WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Routing and Addressing Problems in Large Metropolitan-Scale Internetworks. ISI Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report discusses some of the problems and limitations in existing internetwork design for the connection of packet-switching networks of different technologies and presents an algorithm that has been shown to be suitable for internetworks of unbounded size. Using a new form of address and a flat routing mechanism called Cartesian routing,…

Finn, Gregory G.

2

Brown Superfund Basic research Program: a multistakeholder partnership addresses real-world problems in contaminated communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

2008-07-01

3

Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. PMID:22525104

Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

2012-05-01

4

The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult, community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively-held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987

Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

2008-01-01

5

Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

Hanna, S.

2012-01-01

6

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide. Monograph.  

Science.gov (United States)

This monograph provides guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. The manual contains a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose, and the harm they cause. Two models are presented for addressing gang-related problems. The problem-solving model to…

Police Executive Research Forum, Washington, DC.

7

Research on Smarandache Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book includes part of the research results about the Smarandache problems written by Chinese scholars at present, and its main purpose is to introduce various results about the Smarandache problems, such as Smarandache function and its asymptotic properties, series convergence, solutions about special equations.

Kang, Xiaoyu; Yi, Yuan

2006-01-01

8

Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

9

A roadmap of problem frames research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been a decade since Michael Jackson introduced problem frames to the software engineering community. Since then, he has published further work addressing problem frames as well as presenting several keynote addresses. Other authors have researched problem frames, have written about their experiences and have expressed their opinions. It was not until 2004 that an opportunity presented itself for researchers in the field to gather as a community. The first International Workshop on Adva...

Cox, Karl; Hall, Jon G.; Rapanotti, Lucia

2005-01-01

10

Evidence-Based Practices for Addressing Classroom Behavior Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers of young children can plan proactively so that they avoid some of the serious problem behaviors in the classroom. The strategies presented in this article are part of a problem solving approach to challenging behavior based on the principles of positive behavioral support. Although these methods presented here have research-based…

Park, Hye-Suk Lee; Lynch, Sharon A.

2014-01-01

11

Beyond open big data: addressing unreliable research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute of Health invests US $30.9 billion annually in medical research. However, the subsequent impact of this research output on society and the economy is amplified dramatically as a result of the actual medical treatments, biomedical innovations, and various commercial enterprises that emanate from and depend on these findings. It is therefore a great concern to discover that much of published research is unreliable. We propose extending the open data concept to the culture of the scientific research community. By dialing down unproductive features of secrecy and competition, while ramping up cooperation and transparency, we make a case that what is published would then be less susceptible to the sometimes corrupting and confounding pressures to be first or journalistically attractive, which can compromise the more fundamental need to be robustly correct. PMID:25405277

Moseley, Edward T; Hsu, Douglas J; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo Anthony

2014-01-01

12

Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

Los, Wouter

2014-05-01

13

The role of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The key roles of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability are to better inform and better equip actors with the knowledge and skills to address health problems. The four key contributions of research are: quantifying the health problem, examining the contextual circumstances, investigating the epidemiology of health problems and evaluation of health care and humanitarian interventions. The role of teaching can complement research by distributing its' findings in addition to teaching skill sets to apply this knowledge and conduct further research. Academic research and teaching both play imperative roles in enabling more successful approaches in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability. PMID:25144953

Collinson, Lucie

2014-01-01

14

Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks  

CERN Document Server

P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

2010-01-01

15

Asia/Pacific moves to address mountainous waste problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a serious lack of chemical waste treatment units in the Asia/Pacific region. In many countries a lack of infrastructure, coupled with scant or no legislation or enforcement, results in significant amounts of chemical waste being dumped without proper treatment. The exception is Japan, which has substantial incineration, treatment, and landfill capabilities. Japan's chemical industry generates more than 14 million m.t./year of waste, which is reduced to 2.51 million m.t./year after treatment and recycling. Chemical companies operating in Asia/Pacific countries that do not have authorized waste contractors and disposal plants have few options. They can treat wastes inhouse, increase recycling, ship wastes outside for treatment, or store wastes onsite. Some companies, such as Monsanto (St. Louis), claim to have managed to avoid producing any final wastes. The company's farm chemicals plant in Malaysia is one example - even the drums used to transport raw materials to the site have been replaced with returnable containers. Chiba (Basel) also has invested in cutting waste. The Swiss firm's dyestuffs plant at Candra Sari, Indonesia cut primary pollution by 90%, while product output rose 12% - a result of changing operations procedures and capital investment of only $6,500. A number of countries have started to address the industrial waste problem - foremost is Hong Kong, which is currently commissioning one of the first chemical waste treatment centers in the region. Other countries planning integrated waste treatment facilities include Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Singapore, and China

16

Operations research problems statements and solutions  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

2014-01-01

17

Addressing the Wicked Problem of Obesity through Planning and Policies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the June editorial, the PLOS Medicine Editors highlight two papers and associated perspectives published recently in PLOS Medicine on the link between physical activity and noncommunicable diseases, and discuss possible approaches to the “wicked” problem of inactivity.

2013-01-01

18

Addressing Problems Encountered in Case-Based Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

TURF 436 (Case Studies in Turfgrass Management) is the capstone course for turfgrass science majors at the Pennsylvania State University. Students are introduced to problems and complex problematic situations encountered in the management of golf and sports turf and in professional lawn-care operations. Following completion of the orientation case…

Turgeon, A. J.

2007-01-01

19

A Few Examples of ISPs Addressing Specific Reactor Safety Problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four International Standard Problems which were related to safety reactor problems are briefly discussed. ISP-20 (Steam Generator Tube Rupture in DOEL 2) is a unique ISP as it is based on a real incident which occurred in a commercial Power Plant. This ISP clearly illustrated the special problems of an ISP based on a real plant, namely limited access to precise plant data, some lack in the detailed knowledge of sensor behaviour, etc. ISP-26 (ROSA IV-LSTF small break test) was an open ISP. A qualitatively good prediction of the measured events was obtained even if some modelling deficiencies were identified. ISP-27 (BETHSY Exp. 9.1 B) was a blind ISP. All important trends observed during the test were qualitatively calculated by most computer codes. However, some deficiencies in calculating some variables were evident. ISP-33 (PACTEL Natural Circulation) was an exercise with a test facility modelled on the basis of a Russian VVER 440 and with participations from Eastern and Western organisations. ISP-33 was a double-blind exercise. The simulation of some variables caused some problems although they were in principle not too complicated. Post-test calculations demonstrated significant improvements. For all the four ISPs, the influence of the code user was evident and caused some scatter in the results. A specific study was performed in ISP-26 to clarify from where those user effects were coming. The reactor safety problems related to those ISPs are detailed and the specific contribution of the ISPs to bring solutions is discussed.

20

What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

22

Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the 'spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep. PMID:24738763

Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Nagel, Saskia K

2014-05-01

23

Address Translation Problems in IMS Based Next Generation Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of packed based multimedia networks reached a turning point when the ITU-T and the ETSIhave incorporated the IMS to the NGN. With the fast development of mobile communication more and more services andcontent are available. In contrast with fix network telephony both the services and the devices are personalized in the “mobileworld”. Services, known from the Internet - like e-mail, chat, browsing, presence, etc. – are already available via mobiledevices as well. The IMS originally wanted to exploit both the benefits of mobile networks and the fancy services of theInternet. But today it is already more than that. IMS is the core of the next generation telecommunication networks and abasis for fix-mobile convergent services. The fact however that IMS was originally a “mobile” standard, where IPv6 was notoddity generated some problems for the fix networks, where IPv4 is used. In this article I give an overview of these problemsand mention some solutions as well.

Balazs Godor

2006-01-01

24

Turning clinical problems into research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nursing process is well known by practicing nurses. The model for approaching the development of nursing research using this process has been presented. The clinical arena is rich in data and problems worthy of detailed research work. The models provide structure and methods that are familiar to practicing nurses so that they may begin to work with colleagues and other researchers in the clinical setting. A nurse who wants to use this model to begin research efforts needs interested colleagues in nursing, friends with patient ears, superiors who value this type of work, and affable determination. PMID:3632967

Whitney, F W; Roncoli, M

1986-01-01

25

Social policy role in addressing problems in social risk groups: Bachelor’s Thesis in Public Administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this Bachlor’s theme is to analize social policy role in addressing problems in social risk groups. In the first part of the work was identified the concept of social policy, it‘s structure and patterns. In the second part of the work was identified the concept of social risk groups and excluded social problems in social risk groups. In the third part of the work was made an analysis of the research about social policy role in addressing problems in social risk groups. Results ...

Bajoru?niene?, Simona

2010-01-01

26

A system for addressing incidental findings in neuroimaging research.  

Science.gov (United States)

When healthy subjects undergo brain imaging, incidental findings are not rare. The optimal response to such findings has been the focus of considerable discussion. The current report describes the operations and results of a system that provides a review of incidental findings by an appropriate medical professional. A web-based system was created whereby investigators performing brain MRI scans on healthy subjects could refer images with suspected concerns to a board certified radiologist who had a Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology. The specific details of this system are described. Among 27 scans suspected by an investigator of having a significant finding, all but one were referred by a researcher with a PhD. The most common concerns described by these investigators were for the possible presence of a cyst or of enlarged ventricles. The most common findings reported by the radiologist were Virchow-Robin spaces and cysts. Findings were generally of low clinical significance, with 1 major exception. Identifying the optimal response to incidental findings in neuroimaging research remains a challenge. The current report describes a system for providing expert assistance and so addresses these issues in the setting of suspected incidental findings. To our knowledge the current system is the first to provide a specific means for evaluation of incidental findings in neuroimaging research. PMID:21224007

Cramer, Steven C; Wu, Jennifer; Hanson, Joseph A; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Karnani, Diraj; Chuang, Tony M; Le, Vu

2011-04-01

27

Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

28

Addressing Global Environmental Challenges through Interdisciplinary Biogeochemical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Our planet is dynamic; energy and matter constantly move between the hydrosphere, atmosphere and lithosphere on time scales from seconds to millenia. These tight interactions - including those between organisms and their physical environment - are what make Earth habitable. However, as Rachel Carson wrote, 'Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species - man - acquired significant power to alter the nature of this world'. Globalization and explosive population growth have generated far-reaching environmental problems on a scale that humanity has never faced before. Fortunately, our species has also developed an unprecedented ability to provide science-based solutions. Since processes impacting the environment involve complex biological, physical, chemical and geological interactions and feedbacks, they require the integration of expertise from all these scientific disciplines as well as input from policy makers, social scientists, and economists. This talk presents four examples of current interdisciplinary research projects conducted in my lab, each one related to a theme from one of Carson's books (Under the Sea-wind, The Sea Around Us, The Edge of the Sea, and Silent Spring). These projects, and others like them, provide hope that we can move toward a sustainable relationship with the natural world by encouraging the best scientists to conduct interdisciplinary research with direct applications for environmental management and stewardship.

Paytan, A.

2013-12-01

29

Nuclear pressure boundary materials research problems and proposed solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The complete test discusses several important materials problems facing LWR operation and some of the research programs that have been formulated at EPRI to address these problems. The problems include steam generator corrosion damage, BWR pipe cracking, BWR nozzle corner cracking, and radiation induced embrittlement. LWR materials problems are complex and will not easily yield to solution. However, the economic rewards for the solution are great. (Auth.)

30

Addressing Earth Science Data Access Challenges through User Experience Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Capacity Building Program (Earth Science Division, Applied Sciences Program) works to enhance end-user capabilities to employ Earth observation and Earth science (EO/ES) data in decision-making. Open data access and user-tailored data delivery strategies are critical elements towards this end. User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) research methods can offer important contributions towards addressing data access challenges, particularly at the interface of science application/product development and product transition to end-users. This presentation focuses on developing nation contexts and describes methods, results, and lessons learned from two recent UX/UI efforts conducted in collaboration with NASA: the SERVIRglobal.net redesign project and the U.S. Water Partnership (USWP) Portal development effort. SERVIR, a collaborative venture among NASA, USAID, and global partners, seeks to improve environmental management and climate change response by helping governments and other stakeholders integrate EO and geospatial technologies into decision-making. The USWP, a collaboration among U.S. public and private sectors, harnesses U.S.-based resources and expertise to address water challenges in developing nations. SERVIR's study, conducted from 2010-2012, assessed and tested user needs, preferences, and online experiences to generate a more user-friendly online data portal at SERVIRglobal.net. The portal provides a central access interface to data and products from SERVIR's network of hubs in East Africa, the Hindu Kush Himalayas, and Mesoamerica. The second study, conducted by the USWP Secretariat and funded by the U.S. Department of State, seeks to match U.S.-based water information resources with developing nation stakeholder needs. The USWP study utilizes a multi-pronged approach to identify key design requirements and to understand the existing water data portal landscape. Adopting UX methods allows data distributors to design customized UIs that help users find, interpret, and obtain appropriate content quickly. The data access challenge for both SERVIR and USWP consisted of organizing a wide range of content for their respective user bases, which are diverse, international, and in some cases loosely characterized. The UX/UI design approach generated profiles of prototypical users and corresponding task flows and organizational schemes for their preferred types of content. Wireframe acceptance testing by SERVIR helped elicit and optimize how users interact with the information online. These approaches produced customized UIs and knowledge management strategies to address the data access challenges faced by each user type. Both studies revealed critical considerations for user experiences in developing nations (e.g., low-bandwidth internet connections, rolling power outages at data storage or network centers). For SERVIR, these findings influenced not only the portal infrastructure; they also informed the transition of the platform to a Cloud-based model, as well as the development of custom data delivery tools such as SMS and other mobile solutions. While SERVIR's data access solutions are customized for the network's community of users, they are also standardized and interoperable according to GEO and ISO standards, providing a model for other initiatives such as the ongoing USWP Portal development effort.

Hemmings, S. N.; Banks, B.; Kendall, J.; Lee, C. M.; Irwin, D.; Toll, D. L.; Searby, N. D.

2013-12-01

31

Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine specification together entail that the requirements are fulfilled. In this paper, we demonstrate how to address certain frame concerns with the use of the formal modelling language coloured Petri nets (CPN). Problem domain description and machine specification are brought together in a CPN model, which is augmented with a graphical animation. The CPN model is executable and we simulate it to address frame concerns. We illustrate the approach on the elevator controller example.

JØrgensen, Jens Bæk

2008-01-01

32

Brief report : ethical problems in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees, and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts, and problems in research. They were all researchers at the postdoctoral ...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

33

Identifying and Addressing Challenges to Research in University Laboratory Preschools  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: This essay offers a review of challenges that university laboratory preschools face in providing a site for research that fits with other components of the program mission. An argument is made to consider paradigm shifts in research questions and methods that move away from traditions within the fields that study children's…

File, Nancy

2012-01-01

34

Addressing the "Research Gap" in Special Education through Mixed Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

At least some of the challenges faced in special education, such as the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students, the gap between research and practice, and inequitable educational opportunities, can be explained in part by a research gap, or, in other words, a failure to conduct the different types of…

Klingner, Janette K.; Boardman, Alison G.

2011-01-01

35

Addressing the STEM Workforce Challenge: Missouri. BHEF Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

While states and the federal government have put efforts in place to increase the size of the workforce trained in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) to meet innovation demands, there continues to be a nationwide shortage of students who are interested in and prepared for such careers. Missouri is no exception to this problem, one…

Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

36

Methodological problems in Rorschach research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

?uri?-Jo?i? Dragana

2007-01-01

37

AGING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE THROUGH INNOVATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A driving force behind the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative and the Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is the Clean Water and Drinking Water Infrastructure Gap Analysis. In this report, EPA estimated that if operation, maintenance, and capital inves...

38

Addressing the Cosmic Coincidence Problem in f(T) Gravity Models  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the f(T) gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which generates the f(T) models that do not suffer from the coincidence problem. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f(T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that there exists a perfect solution for the coincidence problem in the background of the second model while the first model remains utterly plagued by the phenomenon. This not only shows the cosmological viability but also the superiority of the second model over its counterpart.

Rudra, Prabir

2014-01-01

39

The role of architectural research centers in addressing climate change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It is clear that an urgent, major transformation needs to happen in the design of the built environment to respond to impending climate change and other environmental degradation. This paper will explain the potential role of architectural research centers in this transformation and provide examples from the Center for Sustainable Building Research (CSBR at the University of Minnesota. A research center can become a regional hub to coordinate and disseminate critical information. CSBR is leading the establishment of Architecture 2030 standards in Minnesota, assisting local governments in writing green building policy, providing design assistance to local government, developing tools to assist design decision making, providing technical assistance to the affordable housing community inMinnesota, and establishing a regional case study database that includes actual performance information. CSBR is creating a publicly accessible, credible knowledge base on new approaches, technologies and actual performance outcomes. Research centers such as CSBR can be a critical component of the necessary feedback loop often lacking in the building industry. A research center can also fill major gaps in providing in depth professional education as well as be a catalyst for demonstration projects and public education.

John Carmody

2012-10-01

40

Methods for Addressing Missing Data in Psychiatric and Developmental Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: First, to provide information about best practices in handling missing data so that readers can judge the quality of research studies. Second, to provide more detailed information about missing data analysis techniques and software on the Journal's Web site at www.jaacap.com. Method: We focus our review of techniques on those that are…

Croy, Calvin D.; Novins, Douglas K.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Addressing Research Gaps in the Intersection between Homophobia and Bullying  

Science.gov (United States)

Bullying, aggression, and peer victimization among adolescents are significant public health concerns. Recent research has demonstrated that bullying and peer victimization sometimes include homophobic epithets directed at heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. It appears that being at the receiving end of…

Espelage, Dorothy L.; Swearer, Susan M.

2008-01-01

42

Conceptual problems in primary health care research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts are basic elements in all scientific work. New fields of investigation, like primary health care, have to adopt new concepts. These may have a, more or less, physical appearance or may be phenomenological by nature. Concepts may be defined by description or, more appropriate, by explication of necessary and sufficient attributes or characteristics, or by criteria to be fulfilled. One model for concept analysis contains steps as: determine the aims of analysis, identify all uses of the concept, determine the defining attributes, construct a model case, and define empirical referents. Another model, developed for analysis of phenomenological concepts, is based on accumulation of hundreds of explications of the meaning of the concept. Those are elaborated by Grouping, Reduction, Elimination, Hypothetical identification, Application, Final identification. Methods for concept analysis need to be further emphasized in doctoral programs. Even experienced scientists may need more training in such methods, when entering new fields. Students need accurate guidance through passages of conceptual work. Concept development should be accepted and encouraged as research projects in its own capacity. It makes quite a contribution to scientific knowledge, to elaborate an important concept in all aspects. In addressing new empirical problems, much work should be spared, if the researcher could use concepts already studied and described in the literature. PMID:3726332

Andersson, K M

1986-05-01

43

Advanced Knowledge of the Solution in Quantum Algorithms Addressing Structured Problems  

CERN Document Server

In previous work, we showed that quantum correlation, between selection of the problem on the part of Bob and read out of the solution on the part of Alice, can explain the quantum speed up. All is like Alice's read out contributed to selecting the problem, which becomes Alice knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution. This explanation, developed for unstructured data-base search, was coarsely extended to the quantum algorithms that address structured problems. Now, thanks to a more general representation of Alice's advanced knowledge of the solution, we provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of the speed up also for the latter algorithms. This should significantly increase the plausibility of our argument.

Castagnoli, Giuseppe

2011-01-01

44

Telerobotics - Problems and research needs  

Science.gov (United States)

With major emphasis on simulation, a university laboratory telerobotics facility permits problems to be approached by groups of graduate students. Helmet-mounded displays provide realism; the slaving of the display to the human operator's viewpoint gives a sense of 'telepresence' that may be useful for prolonged tasks. Using top-down three-dimensional model control of distant images allows distant images to be reduced to a few parameters to update the model used for display to the human operator in a preview mode to circumvent, in part, the communication delay. Also, the model can be used as a format for supervisory control and permit short-term local autonomous operations. Image processing algorithms can be made simpler and faster without trying to construct sensible images from the bottom. Control studies of telerobots lead to preferential manual control modes and basic paradigms for human motion and thence, perhaps, to redesign of robotic control, trajectory path planning, and rehabilitation prosthetics.

Stark, Lawrence; Tendick, Frank; Kim, Won Soo; Anderson, Russell; Hisey, Michael

1988-01-01

45

ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research project was carried out during 2007-08 at the Open University, UK to explore the suitable strategic policy & practices, and partnership possibilities for open, distance and e-learning (ODEL programme for the postgraduate agricultural education in Bangladesh. The methodology followed was based on the searches on Internet, Journal articles, books, periodicals, brochures, proceedings, reports, attending lectures workshops, seminars, symposia, conferences, contacts, and visits to other Universities/Instition/Organisations for case studies. Under the new millennium context resurgence of global interest in web-based Open, distance and e-learning (ODEL has been proved to be potentially useful strategy for human development issues, particularly due to the evolution of fast-growing as well as net-working new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. The study reveals that though ODEL has been found widely used in many reputed and world leading universities in UK for higher studies leading to degrees, diploma and certificates on arts, general & environmental sciences as well the commerce subjects, and trainings for professional developments etc. The application ODEL especially in higher agricultural education and training leading to MScs and PhDs is almost scanty except a few cases of Fisheries and Livestock, the two sections of Agriculture in the Universities like the University of Sterling, University of Edinburgh and the University of London (Royal Veterinary College etc. But in cases of other major areas of Agricultural subjects such as the crop sciences including Agronomy, Soil science, Crop botany, Horticulture, Plant Pathology, Entomology, Genetics & Pl. Breeding, Agric. Extension Education, Agric. Chemistry, Biochemistry, Agro forestry, Biotechnology, Seed Sci. & Techno. Farm Structure, Farm Power & Machinery, Irrigation & Water Management, Food Tech. & Rural Farm Industry, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Finance, Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural education problems and ultimately towards greater awareness and appreciation leading to sustainable a

. Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

2009-10-01

46

Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

aches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies. (author)

47

Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

2014-01-01

48

A hybrid QFD-based approach in addressing supplier selection problem in product improvement process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is about creating a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the best supplier is selected considering changing customer needs. In most previous studies employing a QFD approach, the possibility of changing customer needs is ignored. On the other hand, supplier selection is a challenging problem that could have been addressed by such a QFD. This paper attempts to create a hybrid QFD-based approach in which the internal relations between the elements are considered. It connects the new QFD to suppliers’ qualifications to create a hybrid supplier selection process. The best suppliers are selected based on the priorities of customer needs for each level of the product improvement plan. When a product is to be developed, the proposed methodology seems to create an efficient solution for supplier selection problem with respect to quality factors.

Mehdi Rajabi Asadabadi

2014-08-01

49

Handshaking Problem Associated with Addressing Scheme for the Nodes of a Wireless Sensor Network  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses a practical problem that arises when assigning ID to wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. A WSN is consisted of a number of wireless nodes that collects information from environment by means of different sensors. A gateway server computer acts as a bridge between the WSN and the outside world. The gateway server can essentially have the capability to control any specific node. In any given context, it might be necessary to access any specific node from the gateway server. One of the ways to accomplish this is handshaking. In this paper, a problem with accessing any WSN node is discussed with a possible solution. A critical analysis of the approach is also carried out in conjunction with the suitability of different ways to adopt an addressing scheme for wireless sensor network nodes.

Ahmed, Monjur

2012-10-01

50

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

51

DOE drafts open-quotes action planclose quotes to address problems at weapons plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight Energy Department facilities and burial grounds will receive priority attention under a three-phase open-quotes action planclose quotes announced by DOE to address safety problems associated with spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal. The action plan comes in response to a DOE study released in December which revealed major vulnerabilities at many spent fuel facilities, including leaking fuel elements, badly corroded storage and fuel-handling infrastructure and highly contaminated cooling pools. The eight facilities targeted for near-term remedial action are: the K-East Basin, 200 West Area Burial grounds and the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction plant canyon at the Hanford plant in Washington; the L-Reactor and K-Reactor disassembly basins at the Savannah River plant in South Carolina; the Classified Burial Ground and the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment Disposal Wells at DOE's Oak Ridge site in Tennessee; and the CPP-603 Fuel Storage Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

52

Gone… but not away : Addressing the problem of long-term impacts from landfills in LCA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background, aim and scope: Land filling of materials with content of toxic metals or highly persistent organic compounds has posed a problem for life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners for many years. The slow release from the landfill entails a dilution in time, which is dramatic compared to other emissions occurring in the life cycle, and with its focus on the emitted mass, LCA is poorly equipped to handle this difference. As a consequence, the long-term emissions from landfills occurring over thousands of years are often disregarded, which is unacceptable to many stakeholders considering the quantities of toxic substances that can be present. On the other hand, inclusion of all future emissions (over thousands of years) in the inventories potentially dominates all other impacts from the product system. The paper aims to present a pragmatic approach to address this dilemma. Materials and methods: Two new impact categories are introduced representing the stored ecotoxicity and stored human toxicity of thecontaminants remaining in the landfill after a ‘foreseeable’ time period of 100 years. The impact scores are calculated using the normal characterisation factors for the ecotoxicity and human toxicity impact categories, and they represent the toxicity potentials of what remains in the landfill after 100 years (hence the term ‘stored’ (eco)toxicity). Normalisation references are developed for the stored toxicity categories based on Danish figures to support comparison with indicator scores for the conventional environmental impact categories. In contrast to the scores for the conventional impact categories, it is uncertain to what extent the stored toxicity scores represent emissions, which will occur at all. Guidance is given on how to reflect this uncertainty in the weighting and interpretation of the scores. Results and discussion: In landfills and road constructions used to deposit residuals from incinerators, less than 1% of the content of metals is leached within the first 100 years. The stored toxicityscores are therefore much higher than the conventional impact scores that represent the actual emissions. Several examples are given illustrating the use and potential significance of the stored toxicity categories. Conclusions and perspectives: The methodology to calculate stored human and ecotoxicity is a simple and pragmatic approach to address LCA’s problem of treating the slow´long-term emissions at very low concentrations appropriately. The problem resides in the inventory analysis and the impact assessment, and the methodology circumvents the problem by converting it into a weighting and interpretation issue accommodating the value-based discussion of how to weight potential effects in the far future.

Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

2008-01-01

53

The persistent problem of malaria: addressing the fundamental causes of a global killer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of global eradication and control efforts and explosive global economic development, malaria is the most important vector-borne disease of our day, killing more people today than 40 years ago and affecting millions worldwide, particularly poor residents of tropical regions. Global eradication efforts from the 1950s through the 1980s largely failed, leaving vector and parasite resistance in their wake. The persistence of malaria and the magnitude of its effects call for an action paradigm that links the traditional proximal arenas of intervention with malaria's fundamental causes by addressing the environmental, economic, and political dimensions of risk. We explore the more distal determinants of malaria burden that create underlying vulnerabilities, evaluating malaria risk as a function of socioeconomic context, environmental conditions, global inequality, systems of health care provision, and research. We recommend that future action to combat malaria be directed by a broad-spectrum approach that meaningfully addresses both the proximal and fundamental causes of this disease. PMID:18583009

Stratton, Leeanne; O'Neill, Marie S; Kruk, Margaret E; Bell, Michelle L

2008-09-01

54

Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions from physics education research. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between experimental findings (macroscopic level) and theoretical interpretation (microscopic level). An example of the activities that have been designed will also be presented, describing the implementation context and the corresponding findings. Since implementing the sequence, a considerable number of students have a more satisfactory grasp of the electromagnetic induction explicative model. However, difficulties are manifested in aspects that require a multilevel explanation, referring to deep structures where the system description is better defined.

Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro

2014-06-01

55

Opening Address SEER 2003: Got Research in Experiential Education? Theory and Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

In a speech at the Symposium for Experiential Education Research 2003, Henderson discusses the importance of theory in building a body of knowledge. She says that to use information to create a body of knowledge, researchers must continue to develop and apply theory, and to address the emerging opportunities for evidence-based research and…

Henderson, Karla A.

2004-01-01

56

Potential effects of the introduction of the discrete address beacon system data link on air/ground information transfer problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of Aviation Safety Reporting System reports suggests that benefits should accure from implementation of discrete address beacon system data link. The phase enhanced terminal information system service is expected to provide better terminal information than present systems by improving currency and accuracy. In the exchange of air traffic control messages, discrete address insures that only the intended recipient receives and acts on a specific message. Visual displays and printer copy of messages should mitigate many of the reported problems associated with voice communications. The problems that remain unaffected include error in addressing the intended recipient and messages whose content is wrong but are otherwise correct as to format and reasonableness.

Grayson, R. L.

1981-01-01

57

Some Problems in International Comparative Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines some problems and difficulties encountered in international comparative research programs in mass communications: comparability of units of analysis; lack of consensus manifested in dichotomization into "conventional" and "critical" approaches; and suitability of exported models, theories, concepts, and methods to Third World conditions.…

Halloran, James D.

