Virtues and challenges in using the community based participatory research (cbpr) approach by the delta nutrition research initiative (delta niri) in developing rural community walking studies to lower obesity risks
Purpose: To discuss the CBPR approach in development, implementation, and evaluation of rural community walking and nutrition studies. Background: The current obesity epidemic, especially among rural and low-income minority populations, presents challenges in designing interventions that are effec...
Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD) and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management interventio...
Nina Wallerstein; Sally Davis; Olaf Werder; Carolyn Montoya; Sussman, Andrew L.; Kong, Alberta S.
Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers.
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Youth Health Service Corps as a health promotion program, (2) examine the use of CBPR within the immigrant community, and (3) discuss preliminary findings using a model on critical youth empowerment. PMID:25423240
Ferrera, Maria J; Sacks, Tina K; Perez, Miriam; Nixon, John P; Asis, Dale; Coleman, Walter L
Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully…
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy
This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...
Bermu?dez-milla?n, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’angelo, Karen; Segura-pe?rez, Sofia; Hromi-fiedler, Amber; Pe?rez-escamilla, Rafael
This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health. PMID:22080712
Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
With its emphasis on empowerment, individual and community capacity building, and translating research findings into action, community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be particularly advantageous in work with urban immigrant populations. This paper highlights eight ways in which CBPR has been shown to add value to work with urban underserved communities. It then describes the background, context, and methods of an ecological CBPR project, the Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Study, conducted in San Francisco, California, and draws on study processes and outcomes to illustrate each of the eight areas identified. Challenges of using CBPR, particularly with urban immigrant populations, briefly are described, drawing again on the Chinatown study to provide illustrative examples. We discuss lessons learned, through this and other studies, for the effective use of CBPR with urban immigrant populations. We conclude that despite its challenges, this transdisciplinary, community-partnered and action-oriented approach to inquiry can make substantial contributions to both the processes and the outcomes of the research. PMID:23793556
Chang, Charlotte; Minkler, Meredith; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pamela Tau; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San
Community based participatory research as a preferred approach to research with First Nations and Aboriginal communities has contributed to new terminologies, new methodologies, and new directions in research relationships. One of the ongoing challenges is to articulate and operationalize the principles for CBPR with these communities. This paper reflects on the nine principles articulated by LaVeaux and Christopher in the context of a long term community-academic research partnership at Stan...
Deanna Bickford; Sandra Bassendowski; Pammla Petrucka; Elder Velma Goodfeather
Full Text Available Community based participatory research as a preferred approach to research with First Nations and Aboriginal communities has contributed to new terminologies, new methodologies, and new directions in research relationships. One of the ongoing challenges is to articulate and operationalize the principles for CBPR with these communities. This paper reflects on the nine principles articulated by LaVeaux and Christopher in the context of a long term community-academic research partnership at Standing Buffalo First Nations, Saskatchewan, Canada. Within this application, we begin to critique the various principles and to reframe these principles to increase their utility in informing community based research in the First Nations/Aboriginal context.
Recommendations for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care suggest that clinical researchers try community-based participatory research (CBPR). While the body of literature discussing the ethics of CBPR continues to grow, we are not aware of a specific attempt to provide a structure for analyzing the ethics of clinical research using a CBPR approach. We adapt a framework developed by Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady articulating seven requirements for ethical clinical research to clinical research using a CBPR approach. We incorporate findings from the literature on CBPR and identify some of the ethical and practical challenges from our experiences working in CBPR as academics and community members. We find Emanuel et al's framework easily adaptable for CBPR. Six of the requirements are flexible enough to accommodate the needs of CBPR; they are: social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject selection, favorable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent. We suggest that the seventh requirement, respect for potential and enrolled participants, be amended to respect for potential and enrolled participants, community, and research partners to acknowledge that separate attention should be paid to relationships on these three levels. This adapted framework can guide community-academic partnerships as they evaluate whether to proceed with potential clinical research studies and as they work to enhance the ethics of clinical research studies using a CBPR approach. PMID:16681135
Chen, Donna T; Jones, Loretta; Gelberg, Lillian
In the last few decades, community based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an important approach that links environmental health and justice advocates with research institutions to understand and address environmental health problems. CBPR has generally been evaluated for its impact on policy, regulation, and its support of community science. However, there has been less emphasis on assessing the ways in which CBPR (re)shapes and potentially improves the scientific enterprise itsel...
Balazs, Carolina L.; Morello-frosch, Rachel
With its emphasis on empowerment, individual and community capacity building, and translating research findings into action, community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be particularly advantageous in work with urban immigrant populations. This paper highlights eight ways in which CBPR has been shown to add value to work with urban underserved communities. It then describes the background, context, and methods of an ecological CBPR project, the Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Saf...
Chang, Charlotte; Minkler, Meredith; Salvatore, Alicia L.; Lee, Pamela Tau; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San
In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782
The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and se...
Arcury, T. A.; Quandt, S. A.; Dearry, A.
