problem drinking by older persons is studied rarely. An attempt has been made to explain onset later in life (vs. earlier onset) based on the stresses of aging (loss, loneliness, health problems, etc.); research results have not been supportive. Consequences of older persons' heavy drinking seems to be most often alcohol-related medical disorders, although there are often familial and social consequences. Atkinson (1995) recommended the development of elder-specific outcome measures, study of the efficacy of different treatment modalities, and study of the efficacy of treatment for patients in elder-specific and mixed age groups, etc. MINORITIES: Each of the federally mandated minority groups in the United States is heterogeneous. The epidemiology of use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs is well studied, but treatment issues are not. AMERICAN INDIANS: There are more than 200 tribes; each has its own customs and culture. Some tribes are abstinent; others have big problems with abuse of alcohol, and other drugs. Orthodox treatment methods, used by professional counselors and therapists, have not worked very well. Recommendation: study of traditional Indian forms of healing practices combined with other treatment; this would be a culture-sensitive model. BLACK AMERICANS: This includes not only African-Americans but people from the Caribbean, Central and South America, etc. Among African-Americans, there is a history of ambivalence toward alcohol: on the one hand, a tolerant "nightclub culture" and on the other, church beliefs in temperance and abstinence. There is "respectable drinking" and "problem drinking," most often defined as solitary or public drinking. The primary source of support is considered familial, so people tend to be distrustful of therapy from "strangers." They are anonymous in promoting sobriety and study of subcultural norms and the history of slavery. Earlier ethnographic works (Liebow, 1967) were of "street-corner men," slum dwellers, ghetto norms; recommended: studies of middle-class African-American life and drinking behaviors. ASIAN-AMERICANS: A study in Los Angeles reports differences among Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Koreans in drinking beliefs and behavior. Of these groups, the Japanese in Japan and the Japanese-Americans report the largest number of heavy drinkers. It is, however, considered a private matter, even when associated with social problems. Interestingly, there is an organization called the All Nippon Sobriety Association (like Alcoholics Anonymous). Recommendations: studies of generational differences among Japanese-Americ

Gomberg, Edith S Lisansky

2003-01-01

152

Opening address  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the importance of coal to Australia and addresses: the issue of coal contract prices; the role of the Government's export control policy with regard to prices; the response of the Government to the Mabo issue, as a basis for underpinning investment confidence in the coal mining industry; and the need for further performance improvement in the industry.

Loosley, S.

1993-01-01

153

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is encouraging to see so many experts gathered here today to discuss the important issue of environmental protection from ionizing radiation. The International Union of Radioecology (IUR) has collaborated constructively with other international organizations, notably the ICRP, the IAEA, UNSCEAR and the EU, and hope that these close links may be strengthened and developed in the future. Such international cooperation has been conducive to rapid progress on the theme of radiological protection of the environment in recent years. The IUR, as an independent scientific association, has been fighting to put environmental radioactivity in the same context as other environmental problems within regulatory and political agendas. In the early years, it could be quite embarrassing because there was little support for this initiative, but now it can give us great satisfaction that the topic appears to be receiving the international attention it deserves. However, it is imperative that any advances are built on a foundation of scientific knowledge. The IUR task group, formed in 1997, took note of a number of initiatives and ideas being developed within the radiological protection community. The IUR was the first international organization to conclude that a systematic approach was required in order to develop a framework within which various initiatives could be accommodated and, in 2000, such a system was presented and promoted. The IUR also highlighted the need to consider the broader socioeconomic context within which these ideas were beginning to evolve. I would now like to spend a few moments of your time to update you on the IUR's views and activities. A consensus conference was held in Oslo in 2001, supported by a number of representatives from NGOs, industry, academia and regulators. A surprising degree of agreement was achieved, enabling the drafting of a consensus statement - stating that the environment should receive radiological protection. Members of the IUR have been at the forefront of exploring ethical and legal aspects of protection of the environment. Their work can be seen in recent IAEA and IUR publications as well as participation at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg and contributions made to the ICRP Task Group working on radiological protection of non-human species. At the IUR-sponsored conference in Monaco, together with other current initiatives and research efforts, the IUR have been able to present the current status of work connected to radiological protection of the environment and have also been able to make recommendations for future work in the field. Foremost amongst these recommendations was the requirement for basic scientific research in order to strengthen our assessment system and increase confidence in our decision making practices. I can assure you that the IUR will continue in these activities, and I hope that you all enjoy this interesting and useful conference. I would like to finish by expressing my gratitude to the personnel of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority for their great efforts in staging this event. (author)

2005-08-01

154

Addressing Global Health, Development, and Social Inequalities through Research and Policy Analyses: the International Journal of MCH and AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One year after the birth of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA, we continue to share the passion to document, and shine the light on the myriads of global health issues that debilitate developing countries.Although the focus of IJMA is on the social determinants of health and disease as well as on the disparities in the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affecting infants, children, women, adults, and families in developing countries, we would like to encourage our fellow researchers and policy makers in both the developing and developed countries to consider submitting work that examines cross-national variations in heath and social inequalities.Such a global focus allows us to identify and understand social, structural, developmental, and health policy determinants underlying health inequalities between nations.Global assessment of health and socioeconomic patterns reaffirms the role of broader societal-level factors such as human development, gender inequality, gross national product, income inequality, and healthcare infrastructure as the fundamental determinants of health inequalities between nations.This is also confirmed by our analysis of the WHO data that shows a strong negative association between levels of human development and infant and maternal mortality rates.Focusing on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical inequalities within a developing country, on the other hand, should give us a sense of how big the problem of health inequity is within its own borders.Such an assessment, then, could lead to development of policy solutions to tackle health inequalities that are unique to that country.

Romuladus E. Azuine, DrPH, RN

2012-11-01

155

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The keynote address to a debate in the UK on global warming is presented. Topics covered include the scientific consensus on the greenhouse effect, developing countries and their increasing energy demands, energy efficiency, non-fossil fuel technologies, deforestation and economic and political implications of CO2 reduction targets. Short discussions are also presented on adoptive measures to climate change and world population trends. (UK)

1991-01-01

156

Social problems, primary care and pathways to help and support: addressing health inequalities at the individual level. Part II: lay perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study aimed to describe social problems presented to general practitioners (GPs) in UK inner cities and GPs' responses; describe patients help?seeking pathways; and consider how these pathways can be improved. Methods The study involved a pilot survey and follow?up qualitative interviews with patients in two inner city areas in London and Salford in 2001–2. The pilot survey involved five practices in each locality. GPs completed questionnaires on 57 people presenting with social problems. A diversity sample of 12 patients was followed up for interview. Results Study results are presented in two parts. Here (Part II) qualitative research results are reported highlighting four themes: the complex and enduring nature of social problems; the persistence people display seeking help; the fragmented and problematic pathways available; and the roles GPs play as: primary medical adviser; formal gateway to another service; advocates or facilitators to another service; and sources of support and advice during a process of recovery. Commonly, GPs occupied more than one role. Conclusions GPs do help people deal with social problems, but their responses are limited. More integrated pathways to help and advice for social problems are needed. Existing pathways could be more visible and accessible, and new pathways developed through commissioning and extending social prescribing. More partnerships across sectors may create more co?ordinated provision, but these are notoriously difficult, and other trends such as the focus on lifestyle issues and long?standing conditions may make it more difficult for people with social needs to access support.

Popay, Jennie; Kowarzik, Ute; Mallinson, Sara; Mackian, Sara; Barker, Jacqui

2007-01-01

157

Lunchtime address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy needs of the UK are considered: it is suggested that the only robust solution to the long-term problem lies with energy conservation, coal production and nuclear power. These subjects are then examined in more detail. The technical, organisational and social problems of nuclear power technology are assumed to be soluble, and further attention is given to the industrial capability needed to retain the nuclear option. The dilemma of present surplus generating capacity, while the nuclear industry needs to be kept alive to prepare for the much expanded role foreseen around the turn of the century, is discussed. (U.K.)

1976-07-09

158

Every Cell Counts: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Address a Novel Research Question in an Undergraduate Neuroscience Lab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A science-based curriculum that encourages hands-on experiences, skill development, and promotes student engagement are critical components in both successful undergraduate psychology and neuroscience programs. This lab explored an inquiry-based research project focused on microscopy skills, critical thinking, and independent research design. This lesson used a novel research question (How many serotonergic cells are located in the dorsal raphe nucleus?) to engage students in research and met...

Birkett, Melissa A.

2009-01-01

159

Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identificatio...

Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M.; Mccann, Bernard

2007-01-01

160

President's address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

1982-06-06

 
 
 
 
161

Research on Team Orienteering Problem with Dynamic Travel Times  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the team orienteering problem (TOP) a set of locations is given, each with a score. The goal is to determine a fixed number of routes, limited in length, that visit some locations and maximize the sum of the collected scores. The team orienteering problem is often used as a starting point for modeling many combinatorial optimization problems. This paper studies the dynamic team orienteering problem considering the travel cost varying with times and visiting time...

Jin Li

2012-01-01

162

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

163

Building Consistency between Title, Problem Statement, Purpose, & Research Questions to Improve the Quality of Research Plans and Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistency in the title, problem, purpose, and research question improve the logic and transparency of research. When these components of research are aligned research design and planning are more coherent and research reports are more readable. This article reviews the process for checking for and improving consistency. Numerous examples of…

Newman, Isadore; Covrig, Duane M.

2013-01-01

164

Perspectives on problem solving in cognitive research and educational assessment: analytical, interactive, and collaborative problem solving  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem solving has received broad public interest as an important competency in modern societies. In educational large-scale assessments paper-pencil based analytical problem solving was included first (e.g., Programme for International Student Assessment, PISA 2003). With growing interest in more complex situations, the focus has shifted to interactive problem solving (e.g., PISA 2012) requiring identification and control of complex systems. In the future, collaborative problem solving repr...

Greiff, Samuel; Holt, Daniel; Funke, Joachim

2013-01-01

165

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

1981-06-09

166

Chairperson's address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power industry responsibilities for generation, transmission and retailing have been split and many nuclear power stations have been transferred to private companies. This has produced a clear focus on good management and the need for a top class safety culture if nuclear stations are to be run successfully. There are, however, two specific aspects of nuclear power generation which appear to cause private companies considerable concern: the unique health and safety issue related to ionizing radiation in normal operation and potential accidents; and the technical, economic and socio-political problems attached to disposing of radioactive waste

1998-09-04

167

Addressing Inequality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

Raquel Sosa Elízaga

2012-07-01

168

Banquet address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theme of the address is the position of nuclear power following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After acknowledging the Russian openness over the accident, Lord Marshall explains why a similar accident could not happen in the United Kingdom. The pressure tube design at Chernobyl had been investigated in 1976 but had been rejected because of three major disadvantages - the reactor had a positive void coefficient, it had zonal instabilities and local criticality in the core and it had a very high graphite temperature. In addition the British report of 1976 listed two other concerns - that the Russian design appeared to have insufficient shut-down margin and there was no back-up for the control rods for reactivity shutdown. The Russian safety philosophy is also seen as different from that of most Western reactor operators. It is thus concluded that Chernobyl could not happen in the West. However, the confidence of the public has to be won back and communication is important in this. The effects of Chernobyl should be seen in perspective - compared, for instance, against other accidents where a greater number of lives were lost. (U.K.)

1986-09-02

169

A method for addressing research gaps in HTA, developed whilst evaluating robotic-assisted surgery: a proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background When evaluating health technologies with insufficient scientific evidence, only innovative potentials can be assessed. A Regional policy initiative linking the governance of health innovations to the development of clinical research has been launched by the Region of Emilia Romagna Healthcare Authority. This program, aimed at enhancing the research capacity of health organizations, encourages the development of adoption plans that combine use in clinical practice along with experimental use producing better knowledge. Following the launch of this program we developed and propose a method that, by evaluating and ranking scientific uncertainty, identifies the moment (during the stages of the technology's development where it would be sensible to invest in research resources and capacity to further its evaluation. The method was developed and tested during a research project evaluating robotic surgery. Methods A multidisciplinary panel carried out a 5-step evaluation process: 1 definition of the technology's evidence profile and of all relevant clinical outcomes; 2 systematic review of scientific literature and outline of the uncertainty profile differentiating research results into steady, plausible, uncertain and unknown results; 3 definition of the acceptable level of uncertainty for investing research resources; 4 analysis of local context; 5 identification of clinical indications with promising clinical return. Results Outputs for each step of the evaluation process are: 1 evidence profile of the technology and systematic review; 2 uncertainty profile for each clinical indication; 3 exclusion of clinical indications not fulfilling the criteria of maximum acceptable risk; 4 mapping of local context; 5 recommendations for research. Outputs of the evaluation process for robotic surgery are described in the paper. Conclusions This method attempts to rank levels of uncertainty in order to distinguish promising from hazardous clinical use and to outline a research course of action. Decision makers wishing to tie coverage policies to the development of scientific evidence could find this method a useful aid to the governance of innovations.

Ballini Luciana

2010-09-01

170

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

2008-07-01

171

Addressing the Social and Environmental Determinants of Urban Health Equity: Evidence for Action and a Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world’s population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges—economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development c...

Friel, Sharon; Akerman, Marco; Hancock, Trevor; Kumaresan, Jacob; Marmot, Michael; Melin, Thomas; Vlahov, David

2011-01-01

172

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper describes the outcome of an important recent initiative of Canadian nuclear industry to reinvigorate interest in education and collaborative research in prominent Canadian universities. This initiative has led to the formation of the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE), incorporated in 2002. During the recent past, the slowdown in nuclear power development in Canada has curtailed the demand for new nuclear professionals down to a trickle. Without exciting job opportunities in sight the interest of prospective students in nuclear education and research has plunged. Consequently, with declining enrolment in nuclear studies and higher demand from competing disciplines, most universities have found it difficult to sustain nuclear programs. As such the available pool of graduating students is small and insufficient to meet emerging industry demand. With nuclear industry employees' average age hovering around mid-forties and practically no younger cohort to back up, nuclear industry faces the risk of knowledge loss and significant difficulty in recruiting new employees to replenish its depleting workforce. It is, therefore, justifiably concerned. Also, since nuclear generation is now the purview of smaller companies, their in-house capability for mid- to longer-term research is becoming inadequate. Recognizing the above challenges, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded

2004-09-07

173

Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant issues still being faced by the research reactor community are primarily related to the operation, utilization, safety, ageing, decommissioning and waste management. More recently, challenges such as initiatives for creating new RR facilities, securing isotope production, human resources, infrastructure capacity building, or sustainability of RR programmes, are receiving greater attention. This conference will focus on new developments in the relevant, efficient and safe utilisation of Nuclear Research Reactors for the countries' social and economic development. It will contribute to foster the exchange of information on current and new research reactors and to provide a forum for reactor users, operators, managers, regulators, designers and suppliers to share experience and exchange opinions. It constitutes an opportunity to discuss common challenges, options and strategies and to strengthen regional and international cooperation between Research Reactors' centres from developed and developing countries with special emphasis on the transfer of knowledge and know how. In this particular context, the International Atomic Energy Agency is a central partner, playing a major role in strengthening the operation, applications and safety of Nuclear Research Reactors, thus supporting the development of civil and peaceful nuclear technologies worldwide

2011-11-14

174

Teacher Research and School Change: Paradoxes, Problems, and Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the link between teacher research and whole school change. As the authors investigated three US schools described as having close ties between teacher research and school culture, they discovered that moving teacher research out of individual classrooms and into entire schools is astonishingly difficult work filled with paradox…

Berger, J.G.; Boles, K.C.; Troen, V.