1995-01-01

58

Activity Theory as a Tool to Address the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is…

Van Aalsvoort, Joke

2004-01-01

59

How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

2013-04-01

60

Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada's remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow's milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalence of IDA in Canadian children is between 3.5% and 10.5% in the general population, in two Northern Ontario First Nations communities and one Inuit community, the anemia rate was 36%, with 56% having depleted iron stores. Traditional methods of preventing IDA, including targeted fortification, dietary diversification and supplementation, have not solved the problem. The authors' research group at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, conceived of the strategy of 'home fortification' with 'Sprinkles' - single-dose sachets containing micronutrients in a powder form, which are easily sprinkled onto any foods prepared in the household. In Sprinkles, the iron (ferrous fumarate) is encapsulated within a thin lipid layer to prevent the iron from interacting with food. Sprinkles have been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of anemia in many developing countries. Their use in Aboriginal communities to treat and prevent anemia is described in the present paper. The authors believe that children in Aboriginal communities across Canada would potentially benefit if Sprinkles were incorporated into Health Canada's current distribution system, in combination with a social marketing strategy to encourage their use. PMID:19668671

Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Main problems of research into WWER reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is presented of the principal research studies made by SKODA Plzen into WWER type reactors, reactor physics and the technical and nuclear safety of light water reactors. Load test equipment is described used for t-ensile tests of bodies whose dimensions are comparable to those of pressure vessel walls. Technical diagnosis and in-service inspections of nuclear power facilities, and water regime problems are also discussed. (J.B.)

62

A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We illustrate how, along with the engagement of other stakeholders, scientific research and management agency actions can interact to develop and implement measures to assist climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests.

Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

2013-12-01

63

Researching Class in the Classroom: Addressing the Social Class Attainment Gap in Initial Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The social class attainment gap in education is now attracting an increased level of concern. Despite the efforts of the British New Labour government to address the continuing underachievement of working class pupils in England, there has been little progress. This paper reports on one aspect of a wider research study carried out in an Initial…

Gazeley, Louise; Dunne, Mairead

2007-01-01

64

Looking Beyond First-World Problems: An emerging global workplace is encouraging more biomedical engineers to address the health issues of the developing world.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year, the developed world is flooded with complex new medical technologies, from robotic prosthetics to remote-controlled aspirin implants. Meanwhile, only about 10% of health research funds are spent addressing the pressing problems of developing nations, although these countries make up 93% of the worldwide burden of disease. In short, while a small fraction of the world pops brand-name pharmaceuticals, the majority suffers from poor sanitation, contaminated drinking water, preventable disease, and child mortality. PMID:25264693

Tucker, Lindsay

2014-01-01

65

Institute for Physical Problems Research Group  

Science.gov (United States)

The Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute for Physical Problems (IPP) explores aspects of low-dimensional magnets, non-linear dynamics of magnetically ordered crystals, and magnetic resonance. Researchers can learn how the ESR spectrometers utilized by the group permit flexibility in their experiments. Students and educators can discover the importance of quasi 1D magnet with ladder structure NaV2O5. The site also provides information about spin-Peierls matrices, Antiferromagnetic Stark-effects, and Spin-wave Turbulence.

66

Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

67

Cancer Core Europe: A consortium to address the cancer care - Cancer research continuum challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology. PMID:25263570

Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

2014-11-01

68

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

69

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

2012-09-15

70

Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

71

Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

2014-01-01

72

An Argumentation-Based Framework to Address the Attribution Problem in Cyber-Warfare  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attributing a cyber-operation through the use of multiple pieces of technical evidence (i.e., malware reverse-engineering and source tracking) and conventional intelligence sources (i.e., human or signals intelligence) is a difficult problem not only due to the effort required to obtain evidence, but the ease with which an adversary can plant false evidence. In this paper, we introduce a formal reasoning system called the InCA (Intelligent Cyber Attribution) framework that i...

Shakarian, Paulo; Simari, Gerardo I.; Moores, Geoffrey; Parsons, Simon; Falappa, Marcelo A.

2014-01-01

73

Addressing racial disparities in social welfare programs: using social equity analysis to examine the problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) allows states considerable discretion in developing and implementing their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs. Little research so far has compared the implementation of TANF programs across racial groups. Without such analysis, it is difficult to interpret program outcomes. Using client survey data from a large Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) study, the Project on Devolution and Urban Change, this article compares African-American, Hispanic and White Clients' experiences with diversion, case management, sanctioning, exiting welfare, and dispute resolution. Using residual differences analysis, this article identifies significant differences in treatment among racial and ethnic groups. PMID:17255069

Gooden, Susan T

2006-01-01

74

Addressing the Problem of Switched Class Labels in Latent Variable Mixture Model Simulation Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The discrimination between alternative models and the detection of latent classes in the context of latent variable mixture modeling depends on sample size, class separation, and other aspects that are related to power. Prior to a mixture analysis it is useful to investigate model performance in a simulation study that reflects the research…

Tueller, Stephen J.; Drotar, Scott; Lubke, Gitta H.

2011-01-01

75

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-03-11

76

Beyond responsible conduct in research: new pedagogies to address macroethics of nanobiotechnologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

A team of engineers, scientists, ethicists, and educational specialists are enhancing Duke University's Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) program to ensure that graduate-level researchers in emerging fields are adequately prepared when confronted with macroethical issues associated with applications of new and emerging medical technologies. The focus is on nanoscale laboratory research conducted in the Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Material Systems and the Center for Biological Tissue Engineering. Most present RCR programs address methodological ethics of the individual researcher or practitioner (i.e., microethical) issues, analogous to Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The resultant model from this project is the basis for departmental, center, and other more targeted ethical challenges stemming from research in emerging technologies, designed to provide comprehensive RCR training. The research successfully identified new ways of teaching students about macroethical issues (i.e., those that affect society). Three main dimensions of ethics in nanotechnology-related research are being stressed, namely, awareness, ethical decision making, and behavior. Workshops appear to enhance awareness of the ethical issues associated with emerging technologies. To date, attempts to affect decision making have been difficult, although in this study workshops were an effective means of identifying strategies to address ethical issues. A principal lesson learned has been the importance of providing a context for macroethical issues. For example, the workshop where an expert presented the technical aspects of environmental consequences of carbon nanotubes led to statistically significant differences between pre- and postworkshop understanding of societal risks. Conversely, in a workshop without the technical introduction, little difference was observed. This indicates that the stage of students' ethical understanding is an important determinant of effectiveness of the education method needed. PMID:18298391

Vallero, Daniel Alan

2007-01-01

77

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

78

School effectiveness research: a review of criticisms and some proposals to address them.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on Lakato’s notion of research programmes, the paper analyses the structure of the School Effectiveness Research (SER programme and reviews the main criticisms that have arisen, stressing those regarding its objectivity and theoretical limitations. Then, some proposals are made to address these criticisms, namely: to adopt a critical realist approach to the study of SE and an Abductive Theory of Scientific Method that lead to the development of sound theory in the field. Based on this analysis the paper concludes that, in terms of Lakatos, a movement towards a new research programme is needed in order to ensure that the main objectives originally set for SER can be eventually reached.

Andres Sandoval-Hernandez

2008-03-01

79

Using mixed methods for addressing researcher’s safety in a conflict area: an innovative use of mixed methods research in Zimbabwe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conducting robust research in a conflict or post-conflict area is complicated by concern for the researcher?s safety and the difficulty of reaching remote areas. In this paper we open a new frontier in mixed methods (MM) research by demonstrating how it can be used to address safety concerns. We used qualitative and quantitative work carried out in and outside the conflict zone to overcome the challenges of conducting Information Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) research in ...

Takavarasha Jr, Sam; Bednar, Peter; Adams, Carl

2011-01-01

80

Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

Uddin, Rizwan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM architectures on Exascale computing systems.

Bergman, Keren

2014-08-28

82

Radioactive Materials in Scrap Metal, How This Problem is Addressed in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The port of Rotterdam is the biggest trading place of scrap metal in the World. After the introduction of fixed radiation detection systems at the entrance gates of scrap yards, further referred to as portal detectors, incoming loads of scrap metal are inspected for radioactive sources. In the Netherlands exists a legal system in which every suspicion to be in the possession of radioactive materials without a license has to be reported to the authorities, hence also an alarm of a portal detector. A regulation is developed in consensus by the authorities, the scrap metal traders, and RTD (Research, Technology and Development) in order to control this flow of unwanted radioactive materials. At the present the scrap metal traders announce radioactive materials voluntarily, the authorities control, and RTD takes care of the disposal of unwanted radioactive materials. Since 1994 RTD has gained considerable experience in isolating radioactive materials, and assisting the scrap metal traders in deciding on further actions to be taken. In this paper it will be described how inspections are performed on loads of scrap metal that caused the alarm of a portal detector to go off. Some examples, and characteristics of radioactive objects that were intercepted will be given. (author)

83

The Factors Affecting Definition of Research Problems in Educational Technology Researches  

Science.gov (United States)

Research problems in a scientific research are formed after a certain process. This process starts with defining a research topic and transforms into a specific research problem or hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the way educational technology researchers identify their research problems. To this end, sources that educational…

Bahçekapili, Ekrem; Bahçekapili, Tugba; Fis Erümit, Semra; Göktas, Yüksel; Sözbilir, Mustafa

2013-01-01

84

Earth-Science Research for Addressing the Water-Energy Nexus  

Science.gov (United States)

In the coming decades, the United States will face two significant and sometimes competing challenges: preserving sustainable supplies of fresh water for humans and ecosystems, and ensuring available sources of energy. This presentation provides an overview of the earth-science data collection and research needed to address these challenges. Uncertainty limits our understanding of many aspects of the water-energy nexus. These aspects include availability of water, water requirements for energy development, energy requirements for treating and delivering fresh water, effects of emerging energy development technologies on water quality and quantity, and effects of future climates and land use on water and energy needs. Uncertainties can be reduced with an integrated approach that includes assessments of water availability and energy resources; monitoring of surface water and groundwater quantity and quality, water use, and energy use; research on impacts of energy waste streams, hydraulic fracturing, and other fuel-extraction processes on water quality; and research on the viability and environmental footprint of new technologies such as carbon capture and sequestration and conversion of cellulosic material to ethanol. Planning for water and energy development requires consideration of factors such as economics, population trends, human health, and societal values; however, sound resource management must be grounded on a clear understanding of the earth-science aspects of the water-energy nexus. Information gained from an earth-science data-collection and research program can improve our understanding of water and energy issues and lay the ground work for informed resource management.

Healy, R. W.; Alley, W. M.; Engle, M.; McMahon, P. B.; Bales, J. D.

2013-12-01

85

An anthropologic study on strategies for addressing health problems among the elderly in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the contribution of anthropological perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms through which socioeconomic circumstances influence the strategies developed by elderly for addressing their health problems in a small Brazilian city. Interviews with 20 key-informants explored the community's broad perception of the health situation of the elderly. Life histories collected from 30 elderly women examined their own perception of their health status and their health strategies. Narratives converge in emphasising the important role played by financial factors in accessing health services and medication. Life histories also describe some damaging strategies resorted to by the elderly to deal with their lack of resources. Elderly women emphasize the crucial support they receive from their family and/or neighbours to overcome health problems. Thus, the issue of poverty is not only a matter of socioeconomic circumstances, but also the poverty of broader social networks. PMID:21952858

Uchôa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia O A; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Corin, Ellen

2011-01-01

86

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

87

Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility: Addressing advanced nuclear materials research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF), based at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States, is supporting Department of Energy and industry research efforts to ensure the properties of materials in light water reactors are well understood. The ATR NSUF is providing this support through three main efforts: establishing unique infrastructure necessary to conduct research on highly radioactive materials, conducting research in conjunction with industry partners on life extension relevant topics, and providing training courses to encourage more U.S. researchers to understand and address LWR materials issues. In 2010 and 2011, several advanced instruments with capability focused on resolving nuclear material performance issues through analysis on the micro (10-6 m) to atomic (10-10 m) scales were installed primarily at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. These instruments included a local electrode atom probe (LEAP), a field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (FEG-STEM), a focused ion beam (FIB) system, a Raman spectrometer, and an nanoindentor/atomic force microscope. Ongoing capability enhancements intended to support industry efforts include completion of two shielded, irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test loops, the first of which will come online in early calendar year 2013, a pressurized and controlled chemistry water loop for the ATR center flux trap, and a dedicated facility intended to house post irradiation examination equipment. In addition to capability enhancements at the main site in Idaho, the ATR NSUF also welcomed two new partner facilities in 2011 and two new partner facilities in 2012; the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated hot cells and the University California Berkeley capabilities in irradiated materials analysis were added in 2011. In 2012, Purdue University’s Interaction of Materials with Particles and Components Testing (IMPACT) facility and the Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemistry Processing Laboratory (RPL) and PIE facilities were added. The ATR NSUF annually hosts a weeklong event called User’s Week in which students and faculty from universities as well as other interested parties from regulatory agencies or industry convene in Idaho Falls, Idaho to see presentations from ATR NSUF staff as well as select researchers from the materials research field. User’s week provides an overview of current materials research topics of interest and an opportunity for young researchers to understand the process of performing work through ATR NSUF. Additionally, to increase the number of researchers engaged in LWR materials issues, a series of workshops are in progress to introduce research staff to stress corrosion cracking, zirconium alloy degradation, and uranium dioxide degradation during in-reactor use.

John Jackson; Todd Allen; Frances Marshall; Jim Cole

2013-03-01

88

Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and co [...] nflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore, COIs, especially in the broader context of science and society, merit closer attention from policymakers, researchers, and educators. At times of great expectations for public engagement with science, mishandling of COIs may have undesirable consequences for public engagement with science and confidence in the scientific endeavor.

S.M.R., Vasconcelos; M.C., Cassimiro; M.F.M., Martins; M., Palacios.

2013-12-02

89

Digital instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technologies: Issues and current research [Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interfaces are essential enabling technologies that strongly influence nuclear power plant performance and operational costs. The nuclear power industry is currently engaged in a transition from traditional analog-based instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) systems to implementations employing digital technologies. This transition has primarily occurred in an ad hoc fashion through individual system upgrades at existing plants and has been constrained by licenseability concerns. Although international implementation of evolutionary nuclear power plants and the progression toward new plants in the United States have spurred design of more fully digital plantwide ICHMI systems, the experience base in the nuclear power application domain is limited. As a result, there are challenges that need to be addressed to enable the nuclear power industry to effectively and efficiently complete the transition to safe and comprehensive use of digital technology. To respond to technology challenges, roadmaps for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) are being developed. These roadmapping efforts address technology gaps, technology maturity, and technology experience by establishing a comprehensive, systematic approach to meet high-priority technological needs. The first RD and D objective is to identify and eliminate technology gaps that may constrain measurement, monitoring, control, or protection. Tent, monitoring, control, or protection. The second RD and D objective is to ensure technology maturity so that needed methods, tools, equipment, or other products are available with a sound infrastructure. The third RD and D objective is to demonstrate performance and resolve licensing and usage uncertainty. This presentation summarizes the key elements of an ICHMI technology roadmap and discusses current research activities. (author)

90

Problems of Decommissioning Research Reactor IR-100  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research reactor IR-100 with a thermal power of 200 kW is assigned to conduct science research and training activities in the fields of nuclear and molecular physics, radiation chemistry, radioactive isotope production, material, irradiation in neutron and gamma fields of devices and equipment, as well as for training of specialists for nuclear reactor operation

91

Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum : Research methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to ...

Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

92

Chinese Family Problems: Research and Trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses family life in China, which has undergone several dramatic changes including raising of the legal marriage age, less restrictions on divorce, and official promotion of family planning. Because these policies and practices conflict with Chinese traditions, inevitable problems have arisen. (JAC)

Zhangling, Wei

1983-01-01

93

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

2012-08-01

94

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk

2009-04-01

95

The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

2010-06-16

96

The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad range of subjects, including nuclear material accountancy principles, legal definitions and the regulatory base and inspection tools and techniques. This 60% core part is given by representatives from regulatory bodies (The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Directorate General for Nuclear Energy and Transport), industry (AREVA, British Nuclear Group), and research (Stockholm University, Hamburg University, Joint Research Centre-Institute of Transuranic Elements, and Joint Research Centre-Institute for the Protection of the Citizen). The remaining part is completed with topical lectures addressed by invited lecturers, such as from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the IAEA addressing topics of physical protection, illicit trafficking, the Iraq case study, exercises, including satellite imagery interpretation etc. With this structure of a stable core plus a variable set of invited lectures, the course will remain sustainable and up-to-date. A syllabus provides the students a homogeneous set of information material in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation matters at the European and international level. In this way, the ESARDA TKMWG aims to contribute to a two-fold scientific-technical and political-juridical education and training.

97

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume 2. Science projection papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 14 science projection papers presented at a public meeting on March 10-11, 1980 to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda into the biological effects of ionizing radiation

98

Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

2014-01-01

99

What is the 'problem' that outreach work seeks to address and how might it be tackled? Seeking theory in a primary health prevention programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive approaches to health are disproportionately accessed by the more affluent and recent health improvement policy advocates the use of targeted preventive primary care to reduce risk factors in poorer individuals and communities. Outreach has become part of the health service response. Outreach has a long history of engaging those who do not otherwise access services. It has, however, been described as eclectic in its purpose, clientele and mode of practice; its effectiveness is unproven. Using a primary prevention programme in the UK as a case, this paper addresses two research questions: what are the perceived problems of non-engagement that outreach aims to address; and, what specific mechanisms of outreach are hypothesised to tackle these. Methods Drawing on a wider programme evaluation, the study undertook qualitative interviews with strategically selected health-care professionals. The analysis was thematically guided by the concept of 'candidacy' which theorises the dynamic process through which services and individuals negotiate appropriate service use. Results The study identified seven types of engagement 'problem' and corresponding solutions. These 'problems' lie on a continuum of complexity in terms of the challenges they present to primary care. Reasons for non-engagement are congruent with the concept of 'candidacy' but point to ways in which it can be expanded. Conclusions The paper draws conclusions about the role of outreach in contributing to the implementation of inequalities focused primary prevention and identifies further research needed in the theoretical development of both outreach as an approach and candidacy as a conceptual framework.

Mackenzie Mhairi

2011-12-01

100

Problems and experience of research reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the IAEA research reactor database there are about 300 research reactors worldwide. At present above 30% of them have lifetime more than 35 years, 60% - more then 25 years. After the Chernobyl accident significant efforts have been made by many countries to modernize old research reactors aiming, first of all, at ensuring of its safe operation. However, a large number of aging research reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Before developing the design and planning of the works it is necessary to define the concept of the reactor decommissioning. It is defined by the time of the beginning of dismantling works after the reactor shutdown and the finite state of the reactor site.The concept of the reactor decommissioning provides 3 variants in a general case: reactor conservation, or partial dismantling, or complete dismantling to 'green field' state. Specialists of three International institutions (European Commission, IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have developed a detailed plan of all actions and operations on nuclear power plants decommissioning in the framework of a joint project for cost assessment. For the reactor decontamination the following main constructions, equipment and devices are necessary: temporary storage facility for the spent fuel; general site-dismantling equipment including manipulators and 'hot' cells; facilities for 'active' equipment, personnel, tooling and washing decontamination; equipment for concentration of liquid and compactness of solid radioactive waste; temporary storage facility for radioactive waste; instrumentation and radiometric devices including , ?,?,?-spectrometers; transportable containers and other means for transportation of fuel and radioactive materials

 
 
 
 
101

Research approaches to address uncertainties in the risk assessment of arsenic in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs), an environmental drinking water contaminant, is a human toxicant and carcinogen. The public health community has developed recommendations and regulations that limit human exposure to iAs in drinking water. Although there is a vast amount of information available to regulators on the exposure, disposition and the health-related effects of iAs, there is still critical information about the toxicology of this metalloid that is needed. This necessary information includes identification of the chemical species of arsenic that is (are) the active toxicant(s), the mode(s) of action for its various toxicities and information on potentially susceptible populations. Because of these unknown factors, the risk assessment of iAs still incorporates default assumptions, leading to uncertainties in the overall assessment. The characteristics of a scientifically defensible risk assessment for iAs are that it must: (1) quantitatively link exposure and target tissue dose of active metabolites to key events in the mode of action for major health effects and (2) identify sources of variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced health effects and quantitatively evaluate their impact wherever possible. Integration of research to address these goals will better protect the health of iAs-exposed populations

102

Chemoradiotherapy: successes and problems in translational research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of mechanistic-based clinical regimens which combine radiation and chemotherapy to improve local control and cure in solid malignancies has proven to be a difficult problem. Studies with human and animal cell lines in culture provide valuable data on the effects and mechanisms of action of radiation and anticancer drugs. They can also suggest mechanisms of interaction between drugs and radiation that might be used to obtain therapeutic gain. Studies with syngeneic rodent tumors or human tumor cell lines xenografted into immune-deficient rodents can be used to test the effects of combined modality regimens on tumors in vivo. Studies of normal tissues in rodents can be used to evaluate potential toxicities. However, at each step in this process of preclinical evaluation there are limitations of the model systems and gaps in the knowledge obtainable from the models. There are also gaps in our understanding of the biology of malignancies in human patients both before treatment and to an even greater extent during protracted therapeutic regimens. Our knowledge of the mechanisms producing dose-limiting injuries in patients is also limited, as is our understanding of the factors which influence the risk to individual patients and the interactions of drug and radiation injury in patients. The limitations of our models and our knowledge generally preclude the direct translation of preclinical findings into rationally designed, effective clinical trials, and cansigned, effective clinical trials, and can lead to either unexpectedly positive or disappointing results when clinical trials are developed, performed and analyzed. Successes and problems in the translation of preclinical studies of radiation/drug combinations into effective clinical regimens will be discussed and will be illustrated using our laboratory and clinical experience with agents designed to modulate tumor oxygenation and with regimens combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers or with the mitomycins

103

Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

104

Constructos teóricos para abordar, de un modo investigativo, problemas entre marketing, producción y logística en las empresas colombianas / Construits théoriques pour aborder, á mode de recherche, des problèmes entre le marketing, la production et la logistique dans les entreprises colombiennes / Theoretical constructs to address, via research, problems among marketing, production, and logistics in colombian companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo propone un modelo de constructo teórico, a partir de una investigación cualitativa, por medio de cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y una revisión teórica. La población objeto de estudio estuvo representada por los colaboradores de los departamentos de marketing, producción y logístic [...] a, de algunas empresas de manufactura en Colombia indistintamente seleccionados, entre los años 2006 y 2007. El objetivo fue generar constructos teóricos que sirvieran de base para la investigación de los conflictos entre marketing, producción y logística, dentro de las empresas colombianas, justificado en la presencia del conflicto, en ese momento poco estudiado, entre estas áreas de la organización. En la metodología, se establecieron varias etapas, entre ellas: a) la recopilación de información pertinente, b) encuestas a personas que habían trabajado o estuvieran trabajando en alguna de las áreas de interés, c) determinación de un marco teórico y conceptual, a partir de la revisión de autores especializados en este tema Abstract in english This article proposes a theoretical construct model, from an open-questions instrument in a qualitative research methodology and theoretical revision. This research was conducted among employees of the departments of marketing, production and logistics of some manufacturing companies in Colombia, be [...] tween 2006 and 2007. The research objective was to generate theoretical constructs to investigate conflicts among marketing, production and logistics, in Colombian companies due the presence of conflicts among those areas and a lack of specific research at that time. In the methodology, several stages were established; these include: a) gatheringof relevant information, b) surveys of people who have worked or work in any area of interest, c) determination of the theoretical and conceptual framework from the perspective of authors specialized in this issue

Alexander, Varón Sandoval.

2013-06-01

105

Software problems in magnetic fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

106

The Ethnography of Education: Problems and Prospects for Women Researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this paper is on women with respect to three themes: the reasons why women are attracted to ethnographic research, the problems they may encounter in making this choice, and the prospects for women researchers to influence the future direction of educational research. Four interrelated psychological aspects seem to attract women to…

Emihovich, Catherine

107

Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

Bebout, I. Lee

2005-01-01

108

A Framework for Addressing Skeptics' Claims Using Evidence-Based Argumentation: Lessons Learned from Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In science education, climate change is an issue that is especially useful for teaching concepts spanning several fields of science, as well the nature and practices of science. In response, we are developing a NASA-funded curriculum, titled Climate Science Investigations (CSI): South Florida, that teaches high school and first-year undergraduate level students how to analyze and use scientific data answer questions about climate change. To create an effective curriculum, we integrated lessons learned from our educational research conducted within our elementary science methods courses (Lambert, Lindgren, & Bleicher, 2012). For the past few years, we have been integrating climate science in our courses as a way to teach standards across several science disciplines and assessing our preservice teachers' gains in knowledge over the semesters. More recently, given the media attention and reports on the public's shift in opinion toward being more skeptical (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011), we have assessed our students' perceptions about climate change and implemented strategies to help students use evidence-based scientific argumentation to address common claims of climate skeptics. In our elementary science methods courses, we framed climate change as a crosscutting theme, as well as a core idea, in the Next Generation Science Standards. We proposed that the issue and science of climate change would help preservice teachers not only become more interested in the topic, but also be more prepared to teach core science concepts spanning several disciplines (physical, life, and earth sciences). We also thought that highlighting the "practice of scientific inquiry" by teaching students to develop evidence-based arguments would help the preservice teachers become more analytical and able to differentiate scientific evidence from opinions, which could ultimately influence their perceptions on climate change. Lessons learned from our preservice teachers' conceptions and perceptions about climate change, as well as the difficulties in engaging in evidence-based argumentation, have informed and enhanced the framework for development of the CSI: South Florida curriculum. The modules are sequenced according to the proposed learning progression. First, students are introduced to the nature of science and Earth's energy balance. Students then investigate the temporal and spatial temperature data to answer the question of whether Earth is warming. Students also compare natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change, investigate the various observed and projected consequences of climate change in the fourth module, and examine ways to mitigate the effects of and adapt to climate change. Finally, students learn how to refute skeptics' claims by providing counter evidence and reasoning of why the skeptics' claim is not the appropriate explanation. This paper describes our conceptual framework for teaching students how to address the skeptics' claims using the content learned in the CSI: South Florida curriculum and evidence-based argumentation.

Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Edwards, A.; Henderson, A.

2012-12-01

109

Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

1976-04-01

110

A summary and integration of research concerning single pilot IFR operational problems  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of seven research studies pertaining to Single Pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations was performed. Two studies were based on questionnaire surveys; two based on National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) reports; two were based on Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports, and one report used event analysis and statistics to forecast problems. The results obtained in each study were extracted and integrated. Results were synthesized and key issues pertaining to SPIFR operations problems were identified. The research that was recommended by the studies and that addressed the key issues is catalogued for each key issue.

Chapman, G. C.

1983-01-01

111

Research of Sumy population relation to present ecological problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of marketing research of Sumy population relation to current ecological problems in social, sexual and age cuts are stated. The priority of these problems to the population is determined. The received results can be used to substantiate programs of a territory sustainable development.

S.M. Illiashenko

2012-06-01

112

Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The pap...

Xiong, Yi-jie; Ren, Jing

2006-01-01

113

Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research : A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains where there are many different scientific knowledges on any complex problem. Method: We synthesize and elaborate a framework for second-order science in interdisciplinary research based on a number of earlier publications, experiences from large interdisciplinary research projects, and a perspectivist theory of science. Results: The second-order polyocular framework for interdisciplinary research is characterized by five principles. Second-order science of interdisciplinary research must: 1. draw on the observations of first-order perspectives, 2. address a shared dynamical object, 3. establish a shared problem, 4. rely on first-order perspectives to see themselves as perspectives, and 5. be based on other rules than first-order research. Implications: The perspectivist insights of second-order science provide a new way of understanding interdisciplinary research that leads to new polyocular methods and research designs. It also points to more reflexive ways of dealing with scientific expertise in democratic processes. The main challenge is that this is a paradigmatic shift, which demands that the involved disciplines, at least to some degree, subscribe to a perspectivist view. Constructivist content: Our perspectivist approach to science is based on the second-order cybernetics and systems theories of von Foerster, Maruyama, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann, coupled with embodied theories of cognition and semiotics as a general theory of meaning from von Uexküll and Peirce.

AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

2014-01-01

114

CYANOBACTERIA, CYANOBACTERIA TOXINS & USEPA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as th...

115

Qualitative computing and qualitative research: addressing the challenges of technology and globalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study a...

Cisneros Puebla, Ce?sar A.; Davidson, Judith

2012-01-01

116

Beyond the "National Container": Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay argues that there is a need for higher education researchers to become aware of methodological nationalism (MN) and take steps to reframe their scholarship in new ways. It illuminates two characteristics of MN prevalent in higher education research and suggests that although a few researchers have attempted to move beyond MN in the…

Shahjahan, Riyad A.; Kezar, Adrianna J.

2013-01-01

117

Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

2007-01-01

118

A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

119

The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the…

Brennan, Eileen M.; Bradley, Jennifer R.; Allen, Mary Dallas; Perry, Deborah F.

2008-01-01

120

Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum : Research methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in the curriculum and a mean to choose cases for further case study (third phase).