Background Contextually and culturally congruent interventions are urgently needed to reduce racial, ethnic, and socio economic inequities in physical activity and cardiovascular disease. Objectives To examine a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process that incorporated storytelling into a physical activity intervention, and consider implications for reducing health inequities. Methods We used a CBPR process to incorporate storytelling in an existing walking group intervention. Stories conveyed social support and problem-solving intervention themes designed to maintain increases in physical activity over time, and were adapted to the walking group context, group dynamics, challenges, and traditions. Lessons Learned After describing of the CBPR process used to adapt stories to walking group sites, we discuss challenges and lessons learned regarding the adaptation and implementation of stories to convey key intervention themes. Conclusions A CBPR approach to incorporating storytelling to convey intervention themes offers an innovative and flexible strategy to promote health toward the elimination of health inequities. PMID:25727980
LeBron, Alana M. W.; Schulz, Amy J.; Bernal, Cristina; Gamboa, Cindy; Wright, Conja; Sand, Sharon; Valerio, Melissa; Caver, Deanna
Over the past several decades there has been growing evidence of the increase in incidence rates, morbidity, and mortality for a number of health problems experienced by children. The causation and aggravation of these problems are complex and multifactorial. The burden of these health problems and environmental exposures is borne disproportionately by children from low-income communities and communities of color. Researchers and funding institutions have called for increased attention to the complex issues that affect the health of children living in marginalized communities--and communities more broadly--and have suggested greater community involvement in processes that shape research and intervention approaches, for example, through community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships among academic, health services, public health, and community-based organizations. Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (Children's Centers) funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were required to include a CBPR project. The purpose of this article is to provide a definition and set of CBPR principles, to describe the rationale for and major benefits of using this approach, to draw on the experiences of six of the Children's Centers in using CBPR, and to provide lessons learned and recommendations for how to successfully establish and maintain CBPR partnerships aimed at enhancing our understanding and addressing the multiple determinants of children's health. PMID:16203263
Israel, Barbara A; Parker, Edith A; Rowe, Zachary; Salvatore, Alicia; Minkler, Meredith; López, Jesús; Butz, Arlene; Mosley, Adrian; Coates, Lucretia; Lambert, George; Potito, Paul A; Brenner, Barbara; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Thompson, Beti; Coronado, Gloria; Halstead, Sandy
The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from...
Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; Rhodes, Scott D.
Historically, consumers of mental health services have not been given meaningful roles in research and change efforts related to the services they use. This is quickly changing as scholars and a growing number of funding bodies now call for greater consumer involvement in mental health services research and improvement. Amidst these calls, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach which holds unique promise for capitalizing on consumer involvement in mental health services research and change. Yet, there have been few discussions of the value added by this approach above and beyond that of traditional means of inquiry and enhancement in adult mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to add to this discussion an understanding of potential multilevel and multifaceted benefits associated with consumer-involved CBPR. This is accomplished through presenting the first-person accounts of four stakeholder groups who were part of a consumer-involved CBPR project purposed to improve the services of a local community mental health center. We present these accounts with the hope that by illustrating the unique outcomes associated with CBPR, there will be invigorated interest in CBPR as a vehicle for consumer involvement in adult mental health services research and enhancement. PMID:25245601
Case, Andrew D; Byrd, Ronald; Claggett, Eddrena; DeVeaux, Sandra; Perkins, Reno; Huang, Cindy; Sernyak, Michael J; Steiner, Jeanne L; Cole, Robert; LaPaglia, Donna M; Bailey, Margaret; Buchanan, Candace; Johnson, Avon; Kaufman, Joy S
Although intervention research is vital to eliminating health disparities, many groups with health disparities have had negative research experiences, leading to an understandable distrust of researchers and the research process. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches seek to reverse this pattern by building trust between community members and researchers. We highlight strategies for building and maintaining trust from an American Indian CBPR project and focus on 2 levels of trust building and maintaining: (1) between university and community partners and (2) between the initial project team and the larger community. This article was cowritten by community and academic partners; by offering the voices of community partners, it provides a novel and distinctive contribution to the CBPR literature. PMID:18556605
Christopher, Suzanne; Watts, Vanessa; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun; Young, Sara
The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted "CyBER/testing", a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing…
Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research that recognizes the specific knowledge and abilities that individuals from diverse backgrounds bring to the generation of new knowledge for the purpose of social action aimed at improving public health and health equity. In this article, the authors apply Gaventa and Cornwall's dimensions of participatory research to the analysis of 12 semistructured interviews with members of our Community Advisory Committee for the Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs (PROUD) study. This process-to-outcomes framework may help projects more systematically explore their experiences in relation to common CBPR principles and lead to greater conceptual clarity. PMID:25774651
Stanley, Daina; Marshall, Zack; Lazarus, Lisa; LeBlanc, Sean; Heighton, Tarah; Preater, Beverley; Tyndall, Mark
Collaboratively, the nutritional health problems of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region were examined and opportunities identified for conducting research interventions. To combat the nutritional health problems in the LMD, community residents yielded to a more comprehensive and participatory approach known as community-based participatory research (CBPR). Community residents partnered with academic researchers and other organizational entities to improve the overall quality of diet and health in their respective communities using CBPR. The collaborative work in the LMD focused on interventions conducted in each of three specific communities across three states: Marvell, Arkansas (Marvell NIRI), and its surrounding public school district; Franklin Parish in Louisiana (Franklin NIRI); and the city of Hollandale, Mississippi (Hollandale NIRI). This paper examined some of the research interventions conducted in Franklin, Hollandale, and Marvell NIRI respectively, how leadership emerged from each of these communities, and lessons learned as a result of the CBPR model. PMID:22073526
Kennedy, Betty M; Prewitt, T Elaine; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Strickland, Earline; Yadrick, Kathy; Threadgill, Paula; Champagne, Catherine M; McGee, Bernestine B; Bogle, Margaret L
Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990, which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. These world views are merged to form three approaches namely-quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Quantitative approach includes positivism and post positivism world view, qualitative approach includes constructivism and transformative world view and mixed method approach corresponds to pragmatism. Beside these approaches two more approaches has been discussed namely-Logical, theoretical research used in the field of mathematics and computer science and Participatory action research used in the field of management, sociology and anthropology. Paper finally ends with criterion for choosing a research approach. In concluding remarks author stresses that all the approaches are complementary to each other rather than opposing each other. No concept or phenomena can be studied by single approach, a combination of these is necessary to uncover the truth.