2005-01-01

175

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level. The ILO adopted, two months ago, a new global strategy to prevent workplace hazards such as radiation from causing death, disability and disease. We would be pleased to encourage related infrastructures in national workplaces to do their share in our concerted efforts for achieving the required safety culture. The labour inspectorates worldwide, the employers and the workers, as well as their organizations, professionals and scientists, all of them can contribute. We need well organized, systematic and continuous collaborative efforts that end up in progressive and stepwise improvement which covers all those at risk. I am convinced this conference will be one step in that direction. (author)

2003-09-01

176

Latitude and Longitude. AIR Presidential Address.  

Science.gov (United States)

This speech addresses the problem of higher education's response to the forces of change and argues for a reinventing of higher education rather than repeatedly amending core teaching and research activities to fit new social and economic situations. Three higher education organizational dynamics (recruitment, budgeting, and handling outside…

Chaffee, Ellen Earle

177

Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

178

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. The Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources provides non-binding guidance concerning the import and export of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources, notably in relation to the evaluation of export authorization requests and pre-shipment notification. Furthermore there is the IAEA Safeguards Agreements and their Additional Protocols, which require accounting and control of nuclear material, and the establishment of State systems of accounting and control. The purpose and objectives of this conference are, on the one hand, to look back and review our collective experience in combating illicit nuclear trafficking, and on the other hand, looking forward, to see whether we can identify ways in which existing practices can be improved, and where it might be useful for new practices to be developed

2008-07-01

179

Toward Addressing the Issues of Site Selection in District Effectiveness Research: A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Growth Model  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: District effectiveness research (DER) is an emerging field concerned with identifying the organizational structures, administration, and leadership practices at the school district level that help districts find success with all of their students across the schools within the system. This work has mirrored much of the early school…

Bowers, Alex J.

2010-01-01

180

Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-08

 
 
 
 
181

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically sustainable in the long term. Sweden welcomes the work done by the IAEA and the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) to draw up guidelines and recommendations for radiation protection

2005-08-01

182

Conference Essay: Tackling Problems of Qualitative Social Research: A Conversation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dieser Beitrag basiert auf den Diskussionsbeiträgen des Symposiums "Methods in Dialogue", das im Mai 2005 in der Nähe von Cambridge stattfand. Das Symposium wurde als Abschlussveranstaltung einer Seminarserie des London East Research Institute und des Centre for Narrative Research der University of East London veranstaltet und wurde unterstützt vom Economic and Social Research Council. Die öffentliche Unterstützung der Sozialforschung hängt zunehmend von ihrer Fähigkeit ab, gültige un...

Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Dege, Martin; Andrews, Molly; Squire, Corinne

2008-01-01

183

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

1980-03-11

184

Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence) was established with this concern in mind. It ai...

Karen Hofman; Yulia Blomstedt; Sheila Addei; Rose Kalage; Mandy Maredza; Osman Sankoh; Martin Bangha; Kathleen Kahn; Heiko Becher; Joke Haafkens; John Kinsman

2013-01-01

185

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

1992-06-01

186

Using Working Agreements in Participatory Action Research: Working through Moral Problems with Malaysian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and…

Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue

2013-01-01

187

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at determining the overall needs for improvements in a country; the International Physical Protectio

2008-07-01

188

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the international conference on 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities: Assuring the Safe Termination of Practices Involving Radioactive Materials', on behalf of the President of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Mr. Wolfram Koenig. The BfS is very pleased to host this conference on behalf of the German Government. We are deeply honoured by the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency to organize this conference and were delighted to accept it. After more than a year of preparatory work we are ready now to start the conference, with its plenary session, the poster presentations and the industrial exhibition. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an important issue in Germany. Following the agreement between the Federal Government and the operators of nuclear power plants to phase out of nuclear power generation within the next 20 years, the successive shutdown of facilities and subsequent dismantling will be a major task for all parties involved. As Germany is in favour of immediate dismantling, all the reactor sites should be brought to green field conditions in about 30 years from now. Germany has already gained a lot of practical experience in the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facilities. In total, 57 nuclear facilities were shut down and 27 were dismantled. Most of them are research reactors. The shutdown facilities include 17 nuclear power plants. Two of them were completely dismantled to green field conditions. In our definition, 'nuclear power plants' mean facilities that were connected to the grid. Of course, many of the facilities are smaller prototype reactors, but larger ones are also included. These are the five WWER reactors of Soviet design in Greifswald, which is claimed to be the biggest decommissioning project in the world, the Wuergassen BWR with 640 MW(e) (net) and the Muehlheim-Kaerlich PWR with 1220 MW(e) (net). Both facilities, Greifswald and Wuergassen, can be visited on Friday in the context of the 'scientific tours'. Furthermore, an application for the decommissioning of the Stade PWR with 640 MW(e) (net) was submitted to the regulators and is under examination. It should also be mentioned that nine fuel cycle facilities were shut down in Germany and four of them were completely dismantled. Amongst the fuel cycle facilities is the Karlsruhe prototype reprocessing plant, which has the following specialty: the reprocessing plant is being dismantled and a vitrification plant is being constructed in parallel in order to solidify the roughly 80 m3 of liquid HLW originating from the reprocessing of 208 Mg of spent fuel. Dismantling of the vitrification plant is the last step in this process. Another outstanding project is the cleanup and rehabilitation of the uranium mining and milling sites of the Wismut company in the German States of Saxony and Thuringia. When the facility was closed at the end of 1990, it had produced about 231 000 t of uranium. At that time, Wismut was the third largest uranium producer in the world. The ongoing work includes the stabilization and remediation of the waste rock piles, dismantling of the mining and milling facilities and underground remediation measures. The total cleanup costs are estimated to be about Euro 6.5 billion.The site is the destination of a scientific tour on Friday. The tour is not yet fully booked. Last minute registrations are possible at the registration desk. A large amount of research work was carried out in Germany for the development of methods, technologies, etc., for the dismantling of nuclear facilities, which was publicly funded and carried out, for example at universities. A large amount of know how emerged also from the application of equipment in dismantling the actual facilities. Having this background in mind, it is not surprising that Germany decided on some of the issues that are the subject of this conference, for example release from regulatory control. German experts will provide the respective input for the conference and experience ca

2003-08-01

189

Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

Bauer, Travis LaDell

2009-12-01

190

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism threats. There is a need to continue and strengthen the multinational cooperation which involves active participation by both nuclear specialists and those with more general security and law enforcement laws. Furthermore priority has to be given to developing national capacity to evaluate security threats, ensure adequate physical protection and intervene in ongoing nuclear trafficking cases complemented by cooperation in the areas of forensic analysis of nuclear material and emergency response. Together with the Russian Federation the USA announce the completion of security upgrades at strategic weapons sites and agreement on measures to ensure the long term sustainability of physical protection improvements in the Russian Federation. The USA is also working to convert research reactors and return the high enriched uranium fuel fro locations around the world which might otherwise become a target for terrorists or thieves. In parallel with efforts to improve security at the source, the USA is building international cooperation to put in place nuclear detection at seaports, airports and land border crossings. Through collaboration with the Russian Federal Customs Service, all of the Russian Federation's official border crossings will be equipped with radiation detection equipment by 2011

2008-07-01

191

EPRI workshop keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This keynote address provides an historical perspective on EMI (electromagnetic interference) and RFI (radio frequency interference) control in the nuclear power industry, describing developments from the microprocessor explosion, to crosstalk between cables, to prediction tools and regulations for electrical noise sources. The remainder of the address is an overview of some of the papers to be presented at the workshop. Several sectors of the community faced with EMI-related problems will be represented at the workshop: the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the power utilities, the industrial process-control sector, the military, instrument, and control-device manufacturers, and others. The afternoon session will address the ambient electromagnetic environment and receptors of EMI. The sessions of the second day of the workshop will address details of EMI control in the nuclear industry in general and upgrading to digital instrumentation and control systems in particular

1993-06-01

192

Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

Jenkins, M.

2012-12-01

193

EMF health effects research: Problems and current status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author describes some of the current generation of research, focusing particularly on that being sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The central goal of the research program is to answer the question of whether threats to human health result from exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Several related questions are examined: Is there any epidemiological evidence of risk to those who are exposed What are the sources of exposure to EMF, and who is exposed What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed What is the biologically important parameter, or 'dose' of EMF exposure How is exposure best estimated What effects, if any, occur in laboratory animals exposed to EMF If there are effects of exposure in cells or tissues, where in the cell does that interaction occur The author describes current research to answer these questions.

Sagan, L.A. (Environment Division of the Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1990-07-19

194

Opening Address [International Conference on Research Reactors: Safe Management and Effective Utilization, Rabat (Morocco), 14-18 November 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant issues that the RR community continues to face are primarily related to operation, utilization and safety, ageing, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. There are also more recent challenges, such as initiatives for new RR facilities, securing radioisotope production, human resource and infrastructure capacity building, as well as sustainability of RR programmes, all of which are receiving greater attention. In view of the above, it is timely to convene another in the series of international conferences to discuss the issues and foster cooperation within the worldwide RR community. For more than 60 years, RRs have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 RRs have been built, and some 240 of these facilities continue to operate in 55 countries. It goes without saying that RRs must be safely and reliably operated, adequately utilized, refurbished when necessary, provided with adequate proliferation-resistant fuel cycle services and safely decommissioned at the end of life. In this regard, the IAEA provides assistance to Member States by developing safety standards and disseminating information on good practices for all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the planning and implementation of decommissioning. Member States look to the IAEA for coordination of the worldwide effort in this area and for help in solving specific problems. Today RR operating organizations need to overcome challenges such as effective utilization, the on-going management of ageing facilities, pressures for increased vigilance with respect to non-proliferation, and shrinking resources, both financial and human, while fulfilling an expanding role in support of nuclear technology development. The IAEA coordinates and implements an array of activities that together provide broad support for RRs. As with other aspects of nuclear technology, RR activities within the IAEA are spread among diverse groups in different Departments. To ensure harmonized approaches a cross-cutting coordination group on RRs has been established, with representatives from all IAEA departments actively supporting RR activities

2011-11-14

195

Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucia...

2012-01-01

196

Social problems, primary care and pathways to help and support: addressing health inequalities at the individual level. Part I: the GP perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study aimed to describe social problems presented to general practitioners (GPs) in UK inner cities and GPs' responses; describe patients' help?seeking pathways; and consider how these pathways can be improved. Methods The study involved a pilot survey and follow?up qualitative interviews with patients in two inner city areas in London and Salford in 2001–2. The pilot survey involved five practices in each locality. GPs completed questionnaires on 57 people presenting with social problems. A diversity sample of 12 patients were followed up for interview. Results Study results are presented in two parts. This paper focuses on the GP survey results. People were presenting with a wide range of social problems, and multiple problems were also common. Problems with welfare benefits and housing were the most common, but GPs were most likely to refer to counselling services and to a lesser extent to generic advice services. Some GPs would have preferred to refer patients to more problem?specific services but did not believe these were available. Conclusions The study highlights the role GPs play in helping people deal with social problems but also identifies limitations in their response to these problems. It points to the need for more integrated pathways to help and advice for social problems. Primary care can make existing pathways more visible and accessible, and create new pathways through, for example, the new commissioning role and extending the scope of social prescribing.

Popay, Jennie; Kowarzik, Ute; Mallinson, Sara; Mackian, Sara; Barker, Jacqui

2007-01-01

197

The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us  

Science.gov (United States)

This article includes an overview of the history of research on school bullying, its nature and prevalence, characteristics of bullies and victims, and teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward bullying. Also, two model interventions designed to reduce this harmful behavior are examined.

Beaty, Lee A.; Alexeyev, Erick B.

2008-01-01

198

Algebra Word Problems: A Review of the Theoretical Models and Related Research Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research indicates that students have great difficulty solving algebra word problems and that few high school seniors have mastered the fundamentals of algebra, let alone algebra problem-solving skills. Improving students' algebra problem solving skills is considered to be critically important by those who have worked on reforming mathematics…

Carifio, James; Nasser, Ramzi

199

PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database ?library.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to the program package in use only in 17,5% of works. Thus shown that non-compliance with international standards in the preparation of scientific papers, primarily statistical requirements directly affect the quality and ratings of domestic articles.

Botagoz Turdalieva

2013-10-01

200

Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and complet...

Bohensky Megan A; Jolley Damien; Sundararajan Vijaya; Evans Sue; Pilcher David V; Scott Ian; Brand Caroline A

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Donating Embryos to Stem Cell Research: The “Problem” of Gratitude  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is based on linked qualitative studies of the donation of human embryos to stem cell research carried out in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and China. All three studies used semi-structured interview protocols to allow an in-depth examination of donors’ and non-donors’ rationales for their donation decisions, with the aim of gaining information on contextual and other factors that play a role in donor decisions and identifying how these relate to factors that are more usually...

2012-01-01

202

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elaborating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focuse...

Horacio Hideki Yanasse

2013-01-01

203

Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

1991-10-01

204

The research centers' contribution to solving waste mangement problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Federal Government's concept, private enterprises should in principle ensure the waste disposal of nuclear power plants, and research centres should only back up the processing of the waste. Thus a mobile plant is at the disposal for the compaction of solid waste. The centres made an important contribution for the decontamination and the scrapping of removed elements. For the burning of solid waste there is only one commercial plant with a capacity of about 400 Mg/a in the FRG. The remaining amount of about 150 Mg/a could be taken over by the centres in Juelich and Karlsruhe. (DG)

1988-10-01

205

The Research on the Problems of Integer Matrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the element on the metal ring may not have the inverse, so the theorems on the matrix in field would perhaps incorrect. In this article, I mainly do research on the eigenvalue, eigenvector and similar diagonalization. These results are: integer matrix can change into upper triangular matrix through integer elementary row operation; two necessary and sufficient conditions about similarity diagonalization of integer matrix; if the integer matrix has different eigenvalue, it can diagonalizable if and only if it is an integer diagonal matrix.

SUN Chun-tao,

2013-03-01

206

Addressing the Identification Problem in Age-period-cohort Analysis A Tutorial on the Use of Partial Least Squares and Principal Components Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the analysis of trends in health outcomes, an ongoing issue is how to separate and estimate the effects of age, period, and cohort. As these 3 variables are perfectly collinear by definition, regression coefficients in a general linear model are not unique. In this tutorial, we review why identification is a problem, and how this problem may be tackled using partial least squares and principal components regression analyses. Both methods produce regression coefficients that fulfill the sam...