Guerra, Aida

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Private Property Rights and Selective Private Forest Conservation: Could a Nordic Hybrid Policy Address a United States Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

Political and legal conflicts between the need for targeted private forest conservation and the continued assurance of private property rights in the U.S. presents a seemingly intractable resource management problem. Scandinavian use of habitat protection areas on private forests offers an additional tool that may be suitable for solving the historical and on-going tension found within U.S. efforts to reconcile desires to maintain lands in a forested condition while also respecting private property rights. This article presents a comparative cross-sectional policy analysis of Sweden, Finland, and the U.S., supported with a supplemental case example from the Commonwealth of Virginia. Similarities in all three countries among forest ownership patterns, use of public subsidies, and changing attitudes towards conservation are generally encouraging. Additionally, Virginia’s current consideration and development of state-wide forest policies focused on forestland and open space conservation suggests both a need and an opportunity to systematically assess the applicability of the Nordic forest reserve approach to local private forest conservation. Future research at a high-resolution, and specifically at the state level, should focus on the social and political factors that would ultimately determine the viability of a forest reserve program.

Mortimer, Michael J.

2008-05-01

122

Mixed Methods Research Strategies with Deaf People: Linguistic and Cultural Challenges Addressed  

Science.gov (United States)

Deaf people, members of a complex global language minority, have been excluded from positions of power in the field of humanitarian aid and development assistance, as well as from playing a significant role in the conduct of research that affects their lives. Deaf people rarely lead or participate as researchers in studies about their own…

Wilson, Amy T.; Winiarczyk, Rowena E.

2014-01-01

123

Comprehending the Value Structures Influencing Significance and Power behind Experiential Education Research. Opening Address SEER 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the opening remarks made by Michael Gass at the 2004 Symposium on Experiential Education Research. In his speech, Gass draws attention to several of the dynamics connecting research to the current value and livelihood of the experiential education field. He contends that these dynamics ultimately have a large effect on…

Gass, Michael A.

2005-01-01

124

A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

125

"We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

2012-01-01

126

ITER ad Astra. Address presented to the thirteenth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The address presented to the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research describes the collaboration between the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Its title (''the way to the stars'') was chosen to describe the global collaboration as mush as the connection between fusion and stellar energy. The address describes the characteristics of this collaboration and summarizes the ITER Conceptual Design Activities. It delineates future ITER plans and the role of fusion in the light of global population and economic growth as well as environmental considerations. 5 refs, 13 figs

127

Researching the Problems in the Application of MBO in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the MBO concept and its background, this thesis has researched the present and potential problems of alienation in the application of MBO in China. It has analyzed the background and reasons for these problems and has advanced relevant measures and suggestions for improvement. Moreover, this thesis has insisted that the application of MBO in China demands for further explorations and researches in order to transfer the national capitals from common competitive fields to strategic fields, under the background of national economy’s strategic reorganization and retrenchment.

Jing Xie

2009-06-01

128

Addressing oral health disparities in settings without a research-intensive dental school: collaborative strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that oral health is linked to systemic health, and those with poor oral health are potentially at greater risk for important diseases, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in Hawaii have high rates of many such diseases. Studies in children in Hawaii have revealed disparities in dental health; for example, API children have significantly higher rates of cavities than other groups. Hence, conducting further study is vital in adults, particularly APIs, to assess oral health and its correlation to overall health outcomes. Given the lack of a dental school and the lack of fluoridated water in the state, the University of Hawaii's John A. Burns School of Medicine (ABSOM) has identified the need to assume a leadership role in creating effective community-based oral health research and treatment programs. With the support of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, JABSOM fostered a collaborative relationship with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry, a premiere research-intensive dental school, the Waimanalo Health Center, and the Hawaii State Department of Health. This partnership has worked together to implement a community-based approach to performing research designed to illuminate disparities and develop innovative strategies to promote oral health in Hawaii's diverse populations. We hope that this collaborative, culturally competent approach may serve as a model for use in other settings without a research-intensive dental school. PMID:15825963

Easa, David; Harrigan, Rosanne; Hammatt, Zoè; Greer, Mark; Kuba, Carolyn; Davis, James; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

2005-01-01

129

Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three curre...

Svend Brinkmann

2012-01-01

130

Strategies to address participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging methodological research suggests that the World Wide Web ("Web") is an appropriate venue for survey data collection, and a promising area for delivering behavioral intervention. However, the use of the Web for research raises concerns regarding sample validity, particularly when the Web is used for recruitment and enrollment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges experienced in two different Web-based studies in which participant misrepresentation threatened sample validity: a survey study and an online intervention study. The lessons learned from these experiences generated three types of strategies researchers can use to reduce the likelihood of participant misrepresentation for eligibility in Web-based research. Examples of procedural/design strategies, technical/software strategies and data analytic strategies are provided along with the methodological strengths and limitations of specific strategies. The discussion includes a series of considerations to guide researchers in the selection of strategies that may be most appropriate given the aims, resources and target population of their studies. PMID:24431134

Kramer, Jessica; Rubin, Amy; Coster, Wendy; Helmuth, Eric; Hermos, John; Rosenbloom, David; Moed, Rich; Dooley, Meghan; Kao, Ying-Chia; Liljenquist, Kendra; Brief, Deborah; Enggasser, Justin; Keane, Terence; Roy, Monica; Lachowicz, Mark

2014-03-01

131

Qualitative research between craftsmanship and McDonaldization. A keynote address from the 17th Qualitative Health Research Conference  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although qualitative research methods remain marginalized in certain disciplines, qualitative inquiry has within the last couple of decades become generally accepted as a legitimate scientific way of working. Today, society at large is making more use of qualitative research than ever, not just in laudable social justice research, for example, but also in relation to market and consumer research and focus groups for different political parties. With this in mind, I wish to discuss three current questions for qualitative researchers: The first I will refer to as “ethical progressivism versus new ethical challenges”. Is qualitative research as such more ethical and progressive than quantitative research (as some have argued, or do qualitative researchers on the contrary face more elusive and perhaps difficult ethical challenges? The second question is called “solid evidence versus subjective anecdotes”. How should qualitative researchers respond to the current call for evidence? Should they seek legitimacy by accepting the dominant politics of evidence, or should they play by their own rules with the risk of increasing marginalization? The third question is “method versus intuition”. Should qualitative researchers strive for maximum transparency by following accepted methods, or should they proceed more intuitively like artists to create their stories? Both sides of the questions have their influential advocates today. I will argue that all three questions are handled most fruitfully by conceiving of qualitative research as a craft.

Svend Brinkmann

2012-04-01

132

Rural geography. The evolution of concepts and research problems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern researches in rural geography are very diver se in terms of the present the dominant model of empirical studies. The nature of these works is effect of overlap the theoretical and methodological approach. A common f eature of the new intakes research problems in the Polish rural geography is to draw a ttention to the subjectivity of man and society. The dominant theoretical and methodologica l basis is structuralism. The purpose of most studies is the anal...

Wo?jcik, Marcin

2013-01-01

133

Panel: Strategies for addressing common concerns in collaborative research and how to maximize existing resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two main concerns regarding collaboration in DCIS research. The first is access to resources and the priorities of the data collector versus the collaborator. Data resources include questionnaires, blood-based samples, and tissue samples. Questionnaire data are combined easily. DNA samples can be shared, although blood is less readily shared as a result of its nonrenewable nature.

134

Addressing Human Capital Challenges: Assessing the Experiences of Four Countries in the Arab Region. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This research brief describes an analysis of the reform efforts of four Arab region nations (Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates) in response to human capital challenges they face in preparing their people to work in a global environment. (Contains 3 tables.) [For associated report, see ED503118.

Gonzalez, Gabriella; Karoly, Lynn A.; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Goldman, Charles A.

2008-01-01

135

Literacy: A Route to Addressing Child Poverty? National Literacy Trust Research Review  

Science.gov (United States)

This short document reviews research into the role of low literacy in poverty and disadvantage. It sets out evidence for the impact of parental engagement in home learning and the significance of attitudes, aspirations and literacy development. The National Literacy Trust hopes that this is a useful resource for those with responsibility for, and…

National Literacy Trust, 2011

2011-01-01

136

What Impedes Cancer Research?: NCI Director Harold Varmus to address National Press Club  

Science.gov (United States)

The barriers that impede greater and faster progress against cancer include the inherent biological properties of tumors; the difficulties of developing new ways to prevent, diagnose and treat cancers; and economic and social factors that slow the nation’s cancer research efforts

137

The Role of the African Languages Research Institute in Addressing Language of Instruction Dilemmas in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The lexicographic work of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI has played a significant role in attempting to avoid some of the dilemmas associated with using African languages as media of instruction in the Zimbabwean education system. Monolingual Shona and Ndebele dictionaries, biomedical reference works, dictionaries of musical, literary and linguistic terms as well as children's dictionaries constitute part of ALRI's contribution towards the goal of mainstreaming African languages in the education system. This article is an evaluation of the research activities taking place at ALRI. The aim of the article is to demonstrate that if they receive adequate attention through corpus planning, African languages possess the capacity to play an important role as media of instruction across the entire spectrum of the education curricula in Zimbabwe and elsewhere. The article concludes by observing that, if the efforts of ALRI are to succeed, there is need for the co-operation of all stakeholders in language practice.

Keywords: DICTIONARIES, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHER, LEXICOGRAPHIC RESEARCH, INDIGENOUS AFRICAN LANGUAGES, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, EDUCATION, CURRICULUM, MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION, SHONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

Opsomming: Die rol van die African Languages Research Institute by die hantering van onderrigtaaldilemmas in Zimbabwe. Die leksikografiese werk van die African Languages Research Institute (ALRI het 'n betekenisvolle rol gespeel om sommige van die dilemmas te probeer vermy wat gepaard gaan met die gebruik van Afrikatale as onderrigmedia in die Zimbabwiese opvoedingstelsel. Eentalige Sjona- en Ndebelewoordeboeke, biomediese naslaanwerke, woordeboeke van musiek-, letterkunde- en taalkundeterme sowel as woordeboeke vir kinders maak deel uit van ALRI se bydrae tot die doelwit om Afrikatale in die hoofstroom van die opvoedingstelsel te plaas. Hierdie artikel is 'n beoordeling van die navorsingsaktiwiteite wat by ALRI plaasvind. Die doel van die artikel is om te toon dat, indien hulle voldoende aandag deur korpusbeplanning ontvang, Afrikatale die vermoë besit om 'n belangrike rol as onderrigmedia oor die hele spektrum van die opvoedingsleerplanne in Zimbabwe en elders te speel. Die artikel sluit met die waarneming dat, indien die pogings van ALRI wil slaag, daar behoefte is aan die same-werking van alle belanghebbendes in die taalpraktyk.

Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKO-GRAFIESE NAVORSING, INHEEMSE AFRIKATALE, AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, OPVOEDING, LEERPLAN, ONDERRIGMEDIUM, SJONA, NDEBELE, ZIMBABWE

Jesta Masuku

2011-10-01

138

Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter-/transdisciplinary research practices into all teaching curricula. At the level of system innovation, we propose radical changes in institutional structures, research and career incentives, teaching programs, and research partnerships. We see much value in a view of change that emphasizes the complementarity of system innovation and system optimization. The goal must be a process of change that preserves the traditional strengths of academic research, with its emphasis on disciplinary excellence and scientific rigor, while ensuring that institutional environments and the skills, worldviews, and experiences of the involved actors adapt to the rapidly changing needs of society.

Michael Stauffacher

2012-12-01

139

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an opening address at a Workshop on 'Accidental Urban Contamination' held in Denmark in June 1987, a brief description is given of the Commission of the European Communities' Probabilistic Accident Consequences Assessment programme in the aftermath of Chernobyl. The major topics covered by this research programme are atmospheric dispersion, shielding calculations, exposure to deposited materials, analysis of countermeasures, development of real time models and uncertainty analysis. (U.K.)

140

Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Electronic media: the problem of choosing research approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.

Nurgaleeva L. V.

2012-03-01

142

Theoretical foundations of organizational problem solving methodologies in Operational Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paradigms are some principles and assumptions, which define frameworks and research priorities in each discipline. Many believe that operational research (OR is not a science and like many other sciences does not have any paradigm. However, since OR is committed to scientific methods, therefore it contains a methodological paradigm. The purpose of this paper is to consider theoretical methodologies in the field of OR. This paper performs a review on the existing literature based on interpretive hermeneutic approach. Based on literature review, the study determines four principles and assumptions for each OR paradigms and a classification of the methods are presented. The results show that OR has four main paradigms and there are many methods in OR fields to tackle a particular problem where each problem belongs to a particular paradigm. In addition, instead of using a particular method in problem situations, we can implement a combination of methodologies.

Seyyed Hasan Ghodsipoor

2013-06-01

143

Ionospheric research activities addressing space weather user requirements in the middle and low latitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable ongoing research activity, particularly in the aviation community, with respect to understanding and mitigating the effects of ionospheric variability on technological systems such as GNSS precise positioning and GNSS augmentation. These systems are impacted in the low and middle latitudes under a variety of space weather conditions by a combination of steep ionospheric gradients such as produced at mid latitudes during large geomagnetic storms and at low latitudes by equatorial plasma bubbles and ionospheric scintillation. We review some current research and service development activities related to the ionospheric effects on these systems, and efforts to mitigate these effects, and present some requirements for service provision into the future, with an emphasis on developments in the Asia-Pacific region.

Terkildsen, Michael; Neudegg, Dave

144

NCI Director John E. Niederhuber's Address to the American Association for Cancer Research on Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Text of the speech that NCI Director John E. Niederhuber delivered to the American Association for Cancer Research meeting in Denver on April 20, 2009, follows. The speech describes NCI's plans to accelerate cancer research with increased funding from fiscal year 2009 and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

145

Difficult life situations of the minors and the parent involvement in interdepartmental interaction addressing to solving problems of children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical and methodological problems of establishing inter-agency cooperation in providing social assistance to minors. The author proposes a principles for the model of the mobilization of parents to solve problems of their children. To analyze the structure of social and pedagogical work, distinguished types of difficult life situations that require special efforts to ensure children's education. Proceedings of the publication permit to develop and implement social technologies.

Dudkin A. S.

2011-03-01

146

Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

2002-01-01

147

CONCEIVING LANGUAGE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM: A PROBLEM FOR SLA RESEARCHERS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the impact of the adoption of a perspective which conceives language as a Complex Adaptive System on the Second Language Acquisition research work. In order to achieve this goal, the text first presents a definition of language as a Complex Adaptive, as opposed to the perspective which traditionally permeates research in the field. Next, the main contributions of such a perspective to Second Language Acquisition are addressed. Finally, the implications of adopting this perspective for research in the field are approached. It is argued that conceiving language as a Complex Adaptive System presupposes a paradigm shift on the view of what this object of study is. As a consequence, researchers need to take into account multiple factors in interaction. Although, at first, this necessity might be faced as a problem for conducting scientific research on the field, it is concluded that this necessity may actually be seen as a motivational factor.

Bruno Moraes Schwartzhaupt

2014-03-01

148

The Real Issues of the Middle East and the Arab Spring Addressing Research, Innovation and Entrepreneurship  

CERN Document Server

The wave of protests and populist uprisings in the Middle East has heightened the focus on a volatile region. But the emphasis on political issues has obscured underlying issues concerning education, infrastructure, research, innovation, entrepreneurship and sustainable environmental and social development. This volume, emerging in the aftermath of a conference and workshop on science and technology in the region, presents contributions from a range of experts from the Middle East, Europe, and the world to provide fresh new insights and perspectives on the challenges and prospects for regional development in the changing global context of our time. The authors explore such topics as: the role of information and communication technologies; mindset change in support of investment in intangible assets and risk-taking; how to approach cultural issues, institutions and governance; collaborations with other regions, and; benchmarking performance while drawing lessons of relevance for the special local context. Ulti...

Djeflat, Abdelkader

2013-01-01

149

The problem of creative activity in of social work research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity?–?the researcher in social work?–?can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

Vilka L.

2012-10-01

150

NCI MEDIA AVAILABILITY: Dr. John E. Niederhuber to Address the American Association for Cancer Research on NCI Plan to Accelerate Cancer Research  

Science.gov (United States)

John E. Niederhuber, M.D., director of the NCI, addressed the American Association for Cancer Research 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver Monday, April 20, 2009, during a Special Session. The talk focused on opportunities to hasten our progress against cancer and to conduct exciting new science, made possible, in part, by NCI's nearly three percent budget increase this year.

151

Addressing Prediabetes in Childhood Obesity Treatment Programs: Support from Research and Current Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes have increased in prevalence among overweight and obese children, with significant implications for long-term health. There is little published evidence on the best approaches to care of prediabetes among overweight youth or the current practices used across pediatric weight management programs. Methods: This article reviews the literature and summarizes current practices for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prediabetes at childhood obesity treatment centers. Findings regarding current practice were based on responses to an online survey from 28 pediatric weight management programs at 25 children's hospitals in 2012. Based on the literature reviewed, and empiric data, consensus support statements on prediabetes care and T2DM prevention were developed among representatives of these 25 children's hospitals' obesity clinics. Results: The evidence reviewed demonstrates that current T2DM and prediabetes diagnostic parameters are derived from adult-based studies with little understanding of clinical outcomes among youth. Very limited evidence exists on preventing progression of prediabetes. Some evidence suggests that a significant proportion of obese youth with prediabetes will revert to normoglycemia without pharmacological management. Evidence supports lifestyle modification for children with prediabetes, but further study of specific lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments is needed. Conclusion: Evidence to guide management of prediabetes in children is limited. Current practice patterns of pediatric weight management programs show areas of variability in practice, reflecting the limited evidence base. More research is needed to guide clinical care for overweight youth with prediabetes. PMID:25055134

Grow, H. Mollie; Fernandez, Cristina; Lukasiewicz, Gloria J.; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Shaffer, Laura A.; Sweeney, Brooke; Woolford, Susan J.; Estrada, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

152

Keynote address. [On problems of cities, Congress of Cities, National League of Cities Annual Meeting, 11/29/76  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. Commoner says U.S. cities are in crisis--each year the quality of urban life becomes worse; the problems multiply; costs escalate; and bankruptcy threatens. Further, he states that ''hope'' is the worst casualty. All attempts at solving urban problems have faltered. He feels that nearly all of the troubles stem from two economic issues--unemployment and inflation. After discounting the old maneuver (shifting the cities' problems to the Federal Government), Dr. Commoner proposes a new idea: that the key to the unemployment and inflation problems is a new energy policy, and that the cities can take the lead in creating it. Six basic facts are discussed that need to be known in order to connect energy, unemployment, inflation, and the fate of the cities. He feels these facts present ''the real meaning of the energy crisis. It is not the distant propsect of some day running out of energy. Rather, it is the immediate prospect of economic catastrophe.'' (MCW)

Commoner, B.

1976-01-01

153

Problems and Opportunities of First-Person Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article is twofold. First, it aims to overview current empirical methods in the area of first-person research. Such a review cannot overlook epistemological and ontological issues, but must at the same time keep in mind methodological and almost technical nature of the problem. Empirical experience research is positioned within the frame of cognitive science and the overview of approaches and techniques of empirical phenomenology is presented, together with epistemological considerations. The second aim of the paper is concerned with the future of research in the discussed area. It suggests that in-depth, existentially liable introspection and self-inquiry should be considered as serious scientific research tools.

Urban Kordeš

2013-10-01

154

Research in sub-saharan African food systems must address post-sustainability challenges and increase developmental returns  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Post-sustainability challenges to food systems of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) include climate change vulnerability, globalisation of agri-food chains and markets and emerging low-carbon energy systems. In addition, the lack of investment in research for development (R4D) in SSA, all underlines need to rethink R4D to pursue policy purposes. A starting point could be the sustainable livelihoods approach, as a research paradigm focusing on sector-related problems, while questioning the salience, credibility and legitimacy of research findings. Even with a sector-related prioritization of the investments in research in agriculture in the south, the north and south has to rethink partnership options to enhance capacity to do research. Without such rethinking, scientific logic will continue to limit the contribution that agricultural R4D can make toward achieving millennium development goals.

Jensen, Henning HØgh; Egelyng, Henrik

2009-01-01

155

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

2011-05-25

156

Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

157

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH) (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion). However, a new a...

Ward Paul R; Meyer Samantha B; Verity Fiona; Gill Tiffany K; Cn, Luong Tini

2011-01-01

158

Computer codes for problems of isotope and radiation research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is given of computer codes for problems in isotope and radiation research. Altogether 44 codes are described as titles with abstracts. 17 of them are in the INIS scope and are processed individually. The subjects are indicated in the chapter headings: 1) analysis of tracer experiments, 2) spectrum calculations, 3) calculations of ion and electron trajectories, 4) evaluation of gamma irradiation plants, and 5) general software

159

?heoretical analysis researches of problem cultures of health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existing in literature approaches to the problem of health culture is conducted. Are presented the scientific approaches to the determination of essence «Culture of health» concept and terms attended with it on the basis of content-analysis of philosophical, sociological, psychological and pedagogical literature. The analysis of modern researches allowed to systematize and estimate factors that influence on the health culture, to differentiate and describe components and principles of culture of health.

Preobrazhenskaya O.?.

2010-02-01

160

University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk perceptions and their research problem choices. The results suggest that risk is a useful paradigm to study decision-making in science. In making scientific risk decisions, at times scientists conform to the existing institutional structures. Other times they challenge them, persist through them, or compromise their actions. Bioscientists' risk epistemologies matter to the extent that these allow for more creative ways in which individual scientists can navigate the institutional environments that they are embedded in. Risk perceptions of university bioscientists differ based on the specific dimension of risk under investigation. Several significant relationships between perceived risks and problem choice orientations have emerged through the data analysis. Overall, university bioscientists' risk epistemologies seem to be related to the unique reward structure of science, compelling them to use various risk management techniques while navigating their research environments.

Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

 
 
 
 
161

METHODS FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TIME OF FLIGHT ON TRANSVERSE AMPLITUTE IN LINEAR NON-SCALING FFAGs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the time of flight in a linear non-scaling FFAG depends on the transverse amplitude, motion in the longitudinal plane will be different for different transverse particle amplitudes. This effect, if not considered, will lead the failure of a substantial portion of the beam to be accelerated. I will first briefly review this effect. Then I will outline some techniques for addressing the problems created by the effect. In particular, I will discuss partially correcting the chromaticity and increasing the energy gain per cell. I will discuss potential problems with another technique, namely the introduction of higher harmonic cavities

162

The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

Eliana Rodríguez

2012-12-01

163

Difficulties in species identification within the genus Haemophilus - A pilot study addressing a significant problem for routine diagnostics  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostic misidentifications of commensalic Haemophilus haemolyticus as pathogenic Haemophilus influenzae are frequent. This pilot study evaluates whether isolations of H. haemolyticus are frequent enough in Germany to cause a relevant diagnostic problem, considering the fact that even H. influenzae is a mere colonizer in about 30% of isolations. In microbiological laboratories of two hospitals located in Northern and Southern Germany, the distribution of Haemophilus spp. was analyzed during a six-month-period. Site of infection, sex, and age of the patients was taken into consideration. A total of 77 Haemophilus spp. isolates was acquired and discriminated on species level, comprising: 48 H. influenzae, 25 Haemophilus parainfluenzae, 3 H. haemolyticus, and 1 Haemophilus parahaemolyticus. The proportion of H. haemolyticus was calculated to range between 1.2% and 16.2 % within the 95% confidence limits. Commensalic Haemophilus spp. were isolated from oropharynx-associated sites only. H. influenzae, in contrast, was detected in clinically relevant materials like lower respiratory materials and conjunctiva swabs. Altogether, there was a low proportion of clinical H. haemolyticus isolates. Accordingly, the problem of unnecessary antibiotic therapies due to misidentifications of H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae is quantitatively negligible compared with the risk of confusing H. influenzae colonizations with infections. PMID:24883195

Frickmann, H.; Podbielski, A.; Essig, A.; Schwarz, N. G.

2014-01-01

164

Research Again On the Cutting Plane Method Resolving ILP Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
How to resolve ILP problems is all along hotspot subject In the Operation Research region. The author of the paper, by the demonstration research method, analyzed the errors of Cutting Plane Method used in resolving ILP, and put forth a new principle, i.e. “it is such as a cutting plane equation that has more great restriction on a given problem”. At the same time, the author pointed out that there are two problems that would be noticed in using course. The paper has important theory and practice value.
Key words: Integer Linear Programming (ILP, Cutting plane equation, Export Equation
Résumé: Comment résoudre les problèmes ILP est toujours un sujet chaud dans le milieu de la Recherche d’Opération. L’auteur de cet essai, à travers la méthode de démonstration, a analysé les fautes de la Méthode de Coupe Plane utilisée pour résoudre ILP et a proposé un nouveau principe, par exemple : « il est comme une équation de coupe plane qui a plus de restrictions sur un problème donné. ». En même temps, l’auteur indique qu’il y a deux problèmes qui seraient notés au cours de l’utilisation. Cet article revêtit une valeur importante théorique et pratique.
Mots-Clés: ILP( Integer Linear Programming /programmation linéaire du nombre entier, équation de coupe plane, équation d’exportation

Yi-jie XIONG

2006-09-01

165

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

166

Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows researchers and policy makers to measure and respond to the multiple sources of oppression and advantage experienced by certain population groups, and to monitor the effectiveness of interventions over time.

Ward Paul R

2011-08-01

167

Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless motion and a spring collision during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper representations could not.

Goh, Khoon S.; Wee, Loo K.; Yip, Kim W.; Toh, Ping Y.; Lye, Sze Y.

2013-06-05

168

Humanities Research, Book Digitization, and the Problem of Linguistic Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The good news is that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. The bad news is also that millions of books have been digitized and are freely available over the Internet. Linguistic change presents one of the greatest hurdles to information retrieval in databases of digitized books because keyword searching of digitized materials does not guarantee discoverability. This article examines the problem of linguistic change in humanities research in full-text databases and describes the innovative solution offered by two proprietary library content providers.

Karen Sobel

2011-01-01

169

Addressing ?-b? and proton lifetime problems and active neutrino masses in a U(1)'-extended supergravity model  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a locally supersymmetric extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) based on the gauge group SU(3)C×SU(2)L×U(1)Y×U(1)' where, except for the supersymmetry-breaking scale which is fixed to be ˜1011GeV, we require that all non-standard-model parameters allowed by the local spacetime and gauge symmetries assume their natural values. The U(1)' symmetry, which is spontaneously broken at the intermediate scale, serves to (i) explain the weak scale magnitudes of ? and b? terms, (ii) ensure that dimension-3 and dimension-4 baryon-number-violating superpotential operators (and, in a class of models, all ?B=1 operators) are forbidden, solving the proton-lifetime problem, and (iii) predict bilinear lepton-number violation in the superpotential at just the right level to accommodate the observed mass and mixing pattern of active neutrinos (leading to a novel connection between the SUSY-breaking scale and neutrino masses), while corresponding trilinear operators are strongly suppressed. The phenomenology is like that of the MSSM with bilinear R-parity violation, where the would-be lightest supersymmetric particle decays leptonically with a lifetime of ˜10-12-10-8s. Theoretical consistency of our model requires the existence of multi-TeV, stable, color-triplet, weak-isosinglet scalars or fermions, with either conventional or exotic electric charge which should be readily detectable if they are within the kinematic reach of a hadron collider. Null results of searches for heavy exotic isotopes imply that the reheating temperature of our Universe must have been below their mass scale which, in turn, suggests that sphalerons play a key role for baryogenesis. Finally, the dark matter cannot be the weakly interacting neutralino.

Hundi, R. S.; Pakvasa, Sandip; Tata, Xerxes

2009-05-01

170

Radiation and lung cancer: problems and topics of future research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was the purpose of this critical review to outline the main uncertainties of present risk estimates for radiation-induced lung cancer and the resulting topics of future research in this field. The main emphasis was the actual problems of dose and risk estimates for indoor exposure to radon daughters. The discussion indicates that the conclusions of the ICRP and the BEIR IV studies, which proceed from data of radon-exposed miners, are based on models and assumptions that are too simple. Comparison with the lung cancer data from the atomic bomb survivors indicates that these uncertainties concern mainly the transfer of the data from male miners to the female population and the influence of smoking. This underlines the importance of large direct case-control studies on lung cancer from indoor radon. A detailed list of topics for future research in this field is presented in the summary of this session. (author)

171

Update: Health Status of Iranian Victims of Chemical Weapons / Ongoing Research Projects Addressing CW Health Effects in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of chemical weapons against Iran during the 1980s was a horrifying epic in the annals of modern warfare, inflicting enormous suffering during the conflict that continues to the present day in the form of latent illness among survivors. Surviving victims suffer from a diverse range of chronic illnesses placing an enormous strain on the nation's medical infrastructure. To define the scope of this problem, the National Organization for Veteran's Affairs (Janbazan) established a subsidiary research department called Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC). Beginning in 2000 JMERC has conducted epidemiological, clinical and basic scientific studies to characterize disease among chemical attack survivors and develop new therapeutic strategies. The primary JMERC mission has been to identify where resources may be allocated so as to most effectively treat patients with the greatest need - requiring a comprehensive picture of the major medical problems among this population. Accordingly, JMERC's initial task was to define the nature and distribution of serious chronic illness among CW survivors. Therefore epidemiological studies in CW-exposed Iranian populations are currently underway. Ultimately these studies will allow management of illness among CW-exposed populations that is both compassionate and cost-effective. A summary of the above mentioned research projects will be reported in this article. (author)

172

Research Problems in Data Curation: Outcomes from the Data Curation Education in Research Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students constructed dozens of research questions informed by class readings, presentations, and discussions. A technical report is in progress on the resulting research agenda covering: data standards; infrastructure; research context; data reuse; sharing and access; preservation; and conceptual foundations. This presentation will discuss the agenda and its importance for the geosciences, highlighting high priority research questions. It will also introduce the related research to be undertaken by two DCERC doctoral students at NCAR during the 2013-2014 academic year and other data curation research in progress by the doctoral DCERC team.

Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.

2013-12-01

173

Research on Project Scheduling Problem with Resource Constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the traditional optimization problem considering constraint conditions of resource supply, which makes the problem more difficult to solve in real life. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is a typical NP-hard problem, which is quite popular issue in recent years. This article firstly analyzes the literature review of resource-constrained project scheduling problem. And then, the mathematical model of this problem is establishe...

Tinggui Chen; Guanglan Zhou

2013-01-01

174

High density electroencephalography in sleep research: potential, problems, future perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High density EEG (hdEEG during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g. the traveling of slow waves and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g. consciousness and cognitive abilities. Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research.

CarolineLustenberger

2012-05-01

175

Industry, university and government partnership to address research, education and human resource challenges for nuclear industry in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

rgy of Canada Limited have formed an alliance with prominent Canadian universities and undertaken to invest money and offer in-kind support to accomplish three main objectives: Reinvigorate university-based nuclear engineering research by augmenting university resources by creating new industry supported research professorships and supporting research of other professors; Promote enrolment in graduate programs by supporting students and making use of a course-based Master of Engineering (M.Eng.) Program that is taught collectively by professors from all supported universities and which can be completed through part-time studies; Create a pool of nuclear expertise in universities that can be accessed by public and governments for impartial and trustworthy advice. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Canadian Regulator, and Candu Owners Group are also participating in UNENE activities. Nuclear industries have linked with a select group of Canadian universities agreeable to committing to nuclear research and education and seeking investment from governments to match cash and in-kind contributions from industry. The University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) was thus created involving universities of McMaster, Queen's, Toronto, Waterloo, Western Ontario and the new University of Ontario Institute of Technology. These universities are recipients of funds for setting up NSERC-UNENE Industry Research Chairs in Nuclear Engineering. Also, Ecole Polytechnique and the University of New Brunswick, supported respectively by Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power, and Royal Military College - operating a joint graduate program with Queen's University, are participants in UNENE. The following Industrial Research Chairs are either in place or approved to start within the next few months. In each case there is a provision for hiring a junior Research Chair. - Dr. John Luxat, Nuclear Safety Analysis and Thermal Hydraulics, McMaster University; - Dr. Rick Holt, Advanced Nuclear Materials, Queen's University; - Dr. Roger Newman, Nano-Engineering of Alloys for Nuclear Power Systems, University of Toronto; - Dr. Mahesh Pandey, Risk-Based Life Cycle Management of Engineering Systems, University of Waterloo; - Dr. Jin Jiang, Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Systems of Nuclear Power Plants, University of Western Ontario. Progress is being made to find a candidate and define a research program for an Industrial Research Chair:- Knowledge Management, University of Ontario Institute of Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)

176

Research on Project Scheduling Problem with Resource Constraints  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is the traditional optimization problem considering constraint conditions of resource supply, which makes the problem more difficult to solve in real life. Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is a typical NP-hard problem, which is quite popular issue in recent years. This article firstly analyzes the literature review of resource-constrained project scheduling problem. And then, the mathematical model of this problem is established, and the solution via the genetic algorithm is also developed. Finally, the numerical experiment is adopted to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithm.

Tinggui Chen

2013-08-01

177

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Berlin has become a modern, open and forward looking city filling its role as the German capital with self confidence and a very special charm. I really appreciate that this conference is being held here in Berlin. Supporting communication between science and the economy is one of our policy objectives, and we are also determined to develop Berlin's attraction for congresses and conferences. In the next week you will focus on the 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities'. You work in an enormous field. Currently, there are more than 110 nuclear installations in the European Union in varying stages of decommissioning, and an additional 150 installations will be dismantled by the year 2020. This means that decommissioning will no longer be treated in a case by case fashion like, for example, the Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant or the Wismut remediation site, which some of you will visit on Friday. Rather, decommissioning will have to be turned into a full scale industrial process with standardized procedures. Each of these procedures has to be optimized, not only with respect to technical requirements but most importantly in a way that guarantees maximum safety for the workers, for the population and for the environment. Consequently, the focal points of this conference cover an extremely wide range, including: Strategies for the safe termination and the assessment of the adequacy of the current technology; Waste management and disposal; Release of materials from regnd disposal; Release of materials from regulatory control; Remediation of sites; Social impact of practice termination. Adequate coverage of all these issues is probably not made easier by the proposed enlargement of the European Union to include a number of Central European and Baltic countries. At an early stage, it is the scientific community, with its creativity and potential, which conceives novel approaches and designs new processes. But at a certain point the foundation for the successful handling of a complex problem must be enlarged and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

178

Presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates and to reach replacement level fertility. PMID:12287408

Vohra, U

1993-07-01

179

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

180

[Problems of peritoneal dialysis--history and research perspectives].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper specifies the peritoneal dialysis problems as a method of renal replacement therapy in a historical perspective. It pointed out to the dynamic development of peritoneal dialysis in the nineties and distinct slump of the presented treatment form at the turn of XXth and XXIst century, despite substantial progress in the dialysis techniques, effectiveness and biocompatibility of the therapy as well as a detailed evaluation of peritoneal function in vivo and in vitro. It showed descriptions and outline of the peritoneal cavity dating from ancient times, 19th-century animal experiments determining essential laws of peritoneal absorption and removal molecules, as well as the first peritoneal dialysis of a man which took place at the beginning of the 20th-century. The technical problems and peritonitis were the fundamental limitations of this therapy employment in this phase of dialysis development. The application of Tenckhoffs catheter and the technique specified as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was the invention and at the same time, the turning point which decided about the considerable progress of the described method of dialysis in the nineties. In this period, the analyses concerning failures of the peritoneal transport functions and protection of peritoneum during its long-term use as a dialysis membrane dominated. These studies referred to not absolutely biocompatibility factors of the environment of the peritoneal cavity during peritoneal dialysis. Thence, proposed future directions of analyses include researches concerning components of dialysis solution to assure long-term preservation of peritoneal transport functions and its secretory properties. It is not excluded that experiments of applying the newest achievements of regenerative medicine, in the scope of genetic modification and implantation of mesothelial cells will be continued. PMID:21033414

Czyzewska, Krystyna; Grzelak, Teresa; Szary, Beata

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

Connell Janice

2012-11-01

182

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems. PMID:23173689

2012-01-01

183

Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

1977-01-01

184

Revisiting Employee Assistance Programs and Substance Use Problems in the Workplace: Key Issues and a Research Agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda at includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identificatio...

Levy Merrick, Elizabeth S.; Volpe-vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M.; Mccann, Bernard

2007-01-01

185

The Ethical Problems of Reserach : An empirical study of ethics in research practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral l...

Colnerud, Gunnel

2013-01-01

186

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Sof Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model Project, and there are around 50 non-Member States that may need similar assistance. I would, therefore, like to extend a special welcome to representatives of those States that are not members of the IAEA, and to thank the United States of America for providing extrabudgetary support to make possible the participation of these States in this conference. The issue of orphan sources has been instrumental in stirring the international community into action. Initially, orphan sources were seen primarily as a safety issue. However, since the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 in the USA, the security dimension has brought an increased sense of urgency. Security considerations have also led to a greater recognition that national systems for the control of sources can only be fully effective if all States have effective systems, that is, if there is an effective global system of control. But there is a broader underlying reason why we need to continue to strengthen national infrastructures for radiation safety. Technologies that make use of radiation and radioactive material - in medicine, in research, in industry, in agriculture and water resource management - have expanded and spread all around the world, and continue to grow. These technologies bring great benefits - often desperately needed - but those benefits cannot be fully enjoyed unless the technologies can be used safely. Effective national infrastructures provide the foundation for the safe use of these technologies.I hope that the sharing of knowledge and experience at this conference will contribute to a 'virtuous circle' of continuous improvement. I look forward to the conference providing deeper and broader ideas for how the IAEA can be more effective in assisting in this very challenging area. I wish you well in your deliberations this week, and I look forward to hearing your findings. I invite the representatives of the four co-operating organizations to make their opening remarks, and I give the floor firstly to Mr. Repacholi, representing the World Healt

187

Research of ensure problem process of environmental providing in business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of environmental providing in business. The author defined more precisely global problems that arise in the context of peculiar enhance of environmental protection companies. The author analyzed innovative ways of getting experience of nature and needs of social and ecological development on the basis of environmental providing. Keywords: providing, enterprise, life cycle.

Sherstyuk, Roman

2012-05-01

188

Resolution on the problems and prospects of common research policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH)

189

‘"Education-based Research" : Integrating Problem-based Learning and Research-Based Education in Tertiary Design Education.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper lays out a concept of education-based research-the production of research knowledge within the framework of tertiary design education-as an integration of problem-based learning and research-based education. This leads to a critique of reflective practice as the primary way to facilitate learning at this level, a discussion of the nature of design problems in the instrumentalist tradition, and some suggestions as to how design studies curricula may facilitate education-based research.

Degn Johansson, Troels

190

Childhood Obesity Brings Host of Health Problems, Researchers Report  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2 to 17, with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that's most common among youngsters who are overweight and obese. NAFLD can develop in conjunction with other health problems ...

191

Research on Team Orienteering Problem with Dynamic Travel Times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the team orienteering problem (TOP a set of locations is given, each with a score. The goal is to determine a fixed number of routes, limited in length, that visit some locations and maximize the sum of the collected scores. The team orienteering problem is often used as a starting point for modeling many combinatorial optimization problems. This paper studies the dynamic team orienteering problem considering the travel cost varying with times and visiting time constraints. After a mixed integer programming model is proposed, a novel optimal dynamic labeling algorithm is designed based on the idea of network planning and dynamic programming. Finally, a numerical example is presented to show the validity and feasibility of this algorithm.

Jin Li

2012-02-01

192

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the functions of the CSN, as the regulatory authority responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection, is the performance of studies, assessments and inspections of all plans, programmes and projects relating to the different phases of radioactive waste management, from production to final disposal. The development of general criteria for the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear and other facilities which, give rise to large volumes of low activity waste, is a priority issue in Spain. In the same context, mention should be made of the importance of having a solid materials declassification process for use during the operating phase of the facilities. This naturally contributes to reducing the waste to be managed in decommissioning and to optimizing overall radioactive waste management. In relation to declassification, a large number of activities have been carried out or are currently under way in Spain, e.g. the systematic approach to the licensing of various common projects for the declassification of materials at nuclear power plants, such as those applied to metallic scrap, spent resins, activated carbon and wood. A general standard for the declassification of materials at medical, research and industrial facilities was recently adopted; this includes general criteria and specific activity values for the radionuclides usually used at such installations. All of the above mentioned declassification initiatives have taken full account of the recommendations of the IAEA. To date, one nuclear power plant has been dismantled in Spain and the dismantling of a second nuclear plant is foreseen after the year 2006. A number of nuclear production facilities have been decommissioned and various uranium mine restoration projects have been carried out. In keeping with the lines mapped out in the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Spain possesses an administrative structure, a regulatory framework, an assignment of responsibilities and a financing system that provide assurance that the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste will be carried out safely. Although, to date, no generic regulations have been developed governing the long term management of radioactive waste, the regulatory authorities have defined and approved, upon request, specific criteria applicable to the licensing of individual facilities. Currently standards relating to safety in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste are developed, radioactive waste management plans at the sites of waste production and actions are developed and integrated. They are aimed at improving the general capacity to respond to radiological emergencies in which significant amounts of low activity radioactive waste might be generated. Likewise, several initiatives have been launched for the adoption of general criteria applicable to the release of sites; this includes requirements for institutional surveillance when the sites cannot be released without restrictions. Of special interest is the problem of the management of the long lived low activity waste associated with uranium mining and milling activities, on which the Symposium will include a specific session. Managing TENORM waste arising from the processing of materials contaminated by isotopes of natural origin, which is very much a major issue in Spain at poses a major problem. The new complementary facility at El Cabril for the disposal of very low activity waste was licensed. Work has been carried out jointly with ENRESA during the preparatory phases for the definition of applicable safety and radiation protection criteria. In order to guarantee adequate protection for workers, the public and the environment, and to respond with rigour to the current social demands relating to radioactive waste management, very close collaboration is required between all those involved; this includes the regulatory authorities, the waste producers and, obviously, those responsible for the actual management. International collabor

193

Research activity on thermohydraulic problems of PWR reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general review of the experimental and theoretical research works on thermohydraulic investigation of pressurized water type reactors being done in the Central Research Institute for Physics is given. The main results of the theoretical and theoretical-numerical research are summarized. The most important result of the past years is the construction of the High Pressure Water Cooled Loop (NVH) thermohydraulic loop. Another significant achievement was the development of the reactor thermohydraulic program system. (Sz.N.Z.)

194

Integrated solutions to SHM problems: an overview of SHM research at the LANL/UCSD engineering institute  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.

Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-08

195

Philosophical problems with social research on health inequalities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper offers a realist critique of social research on health inequalities. A conspectus of the field of health inequalities research identifies two main research approaches: the positivist quantitative survey and the interpretivist qualitative 'case study'. We argue that both approaches suffer from serious philosophical limitations. We suggest that a turn to realism offers a productive 'third way' both for the development of health inequality research in particular and for the social scientific understanding of the complexities of the social world in general. PMID:11186025

Wainwright, S P; Forbes, A

2000-01-01

196

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the opening address of the workshop on ''Methods for assessing the reliability of environmental transfer model predictions'', which took place in Greece 1988. The role of the Radiation Protection Programme of the European Commission in the Nuclear Safety programmes of the Commission, is described. The building of radioecological models incorporating data on radionuclide migration to estimate radiation doses to man is discussed, along with the uncertainty in model predictions. (U.K.)

197

Carriers' Addresses  

Science.gov (United States)

Along with the plaintive cries of greengrocers, fishmongers, and small waifs calling out "Shine your shoes guv'nor?" in the late 19th century, one might also see a variety of newspaper boys out delivering the paper and hawking it on the streets by means of colorful language and lurid descriptions. One form of expression by these carriers was their annual addresses, which were printed pieces distributed to their customers on New Year's Day in order to solicit a small tip for their faithful service throughout the year. The good people at the Center for Digital Initiatives at Brown University Library have placed a fine collection of these broadsheets online for the general public, dating from 1772 to 1912, and originating from such papers as the Albany Argus and the Peoria Journal. Visitors may search or browse this delightful collection, and read an introductory essay on these addresses, which includes a notable excerpt from one address about the carriers themselves that reads: "Bedouins of the street they are, tenting anywhere. Pitching camp upon the cobblestones, Braving rain and snow and sleet and winter's chilly wind; Lighting fires to warm their frozen bones."

198

An exploration of knowledge integration problems in interdisciplinary research teams:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of function-specific expertise into a shared knowledge base is a crucial, but complex process for success in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents an empirically derived typology of knowledge integration problems and links their occurrence to degree of heterogeneity and present stage of a team’s life.

Bayerl, P. S.; Steinheider, B.

2009-01-01

199

Problems of Scientific Research Activity in Institutions of Higher Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Under current conditions, the role played by scientific knowledge in all spheres of public life is rising substantially, and more and more attention is being paid to problems of the development and modernization of the Academy of Sciences. Not long ago, for example, there was wide response to the findings of a special study by S. Belanovskii on…

Solodnikov, V. V.

2008-01-01

200

Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

Jenkins, M.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

202

Every cell counts: an inquiry-based approach to address a novel research question in an undergraduate neuroscience lab.  

Science.gov (United States)

A science-based curriculum that encourages hands-on experiences, skill development, and promotes student engagement are critical components in both successful undergraduate psychology and neuroscience programs. This lab explored an inquiry-based research project focused on microscopy skills, critical thinking, and independent research design. This lesson used a novel research question (How many serotonergic cells are located in the dorsal raphe nucleus?) to engage students in research and methodology design. The resulting lab received positive feedback from students and provided data about the serotonergic system in a previously unreported species. PMID:23493111

Birkett, Melissa A

2009-01-01

203

The research of problems of ultraviolet ink hardening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problems of hardening (fixing) of ultraviolet ink while putting it on the imprint during the printing process are examined. The product is printed with the web-fed offset printing press. Experimental and theoretical questions are investigated. The specific features of ultraviolet ink curing using the ultraviolet radiation lamps as well as the parameters of the printing press and ultraviolet curing devices, which affect the quality of the imprint, are described. The results are presented i...

Vinogrodskij, Sergej

2010-01-01

204

Research on Near-Fault Problems in Earthquake Engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The state-of-the-art of near-fault problems in earthquake engineering is comprehensive reviewed. Strong ground motions in the near-fault region exhibit several new characteristics, which cause the attentions of both seismologists and engineers who zealously studied these ground motions during the last two deceases. The investigation on ground motions can interpret the mechanism of the earthquake. Also the ground motions, which are usually assigned by engineers as a type of input loading for s...

Chengjiang Lu

2012-01-01

205

Pathology of marine warmwater finfish in Israel: Problems and research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A condition in Sparus aurata larvae termed "distended gut syndrome" (DGS) has become a major problem in the past three seasons. Unable to digest rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii, the larvae develop a swollen abdomen, exhibit a disoriented spinning motion and are swept passively with the current. Bacterial or viral infections were suspected. Chloramphenicol-supplemented larval food did not affect the prevalence of DGS. Virus-like particles 80 nm in diameter were observed in necrotic cytoplasm...

Colorni, A.

1989-01-01

206

President's address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The speaker discusses some of the economic problems facing the Canadian nuclear industry. The worldwide economic slowdown has caused a fall in energy needs in Canada as well as in other nations. Consequently the demand for uranium has fallen and the market for new reactors looks bleak. However, the speaker feels that a solution can be found using creativity and innovative thinking

207

For multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems. [including crop yield, watershed soils, and vegetation mapping in Wisconsin  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the application of remote sensing to problems of water resources was concentrated on sediments and associated nonpoint source pollutants in lakes. Further transfer of the technology of remote sensing and the refinement of equipment and programs for thermal scanning and the digital analysis of images were also addressed.

Kiefer, R. W. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

208

[E-research: problems with anonymity and consent].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) requires that participants in medical-scientific studies provide written consent. This requirement makes e-research (online research) unnecessarily difficult and sometimes impossible. Much of e-research involves online interventions that focus on sensitive issues such as sexual dysfunction, addiction and child abuse, for which anonymity is an important condition. WMO procedures, however, strictly interpret the word "written" as "on paper", and participants are not permitted to give consent by email, for example. A second requirement, which mainly makes studies among minors between the ages of 12 and 18 more difficult, is that both parents or the guardian must provide written consent. This undermines anonymity to such an extent that virtually no subjects remain. Participants in medical-scientific studies must always be identifiable to the investigator. But, apart from this, he/she should be possible to guarantee anonymity within the regulatory framework. There is good reason to adapt legal regulations to today's needs. PMID:24345359

Woolderink, Marla; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Constant P; van Wijmen, Frans C B

2013-01-01

209

French Academic and Private Research on Economic Development Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper has been written to acquaint the reader with a French economic development school. This survey concentrates on academic and semi-academic research institutes and consulting firms. The aim of the survey is to report on the major aspects and feat...

A. G. Nowicki

1968-01-01

210

INFORMATION ASPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEMS IN ELECTRODYNAMICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discusses the experimental task, the analysis of which cannot be carried out without the use of methods of calculus mathematics. It is shown that the use of modern information technology in educational research tasks to confront theory with real physical experiments lets us raise the level of quality of training future teachers of physics and computer science

Tchernykh A. G.

2014-06-01

211

Research and Development Activity of Polish Enterprises. Selected Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research and development activity is one of the most compound functions in the industry. The article presents an attempt of analysis RD activity conducted by Polish enterprises. Author describes expenditure on the RD in Poland their structure, participation of foreign means, directions of activity and confronted amounts of the expenditure incurred by enterprises in Poland relating to world companies.

Pawe? Kupczak

2010-10-01

212

Luncheon address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public policy responses to climate change are discussed from a global viewpoint. The public policy issue is one of unprecedented scope and complexity, and concerns the interaction of two vast and complex systems: the physical planetary system, and the human economic system. Decision making is required in the face of uncertainty, and scientific knowledge is lagging behind policy issues. Continuing world development is going to drastically change the balance of global population, trade, and economic power. Environmental quality performance requirements should be set with a great deal of attention paid to how they will affect the process of innovation, and must encourage demand for emerging technologies, products and services. Effective solutions can come only from effective international agreement. Governments, citizens and industry must become partners in action, and improved education and communication is required. Science, public policy and social consensus must converge, as climate change is not merely a scientific or technical problem, but is also a social and political problem

213

PROBLEMS AND OUTLOOK OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN KAZAKHSTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance evaluation of scientific work on regional and individual levels can be achieved by the using scientometric methods of a quantitative analysis of bibliographic information available in such databases as Science Citation Index (SCI. Unfortunately, Kazakhstan scientific journals have not been included yet in the Thomson Reuters Corp. register of periodicals, that substantially distorts the actual national scientometric indexes. The analysis of Database “National Citation Reports” (Kazakhstan, which correlated with a contribution of Kazakhstan into the world science development, has shown the low level of research activities of Kazakhstan scientists on international arena. So, the share of international publications of Kazakhstan in the global flow is equal to 0,021 % (1044 doc. that corresponds to the 87th place in the general list of countries of 177 names. Subject to the ranking of countries into groups by the number of the published works, Kazakhstan is referring to the group of 46 countries having 1000-10000 publications over 5 years, of which 8,6% in  medicine. In this article the use of statistics and appropriate software by the authors of original articles in such journals as recommended by the Kazakh National Centre for Scientific & Technical Expertise (NCSTE and included in the Database ?library.kz was evaluated. Research was conducted according to Research Report, due to which a research design and statistical analysis methods were estimated.  In the rating of the research design, the authors of articles mostly used as follows: description of a series of cases–63,2%, description of the individual cases -27,1%, and description of specific cases–9,1%. A scope of selection in Section “Research Methods” was only calculated in 21,8% of cases, and in 63,9% of cases there was no description how the selection was carried out. Methods of analytical statistics were used in the 46,0% of cases. And there were references to the program package in use only in 17,5% of works. Thus shown that non-compliance with international standards in the preparation of scientific papers, primarily statistical requirements directly affect the quality and ratings of domestic articles.

Botagoz Turdalieva

2013-10-01

214

Status, problems and future directions of research in volleyball  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose . To analyse of publications on various aspects of volleyball and identify the most promising areas of research. Material and methods . As information sources were selected journals from different databases, full-text catalogs and libraries. Results . It is noted that the selection and training process of young volleyball players largely determines the level of club and national teams. In this case, the application of modern techniques, systems and approaches to research is a key component of the success of the team and the level of training of talented volleyball players. Found that the combination of sports orientation and quality of life of young people through passion volleyball helps educate conscious attitude towards their health and desire for high professional achievements. Conclusions . Promising areas should be recognized, such as: improving orientation sessions volleyball; biomechanical prerequisites of development and realization of motor actions, adaptation of existing technical facilities for volleyball.

Stankiewicz B?a?ej

2013-12-01

215

Body, art, experience and research. "Problems of embodiment"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article we will summarise the main arguments raised in the Workshop [No. 15] "Issues of corporality" developed in the 9§ Argentinian and 4§ Latin American Physical Education and Sciences Congress, at the UNLP. The papers in this workshop focused on the issue of corporality in artistic practice, including reflections relating primarily to dance, theater, performance, music, dance therapy and corporal education. The emphasis of the workshop was placed on the generation of debates, discussions and reflections that most or many authors deal with, allowing to delineate points of agreement and differences between their approaches. The articles discussed in this meeting shared one characteristic: all of them come from the reflection upon the practice. This centerred the debate reflections on the relationship between experience and research, and the dialogue generated between doing research about and on practice

Ana Sabrina Mora

2011-11-01

216

Introduction and problems: Survey of the Hope research project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two main points were stressed in working out the research and development program: - Main aim of the project: collecting safety-related geochemical, geomechanical, geophysical and technical information on processes before, during and after flooding of hollows in salt deposits. - An important part of the project: development, testing and use of equipment and measurement processes in highly concentrated salt solutions at hydrostatic pressures of between about 3 and 8 MPa. (orig./PW)

217

Donating Embryos to Stem Cell Research: The “Problem” of Gratitude  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is based on linked qualitative studies of the donation of human embryos to stem cell research carried out in the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and China. All three studies used semi-structured interview protocols to allow an in-depth examination of donors’ and non-donors’ rationales for their donation decisions, with the aim of gaining information on contextual and other factors that play a role in donor decisions and identifying how these relate to factors that are more usually...

Scully, Jackie Leach; Haimes, Erica; Mitzkat, Anika; Porz, Rouven; Rehmann-sutter, Christoph

2012-01-01

218

The Research on the Problems of Integer Matrix  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because the element on the metal ring may not have the inverse, so the theorems on the matrix in field would perhaps incorrect. In this article, I mainly do research on the eigenvalue, eigenvector and similar diagonalization. These results are: integer matrix can change into upper triangular matrix through integer elementary row operation; two necessary and sufficient conditions about similarity diagonalization of integer matrix; if the integer matrix has different eigenvalue, it can diagonal...

SUN Chun-tao,; Jian, Hong

2013-01-01

219

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ke place in Stockholm, we faced a formidable array of opponents. Firstly, some industrially advanced countries, such as France and the United Kingdom, thought a strong United Nations focus on environmental protection would lead to constraints on their further industrial development - and they were supported by a number of the United Nations agencies, such as FAO and UNESCO, which thought that they were doing enough about environmental protection within their respective spheres. Secondly - and more importantly - there was opposition in the beginning from developing countries which, led by Brazil, thought that the choice of environmental protection as the topic was a plot of some industrial countries to hinder industrial development in the developing world by creating various obstacles in the form of regulations for the protection of the environment. Their opposition slowly melted away, however, thanks mainly to Maurice Strong, a rare mixture of idealist and pragmatist who became Secretary General of the conference - and later also of the conference held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. In addition, there was opposition from the Soviet Union, whose representatives said 'There are no environmental problems in the Soviet Union. Under Socialism, such problems cannot exist!' However, assistants from academia attached to the Soviet delegation would come and whisper in my ear 'Don't believe that official nonsense. The Soviet Union is the worst hit country in the world as regards environmental deterioration. The whole country is a catastrophe!' Ultimately, however, the Soviet Government modified its practical position - if not its ideology - and collaborated, to some extent, in preparing for the conference, and after the conference (in which the Soviet Union did not take part since the Germany Democratic Republic had not been invited to participate) it took part without reservations in the follow-up work. The conference was to a large extent designed to increase awareness of the problems of environmental protection, since many governments - including the governments of some very important countries - were completely ignorant of and indifferent to such problems. In order to formulate positions regarding the various items on the conference agenda, governments had to get in touch with and seek advice from their scientific institutions, with which there had generally been very few contacts before. The scientific institutions were, of course, delighted to be consulted and to have an opportunity to tell their governments the truth about environmental problems. The 1972 conference led to the adoption of a number of conventions and, most importantly, to acceptance of the principle that a country is responsible for the effects of its own acts on the environment in another country - a kind of international responsibility which until then had been unheard of. But the most important achievement, in my view, was the fact that, in the years following the conference, environmental legislation was passed and environmental ministries established in about a hundred countries as a direct result of the conference. Governments came to realize that environmental problems were important also from a political point of view. (author)

220

The American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and rehabilitation research in a changing postacute landscape. The 2007 ACRM presidential address.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postacute rehabilitation is on the threshold of several major changes that have implications for rehabilitation practice and research. The most important of these is the desire of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to establish a uniform patient assessment method and implement a more setting-neutral prospective payment system across all major postacute settings. The proposed uniform patient assessment instrument will in all likelihood displace the FIM instrument as the industry standard. The rehabilitation research community needs to remain vigilant about the nature, scope, and measurement properties of the proposed uniform patient assessment instrument. A new instrument and setting-neutral payment system may provide new opportunities for service innovation and research. Neurorehabilitation has been one of the strengths of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM). ACRM needs to build on this strength and examine more earnestly the rehabilitation interventions and outcomes associated with the increasing prevalence of people with orthopedic and musculoskeletal conditions seen in rehabilitation centers today. ACRM's ability to do so will depend in part on its ability to join forces with other professional and consumer organizations to increase research funding significantly for each of the major federal agencies that currently fund rehabilitation research. PMID:18226641

DeJong, Gerben

2008-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-15

222

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The supply of energy is the most important problem facing mankind today. Energy is necessary for economic development, and it is in the interests of the industrialized nations to ensure that the developing countries reach their economic potential. The need for the increased use of nuclear power is evident, and the CANDU reactor provides a simple, proven energy source; the 950 MW CANDU has potential applications in both industrialized and third world nations. The Canadian nuclear industry has an important role to play in the world, but must be rationalized in order to compete successfully in the international marketplace

223

Addressing Racism  

Science.gov (United States)

This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…

Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013

2013-01-01

224

Theiler and the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' Introductory keynote address : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although Theiler became internationally known for his pioneering veterinary research a distant century ago, there are probably few veterinary researchers today who have not heard of him. Onderstepoort, the research institute he created, is equally well, if not even better, known. Moreover, the name Onderstepoort is not only associated with his institute but also with the only South African faculty of veterinary science, another Theiler 'baby'. The purpose of this presentation is to determine why this was so, and to what extent the fame was justified. Was it due to the 'Spirit of Onderstepoort' sometimes referred to by Theiler in the early as well as later stages of his career, or was there perhaps more to it, and what was Theiler's share in the development of that spirit, that fame

R.D. Bigalke

2010-09-01

225

Alcohol & drug abuse: Revisiting employee assistance programs and substance use problems in the workplace: key issues and a research agenda.  