Vijay Kumar Grover
Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This…
Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
Use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches is increasing with the goal of making more meaningful and impactful advances in eliminating cancer-related health disparities. While many reports have espoused its advantages, few investigations have focused on comparing CBPR-oriented recruitment and retention. Consequently, the purpose of this analysis was to report and compare two different CBPR approaches in two cancer prevention studies. We utilized frequencies and Chi-squared tests to compare and contrast subject recruitment and retention for two studies that incorporated a randomized, controlled intervention design of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Americans (AA). One study utilized a de-centralized approach to recruitment in which primary responsibility for recruitment was assigned to the general AA community of various church partners whereas the other incorporated a centralized approach to recruitment in which a single lay community individual was hired as research personnel to lead recruitment and intervention delivery. Both studies performed equally well for both recruitment and retention (75 and 88 % recruitment rates and 71 and 66 % retention rates) far exceeding those rates traditionally cited for cancer clinical trials (~5 %). The de-centralized approach to retention appeared to result in statistically greater retention for the control participants compared to the centralized approach (77 vs. 51 %, p < 0.01). Consequently, both CBPR approaches appeared to greatly enhance recruitment and retention rates of AA populations. We further note lessons learned and challenges to consider for future research opportunities. PMID:25086566
Adams, Swann Arp; Heiney, Sue P; Brandt, Heather M; Wirth, Michael D; Khan, Samira; Johnson, Hiluv; Davis, Lisa; Wineglass, Cassandra M; Warren-Jones, Tatiana Y; Felder, Tisha M; Drayton, Ruby F; Davis, Briana; Farr, Deeonna E; Hébert, James R
The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address urban health problems. Following a br...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.
The ever-increasing numbers of ethnic minority populations in the USA seeking social services suggest that a "multicultural paradigm shift" is underway and gaining speed. This shift will increasingly demand that prevention programs and interventions be more culturally responsive. Interventions that are not aligned with prospective participants' world views and experiences are only minimally effective. Existing models for conducting culturally grounded program adaptations emphasize identifying distinct levels of cultural influences while preserving core elements of the original intervention. An effective adaptation requires competent language translation as well as trained translations of program concepts and principles that will be meaningful to the targeted group, without compromising program fidelity. This article describes how a university research team and curriculum developers worked with American Indian youth and adults in a large southwestern city using a CBPR process to identify cultural elements that became foundational to the adaptation of a prevention curriculum that is a national model program, with the objective of increasing its applicability for urban native youth. PMID:23412946
Jumper-Reeves, Leslie; Dustman, Patricia Allen; Harthun, Mary L; Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Eddie F
Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…
Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid proliferation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects. CBPR methodology presents an alternative to traditional population-based biomedical research practices by encouraging active and equal partnerships between community members and academic investigators. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the premier biomedical research facility for environmental health, is a leader in promoting the use of CBPR in in...
O Fallon, Liam R.; Dearry, Allen
One barrier to searching for novel mutations in African American families with breast cancer is the challenge of effectively recruiting families-affected and non-affected relatives-into genetic research studies. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation, we incorporated several evidence-based approaches through an iterative fashion to recruit for a breast cancer genetic epidemiology study in African Americans. Our combined methods allowed us to successfully recruit 341 African American women (247 with breast cancer and 94 relatives without breast cancer) from 127 families. Twenty-nine percent of participants were recruited through National Witness Project (NWP) sites, 11 % came from in-person encounters by NWP members, 34 % from the Love Army of Women, 24 % from previous epidemiologic studies, and 2 % from a support group. In terms of demographics, our varied recruitment methods/sources yielded samples of African American women that differ in terms of several sociodemographic factors such as education, smoking, and BMI, as well as family size. To successfully recruit African American families into epidemiological research, investigators should include community members in the recruitment processes, be flexible in the adoption of multipronged, iterative methods, and provide clear communication strategies about the underlying benefit to potential participants. Our results enhance our understanding of potential benefits and challenges associated with various recruitment methods. We offer a template for the design of future studies and suggest that generalizability may be better achieved by using multipronged approaches. PMID:25112899
Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Jandorf, Lina; Wang, Youjin; Johnson, Detric; Meadows Ray, Veronica; Willis, Mattye J; Erwin, Deborah O
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199
Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged to bridge the gap between research and primary-care practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. It is widely acknowledged that access to high-quality primary care services is important to the overall health of a community. Here, CBPR studies in a primary care setting are reviewed to assess the use of CBPR associated with common health problems seen in primary care such as access to care and dispar...
Tapp, Hazel; White, Lauren; Steuerwald, Mark; Dulin, Michael
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.
Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH
Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…
Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.