2012-01-01

207

Higher specialist training--teething problems. Working Minds Research Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

An interview survey was conducted to ascertain the views of the first cohort of doctors in Scotland completing Higher Specialist Training under the new Calman arrangements. It was intended that this information would influence plans for the future training of Specialists in Scotland, building on strengths and addressing weaknesses. A team of interviewers saw 140 out of the 168 Senior/Specialist Registrars who were due to receive their Certificate of Completion of Specialist Training (CCST) in the year leading to August 1999. The response rate was 83 per cent. The median age of respondents was 34 years (range of 29-51 years), with a third of the cohort being female. Overall the doctors had spent between nine and 13 years in training after graduation with a median of 10 years by the time they entered their final year of higher specialist training. On average, eighteen months had been spent in another specialty. Psychiatry and Surgery stand out as specialties that trainees enter immediately after gaining full registration. Most of the doctors (84 per cent) wish to remain in Scotland for their career posts. Although the majority (69 per cent) plan to work full-time, two thirds of the women said they might or would work part-time in the future. When asked whether they perceived gaps in their clinical training, 39 per cent said they did. No consistent pattern emerged according to the specialty and dual certification did not appear to create difficulties. On balance, the doctors felt as prepared for the role of Consultant as those appointed to Consultant posts five years ago. However, they had experienced both old and new style training and were concerned that the next generation of Specialist Registrars would not be so well prepared and might find the transition from Specialist Registrar to Consultant difficult. The benefits of an explicit and detailed curriculum were recognised but there were doubts expressed as to whether such a structure could be implemented. In craft specialties, doctors felt that it was impossible to acquire the skills and experience to become a competent Consultant within five or six years of higher specialist training. A second major concern is a perceived lack of flexibility under the new training arrangements both in geographical location and in catering to the training needs of individuals. Responses to questions exploring the nature of clinical supervision, appraisal, assessment and mentoring emphasised the fundamental importance of the relationship between supervising Consultant and the trainee. Good supervision, regular appraisal and mentoring are seen as highly desirable and extremely valuable when carried out well. This high standard was not perceived to be the norm. Only one third of the sample felt that they had had a continuing mentor or supervisor throughout the training programme. Trainees have reservations about their annual formal RITA assessments with some feeling that they lack objectivity as far as assessment of their own performance is concerned. They were more positive about the impact of Specialty Committees on the quality of training posts. PMID:12836623

Baldwin, P J

1999-09-01

208

Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8% met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies, sex (50% of studies, race (64% of studies, geographical/hospital site (93% of studies, socio-economic status (82% of studies and health status (72% of studies. Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

Scott Ian

2010-12-01

209

Addressable Terminally Linked DNA-CNT Nanowires  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite many advances in carbon nanotube (CNT) research, several issues continue to plague the field with regard to the construction of well-defined hybrid CNT materials. Regiospecific covalent functionalization, nonspecific surface absorption, and carbon nanotube aggregation/bundling present major difficulties when working with these materials. In this communication, we circumvent these problems and report a new addressable hybrid material composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes terminall...

Chenoweth, David M.; Swager, Timothy Manning

2010-01-01

210

The Integration of Research and Practice in the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the integration of research-based practices into youth problem behavior prevention, examining the developing integration of science and prevention practice regarding: increasing use of epidemiological evidence about youth problem behaviors to guide prevention; a system for monitoring the incidence, prevalence, and context of youth…

Biglan, Anthony; Mrazek, Patricia J.; Carnine, Douglas; Flay, Brian R.

2003-01-01

211

Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key â??â??lessons learnedâ??â?? from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: â??â??LC-based RAâ??â?? (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) andâ??â??RA-complemented LCAâ??â?? (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis

2012-01-01

212

Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: kgrieger@rti.org [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)

2012-07-15

213

Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

2012-07-01

214

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

215

AIVC survey of current research into air infiltration and related air quality problems in buildings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is given of the 1986 survey of nineteen IAE Member Countries' research activities into air infiltration and related air quality problems. Details are presented on the structure of the survey, the specific objectives within the two hundred and nineteen research summaries received and the manpower effort involved.

Charlesworth, P.

1987-02-01

216

The way of perceiving ecological problems by citizens of Vojvodina: Presentation of empirical research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents selected results of an empirical research about the attitudes of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems. Its starting hypothesis is that the sensibility of citizens’ attitudes towards ecological problems is the crucial key to create participative model of decision-making processes regarding environment. Research goals are descriptive and exploratory: evaluating the general attitude towards ecological problems, and checking their links with socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and with the globalization of the consciousness about the environment. The results of research show that respondents first recognize directly observable ecological problems (pollution. The rest of respondents recognized ecological problems which are necessarily mediated by global ecological consciousness and by ideas that put mainly human beings in the center of ecological issues (the lack of ecological consciousness. The respondents are divided in determining the state/civil society as the possible source of ecological problems, where most of them recognized the state institutions (ecological legislation as such. The respondents expressed a significant level of non-anthropocentric values towards nature. The assumed link between socio-demographic characteristics and reception of ecological problems was not confirmed. It is shown that the attitude of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems is highly diversified. On one hand, this attitude reflects an ecological consciousness, formed by the direct experience in the local context; while, on the other hand, it reflects a consciousness formed in the framework of globalized environmental discourse in “networked society”.

Puši? Ljubinko

2012-01-01

217

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elaborating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

Horacio Hideki Yanasse

2013-04-01

218

Solving the Lost in Translation Problem: Improving the Effectiveness of Translational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Translational research frequently fails to replicate in the clinic what has been demonstrated in the laboratory. This has been true for neuroprotection in the central nervous system, neuroprotection in glaucoma, as well as many other areas of medicine. Two fundamental reasons for this “Lost in Translation” problem are the “Butterfly Effect” (chaotic behavior of many animal models) and the “Two Cultures” problem (differences between the methodologies for preclinical and clinical research). We propose several strategies to deal with these issues, including the use of ensembles of animal models, adding intraocular pressure lowering to neuroprotection studies, changing the way in which preclinical research is done, and increasing interactions between the preclinical and clinical teams.

Ergorul, Ceren; Levin, Leonard A.

2012-01-01

219

Promoting healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness in early childhood curricula, addressing the Ben10(TM) problem: a randomised control trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This paper details the research protocol for a study funded by the Australian Research Council. An integrated approach towards helping young children respond to the significant pressures of ‘360 degree marketing’ on their food choices, levels of active play, and sustainability consciousness via the early childhood curriculum is lacking. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of curriculum interventions that educators design when using a pedagogical communication strategy on children’s knowledge about healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their toy food and toy selections. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised trial will be conducted with 300, 4 to 5 year-old children attending pre-school. Early childhood educators will develop a curriculum intervention using a pedagogical communication strategy that integrates content knowledge about healthy eating, active play and sustainability consciousness and deliver this to their pre-school class. Children will be interviewed about their knowledge of healthy eating, active play and the sustainability consequences of their food and toy selections. Parents will complete an Eating and Physical Activity Questionnaire rating their children’s food preferences, digital media viewing and physical activity habits. All measures will be administered at baseline, the end of the intervention and 6 months post intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents and the pre-school classes will be allocated randomly to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion This study is the first to utilise an integrated pedagogical communication strategy developed specifically for early childhood educators focusing on children’s healthy eating, active play, and sustainability consciousness. The significance of the early childhood period, for young children’s learning about healthy eating, active play and sustainability, is now unquestioned. The specific teaching and learning practices used by early childhood educators, as part of the intervention program, will incorporate a sociocultural perspective on learning; this perspective emphasises building on the play interests of children, that are experienced within the family and home context, as a basis for curriculum provision. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000363684: Date registered: 07/04/2014

2014-01-01

220

Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a moti...

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Gordon Memorial Lecture. Problems and crusades: a history of poultry disease research in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Poultry disease research in the UK began recognisably in the 1920s, in consequence of the development of a national poultry industry of economic importance. 2. Increasing disease problems during the 1930s revealed the need for more research, resulting notably in the growth of the Poultry Department of the Central Veterinary Laboratory and the establishment of Houghton Poultry Research Station. 3. Continued growth of the egg industry and the introduction of the broiler industry in the 1950s stimulated increased disease research, much of it publicly funded, during the following two decades. 4. Changing government attitudes to agricultural research in the 1980s brought about far-reaching changes to the funding, organisation, nature and amount of disease research conducted. Arrangements for such research continue to evolve. PMID:8199888

Payne, L N

1994-03-01

222

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how t [...] o obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K., Ke.

223

Examples of problems caused by impurities in targets and/or research samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is important that the fabricators of research or production samples understand what problems impurities will cause. Thus, it is necessary that those individuals requesting targets or other samples discuss, in detail, what is required with the individuals responsible for preparing the samples. This will permit proper preparation procedures to be selected which will eliminate or reduce the impurity content that might otherwise jeopardize the intended use of the sample. Examples of problems caused by impurities in research and production samples are detailed. 2 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

1988-10-01

224

How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research  

CERN Multimedia

Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

2012-01-01

225

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies t...

2008-01-01

226

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative excl...

2008-01-01

227

Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

Alas, Joel

2007-01-01

228

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complexand involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create asolution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how to obtain a solution from the variouscandidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can providerich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimizedproblem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility modelexplores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decisionanalysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. Theselection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses areasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company’sknowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to anoptimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which iseasy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K. Ke

2013-08-01

229

Building research problems in nuclear power plant construction in the GDR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems of building research are summarized in connection with the construction of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type reactors in the GDR. Their solution is aimed at increasing the efficiency of the construction process in completing the nuclear power station at the Greifswald site and in preparing the installation of 1000 MWe units.

Eichstaedt, J.

1984-02-01

230

Teachers' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse: Problems with Existing Research Leading to New Scale Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…

Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

2010-01-01

231

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation. PMID:18823539

Moller, Mark S

2008-01-01

232

Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy  

Science.gov (United States)

The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

2007-01-01

233

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-12-01

234

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-09-01

235

Research on the Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm in Web Services Composition Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of finding the optimal solution for web services composition problem to meet increasingly sophisticated demand of users, an algorithm called Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm (PACA based on Quality of Service (QoS is proposed in this article. This algorithm converts the web services composition problem into shortest path problem of QoS-based directed acyclic graph. First, find several suboptimal paths by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA and initialize the pheromones of these paths, then find optimal solution by Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOA. The experiment result indicates that the PACA can effectively improve the capability of optimizing web services composition problem. The results of the research has theoretical and practical reference values to relevant issues.

Shujun Pei

2014-01-01

236

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

2007-01-01

237

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth’s surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system’s data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions.

James V. Taranik

2007-12-31

238

Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

239

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

240

Opening Address (by R. Hojman) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: I have the high honour of addressing you in order to express on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile (CCHEN), and also on my own behalf, our pleasure in having the opportunity to welcome to our country this select group of authorities and professionals of the IAEA, and more than 100 representatives of nuclear institutions from some 50 countries. We are certain that this conference will facilitate a valuable exchange of knowledge in areas as important as the use of research reactors, safety related aspects of such use, the fuel cycle, and dismantling and management of radioactive waste. We also value the opportunity provided by this forum to share experi- ences, exchange opinions, and discuss options and priorities during the five technical sessions scheduled as part of the conference and, moreover, to deepen existing and create new bonds of international cooperation. I would like to mention the fact that our country has experience in the operation of its experimental reactors and has managed to make contributions to major applications in various fields including medicine, agriculture, industry and mining, and environment and metrology. Health applications have been given priority among the CCHEN's activities, and this is why the use of the reactor at La Reina Nuclear Studies Center has focused on the production of radioisotopes and radio-pharmaceu- tical applications which have short half-lives and are used in the diagnosis of the dynamic functioning of various organs and as therapeutic agents in some types of cancer. In agriculture, various isotope techniques have been investigated and fine tuned in areas such as soil fertility, fertilizing sources, optimum use of nutrients, rationalization and economy in the use of water, quantification of the degree of soil erosion, and irrigation with fertilizers. More recently, a study of residuality and mobility of agro-chemicals in soil and water was initiated through a project developed jointly with the IAEA and with our country's Agricultural and Livestock Raising Service, for the purposes of contributing regulations and standards in the use of pesticides. (author) In the area of mining, the CCHEN has been using radioactive tracers in mining and metallurgical processes for over two decades in determination of residence times, flow rates, fluid velocity, and characterization of runoff in in situ leaching processes, among other techniques, all of which has made it possible to optimize processes and achieve cost reductions. In the environmental field, isotope techniques have been developed for the study of both surface and underground aquifer resources. Work has also been carried out in determining contaminant sources and, more recently, there has been participation in multi-disciplinary research in order to collaborate in the control of marine toxins responsible for red tides through the use of isotope techniques. In the area of chemical metrology, the CCHEN renders major assistance services to the national export system in terms of sanitary certification, giving support and technical assistance to national laboratories so that the latter may raise their standards and undertake measurements in compliance with the growing requirements imposed by international markets. Worth pointing out are both the organization of aptitude drills and inter-comparison rounds at the national and international levels, and the CCHEN's capacity to prepare reference and control materials in natural matrices and also control materials for chemical analyses, all of which has enabled the CCHEN's laboratories to attain formal recognition as the reference laboratory for determining trace elements in biological samples. I have mentioned only some of the technological developments associated with the operation of our reactors for the purposes of contextual- izing the importance that various topics we are to discuss during the current week have for us. I want to end by reiterating that we feel honoured and experience great pleasure in having a select group of researchers, scientists and p

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

The problems of treatment of irradiated fuel at Russian research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the problems of safety during the storage and transportation of the spent fuel from Russian research reactors. Many research reactors continue to operate at Russia at present time. They use many different types of fuel elements and assemblies. The questions of safety during storage and transportation of spent fuel research reactors is considered in Russian documents on the safety of research reactors. The main features of these documents are described in this report. This report discusses three stages of the storage and transportation of the spent fuel: The temporary storage in the pool or in the vessel; the storage in the repository on the territory of the institutes; the transportation of the fuel to the reprocessing plant. The future plans provides the solution of the problem of transportation and reprocessing of all types of fuel assemblies which are used in Russian research reactors and experimental facilities. Also the Russian Reduced Enrichment Research Reactors Program that was started late in 70th continuing now. The main results of this work would be increase the density of the fuel meat in the composition on the basis of uranium dioxide and the change of the fuel composition to uranium silicide in aluminum matrix or another. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

1996-08-01

242

Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. I consider this a timely opportunity to reiterate the Government of Chile's iron commitment to exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as our firm opposition to any deviation of this form of energy towards military ends. We also acknowledge the important work achieved through technical cooperation, of which our country has been a beneficiary ever since the initiation of nuclear activity in Chile almost three decades ago. I cannot keep from mentioning the fact that even though nuclear energy represents a major contribution to humanity through the use of isotopes and ionizing radiation, as well as through the generation of electricity throughout the world, our country recognizes that there are some issues pending which must be resolved, taking into account the perspective of developing nations. I refer to the management and final disposal of highly radioactive waste, and also to the cross-border transport of radioactive materials. Both of those issues are rejected by public opinion, making social validation of this form of energy difficult. Esteemed scientists, in closing I would like to convey to you my wishes that the conversations held and agreements entered into during this week may lead to major progress in the use of nuclear research reactors, and that this in turn may contribute to improving the quality of life worldwide, as well as to reinforcing international cooperation. I also hope that your stay in our country will be an enjoyable one, that you may have the opportunity to become a little more acquainted with its natural beauty and culture, and that through the focus on the particular scientific issues which brings you here, it may become possible to achieve progress towards the genuine integration of different peoples and cultures sharing a common ideal: that of putting nuclear science and technology at the service of humankind. Thank you very much. (author)

2005-06-01

243

Research priorities for non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal problems: nationally and internationally agreed recommendations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal problems such as low back pain, neck, knee and shoulder pain are leading causes of disability and activity limitation in adults and are most frequently managed within primary care. There is a clear trend towards large, high quality trials testing the effectiveness of common non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions showing, at best, small to moderate benefits. This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from recent trials of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions in primary care and provides agreed research priorities for future clinical trials. Methods Consensus development using nominal group techniques through national (UK and international workshops. During a national Clinical Trials Thinktank workshop in April 2007 in the UK, a group of 30 senior researchers experienced in clinical trials for musculoskeletal conditions and 2 patient representatives debated the possible explanations for the findings of recent high quality trials of non-pharmacological interventions. Using the qualitative method of nominal group technique, these experts developed and ranked a set of priorities for future research, guided by the evidence from recent trials of treatments for common musculoskeletal problems. The recommendations from the national workshop were presented and further ranked at an international symposium (hosted in Canada in June 2007. Results 22 recommended research priorities were developed, of which 12 reached consensus as priorities for future research from the UK workshop. The 12 recommendations were reduced to 7 agreed priorities at the international symposium. These were: to increase the focus on implementation (research into practice; to develop national musculoskeletal research networks in which large trials can be sited and smaller trials supported; to use more innovative trial designs such as those based on stepped care and subgrouping for targeted treatment models; to routinely incorporate health economic analysis into future trials; to include more patient-centred outcome measures; to develop a core set of outcomes for new trials of interventions for musculoskeletal problems; and to focus on studies that advance methodological approaches for clinical trials in this field. Conclusion A set of research priorities for future trials of non-pharmacological therapies for common musculoskeletal conditions has been developed and agreed through national (UK and international consensus processes. These priorities provide useful direction for researchers and research funders alike and impetus for improvement in the quality and methodology of clinical trials in this field.