Science.gov (United States)

This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda that includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs' effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures. PMID:17914000

Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

2007-10-01

226

Addressing Inequality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global sociology currently faces one of its greatest challenges: to contribute to the debate about the most serious problem which all societies have faced in recent years. The rising inequality has led to many initiatives for reflection, discussion and evaluation of public policies in order to combat poverty. Particularly, the fact that the Millennium Goals are supposed to accomplish their significance by 2015 provides the International Sociological Association (ISA the unique opportunity to contribute to those goals through their own analyses and proposals. Over many years, the ISA has promoted the integrated debate of its members on issues related to inequalities: from different perspectives such as education, health, social movements, public policies, gender problems and violence, among others. The overlapping and accumulation of inequalities has been, so to speak, the natural environment from which the ISA can take part in this international debate. This article identifies the work lines approved in the Association Program Committee Meeting held in Mexico in 2011, in the process of theAssociation’s Congress in Yokohama in 2014.

Raquel Sosa Elízaga

2012-07-01

227

The research centers' contribution to solving waste mangement problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Federal Government's concept, private enterprises should in principle ensure the waste disposal of nuclear power plants, and research centres should only back up the processing of the waste. Thus a mobile plant is at the disposal for the compaction of solid waste. The centres made an important contribution for the decontamination and the scrapping of removed elements. For the burning of solid waste there is only one commercial plant with a capacity of about 400 Mg/a in the FRG. The remaining amount of about 150 Mg/a could be taken over by the centres in Juelich and Karlsruhe. (DG)

228

Welcome address  

Science.gov (United States)

Mr Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen. It is a great honour to have the opportunity to say a few words before starting this symposium. First of all, on behalf of all members of the Advanced Science Research Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, I would like to express our great pleasure in welcoming all of you and in hosting the Third International Symposium on Advanced Science Research. The Advanced Science Research Center was established in 1993. Since then one of the most important functions assigned to this centre has been to promote and initiate basic research activities in atomic energy and related fields, in collaboration with scientists throughout our country as well as abroad. In view of the rapidly advancing frontiers of science and technology, and the increasing importance of international collaboration, I strongly felt that our centre should play a leading role in promoting scientific activities in a worldwide form. This is not only a give-and-take information exchange with the outside world but also we intend to promote harmony between different scientific cultures through the establishment of new programmes at our centre. As one action for the global promotion of our research activities, we have decided to host a series of international symposia on advances in various topics in fields of our interest. This we call the ‘Advance series of symposia’. The first such symposium was held on the subject of ‘neutron scattering research’ and the second, held in November 2001, on ‘heavy element research’, with great success. The present symposium is the third of this series. The size and format of each symposium will be chosen flexibly considering the nature of its topic. However, in all cases, in addition to promoting exchange of expert insights, we would like to encourage particularly young scientists to present papers in each symposium on their new results from the frontiers of science and technology, and to help them to get an overview of fields they are involved in. The topic of the present symposium is ‘advances in f-electron phenomena’. I will not go into detail about the importance of this field, because the Chairman of the organizing committee, Professor Russ Walstedt will tell you the outline later. Nevertheless, let me emphasize that the scientific subjects discussed at this symposium, namely the fundamental properties of f-electrons, are playing a crucial role in understanding the exotic effects of rare earth and actinide compounds such as magnetic and multi polar ordering, quantum critical phenomena and unconventional superconductivity. These are quite fascinating topics and I expect a variety of hot discussions throughout this symposium. Finally, I would like to thank our president, Dr S Saito, for allowing us to hold this symposium and for help with financial sponsorship. My special gratitude goes also to the Physical Society of Japan and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for their endorsement. I would like to close my speech by expressing my sincere wishes for the success of the symposium and for all participants to discover new opportunities in the still growing area of research on the f-electron systems. Thank you very much for your attention.

Yasuoka, Hiroshi

2003-07-01

229

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

oning is also a subject that has suffered from being addressed in a piecemeal and sometimes ad hoc fashion.The IAEA must take its share of responsibility for this: IAEA has published safety standards on particular aspects of decommissioning, and more general safety standards on the regulatory control of practices, on operational safety, on occupational radiation protection, on the management of different types of radioactive waste and discharges, and we are developing standards on the management of very low activity wastes and of contaminated areas. Yet, the IAEA has not succeeded in bringing all these elements together into safety standards to cover the entire process of decommissioning and the termination of practices. Similarly, the IAEA has recently been involved in the organization of international conferences on the remediation of contaminated areas and of an international workshop on the regulatory aspects of decommissioning. Within the IAEA, one step towards a more holistic approach to the issue was taken by establishing a Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE)

230

Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or extend information theory to account for semantics. By developing such theory, we can improve the quality of the next generation analytical tools. Far from being a mere intellectual curiosity, a new theory can provide the means for us to take into account information that has been to date ignored by the algorithms and technologies we develop. This paper will begin with an examination of Shannon's theory of communication, discussing the contributions and the limitations of the theory and how that theory gets expanded into today's statistical text analysis algorithms. Next, we will expand Shannon's model. We'll suggest a transactional definition of semantics that focuses on the intended and actual change that messages are intended to have on the recipient. Finally, we will examine implications of the model for algorithm development.

Bauer, Travis LaDell

2009-12-01

231

Research on key problems for LAMOST optical fiber detection system  

Science.gov (United States)

The large sky area multi-object fiber spectroscopic telescope (LAMOST) is an innovative reflecting schmidt telescope, promising a very high spectrum acquiring rate of several ten-thousands of spectra per night. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, LAMOST makes reconfiguration of fibers accurately according to the positions of objects in minutes and fine adjusting the fibers. During telescope observation period, each optical fiber unit positional accuracy directly determines the quality of subsequent spectrum acqusition, yet for real-time optical fiber positional accuracy, there only exists an internal information feedback which focus on the corresponding stepper motor driving conditions, however, this available information is not comprehensive, it can not offer the actual positional information for each fiber unit. Considering the LAMOST on-site environment, a novel real-time optical fiber positional accuracy detection system which can be integrated in the existing observation and control system need to be developed to solve this problem. During the observation interval, this system can offer a comprehensive and effective information feedback about the focal optical fiber positional accuracy. Based on this feedback, the observation assistants can properly adjust the observation strategies to ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of acquired spectrum. Furthermore, this fiber positional accuracy feedback can provide prior spectral quality information to the spectral processing personnel and optimal the spectrum processing efficiency.

Wang, Mengxin; Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Ali; Chen, Xiaoran

2014-07-01

232

ACTUAL ASPECTS OF RESEARCHES OF LEARNING TOOLS QUALITY DEFINITION PROBLEMS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UKRAINE ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article actual aspects of researches of problems concerning achievement of a high level of education quality, actual aspects of researches of problems concerning definition of programming learning tools quality at secondary school in the conditions of creation of unified educational space of educational system in Ukraine are considered and described. Stages of directions of researches in the conditions of global international educational environment formation are described. The attenti...

?????, M. ?.

2011-01-01

233

Spectrometric research automatization in the JINR nuclear problem laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The three-level on-line measurement system for spectrome-- tric research automatization is described. The basis of the lower level are spectrometers for measuring energy, time and spatial radiation distribution of and correlations between them. One-dimensional, multidimensional, as well as precision spectrometerst for the analysis of electron spectra in the 0.5-50 keV energy range are used. The spectrometers operation is controlled by microcomputers; electronics is realized in the CAMAC standard. The data collected by the spectrometers are transmitted to the second level based on the ES-1010 computer where preliminary data processing occurs. The third level basis is the ES-1040 computer operating in the multiprogram mode. For ensuring the performance of the system, processing and analysis of spectrometric data softtware is created at all levels

234

Vessel-related problems in severe accidents, International Research Projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes those most relevant aspects of research programmes and projects, on the behavior of vessel during severe accidents with partial or total reactor core fusion, performed during the last twenty years or still on-going projects, by countries or international organizations in the nuclear community, presenting the most important technical aspects, in particular the results achieved, as well as the financial and organisational aspects. The paper concludes that, throughout a joint effort of the international nuclear community, in which Spain has been present via private and public organizations, actually exist a reasonable technical and experimental knowledge of the vessel in case of severe accidents, but still there are aspects not fully solved which are the basis for continuing some programmes and for proposal of new ones. (Author)

235

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global threat reduction programme; decreasing vulnerability to attack; and increasing resilience should an incident occur

236

Proceedings of the public meeting to address a proposed federal radiation research agenda. Volume I. Issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 12 invited issue papers and for 3 of the 13 documents received from the public at large in the preparation of an agenda for federally sponsored and conducted research into the biological effects of ionizing radiation. One issue paper previously input to the data base deals with the potential for significant human exposure from environmentally dispersed radionuclides

237

Evaluation of online accessed systems: example of qualitative research of Fast Addresses of GeaBios System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient online information service user interface enables independent use of these online. Designers of the GeaBios Internet information system intended to evaluate the user-friendliness of their service »Fast adresses« (»Hitri naslovi«. In December 2003, as a research project for a graduation thesis, an evaluation of »Fast adresses« was conducted. The study consisted of 10 study participants performing assigned tasks and a survey of the same individuals. During the study research questions were developed as well as list of tasks to be assigned to the participants for the observations. Each observation was performed using a qualitative research paradigm. This paradigm was enhanced with an adaptation of Shneiderman’s (1998 questionnaire. Identified difficulties participants had in using »Fast adresses« fell into four types: (1 formulation of queries, (2 display of results, (3 the influence of the operating system, Windows, and, (4 the color and design of the display background and elements of the Web page. Results indicate that the difficulties encountered were not limited to the inappropriate design of the user interface, but also are attributable to user error.

Aleš Klemen

2006-01-01

238

Slaughter by-products: problems, preliminary research and possible solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The collection, storage, disposal and processing of slaughterhouse by-products is an important part of veterinary care in regions with intensive animal husbandry and meat production. Transmission of diseases and environmental pollution through an improper and/or incorrect handling of slaughterhouse by-products needs to be prevented. The use of animal by-products as feedstuff could be of economical benefit to slaughterhouses and could add nutritive value to animal feed. As a results of the centralisation and intensification of slaughtering, the amount of slaughter by-products produced at a single location is increasing. Until now, hardly any attention, in practice or in research, has been paid to the collection and disposal of these by-products. There are important socio-economic reasons to increase scientific knowledge about the handling of slaughter by-products. Several animal by-products were contaminated with Salmonella. We also showed that rapid breakdown of amino acids in poultry by-products occurs during storage at 20 degrees C. It is concluded that as far as safety, environmental care and nutritive value of animal by-products is concerned, diversification and separation of slaughter by-product collection, storage, disposal and processing is necessary. Measures at source, the slaughterline, and some technologies are suggested for future use. PMID:1574834

Urlings, H A; van Logtestijn, J G; Bijker, P G

1992-01-01

239

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear era has spanned little over a half century, and in that comparatively short period we have witnessed dramatic changes in the way in which the public and their politicians view the environment. Until the 1960s, people were concerned primarily with their own health and prosperity - there was little reason to think that the environment was at risk. Increasingly, however, as time went on, there was evidence - for the public to see - of the environment being damaged. Emissions from the burning of fossil fuels were causing acid rain, resulting in damage to sensitive ecosystems, and the increased use of chemical fertilisers was resulting in polluted surface waters, upsetting ecological balances and causing more visible evidence of a deteriorating environment. More recently, the threat of global warming and its possible implications for humans and their environment has become a common concern. Thus, from the 1970s onwards, there was an increasing consciousness that the environment - which depends on a delicate and complex balance of ecosystems - must be cared for and protected. This led to the UN Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 and to the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. The latter conference, called the 'Earth Summit', resulted in the Rio Declaration, which, among other things, concluded that 'in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be isolated from it'. This was reinforced in the declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg last year, where it With the growing interest in improved environmental protection, it was gradually realized that the international standards for radiation protection were insufficient since they focused exclusively on the protection of humans. While there is no evidence of any permanent harm having been caused to the environment by nuclear activities under normal conditions, it is clear that the subject has not been formally addressed in setting safety standards and that there is a gap in our philosophical approach. This insufficiency was recognized at an international symposium held here in Stockholm in 1996 and the progress towards rectifying the situation has been punctuated by further international meetings - in Ottawa in 1999, in Darwin in 2002 and now back here in Stockholm. I am pleased to say that the IAEA has played an active role in each of these meetings. This conference represents an important step in the process of establishing an accepted international framework for environmental radiation protection. This has been recognized by the latest General Conference of the IAEA, which has welcomed the steps taken in developing an international framework for the protection of the environment from ionizing radiation and drawn attention to this conference

240

Addressing research capacity for health equity and the social determinants of health in three African countries: the INTREC programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The importance of tackling economic, social and health-related inequities is increasingly accepted as a core concern for the post-Millennium Development Goal framework. However, there is a global dearth of high-quality, policy-relevant and actionable data on inequities within populations, which means that development solutions seldom focus on the people who need them most. INTREC (INDEPTH Training and Research Centres of Excellence was established with this concern in mind. It aims to provide training for researchers from the INDEPTH network on associations between health inequities, the social determinants of health (SDH, and health outcomes, and on presenting their findings in a usable form to policy makers. Objective: As part of a baseline situation analysis for INTREC, this paper assesses the current status of SDH training in three of the African INTREC countries – Ghana, Tanzania, and South Africa – as well as the gaps, barriers, and opportunities for training. Methods: SDH-related courses from the three countries were identified through personal knowledge of the researchers, supplemented by snowballing and online searches. Interviews were also conducted with, among others, academics engaged in SDH and public health training in order to provide context and complementary material. Information regarding access to the Internet, as a possible INTREC teaching medium, was gathered in each country through online searches. Results: SDH-relevant training is available, but 1 the number of places available for students is limited; 2 the training tends to be public-health-oriented rather than inclusive of the broader, multi-sectoral issues associated with SDH; and 3 insufficient funding places limitations on both students and on the training institutions themselves, thereby affecting participation and quality. We also identified rapidly expanding Internet connectivity in all three countries, which opens up opportunities for e-learning on SDH, though the current quality of the Internet services remains mixed. Conclusions: SDH training is currently in short supply, and there is a clear role for INTREC to contribute to the training of a critical mass of African researchers on the topic. This work will be accomplished most effectively by building on pre-existing networks, institutions, and methods.

Karen Hofman

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

ACTUAL ASPECTS OF RESEARCHES OF LEARNING TOOLS QUALITY DEFINITION PROBLEMS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN UKRAINE ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article actual aspects of researches of problems concerning achievement of a high level of education quality, actual aspects of researches of problems concerning definition of programming learning tools quality at secondary school in the conditions of creation of unified educational space of educational system in Ukraine are considered and described. Stages of directions of researches in the conditions of global international educational environment formation are described. The attention is paid to the necessity of carrying out of competent and carefully studied technological policy during the period when level of education availability is growing as well as a quality education problem is getting a social character.? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????. ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ??????? ??????. ???????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ???, ???? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????.

M.?. ?????

2011-02-01

242

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final disposal, and a system for the restoration of such control if it has been lost. The Supplementary Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources provides non-binding guidance concerning the import and export of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources, notably in relation to the evaluation of export authorization requests and pre-shipment notification. Furthermore there is the IAEA Safeguards Agreements and their Additional Protocols, which require accounting and control of nuclear material, and the establishment of State systems of accounting and control. The purpose and objectives of this conference are, on the one hand, to look back and review our collective experience in combating illicit nuclear trafficking, and on the other hand, looking forward, to see whether we can identify ways in which existing practices can be improved, and where it might be useful for new practices to be developed

243

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last week we were reminded once again of the after-effects of Chernobyl. Unexpectedly high values of the radioactive substance caesium were found in moose meat from the south of Vaesterbotten County. A moose cow shot in Aengersjoe had 2000 becquerel per kilo meat, and a moose calf had almost 4000 becquerel. The caesium content in Swedish moose has varied after the 1986 reactor breakdown at Chernobyl. The explanation for this year's unusually high content appears to be that, due to the warm weather, the moose have eaten blueberries which contain more caesium than plants in wood clearings. Moose meat containing caesium reminds us of the vulnerability of our society. It reminds us that emissions cross borders and that ambitious, long term environmental policies must be adopted at the national but above all at the international level. Work on environmental objectives is an important component of Swedish efforts to overcome our environmental problems within a generation. In Sweden, our work is based on 15 environmental quality objectives. We have established subgoals, action strategies and follow-up mechanisms. In an international context it is, I venture to say, unique in its systematic structure. The Swedish Government and Riksdag have laid down that: - Human health and biological diversity shall be protected against harmful effects of radiation in the outdoor environment. - By the year 2010, the content in the environment of radioactive substances emitted from all activities and operations shall be so low that human health and biological diversity are protected. - By the year 2020 the annual number of cases of skin cancer caused by the sun shall not be higher than the figure for the year 2000. The risks involved in electromagnetic fields shall be continuously reviewed and necessary measures taken when such risks are identified. These objectives describe the quality and conditions for Sweden's environmental, natural and cultural resources that are ecologically sustainable in the long term. Sweden welcomes the work done by the IAEA and the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) to draw up guidelines and recommendations for radiation protection

244

Keynote address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I am truly honored to be your keynote speaker at the first International Oil Spill R ampersand D Forum. This Forum is cosponsored by the Coast Guard, on behalf of the OPA 90 Interagency Coordinating Committee on Oil Spill Research, and the International Maritime Organization. The fact that IMO is jointly sponsoring the Forum truly reflects the global nature of our concerns for the marine environment. I was asked to speak to you today because of my purview over the entire Coast Guard R ampersand D Program, a significant portion of which is oil spill related. Our environmental awareness was renewed on March 24, 1990 when the tankship Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and caused the largest vessel related oil spill in U.S. history. During the next 15 months there were three other large oil spills that threatened the U.S. shorelines. The U.S. flag tank vessel American Trader suffered a three foot diameter hole in a cargo tank near Huntington Beach California; the Mega Borg, a Norwegian flag tank vessel, exploded and caught fire off the coast of Texas in the Gulf of Mexico; and the Greek flag tanker World Prodigy ran aground in Narragensett Bay near Rhode Island. Each spill presented a unique set of challenges to our response operations. Despite intense response and cleanup actions, which included excellent international cooperation for the Exxon Valdez spill, it was apparent that existing world-wide catastrophic spill response capabilities could easily be exceeded and that there was no international mechanism which promoted and facilitated cooperations

245

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now universal recognition of the illicit trafficking problem and more uniform agreement on the need to take action to combat nuclear terrorism. In the past, security issues were considered strictly a national responsibility. It is now recognized that illicit trafficking not only concerns the protection of national borders but that there are vital international parameters. The IAEA's activities in the nuclear security field took a quantum leap in 2002 when it established its first Nuclear Security Plan for 2002-2005, including protection against illicit trafficking. We are now implementing the second plan for 2006-2009, which has been approved by our Board of Governors and the General Conference in 2005. The current Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009, which ranges over two bi-annual programme and budget periods, is comprehensive and identifies three activity areas, as well as activities supporting nuclear security. The first activity area is entitled 'Needs assessment, analysis and coordination' and is 'horizontal' in that it supports the implementation of the entire plan, and provides nuclear security relevant information, for purposes of information exchange to help prioritize activities and in support of operational activities. The ITDB programme is a cornerstone in the work to combat illicit trafficking. The second activity area, namely, prevention, aims at supporting sustainable capacity building in IAEA Member States to meet the threat of nuclear terrortates to meet the threat of nuclear terrorism and of other criminal activities involving nuclear and other radioactive substances. Core activities include an effective accounting registry and physical protection, the implementation of a nuclear security culture and measures to sustain effective systems in the long term. Should prevention fail, it will be important to have a second line of defence, which is the third activity area in the plan, referred to as detection and response. This is the area which is of particular concern at this conference. Within this area, activities are performed to help establish enhanced capabilities at border crossings and elsewhere in countries to detect smuggling of radioactive substances. For this, effective and user friendly detection instruments are needed, both for goods, persons and vehicles. Proper procedures must be available to deal with the detection of radioactive material and the seizure of material by law enforcement organizations. Basic plans must be available to meet the radiation dispersal device threat and to deal with emergencies at nuclear installations, other locations and transports resulting from attacks or other malicious acts. The plan outlines what must be done to achieve the goals of prevention, detection and response. It recognizes the need to work on parallel tracks. One track is to implement the plan and provide support for the implementation of the requirements of the legal instruments: reference materials containing a set of internationally accepted guides and recommendations are being established. For the purpose of publishing such guides and recommendations, the IAEA has initiated a Nuclear Security Series. Three categories of documents are now being considered. The first category is the security fundamentals that provide the fundamental principles for nuclear security. The next category of documents will contain recommendations, which establish functional requirements, 'what should be done' as a basis for regulatory systems. The third category is 'how to do it' including best practices for implementation and these are documented in implementing guides and supporting technical guidance. On another track, we find the IAEA nuclear security services; advisory and evaluation missions that are convened with teams of recognized international experts to evaluate the status and provide recommendations for improvements of different features of the nuclear security systems. The International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ) mission aims at determining the overall needs for improvements in a cou

246

Principles of Positive Behaviour Supports: Using the FBA as a Problem-Solving Approach to Address Challenging Behaviours beyond Special Populations  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA) is an investigative process that examines the context of challenging behaviours in the classroom. Information gleaned from the FBA process is used to develop a behaviour intervention plan to address the challenging behaviour and teach a socially acceptable replacement behaviour. However, the FBA has…

Moreno, Gerardo; Bullock, Lyndal M.

2011-01-01

247

Opening address  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the international conference on 'Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities: Assuring the Safe Termination of Practices Involving Radioactive Materials', on behalf of the President of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Mr. Wolfram Koenig. The BfS is very pleased to host this conference on behalf of the German Government. We are deeply honoured by the request of the International Atomic Energy Agency to organize this conference and were delighted to accept it. After more than a year of preparatory work we are ready now to start the conference, with its plenary session, the poster presentations and the industrial exhibition. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an important issue in Germany. Following the agreement between the Federal Government and the operators of nuclear power plants to phase out of nuclear power generation within the next 20 years, the successive shutdown of facilities and subsequent dismantling will be a major task for all parties involved. As Germany is in favour of immediate dismantling, all the reactor sites should be brought to green field conditions in about 30 years from now. Germany has already gained a lot of practical experience in the decommissioning of all types of nuclear facilities. In total, 57 nuclear facilities were shut down and 27 were dismantled. Most of them are research reactors. The shutdown facilities include 17 nuclear power plants. Two of them were completely dismantled to green field conditions. In our definition, 'nuclear power plants' mean facilities that were connected to the grid. Of course, many of the facilities are smaller prototype reactors, but larger ones are also included. These are the five WWER reactors of Soviet design in Greifswald, which is claimed to be the biggest decommissioning project in the world, the Wuergassen BWR with 640 MW(e) (net) and the Muehlheim-Kaerlich PWR with 1220 MW(e) (net). Both facilities, Greifswald and Wuergassen, can be visited on Friday in the context of the 'scientific tours'. Furthermore, an application for the decommissioning of the Stade PWR with 640 MW(e) (net) was submitted to the regulators and is under examination. It should also be mentioned that nine fuel cycle facilities were shut down in Germany and four of them were completely dismantled. Amongst the fuel cycle facilities is the Karlsruhe prototype reprocessing plant, which has the following specialty: the reprocessing plant is being dismantled and a vitrification plant is being constructed in parallel in order to solidify the roughly 80 m3 of liquid HLW originating from the reprocessing of 208 Mg of spent fuel. Dismantling of the vitrification plant is the last step in this process. Another outstanding project is the cleanup and rehabilitation of the uranium mining and milling sites of the Wismut company in the German States of Saxony and Thuringia. When the facility was closed at the end of 1990, it had produced about 231 000 t of uranium. At that time, Wismut was the third largest uranium producer in the world. The ongoing work includes the stabilization and remediation of the waste rock piles, dismantling of the mining and milling facilities and underground remediation measures. The total cleanup costs are estimated to be about Euro 6.5 billion.The site is the destination of a scientific tour on Friday. The tour is not yet fully booked. Last minute registrations are possible at the registration desk. A large amount of research work was carried out in Germany for the development of methods, technologies, etc., for the dismantling of nuclear facilities, which was publicly funded and carried out, for example at universities. A large amount of know how emerged also from the application of equipment in dismantling the actual facilities. Having this background in mind, it is not surprising that Germany decided on some of the issues that are the subject of this conference, for example release from regulatory control. German experts will provide the respective input for the conference and experience ca

248

Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds ... News) -- Niacin, a commonly used cholesterol treatment, doesn't reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke ...

249

Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

Shaw, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

250

Researching and Shaping Information Literacy Initiatives in Relation to the Web: Some Framework Problems and Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

Information literacy and the Web are paramount issues in academic librarianship. The central question addressed by current research was students' quality of Web utilization. Some of the recent data and studies on how students are utilizing the Web is reexamined. Our thesis is that the data are framed by an information literacy perspective,…

Buschman, John; Warner, Dorothy A.

2005-01-01

251

Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

1991-10-01

252

The way of perceiving ecological problems by citizens of Vojvodina: Presentation of empirical research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents selected results of an empirical research about the attitudes of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems. Its starting hypothesis is that the sensibility of citizens’ attitudes towards ecological problems is the crucial key to create participative model of decision-making processes regarding environment. Research goals are descriptive and exploratory: evaluating the general attitude towards ecological problems, and checking their links with socio-demographic characteristics of respondents and with the globalization of the consciousness about the environment. The results of research show that respondents first recognize directly observable ecological problems (pollution. The rest of respondents recognized ecological problems which are necessarily mediated by global ecological consciousness and by ideas that put mainly human beings in the center of ecological issues (the lack of ecological consciousness. The respondents are divided in determining the state/civil society as the possible source of ecological problems, where most of them recognized the state institutions (ecological legislation as such. The respondents expressed a significant level of non-anthropocentric values towards nature. The assumed link between socio-demographic characteristics and reception of ecological problems was not confirmed. It is shown that the attitude of Vojvodinian citizens towards ecological problems is highly diversified. On one hand, this attitude reflects an ecological consciousness, formed by the direct experience in the local context; while, on the other hand, it reflects a consciousness formed in the framework of globalized environmental discourse in “networked society”.

Puši? Ljubinko

2012-01-01

253

Current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines. Research problems statement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current state of designing, manufacturing and mounting of marine system pipelines is considered. The review of researches in the field of pipeline route deviation compensation is given. The research problems of pipeline routes compensating capabilities taking into account features of their configuration are stated.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2013-04-01

254

Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

2010-01-01

255

Language and rigour in qualitative research: Problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

Chen Jing

2008-07-01

256

Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, alo...

Robinett, R. W.

2007-01-01

257

Addressable Terminally Linked DNA-CNT Nanowires  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite many advances in carbon nanotube (CNT) research, several issues continue to plague the field with regard to the construction of well-defined hybrid CNT materials. Regiospecific covalent functionalization, nonspecific surface absorption, and carbon nanotube aggregation/bundling present major difficulties when working with these materials. In this communication, we circumvent these problems and report a new addressable hybrid material composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes terminall...

Weizmann, Yossi; Chenoweth, David M.; Swager, Timothy M.

2010-01-01

258

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complex and involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create a solution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how t [...] o obtain a solution from the various candidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can provide rich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimized problem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility model explores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decision analysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. The selection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses a reasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company's knowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to an optimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which is easy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K., Ke.