We present baseline data and describe the utility of a community engaged, culturally relevant approach to recruiting African American youth and families for phase I of The AAKOMA Project. The AAKOMA Project is a two phase treatment development study to improve mental health service use among depressed African American youth. We completed capacity building activities using a community engaged framework and Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods. Replicating the (Alvarez et al. i...
Breland-noble, Alfiee M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…
Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was u...
Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...
Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-sung; Mckeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard
Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict researc...
Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong
In the context of the Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence, six European research teams developed a methodology for integrating their research approaches. In this paper we present the methodology, based on a cross experiment, showing how it gave insight to the understanding of each team's research, and on the relationship between theoretical frameworks and experimental research.
Cerulli, Michele; Georget, Jean-philippe; Maracci, Mirko; Trgalova, Jana; Psycharis, Giorgos
The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted CyBER/testing, a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing Internet chat rooms. Using a quasi-experimental, single-group study design, cross-sectional data were collected from chat room participants, known as “chatters,” at pretest (n=346) and post-test (n=315). Extant profile data also were collected to describe the demographics of the online population. The intervention significantly increased self-reported HIV testing among chatters overall, increasing rates from 44.5% at pretest to nearly 60% at post-test (p<.001). Furthermore, chatters who reported having both male and female sexual partners had nearly 6 times the odds of reporting HIV testing at post-test. Findings suggest that chat room-based HIV testing intervention may increase testing among MSM who may be difficult to reach in traditional physical spaces. PMID:21393625
Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashvill...
Hull, Pamela C.; Canedo, Juan R.; Reece, Michelle C.; Lira, Irma; Reyes, Francisco; Garcia, Erandi; Juarez, Paul; Williams, Elizabeth; Husaini, Baqar A.
Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement ...
Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy
This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.
Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.
Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.
The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.
Rudel Ruthann A
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...
Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
In 2000, cancer health indicators for Native Hawaiians were worse than those of other ethnic groups in Hawai'i, and Native Hawaiians were under-represented in research endeavors. To build capacity to reduce cancer health disparities, 'Imi Hale applied principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and empowerment theory. Strategies included: 1) engaging Native Hawaiians in defining cancer priorities; 2) developing culturally appropriate processes and products; 3) supplementing primary and secondary cancer prevention activities; 4) offering skills training and technical assistance; and 5) providing an infrastructure to support culturally appropriate research. Between 2000 and 2005, 'Imi Hale involved more than 8000 Native Hawaiians in education, training, and primary and secondary prevention activities; developed 24 culturally tailored educational products (brochures, curricula, and self-help kits); secured $1.1 million in additional program and research funds; trained 98 indigenous researchers, 79 of whom worked on research projects; and engaged more than 3000 other Native Hawaiians as research participants and advisors. Evidence of empowerment was seen in increased individual competence, enhanced community capacity and participation, reduced barriers, and improved supports to address cancer in Hawaiian communities. Operationalizing CBPR and empowerment requires a commitment to involving as many people as possible, addressing community priorities, following cultural protocol, developing and transferring skills, and supporting an infrastructure to reduce barriers and build supports to sustain change. This approach is time consuming, but necessary for building competence and capacity, especially in indigenous and minority communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society. PMID:16977599
Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, Joann U; Santos, LorrieAnn; Aitaoto, Nia; Chong, Clayton
Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the community. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sectional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory research. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such projects, namely community and stakeholders.
Brusel : ECCREDI, 2003, s. 2-2 ISBN N. [FP6 Construction research in the enlarged European union. Warsaw (PL), 06.11.2003-07.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : cultural heritage * interdisciplinary approach * stone masonry Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering
Drdácký, Miloš; Minster, Ji?í
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged to bridge the gap between research and primary-care practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. It is widely acknowledged that access to high-quality primary care services is important to the overall health of a community. Here, CBPR studies in a primary care setting are reviewed to assess the use of CBPR associated with common health problems seen in primary care such as access to care and disparities in chronic disease management across vulnerable populations. CBPR involves building relationships with local communities, determining areas of need and establishing priorities for health concerns. Studies showing improved access to care for a Hispanic population, reduced asthma symptoms and weight loss are highlighted. PMID:24236682
Tapp, Hazel; White, Lauren; Steuerwald, Mark; Dulin, Michael
The authors conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on clinical trials between 2003 and 2010 that implemented the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). The review showed that CBPR-based trials covering a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes have achieved high success rates in recruiting and retaining ethnic and racial minorities in clinical research, and significant findings on positive intervention effects in these populations were developed.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwor...
Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P.; Williams, Joy; Lopresti, Tony; Lilly, Jane
Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this practice is needed. In this work we present an automated market research system based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms with visual lifelogging data, developed in collaboration wit...
Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O Connor, Noel E.
Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.
Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite the increasing demand for CBPR-qualified individuals, few programs exist that are capable of facilitating in-depth and experiential training for both students and those working in communities. This article reviews the Partnerships in Community Health Research (PCHR), a training program at the University of British Columbia that between 2001 and 2009 has equipped graduate student and community-based learners with knowledge, skills, and experience to engage together more effectively using CBPR. With case studies of PCHR learner projects, this article illustrates some of the important successes and lessons learned in preparing CBPR-qualified researchers and community-based professionals in Canada. PMID:21057046
Masuda, Jeffrey R; Creighton, Genevieve; Nixon, Sean; Frankish, James
Full Text Available The present paper analyses different approaches of religiosity in the psychological researches. We intend to explain the concept of religiosity, the distinction in the psychology field between religiosity and spirituality, religiosity dimensions and the main issues to be taken into account in measuring religiosity. In the analysis of the religiosity dimensions we refer to the hierarchical model of religiosity organization (Tsang and McCullough, 2003, which argues that religiosity is manifested at two levels: the dispositional level, reflecting the interindividual differences on religious features and the operational level, which refers to the interindividual diversity in the expression of religiosity. Regarding the measurement of religiosity, we analyze the conceptual clarity of the measured dimensions, the psychometric aspects of the religiosity measurement instruments, the sample representativeness and the cultural sensitivity of the instruments measuring religiosity. Throughout the article we present the results of some researches on the implications of the religiosity dimensions on the personal and family mental health
Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the "left end" of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the "right end" (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other's worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement. PMID:19336548
Hebert, James R; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E
The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triang...
Sudarshan Mishra; Passi, B. K.
In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.
Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.
Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing
Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.
Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)
Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.
The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...
Schei, Tiri Bergesen; Espeland, Magne; Stige, Brynjulf
The paper reports on an approach to teaching a course in information technology research methodology in a doctoral program, the Doctor of Management in Information Technology (DMIT), in which research, with focus on finding innovative solutions to problems found in practice, comprises a significant part of the degree. The approach makes a…
Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; McCord, Samual Alan
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.
Cabassa Leopoldo J
Translational research has proven to be a powerful process that bridges the gap between basic science and medical practice. The complexity of translational research is two-fold: integration of vast amount of information in disparate silos, and dissemination of discoveries to stakeholders with different interests. We designed and implemented a…
Webster, Yue Wang
A phenomenographic approach to research into learning can be appropriate for exploring the approaches geography students adopt in their learning. This resources article provides a brief description of phenomenography. The essence of the approach is that it takes a relational qualitative perspective that aims to describe key aspects of variation in…
We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...
Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh
A collaborative, research based laboratory experiment in mathematical modelling was included in a bioprocess engineering laboratory module, taught as part of an interdisciplinary program in biotechnology. The class was divided into six groups of three students and given the task of investigating a novel diafiltration process that is currently the focus of international research. Different aspects of the problem were assigned to each group and inter-group communication via email was required t...
This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology i...
Dr Venkat Pulla
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…
Brno : Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance . Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography
Full Text Available Abstract Genomics, or the study of genes and their function, is a burgeoning field with many new technologies. In the present review, we explore the application of genomic approaches to the study of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Candidate genes, important to the pathobiology of the disease, have been investigated. Rodent models enable the manipulation of selected genes, either by transgenesis or targeted disruption. Mutational analysis of genes in the transforming growth factor-? family have proven pivotal in both familial and sporadic forms of primary PH. Finally, microarray gene expression analysis is a robust molecular tool to aid in delineating the pathobiology of this disease.
Tuder Rubin M
The present research on cognitive categories for soundscapes focuses on their interpretations and can be seen as mediating between individual sensory experiences and collective representations shared in language and elaborated as knowledge. Results of field inquiries in Paris, Lyon, and Nantes are presented together with results from categorization of recorded soundscapes in laboratory conditions. Categories were identified by means of linguistic analyses of verbal comments and mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results indicate that people categorize environmental sounds on the basis of semantic features, namely source identity and pleasantness judgments, rather than perceptual features. Effects of noise on human subjectivity cannot be quantitatively measured thoroughly in terms of physical parameters: auditory judgments depend upon the meaning attributed to acoustic phenomena and noise sources, rather than on inherent properties of the acoustic signal. These findings highlight the fact that an acoustic phenomenon can be diversely conceptualized and lexicalized as cognitive representations. Finally, methodological and theoretical consequences of these findings are established as the basis for further research on soundscape, in order to account not only for noise annoyance but also for sound quality of urban life.
Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon
The agonistic approach - aimed at embracing opposing perspectives as part of a qualitative research process and acknowledging that process as fundamentally political - sheds light on both the construction of and the resistance to research identities. This approach involves reflexively embedding interview situations into the ethnographic context as a tool for analyzing how this context conditions and limits positions for research participants, thereby setting the stage for potential agonisms between the researcher and field participants. The author - an ethnic Danish researcher - uses the agonistic approach to examine the identity construction problems and resistance dynamics in interviews with ethnic minority boys at a crime-preventive recreation centre. Applying an agonistic analysis to apparently "uninformative" interview data not only creates insight into local discursive resources, practices, cultural understandings, and power relations but also transforms what initially appears to constitute methodological problems - in terms of "data gaps" from participant resistance - into important, substantial empirical material. © 2008 Sage Publications.
Full Text Available This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.
This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…
Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.
Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa
This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…
The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…
Hill, Gary A.
The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate...
Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda
One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based…
Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.
Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pe...