Windt Danielle

2009-01-01

244

Nuclear Nonproliferation: National Nuclear Security Administration Has Improved the Security of Reactors in its Global Research Reactor Program, but Action Is Needed to Address Remaining Concerns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, about 165 research reactors use highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel. Because HEU can also be used in nuclear weapons, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Global Research Reactor Security (GRRS) program to make sec...

2009-01-01

245

Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

Narayan, Lalit

2013-01-01

246

Problems and countermeasures in construction of underground research shaft and drift of Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The outline of design of construction of underground research facilities in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is described. The problems and investigations of countermeasures are reported. The bedrock in and around the underground research facilities consists of sedimentary soft rock. The competence factor is low. The groundwater contains salt, methane, boron and ammonium in the deep underground. The support design under the conditions of low competence factor is explained by rock classification, establishment of characteristic values of every classified rock, and the double supporting structure. The control methods for spring water in the shallow stratum are stated by the previous boring in and around shaft, countermeasures to spring water, and verification using comparison between the analytical results and the amount of spring water. The results showed the amount of spring water in the shaft was decreased by construction of cut-off wall. Rock classification standard, physical properties of rocks, flow of shaft support design, and results of permeability tests are illustrated. (S.Y.)

2008-01-01

247

Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts.

Opsomming
Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

Gert Roodt

2004-10-01

248

Research on the Endogenous Problems of Rural Farmers’ Spiritual and Cultural Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author conducts research and analysis on the endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education and finds that: the current endogenous problems of rural farmers’ spiritual and cultural education in China are mainly manifested in the oldness of spiritual and cultural education concepts, the monotonousness of spiritual and cultural education content, the blurring of spiritual and cultural education forms, the simplicity of spiritual and cultural education methods, and the lag of spiritual and cultural education evaluation and etc. Meanwhile, the author proposes to build a scientific system of spiritual and cultural education policy, create a healthy and harmonious policy implementation atmosphere, and construct a full policy supervision system and some other policy suggestions.

Yanlong ZHAO

2014-04-01

249

Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process, which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in USNRC licensing of nuclear power plants. It keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process but makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them, which need to be solved to improve the performance. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed method by showing a specific example of the application to physical events or phenomena in objects having fatigue or SCC crack(s) under ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. (author)

2013-09-01

250

How Can We Improve Problem Solving in Undergraduate Biology? Applying Lessons from 30 Years of Physics Education Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and ...

Hoskinson, A. -m; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.

2013-01-01

251

Problem-Based Learning Research in Anesthesia Teaching: Current Status and Future Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching.

Chilkoti, G.; Mohta, M.; Wadhwa, R.; Saxena, A. K.

2014-01-01

252

Problem-based learning research in anesthesia teaching: current status and future perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The teaching curriculum in anesthesia involves traditional teaching methods like topic-based didactic lectures, seminars, and journal clubs; intraoperative apprenticeship; and problem-based learning (PBL) and simulation. The advantages of incorporating PBL in anesthesia teaching include development of skills like clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning; in addition it also helps in developing a broader perspective of case scenarios. The present paper discusses the characteristics, key elements, and goals of PBL; various PBL methods available; lacunae in the existing knowledge of PBL research; its current status and future perspectives in anesthesia teaching. PMID:24982673

Chilkoti, G; Mohta, M; Wadhwa, R; Saxena, A K

2014-01-01

253

A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lightfoot, Penny; Spinola, Carla; Predy, Gerry; Barrett, Linda

2008-01-01

254

Communicating Academic Research Findings to IS Professionals: An Analysis of Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because research findings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in industry, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mechanisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their work are prone to numerous communication breakdowns, and that much work which could potentially make valuable contributions to practice is haplessly lost within the vaults of academia. Using the well-known Shannon & Weaver communication model, three major problems are analyzed: the choice of dissemination channels, language barriers, and the alienation of academia from industry.

Michael Lang

2003-01-01

255

French research program on the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Use of the primate model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies--in addition to human experimentation--the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study. PMID:11541558

Pesquies, P C; Milhaud, C; Nogues, C; Klein, M; Cailler, B

1983-01-01

256

Opening Address (by T. Taniguchi) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to the Government of Chile, and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile, for hosting this Conference in the beautiful and historic city of Santiago de Chile. I would also like to thank you, the 180 or so registered delegates from around the world, for participating in this conference. I trust that you will have an interesting and enjoyable week. For more than 50 years, research reactors have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 research reactors have been built, and some 270 of these reactors, in 59 countries, continue to operate today. Altogether, over 13 000 reactor years of operational experience have accumulated during this period. Just as important, however, is the fact that those reactors have operated in a remarkably safe manner. The IAEA's statutes charter it to promote the contributions that atomic energy can bring to the health and prosperity of people throughout the world. Thus, the IAEA is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and practical application of research related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. From its inception in 1957, there has been a broad interest at the IAEA in the benefits to be derived by Member States from the safe operation of research reactors. The multi-disciplinary research that a research reactor can support has led to the development of numerous capacities within Member States, many of which have been realized under the umbrella of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. These benefits have been realized in a wide variety of areas within science and technology: nuclear power, radioisotope production, neutron beam research and analysis, nuclear medicine and personnel training, and more recently, materials development, component testing, computer code validation and environmental pollution control. One can cite numerous Member States, for example, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico in the Latin American region, which have developed high quality nuclear programmes indigenously, thanks in no small part to the growth and effective utilization of their research reactor programmes. Thanks to the recognition of these great benefits for human health, welfare and social development, new research reactors are being planned and built. Pre-eminent to the pursuit of these universal gains, however, is the precondition that any and all reactor operations be conducted with a commitment to and an assurance of safety: safety for the operators, safety for the public and safety for the environment. The research reactor community has had a long and successful history of both productive and safe operations; however, nearly two thirds of the world's operating research reactors, i.e. 63% are now over 30 years old. Many of them have been refurbished to meet today's technological standards and safety requirements; however, there are challenges associated with ageing components and materials - and even members of staff - at these facilities. They continue to be serious issues, and are receiving increased attention, worldwide. Likewise, worldwide attention is focused on the serious erosion in governmental support, management commitment and available resources to the infrastructure necessary for effective research reactor operations. Robust utilization plans are not always an inherent part of the decision making process for determining whether a research reactor should be built, in the first place, or should continue to operate, in the long run. This is compounded by the fact that the use of these reactors is no longer an attractive research vehicle for university students and academic researchers. From these facts, it can be seen that there is a need to infuse vitality into this critical part of the nuclear industry and its infrastructure, thereby allowing for broade

2005-06-01

257

Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C. Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J. David

2013-01-01

258

Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

2013-01-01

259

CAE 2000 Presidential Address: The Council on Anthropology and Education as a Crossroad Community: Reflections on Theory-Oriented and Practice-Oriented Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the relationship between anthropology and educational research, characterizing the Council on Anthropology and Education as a "crossroad community" and discussing conversations in this crossroad community (e.g., studies oriented toward contributing to anthropological theory or to educational practice). Calls for a horizontal synthesis…

Jacob, Evelyn

2001-01-01

260

Removal of spent nuclear fuel from Kurchatov Institute Research Reactors for reprocessing: problems and plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents problems and main results of activities on removal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from research reactors of the Kurchatov Institute for reprocessing. Up to 1990, standard spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) from the Institute reactors were on a regular basis removed to Mayak enterprise for reprocessing. The scheme of removing the standard SFAs was based on the use of casks of TUK-19 type. Between 1990 and 2003, no work on SNF removal from the Institute was conducted, but in 2004-2005, three shipments of SFAs were completed. In 2006 the work on SNF removal was continued. A special feature of this shipment lay in the fact that new generation casks of TUK-128 type were used for transportation of the SFAs. Main design features of the TUK-19 and TUK-128 casks are described. The Institute spent fuel includes almost all kinds of nuclear fuel used in research reactors of Russian design. Classification of the Institute SNF according to Mayak requirements for acceptance of spent fuel for reprocessing is presented. In order to perform further activities on removal of SNF, a 'Programme of Management of Research Reactor SNF Accumulated at the Kurchatov Institute Site' has been developed. The main activities on preparation of SFAs for removal, the procedure and schedule of SFA removal for reprocessing are described. It is expected that implementation of the Programme will establish a well-documented basis for organization of further activities on decommissioning of shutdown reactors at the Institute. (authors)

2007-03-11

 
 
 
 
261

A top priority problem of national radiation protection - proper disposal of research reactor spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents basic facts about RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute. The present state of the RA reactor spent fuel storage pool appears to be a serious safety and radiological problem, which must be solved urgently, independent of the decision about the future status of the reactor itself. The following paragraphs describe current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel. Activities performed so far, concerning identification and improvement of the spent fuel storage conditions are presented. These are verification of radiation protection measures, radiological and chemical analyses, visual inspection and photographing, safety analyses and nuclear criticality studies.A project for long-term solution of the research reactor spent fuel storage is proposed. In order to minimise further corrosion and establish strict control of all the relevant technological parameters of the utility, improvement of conditions for disposal of the fuel in the existing storage, is foreseen in the first phase. New dry storage for long-term storing of the spent fuel should be built during the second phase of the project. Particular attention is paid to the activities related to radiation protection and waste treatment, starting from standard monitoring and control, radiological analyses, regulations and legislation, to complicated handling of high level radioactive waste. (authors)

1997-11-16

262

??????????????? The Research Status and Problems on Ecology and Environment of Lake Erhai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????50???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????????????????????????????(?????????????????????????????????????(??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????There are wide concerns from scholars at domestic and overseas on the ecological environment of Lake Erhai recently as a consequence of worsening status, massive and rapid development on the catchment of Lake Erhai. This paper summarizes the research status of Lake Erhai which has been collected since 1950s, analyzes the current situation of the environment (including eutrophication, heavy metal pollution, and catchment development and vegetation status and ecology (including biological diversity, food web change, and characteristics changes of ecological system, and makes a further analysis on the meteorological factors (including temperature, precipitation and wind speed. Through those data we point out that there are some problems still exist in the research of Lake Erhai, for instance, the Cyano- phyta explosion history, the detailed research on zoo-plankton and food chain, the distinction of drive strength of multi- ple pressure on the process of eutrophication of Lake Erhai for the purpose that we can have a comprehensive under- standing of the situation on ecology and environment of Lake Erhai. In this way we can have cognitive bases for the further relative work carried out in Lake Erhai and support some constructive opinions for ecological restoration work of Lake Erhai preferably.

???

2013-08-01

263

Problem Types in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Research: Implications for the Development of Curricular Problems for Second-Year Level Organic Chemistry Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding of the nature of science is key to the development of new curricular materials that mirror the practice of science. Three problem types (project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day) in synthetic organic chemistry emerged during a thematic content analysis of the research experiences of eight practising synthetic organic…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Towns, Marcy H.

2012-01-01

264

Routers: Logical Addresses  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty members Joseph Wetzel and Jeff Sonnleitner, provides a lesson on logical addresses in order to teach the significance of the physical address or identifying system found on every computer. This is a nice introduction to the subject and is a good resource for students, teachers, and those trying to understand the basics of computers and the ever-expanding world of the Internet.

Sonnleitner, Jeff; Wetzel, Joseph

2009-03-16

265

Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues  

Science.gov (United States)

Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

Hsu, Pei-Ling

2014-03-01

266

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

R. Barthel

2014-02-01

267

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

Barthel, R.

2014-02-01

268

On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

1972-01-01

269

Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General radiological protection problems facing The Royal Marsden Hospital and its associated Institute of Cancer Research are identified. Particular note is made of the response to radiological protection recommendations concerning dose limits imposed on staff. For over twenty years female staff of reproductive capacity have had an imposed annual whole-body dose-equivalent of 15 mSv, to be accumulated, as far as possible, at a uniform rate. Currently the breaking of a 15 mSv limit for any member of staff is regarded as evidence of inadequate control rather than need for worker classification. special reference is also made to experience in work with unsealed sources, where the annual administration in diagnosis (Tc-99m, etc) and therapy (I-131, etc) is about 3.0 TBq (80sup(C)i), is involving some 10,000 patients. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

270

Problems and pitfalls in conducting epidemiological research in the area of reproductive toxicology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Defective reproductive outcome continues to represent a considerable public health burden, as well as a source of intense personal tragedy and enormous expense in our society. Evidence suggests that the rate of reproductive failure may be modifiable, in part by limiting human exposure to environmental agents toxic to the reproductive process. Methodological problems posing difficulties to researchers investigating the association between exposure to such agents and adverse reproductive outcome are discussed, including inadequacies in existing data bases available for analysis; bias in reporting by or in the collection of information from affected families; and weaknesses in the selection of study populations, ''control'' groups, and outcomes chosen for observation. Suggestions for possible resolution of some of these difficulties are discussed.

Levin, S.M.