2013-08-01

259

Opportunities and Problems of Comparative Higher Education Research: The Daily Life of Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher education had a predominant national and institutional focus for a long time. In Europe, supra-national political activities played a major role for increasing the interest in comparative research. Comparative perspectives are important in order to deconstruct the often national perspective of causal reasoning, for proving benchmarks, for…

Teichler, Ulrich

2014-01-01

260

Using Physics to Learn Mathematica to Do Physics: From Homework Problems to Research Examples  

CERN Document Server

We describe the development of a junior-senior level course for Physics majors designed to teach Mathematica skills in support of their undergraduate coursework, but also to introduce students to modern research level results. Standard introductory and intermediate level Physics homework-style problems are used to teach Mathematica commands and programming methods, which are then applied, in turn, to more sophisticated problems in some of the core undergraduate subjects, along with making contact with recent research papers in a variety of fields.

Robinett, R W

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

How can we improve problem-solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research  

CERN Document Server

Modern biological problems are complex. If students are to successfully grapple with such problems as scientists and citizens, they need to have practiced solving authentic, complex problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem-solving for the last three decades. Although the surface features and content of biology problems differ from physics problems, teachers of both sciences want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to make predictions about system behaviors. After surveying literature on problem-solving in physics and biology, we propose how biology education researchers could apply research-supported pedagogical techniques from physics to enhance biology students' problem-solving. First, we characterize the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve. We then describe the development of research-validated physics problem-solving curricula. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can appl...

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie; Knight, Jennifer K

2012-01-01

262

A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR. CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership development, policy making, creating connections and utilizing existing community resources. Evaluating community capacity created as a result of a CBPR project is one way to measure its effectiveness. This paper is a retrospective analysis of the capacity built during a CBPR study of diabetes and obesity in East and South Los Angeles which are two low-income and minority neighborhoods. Four people, who were heavily involved in the project, completed a retrospective analysis of the capacity built utilizing a validated instrument. There was consensus about the capacity built, which included: excellent participation by community members, inclusion of members’ ideas to leverage additional funding, and pride of community members in their participation in the project. One area that could have been strengthened was increased access for leadership and research experience among community members, especially since the project ended prematurely. There were differences among the two community groups with East Los Angeles members focusing more on tangible interventions and grant writing, while South Los Angeles members had a greater policy focus. Communities and researchers who are embarking on a CBPR project can learn from those who have implemented the strategy. Measuring capacity built during and after the project, can be one way to understanding the contributions of a project in a community. CBPR is an empowering research methodology which, done correctly, can build community capacity and have long-term impacts on individuals and communities.

Kathryn Hillstrom

2014-06-01

263

A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

Whitaker, Elaine E.

1993-01-01

264

The a3 problem solving report: a 10-step scientific method to execute performance improvements in an academic research vivarium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high level A3 Thinking. PMID:24204681

Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M

2013-01-01

265

Research of Current Situation and Problems in the Interview of Kindergarten Teacher Qualification in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is based on the proposal that interviews of teacher qualification in china should be situational interviews and as to existing problems in current implementation procedures and examiner composition of interviews of national teacher qualification, the research proposes suggestions of emphasizing the working analysis on key events of kindergarten teachers, guaranteeing homogeneity of interview questions, developing anchoring scale, and suggesting the establishment of examiner qualification system.

Huilan YUE

2014-09-01

266

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complexand involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create asolution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how to obtain a solution from the variouscandidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can providerich clues for problem-solving decision making. This work uses a selection approach to determine an optimizedproblem-solving process which will assist workers in choosing reasonable solutions. A context-based utility modelexplores the problem context information to obtain candidate solution actual utility values; a multi-criteria decisionanalysis uses the actual utility values to determine the optimal selection order for candidate solutions. Theselection order is presented to the worker as an adaptive knowledge recommendation. The worker chooses areasonable problem-solving solution based on the selection order. This paper uses a high-tech company’sknowledge base log as a source of analysis data. The experimental results show that the chosen approach to anoptimized problem-solving solution selection is effective. The contribution of this research is a method which iseasy to implement in a problem-solving decision support system.

C. K. Ke

2013-08-01

267

Addressing \\mu-b_\\mu and proton lifetime problems and active neutrino masses in a U(1)^\\prime-extended supergravity model  

CERN Document Server

We present a locally supersymmetric extension of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) based on the gauge group $SU(3)_C\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y\\times U(1)^\\prime$ where, except for the supersymmetry breaking scale which is fixed to be $\\sim 10^{11}$ GeV, we require that all non-Standard-Model parameters allowed by the {\\it local} spacetime and gauge symmetries assume their natural values. The $U(1)^\\prime$ symmetry, which is spontaneously broken at the intermediate scale, serves to ({\\it i})~explain the weak scale magnitudes of $\\mu$ and $b_\\mu$ terms, ({\\it ii})~ensure that dimension-3 and dimension-4 baryon-number-violating superpotential operators are forbidden, solving the proton-lifetime problem, ({\\it iii}) predict {\\it bilinear lepton number violation} in the superpotential at just the right level to accommodate the observed mass and mixing pattern of active neutrinos (leading to a novel connection between the SUSY breaking scale and neutrino masses), while corresponding trilinear operat...

Hundi, R S; Tata, Xerxes

2009-01-01

268

Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Laddering and means-end chains are one of the most promising developments in consumer research since the 1980s. It is an approach that takes consumers' individuality seriously but, nevertheless, comes up with quantitative results. It is rooted in a cognitive approach, and allows for emotional and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals with methodological problems of the interview technique called laddering, og coding laddering data, and of analysing the coded data. However, also shown, methodological and theoretical issues are partly interlinked: resolutions of methodological problems may require theoretical progress or at least a clarification of some theoretical issues. We therefore start with a discussion of some unresolved theoretical issues.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

2001-01-01

269

Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments. PMID:23475660

Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

2013-03-01

270

Evaluating the Research Problems Arising from Attempts to Measure the Learning Environment within Different Medical Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues in the measurement and interpretation of student perceptions of medical schools' learning environments in earlier British research are discussed and compared with a more recent Australian study. Two of the problems are methodology in large-scale studies and institutional reform based solely on survey results. (MSE)

Feletti, Grahame I.

1983-01-01

271

Research on the Problem of Spur Gear Teeth Contact in the Car Gear Box  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents research on the problem of two gear contact in the car gearbox. Contact stiffness is evaluated for the whole period of mesh. Also, contact stresses are evaluated in the contact place. The presented method can be used for calculating spur gear.Article in Lithuanian

Viktor Skrickij

2011-04-01

272

Some results and open problems in research on low dimensional organic conductors  

CERN Document Server

This is a broad reviw of some of the fundamental results of research on the Bechgaard salts.To a lesser extent Q2D salts will also be discussed.Apart from known results,based on the author's work and the literature,some open problems will also be presented.

Celebonovic, V

2003-01-01

273

Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy  

Science.gov (United States)

The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

2007-01-01

274

Comorbidity of Anxiety and Conduct Problems in Children: Implications for Clinical Research and Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…

Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

275

Study of a methodology of identifying important research problems by the PIRT process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose a new methodology of identifying important research problems to be solved to improve the performance of some specific scientific technologies by the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process which has been used as a methodology for demonstrating the validity of the best estimate simulation codes in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensing of nuclear power plants. The new methodology makes it possible to identify important factors affecting the performance of the technologies from the viewpoint of the figure of merit and problems associated with them while it keeps the fundamental concepts of the original PIRT process. Also in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology by applying it to a task of extracting research problems for improving an inspection accuracy of ultrasonic testing or eddy current testing in the inspection of objects having cracks due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. (author)

276

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support. We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-12-01

277

Problem-based learning in cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a virtual learning environment – methodological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in the world, however some nurses face several difficulties to perform Basic and Advanced Life Support.We believe that active methodologies, such as Problem-Based Learning (PBL may be a good option to improve the learning process in Nursing. This is a methodological research and technological production of quantitative nature that aims to develop Problem-Based Learning in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on a Virtual Learning Environment for Nursing Graduation. The research attends to the ethical principles recommended by Resolution 196/96. The instruments used for data bank are: (1 Virtual Learning Environment with its resources, activities and tools; (2 Form based on Standard ISO/IEC 9126 with three extra opened questions to evaluate the PBL methodology. We hope that the use of PBL methodology will improve the nurses’ abilities and skills to solve real-life problems, when compared with traditional education.

Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo

2007-09-01

278

Instruction texts and problems for the training and examination of selected personnel at research nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication comprises 6 separate brochures: (1) Selected chapters in reactor theory; (2) Experimental education methods; (3) Research and experimental reactors; (4.1) Technical description of the LVR-15 reactor; (4.2) Technical description of the LR-0 reactor; (4.3) Technical description of the VR-1 reactor; (5) Research reactor safety and operation; and (6) Database of problems for qualification examinations. Brochure No. 4 consists of 3 separate parts. The publication is intended for the training and examination of the following research reactor staff: reactor operator, shift engineer, control physicist, and start-up group head. (J.B.)

279

Beyond Kinsey: The committee for research on problems of sex and American psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This introduction to the Special Section of History of Psychology argues for greater attention to psychological research on sex in the decades before the publication of the Kinsey volumes. Drawing on scholarship by Adele Clarke, Donna Haraway and Wade Pickren, this introduction argues for the centrality of the psychological research projects funded by the Committee for Research on Problems of Sex (CRPS), chaired by psychologist Robert Yerkes after 1921. The three individual papers all speak to opposition to the functionalist approach to sex often attributed to Yerkes' CRPS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397909

Hegarty, Peter

2012-08-01

280

Research on the Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm in Web Services Composition Problem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of finding the optimal solution for web services composition problem to meet increasingly sophisticated demand of users, an algorithm called Particle-Ant Colony Algorithm (PACA based on Quality of Service (QoS is proposed in this article. This algorithm converts the web services composition problem into shortest path problem of QoS-based directed acyclic graph. First, find several suboptimal paths by Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA and initialize the pheromones of these paths, then find optimal solution by Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACOA. The experiment result indicates that the PACA can effectively improve the capability of optimizing web services composition problem. The results of the research has theoretical and practical reference values to relevant issues.

Shujun Pei

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Research program on climatic and environmental problems. Summary of Norwegian climatic and ozone layer research in the last decade and important research tasks in the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report includes 44 abstracts, 21 lectures and 23 posters from a workshop arranged by the Norwegian Research Council, the Steering Group for the Norwegian research programme for changes in climate and ozone layer. The topics dealt with are: Results from the research, the greenhouse effect and its influence on the climate of today, the interactions between ocean and climate, pollution influence on ozone layer changes, the UV radiation effects and their influence on the environment, climatic modelling and forecasting, ecological problems related to climatic and environmental changes, the climatic influences of human energy utilisation and suggestions for future research

282

How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are identified and discussed. PMID:21669880

E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

2011-06-01

283

Port virtual addressing for PC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

284

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

285

Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

286

Sampling problems in Brazilian research: a critical evaluation of studies on medicinal plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work compiled Brazilian articles regarding medicinal plant use by local communities in order to analyze the most common sampling problems and if research characteristics can influence the presence of sampling irregularities. We focused on studies about medicinal plants that present a species-in [...] dications list and had a quantitative nature. The proportion of works with and without sampling problems was evaluated considering the journal impact factor, period of publication, community status (urban x rural), sample type, presence of testing hypothesis and presence of research questions. We found that an alarming proportion of papers had some kind of sampling problems (48.39% serious and 19.35% moderate). The most common problems were related to: lack of information regarding the sample size or the universe, small sample sizes and selection of specialists based on obscure criteria. We could not find a significant influence between our tested variables and the occurrence of sampling problems, except for the community status (urban x rural). Results indicate that a significant amount of intracultural diversity is not properly captured, taking into consideration both the population as a whole and a group of interest in the community (= healers).

Patrícia M., Medeiros; Ana H., Ladio; Ulysses P., Albuquerque.

2014-04-01

287

A review of three decades of research on some combinatorial optimization problems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper presents an overview of our research in combinatorial optimization problems. Over the last three decades, our team has been studying mostly optimization problems that arise in industrial environments through the elaboration and solution of mathematical decision models. In addition to elab [...] orating innovative models, we have improved upon existing solutions to complex problems, helping decision makers and researchers to better understand complex industrial systems. Our work has focused on the development of computationally more efficient algorithms that improve on existing methods by improving the solution quality or reducing the computation effort to obtain good solutions. While some of our earlier work became less necessary with the speed up of the computational facilities, the search for improved solution quality and reduced computational effort continues. After reviewing our findings on lot sizing, production scheduling, cutting problems, pattern sequencing, tool switches in flexible manufacturing machines and integrated cutting and sequencing problems, we propose topics for future study.

Horacio Hideki, Yanasse.

2013-04-01

288

Nutrition ecology--a concept for systemic nutrition research and integrative problem solving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many nutrition-related problems (e.g., obesity) are complex and thus characterized by a multitude of components, interrelatedness, associated feedbacks, and dynamics. Nutrition ecology is an innovative concept to deal with complexity and multidimensionality in nutrition science and practice. Along the food supply chain the dimensions health, environment, society, and economy are taken into account simultaneously and coequally. By combining special disciplinary knowledge with methods and principles of research on complexity and knowledge integration, nutrition ecology offers a concept to develop approaches to solving complex nutrition-related problems. Accordingly, the conceptual background and methodological elements of nutrition ecology are presented and discussed. PMID:21888585

Schneider, Katja; Hoffmann, Ingrid

2011-01-01

289

Engaging staff nurses in evidence-based research to identify nursing practice problems and solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article illustrates how one academic health science center in a large metropolitan area sought to improve the quality of patient care by soliciting the input of their nursing staff in devising an action plan for change. The research model incorporated both survey and focus group methods used by nursing leaders in administration and practice to identify and prioritize nursing research and clinical needs in their organization. The goal was to establish consensus among clinicians and researchers about significant issues in the institution requiring in-depth attention. A second objective was to design a survey instrument that is easy to complete and could be distributed, collected, and analyzed easily, thereby providing empirical data to the clinicians in a timely manner and in a simple format. This expedited process enabled specific action plans to be developed around the identified problems. Moreover, the process promoted interest in advancing nursing research and evidence-based practice among the clinicians and administrators. PMID:11078785

Rosenfeld, P; Duthie, E; Bier, J; Bowar-Ferres, S; Fulmer, T; Iervolino, L; McClure, M L; McGivern, D O; Roncoli, M

2000-11-01

290

Introducing a Graduate Research Problem to a Junior Level Class: A Successful Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formulating a research project to be designed and implemented by a junior level class during a short time period is a formidable undertaking. In this paper the authors discuss the problem of rough querying of databases presented to the information systems course and the special issues involved with the design and development of such a system. Of particular note was the greater emphasis in this project on research, and the special challenges involved with exposing undergraduates to graduate-level research concepts and tasks. The students were asked by the instructor to research and learn Database Connectivity, SQL Syntax, Microsoft C# Syntax, Graphical-User Interface Controls, and Database Structure and Design and the .Net framework. The students had to elicit the software requirements from the client at different meetings. Moreover, the students worked on their communicational and oral skills because they had to present their final product to the client and provide ample documentation.

Theresa Beaubouef

2010-07-01

291

Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

292

Excursions in classical analysis pathways to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research  

CERN Document Server

Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.

Chen, Hongwei

2010-01-01

293

Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

Moller Mark S

2008-09-01

294

Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

Alas, Joel

2007-01-01

295

Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence: a review of psychological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed psychological research that consider the Internet as a resource for solving the problems of adolescence. Based on the understanding of self-consciousness as a central adolescence new formation, we formulated a set of tasks of adolescence. It is shown that for the successful solution of age problems by teenagers on the Internet, specialized environments should be designed. Internet as a medium of teenagers’ socialization is characterized by a high degree of variety and uncontrollability. Behavior of adolescents on the Internet depends on the social and cultural context in which they live. The emergence of the Internet makes new demands on media competence of the teenager and his environment. Adolescents face online with a variety of risks. An essential resource for successful adolescent development is the presence of a person whom he trusts, with whom he can consult in difficult situations. The research plan involves the creation of Internet resources, contributing to the solution of teenagers’ problems age, as well as the mapping of the Internet in terms of its developmental potential.

A.V. Zhilinskaya,

2014-08-01

296

Temas e problemas nos projetos de pesquisa Thems and problems in research projects  

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Full Text Available O ponto de partida da atividade cienífica é o espanto e a admiração perante o desconhecido que provocam a imaginação científica, conduzindo o investigador à escolha de uma dada temática. Relevância para o mundo real e contribuição para um campo específico do conhecimento são, aqui, critérios de definição temática. Para o cientista, o tema de pesquisa é o terreno sobre o qual ele formulará problemas relevantes de investigação capazes de suprir lacunas em nossos conhecimentos. Tais problemas devem ser construídos de tal maneira que suas soluções não só esclareçam aspectos até então não explicados do tema, como apontem para novos problemas, ou seja, futuras investigações científicas. Constatando a crescente exigência de monografias de conclusão de curso para a obtenção de título nos cursos de graduação, o artigo procura construir um guia para a definição de temas e a formulação de pesquisa nas ciências humanas. Para tanto, procederá a uma reconstrução metodológica do caminho percorrido por C. Wright Mills em sua obra The power elite. Palavras-chave: Metodologia da pesquisa. Pesquisa cientifica. Problemas científicos. The starting point of the scientific activity is the puzzle and admiration in face of the unknown, which, certainly, will challenge the scientific imagination, leading the researcher in the choice of a certain theme. Relevance for the real world and contribution for a specific field of knowledge are the basic criteria for the thematic definition used here. For the scientist, the theme of the research is the base to formulate relevant research problems able to fill in the gaps of our knowledge. Such problems must be built in such a way that is solutions will not only clarify some aspects of the theme that remained not explained but also provide a path for new questions, i.e., for new scientifc researches to come. As there is a growing demand of under-graduate monographs for the conclusion of the courses, this papaer tries to be a guide for the definition of themes and for the organization of a research in Social Sciences. In order to achieve this goal there will be the reconstruction of The power elite by Wright Mills. Keywords: Methodology of research. Scientific research. Scientific problems.

Alvaro Bianchi

2007-05-01

297

Concept redundancy and contamination in employee commitment research: Current problems and future directions  

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Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has a significant impact on organisational performance. The primary goal of this article is to indicate that the ‘commitment/involvement’ concept did not evolve in an evolutionary and progressive fashion. Several problems in the development course of mainly three streams of research literature are indicated. Arguments are presented for indicating causes of concept contamination and even redundancy. In order to bridge these problems, a motivational approach as an integrating mechanism on a metatheoretical level is presented as a solution. The outcomes thereof should lead to better order on a theoretical level and to the parsimonious use of commitment concepts.

Opsomming
Dit word algemeen aanvaar dat werknemertoewyding ’n duidelike impak op organisasieprestasie het. Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om aan te dui dat die ontwikkeling van die ‘betrokkenheid/toewydings-’ konsep nie evolusionêr en progressief verloop het nie. Verskeie probleme in die ontwikkelingsgang van hoofsaaklik drie strome navorsingsliteratuur word aangedui. Argumente word aangevoer wat op oorsake van konsepkontaminasie en selfs -oorbodigheid dui. Ten einde hierdie probleme te oorkom, word ’n motiveringsbenadering as integrerende meganisme op ’n meta-teoretiese vlak as oplossing voorgehou. Die uitkoms daarvan behoort tot beter orde op teoretiese vlak en tot die spaarsamige gebruik van toewydingskonsepte te lei.

Gert Roodt

2004-10-01

298

ANNUAL VOLUME OF PROCEEDINGS, ADDRESSES, AND RESEARCH PAPERS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING AND EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT OF THE ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BUSINESS OFFICIALS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA (53D, MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, OCTOBER 14-19, 1967).  

Science.gov (United States)

A VERBATIM REPORTING OF PRESENTATIONS MADE AT THE 53D ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BUSINESS OFFICIALS OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, HELD IN MIAMI BEACH, FLORIDA, OCTOBER 14-19, 1967, INCLUDES THE KEYNOTE ADDRESS BY THE HONORABLE BARRY G. LOWES, CHAIRMAN OF THE METROPOLITAN TORONTO BOARD OF EDUCATION, ON PURPOSES, PROBLEMS, AND…

FOSTER, CHARLES W.

299

Measuring humanity (research on the problem of medical service for homeless  

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Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal the structure of the disease between homeless people and leading factors, influencing its formation. Material and Methods. Information on diseases was received from the data of homeless entering the Saratov Clinical hospital ?2 and Clinical hospital ?6 in 2013. The questionnaire of students ofthe 5th course of Medical University on the subject of problem of medical help rendering to homeless. Results. The majority of hospitalized homeless suffered acute respiratory diseases (17,5%. It has been determined that 53% of students are ready to renderthe medical help to homeless, but 39% of students do not consider rendering medical assistance. Conclusion. The research has showed the health state of homeless is conditioned by the weather and psychological and social status. The problems of medical service for homeless are of great importance for future doctors. But specific medical attitude don't formed enough in young doctors.

Skvortsova V.V.

2014-06-01

300

Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earth's surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual system's data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this research determined that spectral resolution of 10um was adequate, but a signal to noise above 300:1 was desirable for hyperspectral sensors with this spectral resolution. Finally, we acquired a hyperspectral thermal dataset (SEBASS) at 3m spatial resolution over our study area in Beatty, Nevada that can be co-registered with the hyperspectral reflectance, LIDAR and digital Orthophoto data sets. This data set will enable us to quantify how measurements in the reflected infrared can be used to make inferences about the response of materials in the thermal infrared, the topic of our follow-on NA-22 investigation ending in 2008. These data provide the basis for our investigations proposed for the NA-22 2008 Broad Area Announcement. Beginning in June 2008, SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation plan to fly the SpecTIR Dual and SEBASS in a stabilized mount in a twin Otter aircraft. This research provides the foundation for using reflected and emitted hyperspectral measurements together for mapping geologic and soil materials in arid to semi-arid regions

 
 
 
 
301

Problems associated with repetitive inspection of reactor pressure vessels and research toward solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past 10 years, technology has successfully developed equipment and ultrasonic techniques for the inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs); and the detection of flaws and reproducibility of data have been satisfactorily demonstrated. However, accurate sizing, location, and analysis of the flaws remain a principal problem. Intensive research is underway to improve the techniques and the hardware for flaw analysis. Examples of the reproducibility of data taken during the inspection of RPVs and advanced computer-assisted, ultrasonic inspection techniques for precise flaw analysis are discussed. (author)

302

Bioarcheology has a "health" problem: Conceptualizing "stress" and "health" in bioarcheological research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a critical historical overview of the stress concept in bioarcheological research and critically evaluates the term "health" in reference to skeletal samples. Stress has a considerable history in 20th century physiological research, and the term has reached a critical capacity of meaning. Stress was operationalized around a series of generalized physiological responses that were associated with a deviation from homeostasis. The term was incorporated into anthropological research during the mid-20th century, and further defined in bioarcheological context around a series of skeletal indicators of physiological disruption and disease. Emphases on stress became a predominate area of research in bioarcheology, and eventually, many studies utilized the terms "health" and "stress" interchangeably as part of a broader, problem-oriented approach to evaluating prehistoric population dynamics. Use of the term "health" in relation to skeletal samples is associated with the intellectual history of bioarcheological research, specifically influences from cultural ecology and processualist archeology and remains problematic for two reasons. First, health represents a comprehensive state of well-being that includes physiological status and individual perception, factors that cannot be readily observed in skeletal samples. Second, the categorization of populations into relative levels of health represents a typological approach, however unintentional. This article advocates for the integration of methodological and theoretical advances from human biology and primatology, while simultaneously incorporating the theoretical constructs associated with social epidemiology into bioarcheological research. Such an approach will significantly increase the applicability of bioarcheological findings to anthropological and evolutionary research, and help realize the goal of a truly relevant bioarcheological paradigm. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:186-191, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25137442

Temple, Daniel H; Goodman, Alan H

2014-10-01

303

Awards and Addresses Summary  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year at the annual ASHG meeting, addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these addresses is given below. On the next pages, we have printed the addresses for the William Allan Award. Many of the other addresses, accompanied by pictures of the speakers, can be found at www.ashg.org.

2009-01-01

304

Technological problems and the future of research on the basic properties of actinide oxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current research on the properties of (U,Pu)O2 fuels and other actinide oxides is placed in the context of the requirements of the nuclear industry. Examples are given of how an understanding of the underlying processes can assist in solving the problems in the nuclear fuel cycle. The roles of solid-state diffusion and vapour transport in the restructuring of nuclear fuels are examined and the importance of defining the chemical state of the fuel is demonstrated. Surface and grain-boundary properties are identified as neglected research topics and their significance with respect to fission gas and volatile fission product behaviour is shown. A brief discussion of the requirements of severe accident analysis is given and the paper concludes by speculating on the most likely future requirements. (author)

305

Opening Address (by A. Dulanto Rencoret) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On behalf of the Government of Chile, I wish to cordially welcome the authorities and scientists involved in the field of nuclear science and technology who have gathered today in Chile from 50 countries to discuss the use of exper- imental nuclear reactors and their contribution to scientific and technological development. Naturally, I also wish to convey to the IAEA our thanks for selecting Chile, through its Commission on Nuclear Energy, to be the host of this important international conference. I would like to begin by explaining the context in which this meeting is taking place. The Government which I have the honour of representing places great importance on scientific and technological development, referring to it in its programme as one of the fundamental pillars for national development, since it is impossible to maintain a competitive productive and exporting sector, or to raise the quality of life of our fellow citizens, without the assistance of science and technology. Conscious of this fact, President Ricardo Lagos, while addressing national business executives last week, issued a call for renewal of the effort being made in research, urging the private sector to increase investment in this area. Investment in science and technology is part of the action being taken by our Government to enable Chile to reach the status of a developed country. Another action measure has been the major increase in State and private investment in education and infnd private investment in education and infrastructure, to mention only some of the priority areas for national development. In the field of education alone, public expenditure has more than tripled during the past decade. The level of investment achieved in infrastructure, on the other hand, is unparalleled in our country, thanks to private investment by major agreements with those countries in which there is greater demand for their use. Chile values the efforts of the IAEA in all fields, especially in terms of implementing safeguards to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the world. I consider this a timely opportunity to reiterate the Government of Chile's iron commitment to exclusively peaceful uses of nuclear energy, as well as our firm opposition to any deviation of this form of energy towards military ends. We also acknowledge the important work achieved through technical cooperation, of which our country has been a beneficiary ever since the initiation of nuclear activity in Chile almost three decades ago. I cannot keep from mentioning the fact that even though nuclear energy represents a major contribution to humanity through the use of isotopes and ionizing radiation, as well as through the generation of electricity throughout the world, our country recognizes that there are some issues pending which must be resolved, taking into account the perspective of developing nations. I refer to the management and final disposal of highly radioactive waste, and also to the cross-border transport of radioactive materials. Both of those issues are rejected by public opinion, making social validation of this form of energy difficult. Esteemed scientists, in closing I would like to convey to you my wishes that the conversations held and agreements entered into during this week may lead to major progress in the use of nuclear research reactors, and that this in turn may contribute to improving the quality of life worldwide, as well as to reinforcing international cooperation. I also hope that your stay in our country will be an enjoyable one, that you may have the opportunity to become a little more acquainted with its natural beauty and culture, and that through the focus on the particular scientific issues which brings you here, it may become possible to achieve progress towards the genuine integration of different peoples and cultures sharing a common ideal: that of putting nuclear science and technology at the service of humankind. Thank you very much. (author)

306

A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many researchers in the genesis of the formation of aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive and constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations of structure. The second part of the article deals with a theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which covers the latest Russian and foreign research aimed at studying the individual manifestations of factors deterring aggression. For basis for the analysis we chose classification of personality structures inhibiting aggressive manifestations, proposed by F.S. Safuanov, which includes values, socio-normative, dispositional, emotional, communicative, intellectual restraining structure and psychological protective mechanisms. We made conclusion that the problem of aggression inhibitors currently stands on the threshold of a new phase of the study, that is to provide a holistic model, including illegal aggressive behavior, taking into account not only the socio-psychological characteristics of "aggressor" and his victims, and personality structures that promote and inhibiting aggression, but also covering a wide range of inhibitors of aggression, acting through different psychological mechanisms.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2014-09-01

307

The Modern State of Research of the Staff Motivation Problem in the Thesis of Ukrainian Scientists  

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Full Text Available Motivation of the staff – encouraging employees to work efficiently in order to achieve objectives of the business or their own – has been the subject of much investigation of Ukrainian scientists as the development of the ways of efficient motivation is an urgent task of the modern science.A large number of scientific works on the subject of motivation has been written so this has generated a need for defining theoretical and practical problems of staff motivation which require further research. Thus, the aim of the article is to determine the key directions in the studies of motivation in the works of Ukrainian scientists, and to make the prospects for studies in this area clear.The theoretical analysis of the abstracts from the thesis for doctor’s degree in economics, which were defended in 1999 – 2010, has shown that in Ukraine the scientists study motivation in the following basic directions: first, motivation is considered as economic incentive, financial stimulus, motivation by payment; second, mainly the problems of motivation in special conditions are studied, namely: motivation in an economy in transition, motivation in agriculture, in banking, in commerce, in small businesses, in the conditions of restructuring as well; third, the idea of motivation is limited to the problem of staff assessment and the results of their work; forth, motivation is treated as a mechanism and some recommendations concerned its effectiveness are given.As a result of the research it has become possible to specify the promising lines of investigation of motivation which haven’t received sufficient attention in the science of economics: first, peculiarities of motivation of executives and managers of different levels, whose role has increased greatly in modern conditions, haven’t been adequately studied; second, the notions of "mechanism of employee motivation" and "mechanism of staff motivation" should be made clear; third, it is necessary to solve one of the most important tasks of forming an efficient mechanism of staff motivation, i. e. to reach harmony of aims of business and staff through integration of mechanism of employee motivation into mechanism of staff motivation; forth, it is necessary to continue studying the problem of assessment of efficiency of staff moti­vation mechanism.The importance of these tasks for personnel management at Ukrainian enterprises dictates the necessity of scientific research in the field of staff motivation that will make the subject of further studies of the authors.