Conner, Tamlin S.; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Salidroside, one of the active components of Rhodiola plants, is a phenolic glycoside with significant biological activities. The investigation and development of alternative production approaches of salidroside is of high academic and application values due to the limited resource of Rhodiola plants, and from which the low yield of salidroside. This review summarized the research progress and perspective of the alternative production approaches of salidroside including both chemosynthetic and biosynthetic methods and pathways. PMID:24494549
Wu, Xiu-Wen; Peng, Yu-Shuai; Wang, Ru-Feng
This paper examines community-based participatory research (CBPR) intervention approaches in promoting cancer-relevant outcomes for 102 Vietnamese women. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in promoting breast and cervical cancer knowledge, positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening, and breast cancer screening. Collectivism moderated the effect of the intervention on attitudes towards breast cancer screening. The intervention led to more favorable attitudes towards breast cancer screening for women with high levels of collectivism but not for women with low levels. Ethnic identity moderated the effect of the intervention on breast cancer screening: the intervention program led to higher probability of getting a clinical breast exam; however, this effect was more pronounced for women with low ethnic identity than for those with high ethnic identity. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of culturally-tailored strategies in developing cancer screening interventions for the Vietnamese American population. PMID:24858871
Nguyen, Anh B; Belgrave, Faye Z
Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.
This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…
Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project
Khalil ur, Rahman; Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan; Seo, Sang Mun; Kim, Yong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The main approach of this paper is to look at design research from a systems-oriented perspective. This implies that design research is understood as a dynamic and emergent field of interrelated or contradicting thoughts, concepts and ideas. The first three sections of this paper draw cross-sections into the emerging richness in design research as it matures as a genuine mode of knowledge production. They address some of the positions, concepts, and discussions going on in the field, arguing ...
This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153
Gray, Garry C
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly. PMID:23370942
Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith
Full Text Available Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable urban design, and identifies several paths for future research.
In this article it is discussed that food quality management issues are much more complex than often assumed and that it requires a specific research approach. It is argued that food quality management deals with dynamic and complex food systems and people systems involved in realising food quality. A conceptual food quality relationship is developed, assuming that food quality is a function of both food and human behaviour and their interaction. The relationship reflects that food quality is...
Luning, P. A.; Marcelis, W. J.
Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from participation continue to serve beneficiaries after the end of a project. These benefits would accrue more in projects with higher levels of participation. However, in the event of a premature end or an...
Vaughan, Gregory; Lanc?on, Jacques
Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit.
Howard, Thomas J.
In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, institutions) of the citing papers as well as their thematic characteristics.
Río, J A; García, E O; Ramírez, A M; Humenik, J A
African immigrant and refugee communities remain medically underserved in the United States. Formative efforts are being directed to address the local needs of communities by researchers, community agencies, and local populations. However, there is a paucity of data and sparse documentation regarding these efforts. The objectives for this pilot study were to identify the health priorities of the Kansas City Somali community and to establish a working relationship between an academic medical university and the local Somali community. Our team used community-based participatory research principles and interviewed Somali community members (n = 11). Participants stated that chronic and mental health conditions were of primary concern. Medical system navigation and literacy struggles were identified as barriers. Participants offered possible solutions to some health issues, e.g., using community health workers and Qur'anic readers. Preliminary findings will help guide future research and inform strategies to improve the health and well-being of this community. PMID:23124631
Filippi, Melissa K; Faseru, Babalola; Baird, Martha; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M
Under the Agreement Between the Government of Japan and the European Atomic Energy Community for the Joint Implementation of the Broader Approach (BA) Activities, a new research site has been developed in Rokkasho in Aomori prefecture of Japan. In this new site, two of the three projects of the BA activities will be implemented, namely, International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC) and Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility 'IFMIF/EVEDA'). The research facilities for the two projects will be also constructed in the new site. Specifications of the individual research facilities are described. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.
Objectives This study aimed to examine how students' perceptions of research and learning change through participation in undergraduate research and to identify the factors that affect the process of their engagement in re-search projects. Methods This qualitative study has drawn on phenomenography as research methodology to explore third-year medical students' experiences of undergraduate research from participants' perspectives (n=14). Data included semi-structured individual interviews conducted as pre and post reflections. Thematic analysis of pre-course interviews combined with researcher-participant observations in-formed design of end-of-course interview questions. Results Phenomenographic data analysis demonstrated qualitative changes in students' perceptions of research. At the beginning of the course, the majority of students ex-pressed a relatively narrow definition of research, focusing on the content and outcomes of scientific research. End-of-course reflections indicated increased attention to research processes including researcher autonomy, collaboration and knowledge construction processes. Furthermore, acknowledgement of the linkage between research and learning processes indicated an epistemological change leading them to take a deep approach to learning in undergraduate research. Themes included: an inquiring mind, synthesis of knowledge, active participation, collaborative and reflective learning. However, they also encountered some difficulties in undertaking group research projects. These were attributed to their prior learning experiences, differences in valuing towards interpersonal communication, understanding of the research process, and social relationships with others. Conclusions This study provided insights into the potential for undergraduate research in medical education. Medical students' awareness of the linkage between research and learning may be one of the most important outcomes in the undergraduate research process. PMID:25863495
Saiki, Takuya; Kawakami, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yasuyuki
Full Text Available Mobile government, which is an emergent phenomenon, represents a solution for many countries to reach their citizens and to improve the services of government-to-citizens (G2C. Hence, most researchers have merely focused on the citizens’ adoption and usage issues, security, implementation and transformation, and the success factors of m-government services. However, in order to proceed with the study on examining the m-government services, it is vital to first analyze the most suitable research method that can be used. Thus, this paper investigated the research approaches used for examining m-government services by reviewing 37 papers that are related to this topic, which were retrieved from four online databases: a IEEE Xplore, b Science Direct, c Emerald, and d ACM Digital Library. Only papers from 2007 to 2014 were selected for further review. The findings suggested that the survey method was mostly used to examine the m-government services.