1983-01-01

271

Computational researches about a problem of experiments on target complex TS-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A benchmark problem presented at the '10th International meetings of the working group on advanced nuclear reactors thermal-hydraulics' in Obninsk, Russia, in 2001, is the starting point for some computational researches validated against experiments on target complex TS-1. The window model of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) target TS-1, is under development in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) and Joint Design Bureau 'Gidropress' for accelerator LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The experiments were carried out with sodium-potassium eutectic alloy: 22% Na + 78% K. Different grids, different turbulence models, and different assumptions were tried using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes STAR-CD and FLUENT. It is a big challenge for these CFD codes, to simulate flows with low Prandtl number fluids, such as the liquid metals. (author)

2004-07-05

272

Research on the Optimization Method of Virtual Enterprise’s Task Scheduling Problems in Aluminum Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional research on production scheduling in aluminum industry, aimed to certain production process, simply pursued the output as the highest aim, scheduled based on experience, so that the result of scheduling cannot reach the global optimization, and cannot realize production scheduling and resource allocation with the aim of optimal energy consumption, resulting in the waste of energy. Taken the minimal sum of energy consumption in production, transport and stock as objective function and integrated with enterprise’s experiences in production, the article establishes a model of virtual enterprise’s task scheduling in aluminum industry and a hybrid distributed particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, simulation experiment is carried out using industrial data and the result shows the optimized scheduling method has obvious optimal effect on reducing scheduling time, optimizing allocation of resources and so on, and thus the energy saving and consumption reducing purpose are obtained. 

Erwei Yin

2011-01-01

273

The fuel element of the first charge for EL 4; presentation, main problems arising in the research, production problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel element making up the first charge for EL-4 is made of slightly enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel. This fuel element makes it possible to operate the reactor in the safest conditions awaiting the development of the fuel which will be finally adopted; this will have a low absorption can: beryllium, or a zirconium copper alloy. The 500 mm assembly is made up of 19 small rods placed on 3 rings, inside a graphite jacket. The solution adopted was a solution using completely independent small rods. This report deals with possible problems resulting from their study and production. (authors)

1964-01-01

274

Assessing Risks to Wildlife Populations from Multiple Stressors: Overview of the Problem and Research Needs.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wildlife populations are experiencing increasing pressure from human-induced changes in the landscape. Stressors including agricultural and urban land use, introduced invasive and exotic species, nutrient enrichment, direct human disturbance, and toxic chemicals directly or indirectly influence the quality and quantity of habitat used by terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Governmental agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are required to assess risks to wildlife populations, in its broadest definition, that result from exposure to these stressors, yet considerable uncertainty exists with respect to how such assessments should be conducted. This uncertainty is compounded by questions concerning the interactive effects of co-occurring stressors, appropriate spatial scales of analysis, extrapolation of response data among species and from organisms to populations, and imperfect knowledge and use of limited data sets. Further, different risk problems require varying degrees of sophistication, methodological refinement, and data quality. These issues suggest a number of research needs to improve methods for wildlife risk assessments, including continued development of population dynamics models to evaluate the effects of multiple stressors at varying spatial scales, methods for extrapolating across endpoints and species with reasonable confidence, stressor-response relations and methods for combining them in predictive and diagnostic assessments, and accessible data sets describing the ecology of terrestrial and aquatic species. Case study application of models and methods for assessing wildlife risk will help to demonstrate their strengths and limitations for solving particular risk problems.

Wayne R. Munns, Jr.

2006-06-01

275

Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions' are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author)

1995-01-01

276

Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on `Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions` are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author).

Takada, Shoji; Shiina, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hishida, Makoto; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1995-08-01

277

Context-addressed communication dispatch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research concerns exploiting knowledge of the user's environment (i.e., context information) to enrich a user's communication making it more personal, by ensuring that the user receives only relevant messages and calls in his/her current context, and to facilitate more opportunities for communication interactions with people that are in the same context and that share the same interests as this user. We describe in this licentiate thesis the concepts of context-addressed messaging and co...

Devlic, Alisa

2009-01-01

278

Welcome address to 30th international meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors, 6 October 2008, Washington, D.C., USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RERTR meetings, of course, have a special role among our activities. They are important not only for what is presented in the formal technical sessions, but also for what takes place in the informal gatherings, side meetings, and personal encounters. The IAEA also has participated as an observer in the International Fuel Development Working Group, a highly important effort that is overseeing the multinational cooperative research and development effort for very high density LEU fuel. Remarkable achievements of GTRI are the conversion to LEU or final shutdown prior to conversion of 62 research reactors, the return to the United States of more than 1100 kg of spent HEU fuel and more than 1800 kg of spent LEU fuel and the return to Russia of more than 600 kg of spent and fresh HEU fuel. But while much has been achieved so far, vulnerabilities remain. HEU continues to be used for military purposes in a number of States; about 150 civilian and military research reactors are still using HEU and important quantities of fresh; and spent HEU fuel continues to be stored in different countries. All this calls for continued efforts, with a sense of urgency and more coherent global action. Some of the measures that might be taken are as follows: The countries involved should join forces to step up their efforts towards minimizing and eventually eliminating the civilian and in due course the military use of HEU. Financing and other incentives should be made available where needed to assist countries with conversion operations. All countries should agree to stop producing fissile material for use in nuclear weapons. The elements are already in place for such an agreement, in the form of the proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. It is high time to negotiate and conclude such a treaty. To build confidence, countries with civilian and military HEU stockpiles should declare the size of those stockpiles and publish a schedule under which the remaining HEU will be verifiably down blended. By investing in these measures, we could alleviate proliferation concerns associated with the continued uses of HEU and help reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism. I believe that this is an initiative in which all countries - Nuclear Weapon States and Non-Nuclear Weapon States alike - could play a role, and from which all would clearly benefit. The Agency stands ready to continue to take its share of this work through supporting and assisting its Member States in their efforts

2008-10-05

279

Readings in computer vision. Issues, problems, principles, and paradigms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each chapter of the book addresses a problem, provides a survey of major issues, ideas, and research projects, and presents reprints of key papers. In total, the book presents sixty research papers, most written since 1980.

Fischler, M.A.; Firschein, O.

1987-01-01

280

Sesotho Address Forms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

Akindele, Dele Femi

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department's environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department's environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C

1998-01-01

282

Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009. Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent efforts at PNNL to conduct confirmatory research, development, and evaluation of advanced NDE methods for characterizing CASS microstructures and inspecting welds in these materials. This paper describes results from recent assessments using low-frequency, phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) techniques as applied to both small-bore pressurizer (PZR) surge line components and larger-bore primary coolant piping components. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. Advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased-array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at lower frequencies than conventionally applied PA-UT (500 kHz and 800 kHz) and composite volumetric images of these samples were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization, and sizing effectiveness are discussed. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping, piping segments used in PISC-III round robin tests, and practice specimens from the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. Interim results from sound-field mapping in CASS microstructures as a function of frequency, incident angle, and microstructure parameters are presented. This paper also describes progress and recent developments resulting from laboratory studies focused on developing effective in-situ methods for microstructural characterization (classification) in CASS components from the outside surface. A study of past CASS fabrication processes and their impact on resultant microstructures will also be discussed.

2009-04-24

283

ISSUES TO ADDRESS  

noise was a problem in their area, but none had specific proposals for modifying \\this ...... disciplined and you will be rewarded with regular custom. Buyers will ... \\In summary, street trading, particularly for ice cream mobilers, is a tradition going.

284

RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to solve the identified problems. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus on several directions: when filling out the application form, the technical-financial reporting, at the contracting phase of the projects, problems of partners. This article deals with the problems encountered during the projects’ contracting stage and problems caused by partners. The respondents’ answers place the problems of partners on top of the categories of problems that stood in the way of European funds’ beneficiaries. A series of causes that have led to the occurrence of these problems have also been identified. It should be stated that the information obtained from the conducted research supplies, theoretically speaking, the studied field and brings an important contribution not only to possible beneficiaries of European funds, but to the institutions managing European funds in Romania, who have a lot to learn from the experience of the first period of programmes. The authors’ main contribution is to integrate this study into the logical thread of the thesis entitled “Strategic management in European project funding”. Both articles, part of a research in the field of project management are unique and original and meet a current and pressing requirement of the Romanian society.

DUMITRASCU DANUT

2012-12-01

285

Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

R. Da?ko

2010-10-01

286

Addressing Intimate Partner Violence with Male Patients: A Review and Introduction of Pilot Guidelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a common and devastating problem affecting the health of women, men, and children. Most health-care research focuses on the effects of IPV on women and children and addressing IPV with women in the health-care setting. Less is known about addressing IPV with men in the health-care setting. This article reviews the challenges in interpreting research on IPV in men, its prevalence and health effects in men, and the arguments for addressing IPV with men in the ...

Kimberg, Leigh S.

2008-01-01

287

Validity and Problem-Based Learning Research: A Review of Instruments Used to Assess Intended Learning Outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem-based learning (PBL) spread from the medical school to other university and K-12 contexts due, in part, to the stated promise that PBL produces the target outcomes of deep content learning, increased problem-solving ability, and increased self-directed learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). However, research results have been unclear. This paper examines how the three target outcomes were measured in 33 empirical studies. Results indicate that few studies included (a) theoretical frameworks f...

2010-01-01

288

Validity and Problem-Based Learning Research: A Review of Instruments Used to Assess Intended Learning Outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem-based learning (PBL) spread from the medical school to other university and K-12 contexts due, in part, to the stated promise that PBL produces the target outcomes of deep content learning, increased problem-solving ability, and increased self-directed learning (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). However, research results have been unclear. This paper examines how the three target outcomes were measured in 33 empirical studies. Results indicate that few studies included (a) theoretical frameworks f...

2009-01-01

289

National Research Council Involvement in the Opiate Problem, 1928-1971,  

Science.gov (United States)

The report provides an account of the work of the National Research Council's Committee on Drug Addiction from 1928 to 1971. Contents: The committee on drug addiction (The research plan of the committee, The research laboratories, The indispensable uses o...

N. B. Eddy

1973-01-01

290

Address Resolution Protocol Optimization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved Address Resolution Protocol (ARP for Ethernet-based networks. Inthe proposed alternative method, the ARP request packets are not broadcasted but instead unicastedto an ARP server which will have all the mappings of all the hosts connected to the network.This significantly reduces ARP signaling and processing overhead. The ARP server obtains the mappingsthrough a novel passive method that does not introduce additional overhead in the network. Furthermore,the use of the ARP server makes it much easier to secure the network against certain attacks like ARPpoisoning.

Nor Adnan Yahaya

2009-09-01

291

Research on Time Table Problem Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm Combined Chaos and Simulated Annealing Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scheduling problem is a typical time table problem in educational administration. For such a NP complete problems, when the genetic algorithm solves this problem, it has precociousness phenomenon and quickly converges not to the global optimal solution but to the local optimal solution. Therefore, we use the advantage of simulated annealing algorithm to transform the fitness function and chaotic sequence to control the crossover and mutation genetic operations and then overcome the weakness of genetic algorithm in the Time Table Problem. We do a lot of experiments and evaluate the performance of the improved genetic algorithm. The experiment results show that improved genetic algorithm is a more superior algorithm to apply to the TTP problem.

Dong Yunfeng

2013-01-01

292

Computer Codes for Problems of Isotope and Radiation Research. Collection of Computer Codes Developed by the Information and Computing Centre, Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter head...

M. Remer

1986-01-01

293

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

1998-01-01

294

Toward the Development of a Comprehensive Consumer Research Program: An Exploratory Research Study in the Problem Assessment Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two interactional workshops were conducted with persons of varied backgrounds to determine the feasibility of developing a comprehensive consumer research program. The areas of discussion included: personal feelings; information; education; systems to hel...

M. L. Blum

1976-01-01

295

Alcohol and Sleep Problems in Primary Care Patients: A Report from the AAFP National Research Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE Hazardous and harmful drinking and sleep problems are common, but their associations among patients seen in primary care have not been examined. We hypothesized that greater levels of alcohol consumption would be associated with several self-reported sleep problems.

Vinson, Daniel C.; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Pace, Wilson D.; Turner, Barbara J.

2010-01-01

296

Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

1993-01-01

297

Design-Based Science and Real-World Problem-Solving. Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Design-based science (DBS) is a science pedagogy in which new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills are constructed in the context of designing artifacts. This paper examines whether the enactment of a DBS unit supported students' efforts to construct and transfer new science knowledge and 'designerly' problem-solving skills to the…

Fortus, David; Krajcik, Joseph; Dershimer, Ralph Charles; Marx, Ronald W.; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

2005-01-01

298

Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

299

Study of the Control Problem of the Shoot Side Environment Delivery System of a Closed Crop Growth Research Chamber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The details of our initial study of the control problem of the crop shoot environment of a hypothetical closed crop growth research chamber (CGRC) are presented in this report. The configuration of the CGRC is hypothetical because neither a physical subje...

C. C. Blackwell A. L. Blackwell

1992-01-01

300

A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

2013-07-01

302

[Keynote address: Climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Broadly speaking, the climate issue is moving from talk to action both in the United States and internationally. While few nations have adopted strict controls or stiff new taxes, a number of them are developing action plans that are making clear their intention to ramp up activity between now and the year 2000... and beyond. There are sensible, economically efficient strategies to be undertaken in the near term that offer the possibility, in many countries, to avoid more draconian measures. These strategies are by-and-large the same measures that the National Academy of Sciences recommended in a 1991 report called, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. The author thinks the Academy`s most important policy contribution was how it recommended the nations act in the face of uncertain science and high risks--that cost effective measures are adopted as cheap insurance... just as nations insure against other high risk, low certainty possibilities, like catastrophic health insurance, auto insurance, and fire insurance. This insurance theme is still right. First, the author addresses how the international climate change negotiations are beginning to produce insurance measures. Next, the author will discuss some of the key issues to watch in those negotiations that relate to longer-term insurance. And finally, the author will report on progress in the United States on the climate insurance plan--The President`s Climate Action Plan.

Forrister, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

303

Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.

Ercilia García-Álvarez

2012-12-01

304

Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

2010-09-01

305

Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

306

Research on Single and Mixed Fleet Strategy for Open Vehicle Routing Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open vehicle routing problem with single and mixed fleet strategy is logistics optimization indispensable part. Hybrid genetic algorithm is used to optimize the solution. Firstly, use sequence of real numbers coding so as to simplify the problem; construct the targeted initial solution to improve the feasibility; adopt some arithmetic crossover operator to enhance whole search ability of the chromosome. Secondly, Boltzmann simulated annealing mechanism for control genetic algorithm crossov...

Chunyu Ren

2011-01-01

307

Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining sufficient quantities of adequate quality are reviewed. For successful production of organic seed and planting material intensive communication between and mutual commitment of farmers, traders, breed...

Lammerts Bueren, E. T.; Struik, P. C.; Jacobsen, E.

2003-01-01

308

Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

Joan C. Durrance

2006-01-01

309

Analysis on the traffic problems and research on the traffic strategy in group urban development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper was transferred from the original CD ROM created for this conference. The material on the CD ROM was published using Adobe Acrobat technology. The original CD ROM was produced by Document Transformation Technologies Postal Address: PO Box 560 Irene 0062 South Africa. Tel.: +27 12 667 2074 Fax: +27 12 667 2766 E-mail: doctech@doctech.co.za URL: http://www.doctech.co.za

2006-01-01

310

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and s [...] uggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

P., Michael Conn; F.T., Rantin.