V. Lugova

2011-03-01

308

"What happened to the research?" : Dissemination of research from the International Music Therapy Research Training Program in Aalborg University. An investigation of the publications, the dissemination process, the problems and the expereinces of the researchers.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From 1998 to 2005 twelve researchers graduated as PhDs from the International Music Therapy Research Training Program in Aalborg. They came from many different countries and clinical areas, and many types of research designs were represented. The researchers are all well-known within the international music therapy scene, but no overview has ever been made of how their research was disseminated or promoted in a wider national or international context. This paper addresses the following questions: “What happened to the research after the defence? How were the results of the research published and otherwise disseminated? What was the time frame and contexts of this dissemination process? What are the most important obstacles? Are we communicating in an appropriate way with professionals outside the music therapy community?” The paper is based on information provided by the researchers. Their results and reflections are discussed, and recommendations are given for the future.

Bonde, Lars Ole

2007-01-01

309

A top priority problem of national radiation protection - proper disposal of research reactor spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents basic facts about RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute. The present state of the RA reactor spent fuel storage pool appears to be a serious safety and radiological problem, which must be solved urgently, independent of the decision about the future status of the reactor itself. The following paragraphs describe current activities on improving storage conditions of the research reactor RA spent fuel. Activities performed so far, concerning identification and improvement of the spent fuel storage conditions are presented. These are verification of radiation protection measures, radiological and chemical analyses, visual inspection and photographing, safety analyses and nuclear criticality studies.A project for long-term solution of the research reactor spent fuel storage is proposed. In order to minimise further corrosion and establish strict control of all the relevant technological parameters of the utility, improvement of conditions for disposal of the fuel in the existing storage, is foreseen in the first phase. New dry storage for long-term storing of the spent fuel should be built during the second phase of the project. Particular attention is paid to the activities related to radiation protection and waste treatment, starting from standard monitoring and control, radiological analyses, regulations and legislation, to complicated handling of high level radioactive waste. (authors)

310

??????????????? The Research Status and Problems on Ecology and Environment of Lake Erhai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????50???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????(???????????????????????????????????????????????????(?????????????????????????????????????(??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????There are wide concerns from scholars at domestic and overseas on the ecological environment of Lake Erhai recently as a consequence of worsening status, massive and rapid development on the catchment of Lake Erhai. This paper summarizes the research status of Lake Erhai which has been collected since 1950s, analyzes the current situation of the environment (including eutrophication, heavy metal pollution, and catchment development and vegetation status and ecology (including biological diversity, food web change, and characteristics changes of ecological system, and makes a further analysis on the meteorological factors (including temperature, precipitation and wind speed. Through those data we point out that there are some problems still exist in the research of Lake Erhai, for instance, the Cyano- phyta explosion history, the detailed research on zoo-plankton and food chain, the distinction of drive strength of multi- ple pressure on the process of eutrophication of Lake Erhai for the purpose that we can have a comprehensive under- standing of the situation on ecology and environment of Lake Erhai. In this way we can have cognitive bases for the further relative work carried out in Lake Erhai and support some constructive opinions for ecological restoration work of Lake Erhai preferably.

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2013-08-01

311

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today there is a great consensus that water resources research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specialisations of hydrology with different focus, yet similar theory, concepts, methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focusses on the regional scale (areas of approx. 103 to 106 km2, which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualisation of integration schemes. It is also discussed that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and the society in general. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed different theory, methodology and terminology. Yet, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of truly unifying, interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we should start integration by analysing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply (truly interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few, immediate incentives are experienced.

R. Barthel

2014-02-01

312

HESS Opinions "Integration of groundwater and surface water research: an interdisciplinary problem?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Today there is a great consensus that water resource research needs to become more holistic, integrating perspectives of a large variety of disciplines. Groundwater and surface water (hereafter: GW and SW) are typically identified as different compartments of the hydrological cycle and were traditionally often studied and managed separately. However, despite this separation, these respective fields of study are usually not considered to be different disciplines. They are often seen as different specializations of hydrology with a different focus yet similar theory, concepts, and methodology. The present article discusses how this notion may form a substantial obstacle in the further integration of GW and SW research and management. The article focuses on the regional scale (areas of approximately 103 to 106 km2), which is identified as the scale where integration is most greatly needed, but ironically where the least amount of fully integrated research seems to be undertaken. The state of research on integrating GW and SW research is briefly reviewed and the most essential differences between GW hydrology (or hydrogeology, geohydrology) and SW hydrology are presented. Groundwater recharge and baseflow are used as examples to illustrate different perspectives on similar phenomena that can cause severe misunderstandings and errors in the conceptualization of integration schemes. The fact that integration of GW and SW research on the regional scale necessarily must move beyond the hydrological aspects, by collaborating with the social sciences and increasing the interaction between science and society in general, is also discussed. The typical elements of an ideal interdisciplinary workflow are presented and their relevance with respect to the integration of GW and SW is discussed. The overall conclusions are that GW hydrology and SW hydrogeology study rather different objects of interest, using different types of observation, working on different problem settings. They have thus developed a different theory, methodology and terminology. However, there seems to be a widespread lack of awareness of these differences, which hinders the detection of the existing interdisciplinary aspects of GW and SW integration and consequently the development of a truly unifying interdisciplinary theory and methodology. Thus, despite having the ultimate goal of creating a more holistic approach, we may have to start integration by analyzing potential disciplinary differences. Improved understanding among hydrologists of what interdisciplinary means and how it works is needed. Hydrologists, despite frequently being involved in multidisciplinary projects, are not sufficiently involved in developing interdisciplinary strategies and do usually not regard the process of integration as such as a research topic of its own. There seems to be a general reluctance to apply a (truly) interdisciplinary methodology because this is tedious and few immediate incentives are experienced. The objective of the present opinion paper is to stimulate a discussion rather than to provide recipes on how to integrate GW and SW research or to explain how specific problems of GW-SW interaction should be solved on a technical level. For that purpose it presents complicated topics in a rather simplified, bold way, ignoring to some degree subtleties and potentially controversial issues.

Barthel, R.

2014-07-01

313

The fuel element of the first charge for EL 4; presentation, main problems arising in the research, production problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fuel element making up the first charge for EL-4 is made of slightly enriched uranium oxide canned in stainless steel. This fuel element makes it possible to operate the reactor in the safest conditions awaiting the development of the fuel which will be finally adopted; this will have a low absorption can: beryllium, or a zirconium copper alloy. The 500 mm assembly is made up of 19 small rods placed on 3 rings, inside a graphite jacket. The solution adopted was a solution using completely independent small rods. This report deals with possible problems resulting from their study and production. (authors)

314

Research program Radiation aspects of home hygiene and related radio-ecological problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Dutch Research and Development Program into the radiation safety of houses and related radioecological problems is reviewed. Monitoring and registration of background radiation radon concentration in our daily living environment, partly originating from certain building materials, should occur. Radiological stock-taking of materials and construction elements for buildings has to be investigated. Concentration of radionuclides should be determined in samples. Radiological studies related to the emission from coal-fired plants and leaching of fly ash used in building materials have been started. The measurements with temporary integrating passive RN-dosimeters revealed values for exhalation rates, the average ventilation rate and the resulting RN-concentration. The average radiation exposure of the lungs can be calculated from a general risk analysis. (Auth.)

315

The Research about the Repair and Maintenance Problem of Tourist Hotel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we have a research about the repair and maintenance problem of Tourist Hotel. The professional repair and maintenance of Tourist Hotel is a very important job. Because it can not only effectively prolong the service life of equipment and raise its utilization rate but also ensure the management service needs of the Tourist Hotel better. Therefore, the Tourist Hotel in operational process must always adhere to always clear characteristics of hotel equipment management, content and basic program, regarding the advanced repair maintenance concept as the guidance, establish the scientific management system, clarify the professional requirements and perfect effective management mechanism, so as to ensure that its maintenance work into effect.

Fei-Long Liu

2013-06-01

316

Power Quality Problems Mitigation using Dynamic Voltage Restorer in Egypt Thermal Research Reactor (ETRR-2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt thermal research reactor (ETRR-2) was subjected to several Power Quality Problems such as voltage sags/swells, harmonics distortion, and short interruption. ETRR-2 encompasses a wide range of loads which are very sensitive to voltage variations and this leads to several unplanned shutdowns of the reactor due to trigger of the Reactor Protection System (RPS). The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has recently been introduced to protect sensitive loads from voltage sags and other voltage disturbances. It is considered as one of the most efficient and effective solution. Its appeal includes smaller size and fast dynamic response to the disturbance. This paper describes a proposal of a DVR to improve power quality in ETRR-2 electrical distribution systems . The control of the compensation voltage is based on d-q-o algorithm. Simulation is carried out by Matlab/Simulink to verify the performance of the proposed method

317

Research on the Optimization Method of Virtual Enterprise’s Task Scheduling Problems in Aluminum Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional research on production scheduling in aluminum industry, aimed to certain production process, simply pursued the output as the highest aim, scheduled based on experience, so that the result of scheduling cannot reach the global optimization, and cannot realize production scheduling and resource allocation with the aim of optimal energy consumption, resulting in the waste of energy. Taken the minimal sum of energy consumption in production, transport and stock as objective function and integrated with enterprise’s experiences in production, the article establishes a model of virtual enterprise’s task scheduling in aluminum industry and a hybrid distributed particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to solve the problem. Finally, simulation experiment is carried out using industrial data and the result shows the optimized scheduling method has obvious optimal effect on reducing scheduling time, optimizing allocation of resources and so on, and thus the energy saving and consumption reducing purpose are obtained. 

Erwei Yin

2011-01-01

318

Computational researches about a problem of experiments on target complex TS-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A benchmark problem presented at the '10th International meetings of the working group on advanced nuclear reactors thermal-hydraulics' in Obninsk, Russia, in 2001, is the starting point for some computational researches validated against experiments on target complex TS-1. The window model of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) target TS-1, is under development in the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) and Joint Design Bureau 'Gidropress' for accelerator LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory. The experiments were carried out with sodium-potassium eutectic alloy: 22% Na + 78% K. Different grids, different turbulence models, and different assumptions were tried using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes STAR-CD and FLUENT. It is a big challenge for these CFD codes, to simulate flows with low Prandtl number fluids, such as the liquid metals. (author)

319

On multidisciplinary research on the application of remote sensing to water resources problems  

Science.gov (United States)

This research is directed toward development of a practical, operational remote sensing water quality monitoring system. To accomplish this, five fundamental aspects of the problem have been under investigation during the past three years. These are: (1) development of practical and economical methods of obtaining, handling and analyzing remote sensing data; (2) determination of the correlation between remote sensed imagery and actual water quality parameters; (3) determination of the optimum technique for monitoring specific water pollution parameters and for evaluating the reliability with which this can be accomplished; (4) determination of the extent of masking due to depth of penetration, bottom effects, film development effects, and angle falloff, and development of techniques to eliminate or minimize them; and (5) development of operational procedures which might be employed by a municipal, state or federal agency for the application of remote sensing to water quality monitoring, including space-generated data.

1972-01-01

320

Problem solving in physics: research review, analysis, and a methodological proposal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a literature review on problem solving in Physics based on the scientific articles published in periodicals of the related field of study. The articles considered for this study were published in the period between the end of the 70`s until 1999. A categorization of the publications , according to the issue investigated, the theoretical background used, the research method adopted, the results and conclusions are considered as a starting point in order to present a research profile of the field of study. Next, this profile is discussed and analyzed , pointing out the convergent aspects that characterize the field. Taking this analysis into account, the following thesis (based on Fávero`s proposal, 2000 is defended: in order to generate tools for the teaching practice of Physics through the study of problem solving, a method that substitutes the idea of knowledge transmission in the communication processes that takes place in the classroom should be developed. This method should comprise the idea of interlocution (Vion, 2000 which focuses on social interaction as a means to reveal metacognitive regulations of the subjects, pariticipants in the process, and their development of awareness in relation to a conceptual field (Vergnaud, 1990 – Physics, in this case. The analysis of these processes considers the verbal exchanges among the subjects (Bromberg & Chabrol, 1999 developed in the situation of interaction. This thesis is supported by the articulation of concepts in Psychology, including its interface with linguistics, such as conceptual field, development of awareness and acts of speech, which are reconsidered in this study.

Maria Helena Fávero

2001-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on `Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions` are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author).

Takada, Shoji; Shiina, Yasuaki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hishida, Makoto; Sudo, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

1995-08-01

322

Benchmark problem for IAEA coordinated research program (CRP-3) on GCR afterheat removal. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, detailed data which are necessary for the benchmark analysis of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Program (CRP-3) on 'Heat Transport and Afterheat Removal for Gas-cooled Reactors under Accident Conditions' are described concerning about the configuration and sizes of the cooling panel test apparatus, experimental data and thermal properties. The test section of the test apparatus is composed of pressure vessel (max. 450degC) containing an electric heater (max. 100kW, 600degC) and cooling panels surrounding the pressure vessel. Gas pressure is varied from vacuum to 1.0MPa in the pressure vessel. Two experimental cases are selected as benchmark problems about afterheat removal of HTGR, described as follows, The experimental conditions are vacuum inside the pressure vessel and heater output 13.14kW, and helium gas pressure 0.73MPa inside the pressure vessel and heater output 28.79kW. Benchmark problems are to calculate temperature distributions on the outer surface of pressure vessel and heat transferred to the cooling panel using the experimental data. The analytical result of temperature distribution on the pressure vessel was estimated +38degC, -29degC compared with the experimental data, and analytical result of heat transferred from the surface of pressure vessel to the cooling panel was estimated max. -11.4% compared with the experimental result by using the computational code -THANPACST2- of JAERI. (author)

323

A review of research on the problem of aggression inhibitors (Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most modern scholars in the genesis of the aggressive behavior inextricably consider proagressive factors and factors constraining, or inhibiting, aggressive manifestations. At the same time, there are also scientific approaches to understanding the nature of aggression, which in some cases does not focus directly on the structures inhibiting aggressive impulses, and are limited to considering only the aggression catalysts. In the present article we discuss the need to introduce the term "inhibitors of aggression", analyze different positions and views on this problem. We consider not only Russian conceptions of the nature of aggression retarding structures, but also the international research aimed at understanding the psychological analogue of this phenomenon: "protective factors". The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical overview of the problem of aggression inhibitors, which not only traces the history of the studies of this phenomenon, but also makes an attempt to analyze few up-to-day theories of aggressive behavior, aimed at objectivation of the psychological mechanism of interaction of proagressive and inhibiting personality structures.

Kalashnikova A.S.

2014-09-01

324

An anthropologic study on strategies for addressing health problems among the elderly in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Um estudo antropológico sobre as estratégias para resolver problemas de saúde entre idosos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo utiliza a abordagem antropológica para examinar mecanismos por meio dos quais a situação socioeconômica influencia as estratégias desenvolvidas por idosos residentes em uma pequena cidade brasileira para enfrentar seus problemas de saúde. Entrevistas com vinte informantes-chave visaram à [...] percepção da comunidade acerca da saúde do idoso. Entrevistas com trinta senhoras idosas objetivaram a percepção que elas possuíam da saúde e estratégias adotadas para resolver tais problemas. As análises mostraram que as narrativas dos dois grupos convergem na ênfase do papel desempenhado por fatores financeiros no acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos medicamentos. As histórias de vida descreveram algumas estratégias prejudiciais à saúde para fazer frente à falta de recursos. As senhoras também destacaram a importância do apoio da família e/ou de vizinhos para superar problemas relacionados à saúde. Assim, a questão da pobreza não é só econômica, mas também a pobreza das redes sociais de apoio. Abstract in english This paper explores the contribution of anthropological perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms through which socioeconomic circumstances influence the strategies developed by elderly for addressing their health problems in a small Brazilian city. Interviews with 20 key-informants explored the co [...] mmunity's broad perception of the health situation of the elderly. Life histories collected from 30 elderly women examined their own perception of their health status and their health strategies. Narratives converge in emphasising the important role played by financial factors in accessing health services and medication. Life histories also describe some damaging strategies resorted to by the elderly to deal with their lack of resources. Elderly women emphasize the crucial support they receive from their family and/or neighbours to overcome health problems. Thus, the issue of poverty is not only a matter of socioeconomic circumstances, but also the poverty of broader social networks.

Elizabeth, Uchôa; Josélia O. A., Firmo; Maria Fernanda, Lima-Costa; Ellen, Corin.

325

An anthropologic study on strategies for addressing health problems among the elderly in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil / Um estudo antropológico sobre as estratégias para resolver problemas de saúde entre idosos de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo utiliza a abordagem antropológica para examinar mecanismos por meio dos quais a situação socioeconômica influencia as estratégias desenvolvidas por idosos residentes em uma pequena cidade brasileira para enfrentar seus problemas de saúde. Entrevistas com vinte informantes-chave visaram à [...] percepção da comunidade acerca da saúde do idoso. Entrevistas com trinta senhoras idosas objetivaram a percepção que elas possuíam da saúde e estratégias adotadas para resolver tais problemas. As análises mostraram que as narrativas dos dois grupos convergem na ênfase do papel desempenhado por fatores financeiros no acesso aos serviços de saúde e aos medicamentos. As histórias de vida descreveram algumas estratégias prejudiciais à saúde para fazer frente à falta de recursos. As senhoras também destacaram a importância do apoio da família e/ou de vizinhos para superar problemas relacionados à saúde. Assim, a questão da pobreza não é só econômica, mas também a pobreza das redes sociais de apoio. Abstract in english This paper explores the contribution of anthropological perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms through which socioeconomic circumstances influence the strategies developed by elderly for addressing their health problems in a small Brazilian city. Interviews with 20 key-informants explored the co [...] mmunity's broad perception of the health situation of the elderly. Life histories collected from 30 elderly women examined their own perception of their health status and their health strategies. Narratives converge in emphasising the important role played by financial factors in accessing health services and medication. Life histories also describe some damaging strategies resorted to by the elderly to deal with their lack of resources. Elderly women emphasize the crucial support they receive from their family and/or neighbours to overcome health problems. Thus, the issue of poverty is not only a matter of socioeconomic circumstances, but also the poverty of broader social networks.

Elizabeth, Uchôa; Josélia O. A., Firmo; Maria Fernanda, Lima-Costa; Ellen, Corin.

326

REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Small-angle neutron scattering in structure research of magnetic fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic fluid (MF) is a liquid dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles coated by surfactants for stabilization. The MF research reviewed in this paper is primarily aimed at investigating the atomic and magnetic structure of MF particles and the way they interact under various conditions by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The presence of a liquid carrier in the structure and the magnetic properties of MFs, which are very close to those of an ideal superparamagnetic system, allow the effective use of the major neutron scattering features: the strong effect of hydrogen-deuterium isotopic substitution and magnetic scattering. An extension of the contrast variation technique to the structure research on polydisperse and superparamagnetic systems is proposed. The cases of noninteracting and interacting particles, the latter with cluster formation taken into account, are considered for non-magnetized and magnetized MFs. The polarized neutron scattering analysis of the structure of magnetized MFs is illustrated by examples. Topical problems in further developing the method to study multiparameter systems are identified.

Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Aksenov, Viktor L.

2011-01-01

327

Introductory Course Based on a Single Problem: Learning Nucleic Acid Biochemistry from AIDS Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In departure from the standard approach of using several problems to cover specific topics in a class, I use a single problem to cover the contents of the entire semester-equivalent biochemistry classes. I have developed a problem-based service-learning (PBSL) problem on HIV/AIDS to cover nucleic acid concepts that are typically taught in the…

Grover, Neena

2004-01-01

328

The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

2010-01-01

329

Opening Address (by T. Taniguchi) [International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management, Santiago, Chile, 10-14 November 2003  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: On behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on Research Reactor Utilization, Safety, Decommissioning, Fuel and Waste Management. I would like to offer my sincere thanks to the Government of Chile, and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Chile, for hosting this Conference in the beautiful and historic city of Santiago de Chile. I would also like to thank you, the 180 or so registered delegates from around the world, for participating in this conference. I trust that you will have an interesting and enjoyable week. For more than 50 years, research reactors have been one of the locomotives of nuclear science and technology. To date, approximately 670 research reactors have been built, and some 270 of these reactors, in 59 countries, continue to operate today. Altogether, over 13 000 reactor years of operational experience have accumulated during this period. Just as important, however, is the fact that those reactors have operated in a remarkably safe manner. The IAEA's statutes charter it to promote the contributions that atomic energy can bring to the health and prosperity of people throughout the world. Thus, the IAEA is authorized to encourage and assist in the development and practical application of research related to the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. From its inception in 1957, there has been a broad interest at the IAEA in the benefits to be derived by Member States from the safe operation of research reactors. The multi-disciplinary research that a research reactor can support has led to the development of numerous capacities within Member States, many of which have been realized under the umbrella of the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. These benefits have been realized in a wide variety of areas within science and technology: nuclear power, radioisotope production, neutron beam research and analysis, nuclear medicine and personnel training, and more recently, materials development, component testing, computer code validation and environmental pollution control. One can cite numerous Member States, for example, Argentina, Brazil and Mexico in the Latin American region, which have developed high quality nuclear programmes indigenously, thanks in no small part to the growth and effective utilization of their research reactor programmes. Thanks to the recognition of these great benefits for human health, welfare and social development, new research reactors are being planned and built. Pre-eminent to the pursuit of these universal gains, however, is the precondition that any and all reactor operations be conducted with a commitment to and an assurance of safety: safety for the operators, safety for the public and safety for the environment. The research reactor community has had a long and successful history of both productive and safe operations; however, nearly two thirds of the world's operating research reactors, i.e. 63% are now over 30 years old. Many of them have been refurbished to meet today's technological standards and safety requirements; however, there are challenges associated with ageing components and materials - and even members of staff - at these facilities. They continue to be serious issues, and are receiving increased attention, worldwide. Likewise, worldwide attention is focused on the serious erosion in governmental support, management commitment and available resources to the infrastructure necessary for effective research reactor operations. Robust utilization plans are not always an inherent part of the decision making process for determining whether a research reactor should be built, in the first place, or should continue to operate, in the long run. This is compounded by the fact that the use of these reactors is no longer an attractive research vehicle for university students and academic researchers. From these facts, it can be seen that there is a need to infuse vitality into this critical part of the nuclear industry and its infrastructure, thereby allowing for broade

330

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program: Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems, and Environmental Management Science Program research award abstracts. Volume 2 of 3 -- Appendix B  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation`s nuclear complex. Appendix B provides details about each of the 202 research awards funded by the EMSP. This information may prove useful to researchers who are attempting to address the Department`s environmental management challenges in their work, program managers who are planning, integrating, and prioritizing Environmental Management projects, and stakeholders and regulators who are interested in the Department`s environmental challenges. The research award information is organized by the state and institution in which the lead principal investigator is located. In many cases, the lead principal investigator is one of several investigators at a number of different institutions. In these cases, the lead investigator (major collaborator) at each of the additional institutions is listed. Each research award abstract is followed by a list of high cost projects that can potentially be impacted by the research results. High cost projects are Environmental Management projects that have total costs greater than $50 million from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and have costs or quantities of material associated with an Environmental Management problem area. High cost projects which must remain active in the year 2007 and beyond to manage high risk are also identified. Descriptions of these potentially related high cost Environmental Management projects can be found in Appendix C. Additional projects in the same problem area as a research award can be located using the Index of High Cost Environmental Management Projects by Problem Area, at the end of Appendices B and C.

NONE

1998-04-01

331

Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

1996-12-01

332

RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS WITH PROJECTS AND PARTNERSHIPS THAT PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE CENTRE REGION FACED IN ACCESSING EUROPEAN FUNDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available European project management is the main filed of the article. Assuming a connection between the degree of absorption of European funds and the degree of maturity of the Romanian society in terms of project management, the article seeks to identify the negative factors on accessing and carrying out European projects. The identified problem is a low degree of absorption of European funds in Romania, and the main objective of the research is to identify the problems faced by the public institutions in the Centre Region in accessing European funds and also the causes that led to the low absorption of European funds. This article’s research is based on a preliminary analysis performed by the authors on the rate of accessing of European funds published in the article called “The current state of European funds absorption through funding programmes – measure of the Romanian performances in the project management practice”. The conclusion of this article was a low rate of absorption of European funds in Romania, a fact that reveals a poor practice of the theory on project management. This article identifies part of the causes of this situation by identifying a part of the problems that stood in the way of beneficiaries of European funds The qualitative and quantitative research methods are used in combination in the research. The investigation has however a highly quantitative character, the purpose of the qualitative research being to provide the prerequisites for achieving the quantitative research. The interview-based qualitative research enabled the researcher to get acquainted with the subjects’ problems related to the theme of investigation, the causes that have generated these problems. This preliminary investigation to the questionnaire-based research aims to provide information that would help the researcher prepare the questionnaire, so that the questions allow getting the most comprehensive information to solve the identified problems. The qualitative research revealed the existence of some problems faced by institutions in relation to accessing and developing projects that focus on several directions: when filling out the application form, the technical-financial reporting, at the contracting phase of the projects, problems of partners. This article deals with the problems encountered during the projects’ contracting stage and problems caused by partners. The respondents’ answers place the problems of partners on top of the categories of problems that stood in the way of European funds’ beneficiaries. A series of causes that have led to the occurrence of these problems have also been identified. It should be stated that the information obtained from the conducted research supplies, theoretically speaking, the studied field and brings an important contribution not only to possible beneficiaries of European funds, but to the institutions managing European funds in Romania, who have a lot to learn from the experience of the first period of programmes. The authors’ main contribution is to integrate this study into the logical thread of the thesis entitled “Strategic management in European project funding”. Both articles, part of a research in the field of project management are unique and original and meet a current and pressing requirement of the Romanian society.

DUMITRASCU DANUT

2012-12-01

333

Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands  

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Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

R. Da?ko

2010-10-01

334

About a problem of reception of antimatter: possibility of research f properties, synthesis and applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: It is of special interest to study a possibility of reception of intensive streams of positrons (probably and other antiparticles) at reorganization of physical vacuum in strong fields (for example, in an electric field of modern super-power laser beams) and on accelerators. This topic can be possible related to creation of space solar factories on the Moon or asteroids, etc. with use of the solar radiation energy transformed into electric energy, and use of space for manufacturing and storages of positrons [1-7]. The essence of the method should consist of fast positron streams reception by means of the transformed solar energy on accelerators, or any other methods, with their subsequent delay up to temperatures of the order 0.5 K in some closed area of space. Thus, very significant stocks of positrons could be created. Gathering of such positrons in magnetic traps in space conditions can become rather effective method of accumulation of antimatter. Present level of technologies does not allow accumulation of received antimatter in large amounts. Besides, this reception process of is very expensive. Therefore, probably, only about ten or hundred nanograms of antimatter is yet received. This quantity of antimatter would be apparently sufficient for creation of space vehicles (SV) with the sizes in nano-or a micron range. These are not some crazy fantastic assumption in a context of modern development of nanotechnologies in the World. All the units and detaigies in the World. All the units and details of such SV should not exceed nano- and micron ranges. The situation can change, if the black holes both natural and created by the human can become 'factories' of antimatter http://www.rian.ru/rian/intro.cfm (A.D.Dolgov (ITEP) et al). Gravitation in vicinities of a black hole so is great, that there is no object, even radiation that can leave. Indeed, gravitation of a black hole acts on protons more strongly, than on electrons as their mass is larger. As a result, the black hole gets a positive electric charge. Thus, if the mass of a black hole is rather small, the electric field at horizon of events can reach critical values. It leads to electron-positron instability of vacuum and generation of pairs. As positrons are thrown out by electric field, and electrons are trapped, the black hole works as a factory of antimatter, transforming protons into antiparticles. Reference: 1. E.P. Svetlov-Prokop'ev // Materials of the international conference. Ed. E.I.Artamonov. M.: Institute of problems of management of the Russian Academy of Science. - 2008. P.100-101.; 2. E.P.Prokop'ev. Possible space technologies of the future and a problem of technical progress. Materials of the Third Belarus space congress. On October 23-25, 2007, Minsk, Belarus. Minsk: Publishing house of the Incorporated institute of problems of computer science NAS of Belarus, 2007. P.383-389. http://www.uiip.bas-net.by/kosmos3/sec10.html, http://www.prokopep.narod.ru; 3. Svetlov-Prokopyev / About a problem of physics and chemistry of antisubstance: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // In book.: Actual problems of modern physics . Materials of the All-Russia remote scientifically-practical conference with the international participation. Russia, Krasnodar, on June, 5th, 2008. Krasnodar: KGU, 2008. P.15-30.; 4. A.L.Suvorov, E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova // Reception of antimatter for use in a modern science, techniques and microelectronics. The Petersburg magazine of electronics. 2007. No 2. P.4 - 16.; 5. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev. The general principles of interaction of matter and antimatter. Not relativistic theory // Bull. Kaz. NU, ser. phys. 2007. No 1 (23). P.169 - 177.; 6. E.P.Svetlov-Prokopiev, T.L.Razinkova. About a problem of physics, chemistry and technology of antimatter: opportunities of research of properties, search in the Universe, synthesis and applications // 5 International conferences Nuclear and radiating physics. 26 - 29 September, 2005: ICNP' 05. V.1. Nuclear physics. Alma

335

Research on Optimized Problem-solving Solutions: Selection of the Production Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In manufacturing industries, various problems may occur during the production process. The problems are complexand involve the relevant context of working environments. A problem-solving process is often initiated to create asolution and achieve a desired status. In this process, determining how to obtain a solution from the variouscandidate solutions is an important issue. In such uncertain working environments, context information can providerich clues for problem-solving decision making. T...