Noor Suriana Abu Bakar
Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)
The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.
Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm
There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterizatishow promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders
TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.
King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.
Full Text Available This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers h [...] ow their more philosophical and theoretical insights can be used in empirical research. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and concerned about safeguarding the perspective of those studied. The main idea of empirical phenomenology is that scientific explanation must be grounded in the first-order construction of the actors; that is, in their own meanings. These constructions are then related to the second-order constructions of the scientist. In this paper, empirical phenomenology is considered in the light of phenomenological philosophy. The paper includes an explication of the approach, which is summarized in seven steps through which the researcher is guided, and considers its implications for qualitative methods such as interviewing and participant observation.
There are several types of research reactor currently in operation in France. Their usage includes neutronic studies, technological irradiations, neutron beam utilisation, safety research and teaching purposes. Most of these were built during the 60s and because they are all different each type presents particular hazards. The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) works to ensure that the regulatory framework maintains a high level of safety for research and experimental activities. After a description of French research reactors and their hazards and operation this paper will summarise the French regulatory framework and its evolutions over the last few years. For instance, the law of June 13th 2006 on Transparency and Security in Nuclear Field is now the most important piece of French legislation in the field of nuclear safety. It builds upon the high requirements of the existing regulatory framework and, sets a new base for the control of nuclear activities and facilities. Also it creates an independent nuclear safety authority (ASN) and includes the principle of periodic (10 yearly) safety reviews for all nuclear facilities. The safety analysis and methods of control of research reactors safety have tended to become more and more similar in France to those of power reactors. For instance, even if a graduated approach has always been used, the safety analysis approach applied to operating conditions on research reactors is the same as that used for power reactors. the same as that used for power reactors. Moreover, design codes used are often the same. The French regulatory framework is applicable to all nuclear facilities, including research reactors. To comply with the law and this regulatory framework, each facility must deliver a safety analysis report (SAR) which determines its particular operating limits. This analysis is assessed by ASN and its technical support organization, IRSN (Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute). o ensure that the licensee assume all its responsibilities and, to allow the necessary flexibility in the ever changing operations of research reactors, ASN has utilised the principle of internal authorizations. Even if the operation is not explicitly described in the SAR, the licensee has the opportunity, under certain conditions, to self authorize the operation provided that it is of minor safety significance and is bounded by another operation in the SAR. This principle has been applied to the use of experimental devices in specific conditions. Since its introduction in 2002 the internal authorization process has generated a significant amount of plant operations information which has been subject to review and feedback by both the licensee and ASN. ASN is about to extend its application to core management the long stop periods, especially for refurbishment in research reactors. This paper then deals with the feedback provided over the last few years from events reported at French nuclear research reactors. There has been a significant increase in reported events between 1999 and 2006. Last year (2006) 29 events were reported on research reactors in France. Most of these were rated at level 0 and are minor events but this relatively high number is probably due to the ageing of many facilities. Nevertheless, it's also the result of the introduction of new criteria for declaration for instance when an automatic shutdown occurs. However this increase in the number of events provides the opportunity for analysis to acquire more knowledge about research reactors operation and also an opportunity to tackle the subject of the ageing of those facilities. Research reactors are essential support tools for the nuclear industry and for the design of the next generations of power reactors. Thus it is important to keep these facilities operational. To conclude, this paper give ASN's perspectives for research reactors for the coming years and also highlight the regulatory challenges associated with keeping those facilities operational with a high level of safety. The regulation of the projects RJH (
A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs
Full Text Available The important problem of higher professional education is preparation of specialists possessing skills in high technology equipment. Problem realization is directed to interdisciplinary educational research works and complex final qualifying works on for example working out of pharmaceutical preparations, biologically active additives to food and cosmetic means. The given work includes step-by-step decision of the problem put before students and it should be analogical relevant to dissertations on specialty «pharmacy». From the point of view of methodological approach concerning the choice of candidature and work theme the following categories of students according to their progress and type of personality are allocated: «stars», «fellow travelers» and «good students». On this basis various methodological approaches for work with «stars», «fellow travelers» and «good students» are considered in the article
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities ...