311

Ethical research as the target of animal extremism: an international problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal extremism has been increasing worldwide; frequently researchers are the targets of actions by groups with extreme animal rights agendas. Sometimes this targeting is violent and may involve assaults on family members or destruction of property. In this article, we summarize recent events and suggest steps that researchers can take to educate the public on the value of animal research both for people and animals

P. Michael Conn

2010-02-01

312

A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

2009-08-01

313

Twenty Years of Cultural Imperialism Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the notion of "cultural imperialism" has received significant attention in communication studies since the early 1970s, researchers have ignored analyses of message systems and audience cultivation in favor of institutional analysis. Likewise, researchers have concentrated on the technologies, media products and processes of Western…

Burrowes, Carl Patrick

314

Resolving Privacy, Access, and Other Problems in the Audit and Reanalysis of Social Research for Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article illustrates how social research has moved into the public policy process while retaining the essential characteristics of research. It also shows how concerns about participant confidentiality have interacted with attempts by the General Accounting Office to analyze data. Journal availability: see TM 503 798. (CP)

Baratz, Stephen S.; Marvin, Keith E.

1978-01-01

315

"Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

Adnan, Zifirdaus

2011-01-01

316

Studying the Complicated Matter of What Works: Evidence-Based Research and the Problem of Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for evidence-based research (EBR) in education has evoked considerable debate regarding the nature of knowledge practitioners hold, how they come to know, and the sociopolitical contexts in which that knowledge is generated. Proponents of EBR such as Michael Feuer stress the need for research that validly identifies solutions to…

Dirkx, John M.

2006-01-01

317

Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

Archbald, Doug

2008-01-01

318

The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario

2012-01-01

319

Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

Dawson, Phillip

2014-01-01

320

Research on the Algorithm for Solving Unconstraint Optimization Problems Utilizing Knowledge Evolution Principle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the evolutionary epistemology idea, an algorithm called UOP-KEA for solving unconstraint optimization problems utilizing knowledge evolution principle is proposed in this study. The main idea of this algorithm can be described as follows. Firstly, an initial knowledge base is formed. The next work is to inherit excellent knowledge individuals by inheritance operator, produce new knowledge individuals by innovation operator, update knowledge base by update operator and accordingly the knowledge evolution is realized. At last, the problem’s optimal solution can be gained from the optimal knowledge individual. Experiments were taken on optimization of unconstraint nonlinear test functions. The successful experimental results show that this algorithm is feasible and valid. The algorithm can search the global optimal solution with less population and less reiteration. The global convergence speed and the global optimal solution quality are all satisfactory.

Yan Taishan

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Research on multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem under constraint conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Aim at choosing a relative good vehicle routing in emergency conditions under constraint conditions when disaster happens. Rapid response and rescue can save a lot of people. Design/methodology/approach: Modeling analysis: establishing a mathematical model of multi-objective emergency logistics vehicle routing problem. And in end of the paper, we intend to use genetic algorithms to solve the problem. Findings: Considering time requirement and cost limit both while choosing vehicle routing when the disasters happens is meaningful. We can get a relative good result and give a guidance to rescue teams. Originality/value: Consider cost and time objectives and kinds of realistic conditions (such as the road congestion in the model when solving the problem, having expanded the theory scope.

Hua Yi

2013-03-01

322

Addressing mixed waste in plutonium processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall goal is the minimization of all waste generated in actinide processing facilities. Current emphasis is directed toward reducing and managing mixed waste in plutonium processing facilities. More specifically, the focus is on prioritizing plutonium processing technologies for development that will address major problems in mixed waste management. A five step methodological approach to identify, analyze, solve, and initiate corrective action for mixed waste problems in plutonium processing facilities has been developed.

Christensen, D.C.; Sohn, C.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Reid, R.A. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Anderson Schools of Management)

1991-01-01

323

Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed solutions to the problem of violence in the Old Testament are discussed.

S. D. Snyman

1997-08-01

324

Research and technical problems in nuclear power development in the USSR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main tasks and ways of the USSR nuclear power development are presented in short. Fundamental problems are considered in developing base reactor types: water-water reactors of the WWER type and boiling channel reactors of the RBMK type. Main ways are indicated for improving the NPP basic equipment: steam generators and separators, as well as ways of NPP power unit standardization. Problems of power-and-heat supply are considered. Main plans for using high temperature gas-cooled reactors in power engineering are given as well

1979-07-01

325

Notes for an address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The government of Canada is involved in the nuclear industry both as a regulator, through the Atomic Energy Control Board, and as a promoter, through Atomic Energy of Canda Ltd. and Eldorado Nuclear. These roles reflect government's desire to ensure that the benefits continue to outweigh the risks of nuclear power. The government is in the process of considering the options available in its policy towards the nuclear industry. Nuclear exports are advantageous to the country, both directly and as a step towards other high-technology exports. A strong safeguards policy is a prerequisite for exports. Nuclear-generated electricity will be one of the substitutes for oil as the country attempts to reduce oil consumption to 10 percent of primary energy use by 1990. Uranium production is one of Canada's strengths. Short-term storage of radioactive wastes is being handled well, and the research program into long-term disposal is making progress. The nuclear industry's attitude towards its waste should serve as a model for other industries. There is much less technological uncertainty about the ability of the CANDU system to meet future energy needs than there is about most other energy sources

1981-06-09

326

Regulation, normativity and rhetoric : old epistemological problems in the young CSR-research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Das dynamische Forschungsfeld CSR lässt bereits einige konkurrierende Denkrichtungen erkennen, die wir als Narrative bezeichnen. Diese Narrative bieten der relativ jungen CSR-Bewegung Identitäten, die unhinterfragt angenommen werden. Dies wird in der wissenschaftlichen Debatte zu einem Problem, da die vorwissenschaftlichen Prämissen dieser Denkgebäude nicht offengelegt werden, sondern vermeintlich objektive Sachzwänge und deren Folgen begründen. Mehrere Beispiele illustrieren diese...

2011-01-01

327

A Research on Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics Outsourcing for Enterprises in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Logistics outsourcing, as a form of outsourcing, not only adapt to the requirements of the economic situation but also can bring the economic benefits for enterprise, however, it is not a common phenomenon in China. The aim of this paper is to put forward several suggestions for Chinese enterprises by analyzing the problems existing in the development of logistics outsourcing.

Shuxia Xu

2009-02-01

328

Problem-Based Learning and Action Research in Postgraduate Teaching: The Interdisciplinary Core  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to describe innovatory online teaching carried out in the inter-university master's "Educational Innovation Policies and Practices for the Knowledge Society", with the participation of Malaga, Almeria and Internacional de Andalucia Universities. The master's focuses on the exploration of a problem-based learning…

Servan, M. J.; Soto, E.; Murillo, J. F.; Sola, M.; Perez, A. I.

2009-01-01

329

Problems of data and search languages of data retrieval systems in nuclear research and technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prospective importance is pointed out of data retrieval systems and the necessity of resolving related theoretical, technical, technological and semantic problems, which conditions the further successful development of the said systems. Different types of such systems are presented and characterized, including search languages, data collection, selection, evaluation and verification. The said aspects are related to the OEKFAK ZfI Leipzig system.

Toepfer, S.; Pfund, A.; Jankowski, L. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

1984-04-01

330

Problems of data and search languages of data retrieval systems in nuclear research and technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prospective importance is pointed out of data retrieval systems and the necessity of resolving related theoretical, technical, technological and semantic problems, which conditions the further successful development of the said systems. Different types of such systems are presented and characterized, including search languages, data collection, selection, evaluation and verification. The said aspects are related to the OEKFAK ZfI Leipzig system

1984-01-01

331

Experiments in Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in 1994-1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is a complication of the short status reports on current experiments on intermediate energy physics and on high energy physics. The projects of new facilities and the results of radiobiological researches are presented

1994-01-01

332

Creative problem solving and automated discovery : an analysis of psychological and AI research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since creativity is the ability to produce something novel and unexpected, it has always fascinated people. Consequently, efforts have been made in AI to invent creative computer programs. At the same time much effort was spent in psychology to analyze the foundations of human creative behaviour. However, until now efforts in AI to produce creative programs have been largely independent from psychological research. In this study, we try to combine both fields of research. First, we give a sho...

Schmid, Klaus

1995-01-01

333

The impact of technology upon medical history research: the past, the problems, the potential.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stereotypical view of the historian is that of a stodgy, bespectacled individual poring over tomes of printed text, dusty manuscripts, and thousands of index cards. In the twentieth century, however, many historians have relied increasingly on technological aids to assist in research. This paper focuses on technological developments of this century that have had some impact on medical history research, beginning with the photostat early in this century. It is argued that online bibliograp...

1987-01-01

334

Addressing Asthma Health Disparities: A Multilevel Challenge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Substantial research has documented pervasive disparities in the prevalence, severity, and morbidity of asthma among minority populations compared to non-Latino whites. The underlying causes of these disparities are not well understood, and as a result, the leverage points to address them remain unclear. A multilevel framework for integrating research in asthma health disparities is proposed in order to advance both future research and clinical practice. The components of the proposed model i...

Canino, Glorisa; Mcquaid, Elizabeth L.; Rand, Cynthia S.

2009-01-01

335

Research on Potential Problem based on Singular Decomposition and Boundary FM-BEM Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to overcome the difficulties of low computational efficiency and high memory requirement in the conventional boundary element method for solving large-scale potential problems, a fast multipole boundary element method for the problems of Poisson equation is presented. First of all, through the multipole expansion and local expansion for the basic solution of the kernel function of the Poisson equation, the boundary integral equation of the fast multipole boundary element method for Poisson equation was obtained; secondly, the Laplasse transform is used for the Singularity processing treatment of Poisson equation; then, the realize the algorithm design of fast multipole boundary element method, the calculating flow of the algorithm is given; finally, a numerical example is given to verify the accuracy and the efficiency of the fast multipole boundary element method.

Chunfeng Liu

2014-01-01

336

Research in Random Parameters of Genetic Algorithm and its Application on TSP and Optimization Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we consider variation of random parameters of genetic algorithm base on some benchmark functions and Traveling salesman problem (TSP.We have analyzed parameters of Genetic Algorithm such as population size, crossover probability and mutation probability. The experiments have shown that we cannot propose a uniform model for the parameters of Genetic Algorithm; however increasing of population size can reduce Genetic Algorithm iterations but crossover probability and also mutation probability are strongly depend on benchmark functions.

Mohammed Masoud JAVIDI

2015-03-01

337

Research on problems in nuclear accident emergency rescue for nuclear power submarine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a description of nuclearpowered submarine accident types and an analysis of accident emergency rescue characteristics, including a special number of problems associated with emergencyrescue, such as emergency situation and emergency planning zone, technical rescue resources and task, protection against compound radiation inside and outside port plume zone, on-sea nuclear rescue equipment and technical assurance capacity, and other problesms related to in-accident nuclear submarine disposal. (authors)

2003-06-01

338

The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further r...

2011-01-01

339

Research on the Optimal Layout Problem for NC Machining Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of NC machining, the optimization processing of graphic layout is a well-studied problem which has practical application value for improving the utilization rate of raw materials and saving the cost of production. In this paper, a new design of genetic algorithm (GA is proposed for solving this problem. This improved genetic algorithm combines GA with the improved crossover operator and mutation operator. Moreover, the best individual preservation method is integrated into the algorithm. The improved genetic algorithm expands the search space and enhances the GA’s search capabilities. Furthermore, the maximum matching algorithm is proposed based on the lowest horizontal line algorithm, which effectively avoids blind elevating horizontal lines and improves the utilization rate of the lowest horizontal line. It is integrated with the improved genetic algorithm to solve the two-dimensional rectangular parts optimal layout problem which combines the advantages of two kinds of algorithms. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get a good optimization result.    

Wang Shuqing

2013-11-01

340

Way Search to Research: from Academic Exercises in Architecture to Scientific Investigations into Actual Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract. An interest in doctoral studies reflects the overall status of the scientist in the country in general and the role of science in the architect profession in particular. The article analyses the basic channels of how the students of architecture search for and find the ways to transfer themselves from the study area into an academic research environment. In order to figure out general trends and to outline the differences and similarities of doctoral studies that could further facilitate cooperation, the paper presents the thematic outputs of doctoral programmes in architecture schools in Vilnius, Riga, Venice, Jelgava and Weimar. With reference to the example of the Faculty of Architecture, VGTU, the trends towards developing research activities are analysed taking into account three interconnected branches of architecture: urban design, building architecture and landscape architecture. The cooperation and coordination of academic and research activities in wider European space is taking place upon common interest based on the specificities of each school and priorities of the chosen region. The awareness of global and regional processes in architectural research is an important point for the present and coming generations of researchers in Europe as they are building their careers on the basis of investigation into the options of the local applications of global competences in a cross-professional and inter-disciplinary way.

Gintaras Stauskis

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Where to remove radioactive waste? Perspective for a problem-oriented sociological repository research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search for a final disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Germany is to characterize as an enduring and politicised conflict causing a blocked process of decision making. A social science based research on final disposals, reflecting this stalemate situation in Germany, did not take place since the middle of the 1980s. This book persues three aims, it analyses the conflict situation in an historical and a systematic view, it discusses the new decision- and participation procedures and it formulates a socio-scientific research perspective on waste disposal. Th volume directs to political decision makers, representants from industry and economy, scientists and actors from the citizen sector. (GL)

2006-01-01

342

Understanding the Processes that Regulate Positive Emotional Experience: Unsolved Problems and Future Directions for Theory and Research on Savoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In this paper, we focus on unanswered questions and future directions in positive psychology, with a special emphasis on savoring processes that regulate positive emotions. To advance our understanding of the savoring processes underlying positive experience, we highlight three unresolved issues that must be addressed: (1 discriminating the distinctive neuropsychological profiles associated with different savoring processes; (2 developing viable methods of measuring and analyzing the mediational mechanisms involved in real-time savoring; and (3 clarifying the developmental processes through which people acquire different strategies to savor positive experiences across the life span. We propose several potentially fruitful lines of attack aimed at addressing these unsolved problems, each of which requires new methods of assessment to advance theory and refine our conceptual understanding of savoring.

Fred B. Bryant

2011-01-01

343

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

1992-01-01

344

Activities, problems and prospects related to safe disposal of research reactor RA spent fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Actions performed in order to identify and improve storage conditions of spent fuel from RA research reactor are summarized. Recently performed inspection of sealed aluminum barrels, containing aluminum cladded metallic uranium fuel, are described in details. Based on the results of this inspection, options for future safe disposal of reactor spent fuel are proposed. (author)

Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Bulkin, S.; Sokolov, A.; Morduhai, A. [R and D Institute for Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2001-07-01

345

Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

Zimmerman, Frederick J.

2008-01-01

346

Problems of Interdisciplinarity: Evidence-Based and/or Artist-Led Research?  

Science.gov (United States)

Art education as a distinct academic discipline is relatively recent and closely related to the growth of specialist teacher qualification programmes in university education departments. Opportunities for art teachers to engage in research were first provided in advanced diploma courses and specialist masters programmes set up in university…

Mason, Rachel

2008-01-01

347

A Module to Foster Engineering Creativity: An Interpolative Design Problem and an Extrapolative Research Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a teaching module designed to enhance engineering creativity in an introductory chemical engineering course. The module includes an exercise to design column packing material, and an open-ended research project to describe the societal impact of chemical engineering. These assignments were created to illustrate the benefit…

Forbes, Neil S.