Ke, C. K.

2013-01-01

336

Story Problem Solving: Implications of Research for Teaching Children with Learning Disabilities. Technical Report # 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors draw upon both Soviet and American literature to present an overview of the components of story problem solving as it relates to remedial instruction for learning disabled students. Factors within the individual problem solver are explored, and strategies children use in solving problems are examined. Particular attention is paid to…

O'Loughlin, Michael; Fleischner, Jeannette E.

337

Research problems from the 18th workshop ‘3in1’ 2009. Edited by Mariusz Meszka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A collection of open problems that were posed at the 18th Workshop ‘3in1’, held on November 26-28, 2009 in Krakow, Poland. The problems are presented by Zdenek Ryjacek in "Does the Thomassen's conjecture imply N=NP?" and "Dominating cycles and hamiltonian prisms", and by Carol T. Zamfirescu in "Two problems on bihomogeneously traceable digraphs".

Carol T. Zamfirescu

2010-01-01

338

Addressing Health and Well-Being of U.S. Chinese Older Adults Through Community-Based Participatory Research: Introduction to the PINE Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The PINE Study-the P: opulation Study of Ch IN: ese E: lderly in Chicago (, s?ng nián yán ji?) is a population-based epidemiological study of U.S. Chinese older adults in the greater Chicago area with primary aims to examine their health status and well-being. This special issue is designed to expand our current understanding on the health status, medical conditions, and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults using findings from the PINE Study. In this article, we present research design, study findings, and important implications for researchers, community gatekeepers, and health care professionals. Through the information reported in this special issue, we call for increased family and community care, improved delivery of care, practice changes, and policy reform, to prepare for the growing numbers of minority older adults in dire need of culturally and linguistically appropriate health and social services. PMID:25378444

Dong, XinQi

2014-11-01

339

21 CFR 600.2 - Mailing addresses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Biologics Evaluation and Research...pertinent information affecting...Biologics Evaluation and Research...Office, National Institutes of Health, 21 Wilson...Reporting System (VAERS...Address information for...

2010-04-01

340

Research on Time Table Problem Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm Combined Chaos and Simulated Annealing Algorithm  

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Full Text Available The scheduling problem is a typical time table problem in educational administration. For such a NP complete problems, when the genetic algorithm solves this problem, it has precociousness phenomenon and quickly converges not to the global optimal solution but to the local optimal solution. Therefore, we use the advantage of simulated annealing algorithm to transform the fitness function and chaotic sequence to control the crossover and mutation genetic operations and then overcome the weakness of genetic algorithm in the Time Table Problem. We do a lot of experiments and evaluate the performance of the improved genetic algorithm. The experiment results show that improved genetic algorithm is a more superior algorithm to apply to the TTP problem.

Dong Yunfeng

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Qualitative researches of motions in the elliptical restricted three-bodies problem for the first order commensurability  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of the restricted version of the three-body problem qualitative research of orbital elements' evolution for the first order resonances is carried out. The stability of stationary solutions is researched and the classification of phase trajectories is obtained. Expressions of maximum perturbations of orbital elements and of periods of its changes are presented for the passively gravitating body. The results are extended to the more common case when the central body is an oblate ellipsoid.

Gerasimov, I. A.; Mushailov, B. R.; Rakitina, N. V.

342

Parents of children with chronic health problems: programs of nursing research and their relationship to developmental science.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review identified nurse researchers and research teams that have current programs of research focused on parents and parenting of children with chronic health problems. Researchers were included if they had at least five publications since 1990, with at least three of these articles first-authored. These programs of research were critiqued from a developmental science perspective. Multiple methods were used for the search, including examination of previous review articles, hand search of journals, online computer searches, and review of the curriculum vitae of authors. Seven programs of research were identified. Two programs of research focused on childhood cancer--Ida M. Martinson et al. and Marsha H. Cohen. Three programs of research used a noncategorical approach encompassing a variety of childhood chronic conditions--Katherine A. Knafl and Janet A. Deatrick, Sharon O. Burke, and Ann Garwick. One program focused primarily on parents of children with Down syndrome and disabilities--Marsha Van Riper--and another on parents of infants with a variety of chronic health problems--Margaret S. Miles and Diane Holditch-Davis. Diverse theories and conceptual frameworks were used, and most had some focus on ecological systems that might affect parents and parenting. Many used a family perspective and included fathers. Still broader aspects of the family and community ecology and the health care were not generally included. Few examined the bidirectionality of the relationship between the child and aspects of the child's illness and parental responses. There was variability in the extent to which ethnicity and socioeconomic status were considered. Studies provide important insight into the responses of parents and their parenting of children with chronic health problems. The studies provide a sound base for continuing to build a developmentally sensitive body of knowledge related to parents and parenting of the child with chronic health problems. PMID:12858699

Miles, Margaret Shandor

2003-01-01

343

Brief Strategic Family Therapy: twenty-five years of interplay among theory, research and practice in adolescent behavior problems and drug abuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a systematic program of research that focuses on Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) and the adaptations that were developed based on BSFT principles. The culture-specific origins of BSFT are reviewed, as well as its broader applications to the field of family therapy. Research is reviewed demonstrating that BSFT is a promising family-based approach to treating Hispanic youth behavior problems and drug abuse. Treatment innovations are described that address the combination of intergenerational and cultural differences that occur among youths and their Hispanic parents. Programmatic work is described that challenges basic principles of family therapy by expanding BSFT to a One Person modality and a strategic engagement procedure. Both of these novel approaches are intended to add tools to therapists' repertoire in working with difficult-to-engage families. A preview discussion of results is presented from a randomized clinical trial that is an application of an ecosystemic prevention version of BSFT. The implications of the work of the Center for Family Studies are discussed in the context of the broader service system. Ultimately, this article articulates a way of thinking about adolescent problem behavior, its social interactional determinants, and a range of theoretically consistent family-centered strategies that attempt to change social ecological processes that impact adolescent developmental trajectories. PMID:11227062

Szapocznik, J; Williams, R A

2000-06-01

344

Tasks and problems of research on air pollution effects as a basis of practical air pollution control. Aufgaben und Probleme der Wirkungsforschung als Grundlage fuer den praktischen Immissionsschutz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under present air pollution conditions, characterized by long-term exposure to wide-spread low-concentrated complex air pollutants the availability of data for prophylactic as well as subsequent protection measures is very difficult. The tasks and problems of research under given air pollution conditions are demonstrated taking terrestric ecosystems as example. Special attention is given to definition of protection aims recognition of air pollution damage, monitoring of polluted areas and determination of dose-response-relationships as a basis for establishing standards. (orig.).

Guderian, R. (Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Architektur, Bio- und Geowissenschaften); Ballach, H.J. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst.)

1989-01-01

345

The Relevance of the Identification Problem to Statistical Research on Capital Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews several potential problems that often invalidate statistical tests of social theories. Discusses how there may be very serious identification problems in the estimation of the relationship between executions and homicides, and that serious questions may be raised regarding the validity of any particular estimation of this relationship.…

Yunker, James A.

1982-01-01

346

Research on Excessive Road Fuel Problem Based on Extension Strategy Generating Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increase of the demand for gasoline in transportation and traffic vehicles results in excessive fuel consumption problem. However, by the extension strategy generating methods, the way of urban transportation changing from bus into metro may be analyzed and evaluated through extension reasoning, extension transformation and optimal calculation in order to solve the problem of excessive fuel consumption of the urban roads.

Li Shu fei; Ye Guang zai

2012-01-01

347

Report to Congress on the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program. Research funded and its linkages to environmental cleanup problems. High out-year cost environmental management project descriptions. Volume 3 of 3 - Appendix C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) serves as a catalyst for the application of scientific discoveries to the development and deployment of technologies that will lead to reduction of the costs and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. Appendix C provides details about each of the Department's 82 high cost projects and lists the EMSP research awards with potential to impact each of these projects. The high cost projects listed are those having costs greater than $50 million in constant 1998 dollars from the year 2007 and beyond, based on the March 1998 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure Draft data, and having costs of quantities of material associated with an environmental management problem area. The high cost project information is grouped by operations office and organized by site and project code. Each operations office section begins with a list of research needs associated with that operations office. Potentially related research awards are listed by problem area in the Index of Research Awards by Environmental Management Problem Area, which can be found at the end of appendices B and C. For projects that address high risks to the public, workers, or the environment, refer also the Health/Ecology/Risk problem area awards. Research needs are programmatic or technical challenges that may benefit from knowledge gained through basic research

348

'Caring schools' – a solution for addressing challenging behaviour in schools?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media reports suggest that challenging behaviour is no longer the exception to the rule in South African schools. Furthermore, such problem behaviour is increasingly violent in nature, thus constituting a particular cause for concern. In this article the concept of “caring schools” is explored as a means of addressing learners’ challenging behaviour. A research study was undertaken at eight South African primary schools. The conclusions drawn from this research were verified by the correlative research findings of other researchers, as ascertained from the literature study. A key element of this research was the identification of attributes associated with caring schools and the impact thereof on learners’ behaviour patterns. From the findings of this research study it is concluded that caring schools represent a possible solution for dealing with challenging behaviour in South African schools.

F.H. Weeks

2008-07-01

349

Nematode parasites of fishes: recent advances and problems of their research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although nematodes (Nematoda) belong to the most frequent and the most important parasites of fishes in the freshwater, brackish-water and marine environments throughout the world, the present knowledge of these parasites remains still incomplete, especially as to their biology and ecology, but also taxonomy, phylogeny, zoogeography, and the like. However, a certain progress in the research of fish nematodes has been achieved during recent years. An overview of some of the most important discoveries and results obtained is presented. As an example, existing problems in the taxonomy of these nematodes are shown in the dracunculoid family Philometridae (presently including 109 species in 9 genera), where they are associated mainly with some biological peculiarities of these mostly important tissue parasites. Nematodes of the Dracunculoidea as a whole remain poorly known; for example, of 139 valid species parasitizing fishes, 81 (58%) are known by females only and the males have not yet been described for members of 8 (27%) of genera. A taxonomic revision of this nematode group, based on detailed morphological, life history and molecular studies of individual species, is quite necessary; for the time being, Moravec (2006) has proposed a new classification system of dracunculoids, where, based on previous molecular studies, the Anguillicolidae is no longer listed in Dracunculoidea, but in an independent superfamily Anguillicoloidea. Important results have recently been achieved also in the taxonomy of fish nematodes belonging to other superfamilies, as well as in studies of their geographical distribution and diversity in different parts of the world and those of their biology. Opportunities for more detailed studies of fish nematodes have recently greatly improved with the use of some new methods, in particular SEM and DNA studies. There is a need to create a new classification system of these parasites reflecting phylogenetic relationships; a prerequisite for this is taxonomic revisions of different groups based on detailed studies of individual species, including mainly their morphology, biology and genetics. Further progress should concern studies on various aspects of biology, ecology and host-parasite relationships, because these data may have practical implications. PMID:18410073

Moravec, F

2007-09-01

350

A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula  

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Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

2013-07-01

351

A Research on the General and Financial Problems of Agricultural Sector in North Cyprus: Case of Karpaz Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The following research focuses on agricultural and farming enterprises located in Iskele Province of Karpaz Peninsula in Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC, accenting on and examining overall and financial issues and problems.In this frame, the main problems of agriculture in order, are: ‘Position of Karpaz in regard to land use, in Cyprus Conflict’, ‘Natural disasters’, ‘Bureaucratic obstacles’, ‘Negative effects of Cyprus Issue’, ‘Marketing of products,’, ‘Competing with South Cyprus and imported foreign products’ and ,’Finance’.Entrepreneurs and businesses in agriculture state that, the most important dimensions of financial problem are ‘High finance cost’, ‘Difficulties encountered in collections from market and official bodies’, ‘Limited incentive opportunity’, ‘Collateral and debenture obligations demanded for loans’, ‘Costly capital investment funds ‘‘Insufficient local business capital and problems encountered procuring the business capital’ and ‘Insufficient equity and difficulties faced in obtaining investment credit.’

Okan Veli ?AFAKLI

2013-06-01

352

Is there a role for expectation maximization imputation in addressing missing data in research using WOMAC questionnaire? Comparison to the standard mean approach and a tutorial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard mean imputation for missing values in the Western Ontario and Mc Master (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index limits the use of collected data and may lead to bias. Probability model-based imputation methods overcome such limitations but were never before applied to the WOMAC. In this study, we compare imputation results for the Expectation Maximization method (EM and the mean imputation method for WOMAC in a cohort of total hip replacement patients. Methods WOMAC data on a consecutive cohort of 2062 patients scheduled for surgery were analyzed. Rates of missing values in each of the WOMAC items from this large cohort were used to create missing patterns in the subset of patients with complete data. EM and the WOMAC's method of imputation are then applied to fill the missing values. Summary score statistics for both methods are then described through box-plot and contrasted with the complete case (CC analysis and the true score (TS. This process is repeated using a smaller sample size of 200 randomly drawn patients with higher missing rate (5 times the rates of missing values observed in the 2062 patients capped at 45%. Results Rate of missing values per item ranged from 2.9% to 14.5% and 1339 patients had complete data. Probability model-based EM imputed a score for all subjects while WOMAC's imputation method did not. Mean subscale scores were very similar for both imputation methods and were similar to the true score; however, the EM method results were more consistent with the TS after simulation. This difference became more pronounced as the number of items in a subscale increased and the sample size decreased. Conclusions The EM method provides a better alternative to the WOMAC imputation method. The EM method is more accurate and imputes data to create a complete data set. These features are very valuable for patient-reported outcomes research in which resources are limited and the WOMAC score is used in a multivariate analysis.

Rutledge John

2011-05-01

353

Research and Evaluation of Advanced Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Methods for Addressing the Challenges of Inspecting Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Conference paper is for submission to the 7th International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurized Components, in Yokohama, Japan Specifically, this paper is being presented at this Conference on May 12-14, 2009. Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent efforts at PNNL to conduct confirmatory research, development, and evaluation of advanced NDE methods for characterizing CASS microstructures and inspecting welds in these materials. This paper describes results from recent assessments using low-frequency, phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) techniques as applied to both small-bore pressurizer (PZR) surge line components and larger-bore primary coolant piping components. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld rootsgue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. Advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased-array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at lower frequencies than conventionally applied PA-UT (500 kHz and 800 kHz) and composite volumetric images of these samples were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization, and sizing effectiveness are discussed. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping, piping segments used in PISC-III round robin tests, and practice specimens from the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. Interim results from sound-field mapping in CASS microstructures as a function of frequency, incident angle, and microstructure parameters are presented. This paper also describes progress and recent developments resulting from laboratory studies focused on developing effective in-situ methods for microstructural characterization (classification) in CASS components from the outside surface. A study of past CASS fabrication processes and their impact on resultant microstructures will also be discussed.

354

Centers and Institutes in the Research University: Issues, Problems, and Prospects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A discussion of the role of university-based organized research units reviews the major issues that confront such centers, describes results of a survey of 18 of the fastest growing research universities, and makes recommendations concerning appropriate management and the role of the centers within the research university. (Author/MSE)

Stahler, Gerald J.; Tash, William R.

1994-01-01

355

Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up  

Science.gov (United States)

As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

2014-01-01

356

Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences Open science, e-science and the new technologies: Challenges and old problems in qualitative research in the social sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality assessment in review processes in an open environment. Originality/value: The article describes the characteristics that define the new scientific environment and the challenges posed for qualitative research, reviews the latest open access technologies available to researchers in terms of their main features and proposes specific applications suitable for fieldwork and data analysis.Purpose: As well as introducing the articles in the special issue titled "Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences", this article reviews the challenges, problems and main advances made by the qualitative paradigm in the context of the new European science policy based on open science and e-Science and analysis alternative technologies freely available in the 2.0 environment and their application to fieldwork and data analysis. Design/methodology: Theoretical review. Practical implications: The article identifies open access technologies with applications in qualitative research such as applications for smartphones and tablets, web platforms and specific qualitative data analysis software, all developed in both the e-Science context and the 2.0 environment. Social implications: The article discusses the possible role to be played by qualitative research in the open science and e-Science context and considers the impact of this new context on the size and structure of research groups, the development of truly collaborative research, the emergence of new ethical problems and quality

Jordi López Sintas

2012-12-01

357

Corrosion Induced Leakage Problem of the Radial Beam Port 1 of BAEC Triga Mark-II Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BAEC reactor has so far been operated as per the technical specifications and procedures laid down in the SAR of the research reactor. The BP leakage problem of the BAEC research reactor was an issue that could lead to a situation close to a LOCA. Therefore, the matter was handled carefully, taking all measures so that such an incident could be prevented. Assistance of agencies outside BAEC was taken for solving the problem. It is understood that the silicone rubber lining of the encirclement clamp may become damaged by neutron irradiation. Therefore, while designing the clamp, provisions were kept such that it can be dismantled and reinstalled again following lining replacement. As a moderately aged facility, the ageing management BAEC TRIGA research reactor deserves significant attention. BAEC, together with its strategic partners, are doing what is needed in this regard

358

Research of Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem by Cellular Ant Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem (MDVRP is a generalization of SDVRP, in which multiple vehicles start from multiple depots and return to their original depots at the end of their assigned tours. The MDVRP is NP-hard, therefore, the development of heuristic algorithms for this problem class is of primary interest. This paper solves Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Cellular Ant Algorithm which is a new optimization method for solving real problems by using both the evolutionary rule of cellular, graph theory and the characteristics of ant colony optimization. The simulation experiment shows that the Cellular Ant Algorithm is feasible and effective for the MDVRP. The clarity and simplicity of the Cellular Ant Algorithm is greatly enhanced to ant colony optimization.

Yuanzhi Wang

2013-07-01

359

Assessment of some of the problems in the USA of superconducting magnets for fusion research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses some of the general difficulties and problems encountered during the development of the technology of superconductors and superconducting magnets for fusion and expresses some personal concerns

360

Research and Teaching: Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a platform to encourage students to use HOCS in their Learn responses. The study focused on students' use of HOCS in these Learn responses regardless of whether HOCS were used in the actual solving of the problems or not. The results of this study suggest that consistent use of the Learn response in problem solving promotes reflection with an accompanied increase in use of HOCS by students during a semester.

Justice, Jason; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Research on Excessive Road Fuel Problem Based on Extension Strategy Generating Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase of the demand for gasoline in transportation and traffic vehicles results in excessive fuel consumption problem. However, by the extension strategy generating methods, the way of urban transportation changing from bus into metro may be analyzed and evaluated through extension reasoning, extension transformation and optimal calculation in order to solve the problem of excessive fuel consumption of the urban roads.

Li Shu fei

2012-04-01

362

Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects. PMID:20825274

Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

2010-09-01

363

Community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment: bridging research and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative study of 1 information behavior in community problem-solving framed as a distributed information use environment and 2 approaches used by a best-practice library to anticipate information needs associated with community problem solving. Method. Several approaches to data collection were used - focus groups, interviews, observation of community and library meetings, and analysis of supporting documents. We focused first on the information behaviour of community groups. Finding that the library supported these activities we sought to understand its approach. Analysis. Data were coded thematically for both information behaviour concepts and themes germane to problem-solving activity. A grounded theory approach was taken to capture aspects of the library staff's practice. Themes evolved from the data; supporting documentation - reports, articles and library communication - was also coded. Results. The study showed 1 how information use environment components (people, setting, problems, problem resolutions combine in this distributed information use environment to determine specific information needs and uses; and 2 how the library contributed to the viability of this distributed information use environment. Conclusion. Community problem solving, here explicated as a distributed IUE, is likely to be seen in multiple communities. The library model presented demonstrates that by reshaping its information practice within the framework of an information use environment, a library can anticipate community information needs as they are generated and where they are most relevant.

Joan C. Durrance

2006-01-01

364

Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by members of Research Ethics Committees.

Eccles Martin P

2008-12-01

365

Addressing Science Use Cases with HELIO  

Science.gov (United States)

The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) is a new VO project funded under the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It includes thirteen partners scattered over six countries and is led by University College London. HELIO is designed to support the heliophysics community and is based on a Service Oriented Architecture. The services developed by and integrated into HELIO can be used to address a wide range of science problems; they can be used individually or as part of a work-flow driven search engine that can use a propagation (or other) model to help locate obervations that describe interesting phenomena. We will describe and discuss how the components of HELIO could be used to address science use cases, particularly how a user can adapt the work flow to their own science interests. Networking is one of the three Activities of the HELIO Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives (I3) project. Within this activity we plan to involve the community in all aspects of the design and testing of the HELIO system, including determining which data and metadata should be included, how the quality and content of metadata can be included, etc. We are investigating ways of making HELIO "domain-aware" so that researchers who are specialists in one of the communities that constitute heliophysics can easily identify, access and use data they need from the other communities. We will discuss how the community can help us develop this capability.

Bentley, R. D.; Aboudarham, J.; Csillaghy, A.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Messerotti, M.; Gallagher, P.; Bocchialini, K.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Roberts, D.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

2009-12-01

366

Effects of inclusive education: Current state of research for students with social-emotional problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article systematically gathers the current state of research on effects of different schooling systems for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and discusses essential findings. Effects on fostering are differentiated according to contents; the outcome in research shows how obviously these are relevant. Large gaps in research on the one hand and contradictory results on the other hand strongly suggest that before specific special education schools should be responsibly abolished in favor of mainstream schooling more thorough empirical research is to be done. Holding up a specific range of institutional offers seems to be strongly recommended for the benefit of the children and adolescents involved.

Stephan Ellinger

2012-06-01

367

A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

2009-08-01

368

Harvard University Commencement Address  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an advantage to starting from low expectations. Agreed, I am not running for President, and I am not a prime minister or a general. But I speak for an element of our culture at least as important as politics or war---an element that has not been at this podium since Alexander Fleming, the discoverer of penicillin, addressed the graduating class of 1945. That element is science.

369

The Research on Exogenous Problems of Farmers’ Piritual and Cultural Education in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author studied and analyzed the exogenous problems of the farmers’ spiritual and cultural education, and found out: In today’s China, the exogenous problems of the farmers’ spiritual and cultural education mainly reflected in the separation of spiritual and cultural education is from social environment, political system, economic development, and cultural concepts etc. Then the author put forward to the countermeasures and suggestions aimed at optimizing the allocation of famers’ spiritual and cultural educations resources, environment and evaluation system construction and so on.

Chaoping LUO

2014-06-01

370

SELECTED PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL MANAGEMENT IN SLOVAKIA AND THEIR REFLECTION IN RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approaches focused on identifying problem areas in school management in Slovakia. A description of the specific features of school management in comparison with management in other fields, and the reflection of their solutions in theory and management practice. Problems of applying a school management orientation on democratisation in management, on its orientation on ensuring linkage between schools and the labour market, equal opportunities for all pupils, a positive climate at the school and on the critical factor of an effective school – the headteacher.

Obdržálek Zden?k

2012-05-01

371

Twenty Years of Cultural Imperialism Research: Some Conceptual and Methodological Problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the notion of "cultural imperialism" has received significant attention in communication studies since the early 1970s, researchers have ignored analyses of message systems and audience cultivation in favor of institutional analysis. Likewise, researchers have concentrated on the technologies, media products and processes of Western…

Burrowes, Carl Patrick

372

Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

Dawson, Phillip

2014-01-01

373

Research on Mathematics and Science Education: From Beliefs to Cognition, from Problem Solving to Understanding.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains selected research papers presented at seminars held throughout the year 2000 in Finland by members of the Finnish Association for Research in Mathematics and Science Education (FARMSE) and students at the Finnish Graduate School of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry Education. This volume also contains papers professor Laurence…

Ahtee, Maija, Ed.; Bjorkqvist, Ole, Ed.; Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.; Vatanen, Virpi, Ed.

374

Resolving Privacy, Access, and Other Problems in the Audit and Reanalysis of Social Research for Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article illustrates how social research has moved into the public policy process while retaining the essential characteristics of research. It also shows how concerns about participant confidentiality have interacted with attempts by the General Accounting Office to analyze data. Journal availability: see TM 503 798. (CP)

Baratz, Stephen S.; Marvin, Keith E.

1978-01-01

375

Research versus Problem Solving for the Education Leadership Doctoral Thesis: Implications for Form and Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A growing literature is questioning the appropriateness of a research dissertation for practitioners in education doctoral programs. Although this literature persuasively critiques the prevailing theory-research orientation of most programs and theses, it goes little beyond exhorting change and describing extant alternatives in a few…

Archbald, Doug

2008-01-01

376

"Ideal-Problem-Solution" (IPS) Model: A Discourse Model of Research Article Introductions (RAIS) in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…

Adnan, Zifirdaus

2011-01-01

377

The communication problems of Spanish researchers to get research articles published in Applied Linguistics English-medium journals: proposal and analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...

Moreno, Ana I.

2012-01-01

378

A Research on Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics Outsourcing for Enterprises in China  

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Full Text Available Logistics outsourcing, as a form of outsourcing, not only adapt to the requirements of the economic situation but also can bring the economic benefits for enterprise, however, it is not a common phenomenon in China. The aim of this paper is to put forward several suggestions for Chinese enterprises by analyzing the problems existing in the development of logistics outsourcing.

Shuxia Xu

2009-02-01

379

Research on Existing Problem of China's MBA Education and the Countermeasures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article started with a brief review of the history and current situation of Chinese MBA education, Moreover, the major problems of Chinese MBA education and the reasonable resolution were presented on improving the MBA education in China as well.

Haiyong Ma

2010-12-01

380

[Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future. PMID:16180772

Zhou, Qixing

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy- A research paper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

for children undergoing radiotherapy and their parents, a paediatric radiographer may be one welcome solution to relieve the anxiety and stress during this difficult time in their lives. given the various factors, no one solution can be deemed ultimate in dealing with this complex situation. thus further efforts are needed to bring about workable solutions to this problem depending on the circumstances and situation

382

Research on the Problems and Countermeasures of Personal Financing Products in the City Commercial Banks  

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Full Text Available As a new rising branch of Chinese city commercial banks industry, its financial aspects should be strengthened. This paper focuses on the problems and the reasons for City Commercial Bank in China in the aspects of financial products, puts forward effective countermeasures.

Chen Jianying

2014-04-01

383

Use of Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics Classroom. Research Report 176.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the years 1993-96, there has existed an active discussion group entitled "Using Open-Ended Problems in Mathematics" as a part of the scientific program of the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) conference. This report contains revised versions of presentations given in the discussion group. Since the PME is an international…

Pehkonen, Erkki, Ed.

384

A mathematical approach to research problems of science and technology theoretical basis and developments in mathematical modeling  

CERN Document Server

This book deals with one of the most novel advances in mathematical modeling for applied scientific technology, including computer graphics, public-key encryption, data visualization, statistical data analysis, symbolic calculation, encryption, error correcting codes, and risk management. It also shows that mathematics can be used to solve problems from nature, e.g., slime mold algorithms. One of the unique features of this book is that it shows readers how to use pure and applied mathematics, especially those mathematical theory/techniques developed in the twentieth century, and developing now, to solve applied problems in several fields of industry. Each chapter includes clues on how to use "mathematics" to solve concrete problems faced in industry as well as practical applications. The target audience is not limited to researchers working in applied mathematics and includes those in engineering, material sciences, economics, and life sciences.

Ei, Shin-ichiro; Koiso, Miyuki; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Okada, Kanzo; Saito, Shingo; Shirai, Tomoyuki

2014-01-01

385

The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

2011-10-26

386

Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

Yokoyama, O.

1993-12-31

387

Addressing ketamine bladder syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise in ketamine misuse means more health professionals will need to diagnose, refer and treat ketamine bladder syndrome. Prevention and raising awareness of the problem among multidisciplinary teams will help limit damage to the bladder as well as making treatment and management more effective. PMID:21780723

Logan, Karen