2008-01-01

348

The Grammar of Power: The Problem of Moral Objectification in Human Research  

Science.gov (United States)

During the course of the last century, a number of historical instances of unethical human research have occurred, and risen to the forefront of the social imagination. The atrocities of the European and Pacific Holocausts, the tragic 1932-1972 United States Public Health Service Syphilis Studies at Tuskegee, concomitant with the 1946-48 unethical…

Warren, Rueben C.; Gabriele, Edward F.

2012-01-01

349

Breadth in Design Problem Scoping: Using Insights from Experts to Investigate Student Processes. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the authors used two methods for analyzing expert data: verbal protocol analysis (VPA) and narrative analysis. VPA has been effectively used to describe the design processes employed by engineering students, expert designers, and expert-novice comparative research. VPA involves asking participants to "think aloud" while…

Morozov, Andrew; Kilgore, Deborah; Atman, Cynthia

2007-01-01

350

Activities, problems and prospects related to safe disposal of research reactor RA spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actions performed in order to identify and improve storage conditions of spent fuel from RA research reactor are summarized. Recently performed inspection of sealed aluminum barrels, containing aluminum cladded metallic uranium fuel, are described in details. Based on the results of this inspection, options for future safe disposal of reactor spent fuel are proposed. (author)

2001-04-01

351

Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of China's Service Trade in the New Era  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 21st century, global trade competitions focus point has shifted from commodity trade to service trade. International trade in services shows some new trends. Although China's service trade has obtained fast development in recent years, they also have many problems. To adapt to the new trend of the development of international service trade, China should take some countermeasures to promote China's service trade has a high level of development. These countermeasures include accelerating to develop the service industry, perfecting the legal system and management system of service trade, strengthening the personnel training work and so on.

Zhijun Sheng

2012-10-01

352

A research on analysis method of mining subsidence parameters for space problem and its application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the example of subsidence model of probability integration, the paper studied the analysis of parameters of spatial problem during subsidence when mining rectangular and arbitrary-shaped panels, and developed the corresponding software. Based on these studies, the paper presents some examples to show how to use the analysis method to process the field data obtained from irregular observation stations and to discriminate mining subsidence models. The examples show that the analysis method and software are correct, easy to use, and can be widely applied to process mining subsidence data. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Ling, G.; Wu, K. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Department of Mining Engineering

1994-06-01

353

Mutation research with ionizing radiations and chemicals using drosophila: problems, results and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of mutagenesis studies with Drosophila are examined in order to inquire the extent to which the genetic responses to ionizing radiations and to chemical mutagens share common features, to identify those findings that may have validity beyond the confines of this species, and to assess the contributions and implications of Drosophila results to the problems of mutagenicity testing and of the evaluation of genetic hazards to man from exposure to environmental chemicals. The results obtained in the studies permit the estimation of X-irradiation equivalent doses of EMS for the induction of sex-linked recessive lethals and specific locus mutations in mature spermatozoa. (Auth.)

1979-10-05

354

Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970's that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late 1970's the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the artic...

Snyman, S. D.

1997-01-01

355

Trends in the history of research on the problem of violence in the Old Testament  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Violence as theological problem is a relative newcomer to the scene of Old Testament studies. It was only during the 1970’s that violence was given major attention by Old Testament scholars. In a number of studies the main focus was on Yahweh and his relation to violence. By the late I970’s the theories of Rene Girard on violence were applied to the Old Testament and played an important role in the thinking of Old Testament scholars on violence. In the last part of the article proposed so...

Snyman, S. D.

1997-01-01

356

Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be economi cally installed even in existing buildings that were not wired for dual-level lighting

2001-01-01

357

Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

1978-02-04

358

The efficiency of the production – the analyse of problems based on the literature research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The production efficiency is one of the most important problems of the present-day logistics, both at operational as well as strategic levels. Increasing the level of the efficiency of the production process can be achieved in many ways. The reason of the selection of the issues covering the problems of the production efficiency is the lack of a comprehensive model for analyzing the efficiency of the production process, both in the scientific literature and in the business practice. Methods: The main aim of this paper is to systematize the process of obtaining input data for the assessment model of the production efficiency. The methodology for building the assessment model of production efficiency at the initial stage of the analysis was presented.  Results and conclusions:  The basic goal of a preliminary analysis of the model is to coordinate decision-making targets at all levels of the management. The presented assumptions should be regarded as a preliminary analysis, indispensable for the multivariate analysis of the production process efficiency, focused on the operational level.  

2012-06-01

359

Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

1992-01-01

360

Some radiation protection problems in a cancer hospital and associated research institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience gained at the Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research has shown that with attention to the design of facilities and procedures and an active personnel monitoring policy, relatively large scale radiation commitments can proceed with individual whole body doses to staff being held well below 15 mSv/annum. In spite of detailed attention to control of radiation work, traumatic radiation incidents may still occur. (H.K.)

1980-03-14

 
 
 
 
361

Broad consent versus dynamic consent in biobank research: Is passive participation an ethical problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the endeavour of biobank research there is dispute concerning what type of consent and which form of donor–biobank relationship meet high ethical standards. Up until now, a ‘broad consent' model has been used in many present-day biobank projects. However it has been, by some scholars, deemed as a pragmatic, and not an acceptable ethical solution. Calls for change have been made on the basis of avoidance of paternalism, intentions to fulfil the principle of autonomy, wish for increased user participation, a questioning of the role of experts and ideas advocating reduction of top–down governance. Recently, an approach termed ‘dynamic consent' has been proposed to meet such challenges. Dynamic consent uses modern communication strategies to inform, involve, offer choices and last but not the least obtain consent for every research projects based on biobank resources. At first glance dynamic consent seems appealing, and we have identified six claims of superiority of this model; claims pertaining to autonomy, information, increased engagement, control, social robustness and reciprocity. However, after closer examination, there seems to be several weaknesses with a dynamic consent approach; among others the risk of inviting people into the therapeutic misconception as well as individualizing the ethical review of research projects. When comparing the two models, broad consent still holds and can be deemed a good ethical solution for longitudinal biobank research. Nevertheless, there is potential for improvement in the broad model, and criticism can be met by adapting some of the modern communication strategies proposed in the dynamic consent approach.

Steinsbekk, Kristin Solum; Kare Myskja, Bj?rn; Solberg, Berge

2013-01-01

362

Final results of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark problem calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper gives a brief survey of the fifth three-dimensional dynamic Atomic Energy Research benchmark calculation results received with the code DYN3D/ATHLET at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the seventh Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Hoernitz near Zittau, 1997). Its initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one stuck out control rod group. The calculations were performed with the externally coupled codes ATHLET Mod.1.1 Cycle C and DYN3DH1.1/M3. The standard WWER-440/213 input deck of ATHLET code was adopted for benchmark purposes and for coupling with the code DYN3D. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristics of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters. In comparison with the results published at the eighth Atomic Energy Research Symposium (Bystrice nad Pernstejnem, 1998), the results published in this paper are based on improved ATHLET descriptions of control and safety systems. (Author)

1999-10-01

363

A review on the research of mechanical problems with different moduli in tension and compression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most materials exhibit different tensile and compressive strains given the same stress applied in tension or compression. These materials are known as bimodular materials. An important model of bimodular materials is the criterion of positive-negative signs of principal stress proposed by Ambartsumyan. This model is mainly applicable to isotropic materials and deals with the principal stress state in a point. However, due to the inherent complexity of the constitutive relation, FEM based on iterative strategy and analytical methods based on a simplified mechanical model are required. In this paper, we review the basic assumptions of this model and its development, several innovative computational methods, and some important engineering applications. We also discuss the sequent key problems in this field

2010-09-01

364

New frontiers in reproductive immunology research: bringing bedside problems to the bench.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Immunology provided an excellent platform for basic and clinical scientists to brainstorm on current reproductive health issues such as repeated implantation and pregnancy failure, preterm birth, preeclampsia and genital tract infections such as HIV. The goal of the meeting was to foster cross-pollination of ideas as well as to encourage participation of young investigators in the field. The conference was preceded by the 4th Annual Post-Graduate Workshop with the theme of bringing bedside problems to the bench and facilitating collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists. Christopher Davies and Richard Bronson chaired the conference, which hosted approximately 180 delegates representing more than 26 countries across Asia, Australia, Latin America, Europe and North America. PMID:21895470

Joukhadar, Jennifer; Nevers, Tania; Kalkunte, Satyan

2011-09-01

365

Research on Location Routing Problem (LRP Based on Chaos Search (CS and Empirical Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the problem complexity, simultaneous solution methods are limited. A hybrid algorithm is emphatically proposed for LRP. First, the customers are classified by clustering analysis with preference-fitting rules. Second, a chaos search (CS algorithm for the optimal routes of LRP scheduling is presented in this paper. For the ergodicity and randomness of chaotic sequence, this CS architecture makes it possible to search the solution space easily, thus producing optimal solutions without local optimization. A case study using computer simulation showed that the CS system is simple and effective, which achieves significant improvement compared to a recent LRP with nonlinear constrained optimization solution. Lastly the pratical anlysis is presented relationship with regional logistics and its development in Fujianprovince.

Qian Zhang

2013-01-01

366

A View of the Science Education Research Literature: Scientific Discovery Learning with Computer Simulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a review of research that addresses the effectiveness of simulations in promoting scientific discovery learning and the problems that learners may encounter when using discovery learning. (WRM)

Robinson, William R.

2000-01-01

367

Socioeconomic inequalities: concepts and research problems / Desigualdades socioeconômicas: conceitos e problemas de pesquisa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O tema das desigualdades socioeconômicas é abordado, via de regra, considerando-se o "pólo pobreza" desvinculado das dimensões relacionais com o "pólo riqueza". A desmedida que caracteriza este último é decorrente de processos multifacetados levando ao surgimento de complexas formas de apropriação e [...] de fruição privada da riqueza produzida socialmente. A retomada do debate em termos de classes sociais e a elaboração de novos conceitos tornam-se necessárias para que a Sociologia possa apreender as conseqüências do processo em curso sobre o conjunto da sociedade, entre eles, riqueza substantiva, personificação da riqueza e classes de fruição. Ao mesmo tempo, é mister reconhecer a existência de impedimentos materiais objetivos e de preconceitos que precisam ser superados para se possa avançar na produção de conhecimento crítico acerca da divisão da sociedade em classes sociais e das formas de poder e das modalidades de subordinação. Abstract in english The issue of socioeconomic inequalities is by and large addressed in terms of "extreme poverty" detached from the relational dimensions with "extreme wealth". The imbalance that characterises the latter is a result of multifaceted processes leading to the emergence of complex forms of appropriation [...] and private enjoyment of socially produced wealth. Sociology needs to return to the debate in terms of social class and formulate new concepts for understanding the consequences of the current process on society as a whole, covering substantial wealth, personification of wealth, the affluent classes. At the same time it should be recognised that objective material hindrances and prejudice exist, which need to be overcome to allow progress towards the production of critical knowledge about the division of society into social classes and the forms of power and of subordination.

Antonio David, Cattani; Nicholas, Rands.

368

Desigualdades socioeconômicas: conceitos e problemas de pesquisa / Socioeconomic inequalities: concepts and research problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tema das desigualdades socioeconômicas é abordado, via de regra, considerando-se o "pólo pobreza" desvinculado das dimensões relacionais com o "pólo riqueza". A desmedida que caracteriza este último é decorrente de processos multifacetados levando ao surgimento de complexas formas de apropriação e [...] de fruição privada da riqueza produzida socialmente. A retomada do debate em termos de classes sociais e a elaboração de novos conceitos tornam-se necessárias para que a Sociologia possa apreender as conseqüências do processo em curso sobre o conjunto da sociedade, entre eles, riqueza substantiva, personificação da riqueza e classes de fruição. Ao mesmo tempo, é mister reconhecer a existência de impedimentos materiais objetivos e de preconceitos que precisam ser superados para se possa avançar na produção de conhecimento crítico acerca da divisão da sociedade em classes sociais e das formas de poder e das modalidades de subordinação. Abstract in english The issue of socioeconomic inequalities is generally addressed considering the "pole of poverty" detached from its relationship to the "pole of wealth". The imbalance that characterises the latter results from multifaceted processes leading to the emergence of complex forms of appropriation and priv [...] ate fruition of socially produced wealth. It is necessary to return to the debate in terms of social class and formulate new concepts if Sociology is to learn the consequences of the current process on society as a whole, including substantial wealth, the personification of wealth, affluent classes. At the same time, the existence of objective, material hindrances and prejudices should be recognized, since they need to be overcome to enable movement towards the production of critical knowledge about society's division into social classes and the forms of power and modalities of subordination.

Antonio David, Cattani.

369

Desigualdades socioeconômicas: conceitos e problemas de pesquisa Socioeconomic inequalities: concepts and research problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O tema das desigualdades socioeconômicas é abordado, via de regra, considerando-se o "pólo pobreza" desvinculado das dimensões relacionais com o "pólo riqueza". A desmedida que caracteriza este último é decorrente de processos multifacetados levando ao surgimento de complexas formas de apropriação e de fruição privada da riqueza produzida socialmente. A retomada do debate em termos de classes sociais e a elaboração de novos conceitos tornam-se necessárias para que a Sociologia possa apreender as conseqüências do processo em curso sobre o conjunto da sociedade, entre eles, riqueza substantiva, personificação da riqueza e classes de fruição. Ao mesmo tempo, é mister reconhecer a existência de impedimentos materiais objetivos e de preconceitos que precisam ser superados para se possa avançar na produção de conhecimento crítico acerca da divisão da sociedade em classes sociais e das formas de poder e das modalidades de subordinação.The issue of socioeconomic inequalities is generally addressed considering the "pole of poverty" detached from its relationship to the "pole of wealth". The imbalance that characterises the latter results from multifaceted processes leading to the emergence of complex forms of appropriation and private fruition of socially produced wealth. It is necessary to return to the debate in terms of social class and formulate new concepts if Sociology is to learn the consequences of the current process on society as a whole, including substantial wealth, the personification of wealth, affluent classes. At the same time, the existence of objective, material hindrances and prejudices should be recognized, since they need to be overcome to enable movement towards the production of critical knowledge about society's division into social classes and the forms of power and modalities of subordination.

Antonio David Cattani

2007-12-01

370

Problem-based and project-oriented learning : an other way of implementing research based teachin2 in power electronics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power electronics is an emerging technology. New applications are added every year as well as the power handling capabilities is steadily increasing. One example is renewable energy, which is enabled by power electronics. The demands to the education of engineers in this field are also increasing. Generally, the content of the curriculum should be more expanded without extra study time. This paper presents a teaching approach, which makes it possible very fast for the students to obtain in-depth skills into new research areas, and this method is the problem-oriented and project-based learning. In this paper the necessary skills for power electronic engineers are outlined that is followed up by a description on how the problem-oriented and project-based learning are implemented. A complete curriculum in power electronics and drives at Aalborg University is presented where different power electronics related projects at different study levels also are presented.

Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus

2005-01-01

371

CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces ...

2005-01-01

372

El planteamiento del problema en el proyecto de investigación en ingeniería / A guide for problem definition in engineering research projects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La realización de investigaciones en Ingeniería no está exenta de requisitos formales; un adecuado trabajo de investigación en Ingeniería es aquel que no sólo se valora en términos de su contenido sino también en lo que a la organización, estructuración y calidad del manuscrito se refiere. En este a [...] rtículo se presentará una propuesta metodológica para el planteamiento del problema en proyectos de investigación en Ingeniería. Se dará un panorama integral sobre los aspectos resaltantes que guían el correcto planteamiento del problema, aportándose algunos ejemplos de redacciones apropiadas que ilustran lo que debe y no debe hacerse cuando se elabora el texto contentivo del problema. Finalmente, se introducirán algunos aspectos de importancia radical que permiten evaluar la redacción, estructura y la adecuación del planteamiento del problema de acuerdo a los criterios que dicha tarea exige. Abstract in english Conducting research in engineering is not free from formal requirements, a good research work in engineering is one which is not only valued in terms of its content but also in the organization, structure and quality of the manuscript is concerned. In this article we present a methodology for the pr [...] oblem in research projects in engineering. It will give a comprehensive picture of outstanding issues that guide the proper approach to the problem, and some examples of appropriate compositions that illustrate what should and should not be made when preparing the text which contains the problem. Finally, we introduce some aspects of radical importance to evaluate the language, structure and appropriateness of the approach to the problem according to the criteria which the task demands.

María, Itriago C; Carlos E, Zerpa.

373

Research problems in protecting mining areas in the Lublin coal basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bogdanka pilot mine in the Lublin basin should begin operation in 1980/81. In the first phase of basin development 7 underground coal mines are planned with an output of 12,000 t/24 hours each. By 1985 4.5 million tons of coal will be mined yearly and in 1996 productions should increase to 25.2 million tons per year. Investments in the Lublin basin will be about 87,000 zlotys, of which 47,000 million zlotys will be spent on mine construction. The Lublin coal basin differs from the Upper Silesian or Lower Silesian coal basins. The surface is used by agriculture, there are no major towns, industrial plants or forests in the area. It is assumed that in some areas surface subsidence will be significant e.g. in the Bogdanka pilot mine area subsidence will reach 8.0 m and on the average subsidence will be about 3.0 m in the Lublin coal basin. It is assumed that subsidence will cause significant problems for the water economy of the region. Taking into consideration the fact that clay layers in the Lublin basin are located relatively close to the surface, creation of new water reservoirs and changes in river beds in the Wieprz-Krzna canal are predicted. Damage to agriculture could be high if efficient water drainage methods are not used in zones endangered by water accumulation. (8 refs.)

Glinko, H.; Litwinowicz, L.

1979-01-01

374

Research program with no ''measurement problem''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

1985-07-01

375

Analysis of the IAEA research reactor benchmark problem by the RETRAC-PC code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A basic approach to perform safety analysis of a nuclear research reactor consists in using deterministic methods to verify that the established acceptance criteria related to fuel integrity are fulfilled during all the stages of the facility lifetime. These methods should be validated against a large set of experimental and postulated transients. Since measured data are not easily available in the literature, the IAEA defined typical transients in a generic 10-MW MTR nuclear reactor core as a benchmark test for computational tools verification. In this framework, an assessment study of the coupled kinetic-thermal-hydraulic RETRAC-PC code is presented herein. The considered cases include the analysis of core dynamic under ramp positive reactivity insertion, and loss of flow transients. In general, the obtained results are satisfactory and agree with results obtained by other similar codes.

Bousbia-Salah, Anis [Facolta di Ingegneria, DIMNP, Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Hamidouche, Tewfik [Laboratoire des Analyses de Surete, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger-Algeria, 02 Boulevard Frantz fanon, BP 399 Alger-gare (Algeria)]. E-mail: thamidouche@comena-dz.org

2005-03-01

376

Experimental Research on Asymmetric R&D Investment of R&D/Product Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an experiment is designed to verify the model findings of asymmetric R&D investment in open environment. 25 MBA students voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were divided into five groups representing different corporate decision-makers with different technical level to participate in repeated R&D/production game. The results show that low technology players will choose to take free ride of high technology competitors’ R&D investment and spare much expenditure at the stage of sequential game, while in a synchronize game a R&D race is the rational choice to both sides. The results fit well with model research, and they can also confirm that the equilibrium of model can be found by people in reality.

Huayao Zhang

2012-02-01

377

Mechanism-oriented research in the evaluation of health problems of energy technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding the nature of the biological response to a hazard gives the best insight in the prediction or best estimation of such effects in long-range potential, how it may be prevented or reversed or how its impacts might be alleviated by suitable treatment. In mechanistic research, whether molecular and cellular or at tissue or whole animal levels, several factors must be included. Some are age, sex, genotype, immune status, nutrition, and a host of properties of the ambient environment. The following interactions should also be considered in any such studies of the pollutants related to energy technologies: chemical status of the pollutants, transport of the pollutant through cellular membranes; interactions of the pollutant with membrane components; intracellular biotransformation of the pollutant; interaction with intracellular constituents; mutagenic potential; and the nature of binding or retention of agents, sometimes with release and delayed toxic manifestation. (PCS)

Borg, D.C.; Frank, R.

1976-01-01

378

The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

1991-06-02

379

ROSPO, RITMO, and RANA small research reactors ready for unrestricted release: The first Italian approach to the problem of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last years several nuclear facilities have reached the end of useful life and their number is obviously still increasing. The direct consequence of this fact is that the problem of decommissioning is getting more and more important in the field of nuclear energy. As well as other industrialized countries, Italy has started being involved in such a problem since a first generation BWR 160 MWe power plant was recently shut down and two more power plants (gas cooled and pressurized water reactors) are coming close to 20 years of operation. Moreover, there are also a certain number of obsolete fuel cycle and research plants, though being of moderate size. Yet they need a qualified decommissioning intervention both in terms of personnel and in terms of technical/financial means. Dismantling these plans is now working as input for a series of activities that, though kept into realistic boundaries, aim at supplying adequate technologies, means, and training for personnel. The last aspect that must be taken into account for the description of Italian decommissioning activities concerns regulations. The peculiarity of the involved problems (unrestricted release of very low-activated materials, declassification of controlled areas, etc.) needs specific regulations that actually are not yet operating in Italy

1985-01-01

380

CO2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces activities are compared with injection of hot reducing gas generated by coal or waste gasification or top gas recycling combined with injection of fine solid fuels. Results of injection of prepared plastics (Duales System Deutschland, shredder-light-fraction from car-recycling and unburned carbon of power-station-ashes are discussed. Beside production of direct-reducediron by H2 fluidized reactor results of the reduction behavior ore/coal or dust/coal pellets or briquettes for the use in rotary hearth or modem shaft furnaces are shown

En una breve introducción se describen las pruebas y cálculos referentes a bloques de hielo de CO2 en el mar profundo, el uso del CO2 para la gasificación de carbón subterráneo y procesos terciarios para aumentar la producción de aceite por medio del torrente de CO2. Dentro de las nuevas actividades se presentan, por ejemplo, la inyección de CO2 en el homo eléctrico de arco (HEA combinado con la inyección de carbón, coque o de finos de los procesos de reducción directa. Después de la investigación de la inyección de carbones, se comparan, por un lado, la inyección de los minerales finos o polvos en los hornos altos y otras actividades en los hornos de cuba con la inyección del gas reductor caliente generado por la gasificación del carbón o de los residuos o reciclado del gas del tragante combinado con la inyección de finos de combustibles sólidos. En el presente trabajo se discuten los resultados de la inyección de los plásticos preparados (Sistema Dual Alemán, de la separación de fracciones ligeras del reciclado de autos y de carbón no reaccionado de cenizas de la estación de poder. En el área de la producción de hierro reducido directamente en el reactor de lecho fluidizado de H2 son mostrados los resultados del comportamiento de la reducción de mineral con carbón o pellets de polvo con carbón o briquetas para el uso en el homo rotatorio o en modernos hornos de cuba

Gudenau, H. W.

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Defect assessment in nuclear components: R and D related to industrial problems - synthesis of the research, training and teaching activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear industry pays a particular attention to structures integrity problems: well-aware of the possible catastrophic consequence of a major accident, everything is carried out to minimise the risk of such a situation. From the design, and during all the operating life of the plant, a high level of safety is required and checks by the safety authorities, on the basis of reports made by the operator. These two entities ask for R and D activities to support the improvement of the knowledge of the phenomena already identified (as in the case of the vessel of the PWR) or to bring some element of understanding to situation not considered yet, up to the first incident (as in 1998 with the fatigue problems in the thermal mixing zone, at the origin of the Civaux arrest). Among the CEA teams concerned with these problems, the Laboratory of the Structures Integrity and of Normalisation aims to study the integrity problems in metallic nuclear structures leaning on exceptional experimental means: the RESEDA platform allows the realisation of large-scaled tests on analytical tests (representative of analysed phenomena) to reproduce the industrial situation, linked to various and accurate equipment for the measures and the analyses. Three industrial thematics represent to main part of my research activities at CEA in the fracture mechanics field: - the industrial case of the PWR vessel is related to brittle fracture of the ferritic steels, - the piping components, related to ductile tearing and fracture in the brittle-to-ductile domain, - the high temperature fracture mechanics for the components submitted to very complex loadings. (author)

2007-01-01

382

Making Sense of Context as a Basis for Trust : The Problem of Context in Organizational Trust Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The concept of interpersonal trust has been important in organizational trust research for at least a decade, but recently a growing literature is stressing the need to focus more on the institutional dimensions of trust-creation. The opposition between traditions stressing either interpersonal or institutional trust raises the more general question of how we may understand the role of context in interpersonal trust relations. The paper attempts to fill the gap in the organizational trust literature, between interpersonal and institutional trust research, by investigating the more general problem of the link between context and organizational trust processes. The notion of context is highly important for understanding trust processes in modern organizations, but remains largely absent in trust research. The present study proposes applying the sensemaking approach as a â??bridging constructâ?? (Floyd et al., 2011) between institutions and interactions to explore how context may be relevant for trust processes. Weargue that people must actively and consciously â??make sense of contextâ? as a basis for trust. The importance of understanding how actors make sense of context in order to understand organizational trust is illustrated by reference to two earlier reported case studies on trust in organizations.

Fuglsang, Lars; Jagd, Søren

383

A Program of Research on the Applications of Adaptive Systems and Statistical Decision Theory to the Problems Involved in the Detection of Enemy Operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report summarizes the research performed on two problems: (1) to create and investigate models for the entire search, detection, and decision system, useful for determining the operating conditions for overall system optimality; (2) to investigate th...

M. Golberg G. R. Murray D. K. Ray

1965-01-01

384

Customization of cutting blocks: Can this address the problem?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent literature has challenged the notion that neutral coronal alignment is a requirement for long-term survivorship of TKAs. However a preponderance of classic and contemporary evidence supports increased failure rates with malalignment, especially varus. Patient-specific custom cutting guides are an attractive alternative to traditional instrumentation and computer navigation in achieving accurate alignment of total knee arthroplasties. The logistical benefits include possible decreased o...

Lombardi, Adolph V.; Frye, Benjamin M.

2012-01-01

385

Addressing selected problems of the modelling of digital control systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of digital systems to practical activities at nuclear power plants brings about new requirements for their modelling for the purposes of reliability analyses required for plant licensing as well as for inclusion into PSA studies and subsequent use in applications for the assessment of events, limits and conditions, and risk monitoring. It is very important to assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the effect of this change on operational safety. The report describes selected specific features of reliability analysis of digital system and recommends methodological procedures. The chapters of the report are as follows: (1) Flexibility and multifunctionality of the system. (2) General framework of reliability analyses (Understanding the system; Qualitative analysis; Quantitative analysis; Assessment of results, comparison against criteria; Documenting system reliability analyses; Asking for comments and their evaluation); and (3) Suitable reliability models (Reliability models of basic events; Monitored components with repair immediately following defect or failure; Periodically tested components; Constant unavailability (probability of failure to demand); Application of reliability models for electronic components; Example of failure rate decomposition; Example modified for diagnosis successfulness; Transfer of reliability analyses to PSA; Common cause failures - CCF; Software backup and CCF type failures, software versus hardware). (P.A.)

2004-01-01

386

Addressing the Problem of Service Teaching Introductory Economics Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

Enrolments in undergraduate economics programs have been falling constantly since the early 1990s. This trend coincides with the increasing popularity of business and management degrees. Consequently, the major activity of many, if not most economics departments and schools in Australia is service teaching of introductory economics to first year…

Barrett, Steven

2005-01-01

387

New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

Starodub, N. F.

2013-11-01

388

Using Soft Systems Methodology to Address Supply Chain Management Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of if, and how, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM might.be used to facilitate better management of industry supply chains. In two workshops involving supply chain managers from the Textile Clothing and Footwear (TCP industry and industry facilitators, ways in which SSM techniques might supplement existing Supply Chain Management (SCM workshop approaches have been explored. Specifically, the placement of SSM techniques within a workshop setting, reactions to the techniques, perceived reasons for using SSM, together with strengths and difficulties encountered, have been examined.

Gulender Gencoglu

2002-05-01

389

Missing Data Matrix Factorization Addressing the Structure from Motion Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aquest treball es centra en la factorització de matrius per obtenir l'Estructura a partir del Moviment (SFM). La idea és descomposar la matriu de trajectòries en la matriu de moviment, que conté la posició relativa càmera-objecte a cada frame, i la matriu de forma, que conté les coordenades 3D dels punts característics. Aquesta factorització es pot obtenir utilitzant que la matriu de trajectòries té un rang reduït. En particular, si les trajectòries pertanyen a un únic objecte r...

Julia? Ferre?, Ma Carme

2008-01-01

390

Operational Risk Management is Ineffective at Addressing Nonlinear Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

A good indication of how much damage will result from a fire is the number of firemen fighting it. The more firemen fighting a fire, the more damage occurs. Therefore, in order to reduce the resulting damage, fewer firemen should be used to fight fires. T...

M. F. Rubinstein

2009-01-01

391

The Research on Self-Efficiency Belief Level and Problem Solving Skills of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers (Amasya Sample)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to determine the problem solving skills and self-efficiency belief level of social studies Pre-service teachers. Problem solving skills and self-efficiency levels towards social studies were investigated according to the variables relating to their class level, gender and the type of their graduation from the high schools. The research was carried out as descriptive using survey model. The sample of the research consists of students attending to the social studies dep...

2011-01-01

392

State of the art: Multi-fuel reformers for automotive fuel cell applications. Problem identification and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.

Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

1999-12-01

393

The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP, Research Project Conduct (RPC, Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001 before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the highest intensity. Thus, after intervention the magnitude of the problem was reduced. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that bureaucratic rules, shortage of research budget, heavy work load, lack of motivation, and personal skills are the reasons which hinder doing research activities. But the findings of this current study reveal that through reforming the administrative-management procedures and appropriate planning with regard to the current problems we can overcome the barriers and ameliorate the magnitude of the problems.Keywords: Intervention Studies; Organization and Administration; Operations Research; Research Personnel; Faculty; Universities; Qom, Iran.

Darabi Sh.

2009-11-01