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)
The availability of complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) data for Diptera, one of the largest metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. The advent of high throughput sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mtgenomes for many species affordably and quickly. However, these technologies need to be validated for dipterans as the members of this clade play important economic and research roles. Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms are widely used in genomic research involving non-model organisms. The Illumina platform has already been utilized for generating mitochondrial genomes without using conventional long range PCR for insects whereas the power of 454 sequencing for generating mitochondrial genome drafts without PCR has not yet been validated for insects. Thus, this study examines the utility of 454 sequencing approach for dipteran mtgenomic research. We generated complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipalpis using a 454 sequencing approach. Comparisons between newly obtained and existing assemblies for C. hominivorax and H. irritans revealed no major discrepancies and verified the utility of 454 sequencing for dipteran mitochondrial genomes. We also report the complete mitochondrial sequences for two forensically important flies, P. regina and S. crassipalpis, which could be used to provide useful information to legal personnel. Comparative analyses revealed that dipterans follow similar codon usage and nucleotide biases that could be due to mutational and selection pressures. This study illustrates the utility of 454 sequencing to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes for dipterans without the aid of conventional molecular techniques such as PCR and cloning and validates this method of mtgenome sequencing in arthropods. PMID:25451744
Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Singh, Baneshwar; Wells, Jeffrey D; Guerrero, Felix; Ray, David A
The prevalence of HIV-associated brain disorders is reportedly increasing due, in part, to the prolonged life span of individuals who are surviving well on highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART). While clinicians report CNS-related deficits that are more subtle in presentation than the frank dementia evident in the pre-HAART era, the milder presentation continues to substantively reduce an individual's quality of life. The development of novel drugs or therapeutic strategies for treating HIV-related CNS disease is important as most investigators agree that the brain is a sanctuary for latent virus, local viral recrudescence, and associated brain inflammatory responses. The prolonged chronic and cumulative effects on the brain of living with HIV-related inflammatory processes, antiretroviral treatments, and their long-term side effects, toxicities, and brain-related aging processes collectively indicate that the burden of CNS and PNS complications will increase profoundly during the upcoming years. Considering the high expense for new drugs entering CNS-related clinical trials and their ultimately low success rate, the NIMH convened a meeting entitled, HIV Preclinical-Clinical Therapeutics Research Meeting, to discuss the current and proposed novel approaches for neuroAIDS drug development and clinical practices. The purposes of the meeting were twofold: to identify the most promising approaches for future neuroAIDS therapeutics development research and to discuss optimal structures and partnerships with industry that may facilitate the successful movement of compounds from the bench to the bedside. Several themes can be derived from the sessions and are highlighted below for preclinical, translational and clinical neuroAIDS therapeutics research. PMID:18040818
Kopnisky, Kathy L; Bao, Jing
Community–academic partnerships have demonstrated potential for studying and improving community and environmental health, but only recently have their policy impacts been systematically studied. This case study highlights the evolution, research, and policy processes and outcomes of a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership that has had multilevel impacts on health policy concerning diesel bus emissions and related environmental justice issues. The partnership between Wes...
Minkler, Meredith; Va?squez, Victoria Breckwich; Shepard, Peggy
The R and D for tritium technologies to a demonstration reactor (DEMO) plant are carried out in the Broader Approach (BA) program in Japan: 1) tritium accountancy technology; 2) basic tritium safety research; and 3) tritium durability test. A multi-purpose facility will be constructed at Rokkasho in Japan to carry out the above R and D. Beta and gamma radioisotopes as well as tritium (370 TBq/year) can be handled in the facility. At TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory) of JAEA, a series of R and D programs for tritium technologies have been carried out. The main R and D activities in this field are: tritium behavior in a confinement; monitoring; detritiation; and decontamination. In this paper, the results of recent activities at TPL of JAEA are also summarized from the viewpoint of the related R and D subjects under the BA program. (authors)
Yamanishi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Shu, W.; Kawamura, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Iwai, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Isobe, K. [Tritium Engineering Group, JAEA, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)
After a general overview of the technological irradiation reactors existing in Europe, this document details the safety approach adopted for a new research reactor (RJH) to be constructed in France and the main recommendations resulting from IRSN assessment. As a general conclusion, the safety-related provisions taken by the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for the RJH will allow to obtain a safety level consistent with the future power generating reactors safety level, with, as the most significant progress, the consideration, from the design stage, of the severe core meltdown accidents from all points of view (control of the removal risk in containments, post-accidental cooling of relocated materials, etc.). Generally, it was considered that these provisions constitute a satisfactory 'evolutionary' basis for the continuation of the project. However, the assessment conducted by IRSN led to issue a certain number of recommendations, particularly relating to some relatively arbitrary assumptions and approaches (for example: energies considered for BORAX accident). The projects of new facilities implemented by CEA seem to be on the right way: an 'evolutionary' way and not a 'revolutionary' way. (author)
In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.
Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.
Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site...
Miller, Pamela K.; Viola Waghiyi; Gretchen Welfinger-Smith; Samuel Carter Byrne; Jane Kava; Jesse Gologergen; Lorraine Eckstein; Ronald Scrudato; Jeff Chiarenzelli; Carpenter, David O.; Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles c...
Haynes, Erin N.; Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.
The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.
Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.
Action research in classrooms can be challenging for novice teacher researchers. This paper reports on a study involving eight action research teacher teams. Analysis of the teams as they conducted action research resulted in the identification of three collaborative action research approaches promoting professional development. The findings…
Jaipal, Kamini; Figg, Candace
The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...
A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…
Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community–academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers...
Meade, Cathy D.; Menard, Janelle M.; Luque, John S.; Martinez-tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K.
Full Text Available Managing risks in Software Process Improvement (SPI is a key point of software success. A software risk is considered as an essential characteristic of software development process which if ignored will increase the chance of project failure. For this purpose different risk management approaches are developed. These approaches lead to the identification, assessment and control of risk occurrence in software projects. Collaborative Practice Research (CPR is one of the action research approaches for managing risk in SPI. In this approach the focus is on gathering information regarding SPI and acknowledging risk management in process development by developing risk assessment strategies and models. The main challenge of this action research approach is to validate the developed risk approach. This paper has a critical review on the existing research approach i.e. CPR. It also provides an enhanced form of CPR which modifies the current CPR approach by including a risk validation activity.
Faiza Ayub Syed
Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a honces on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility that a slow reactivity insertion would not lead to severe consequences on the core. It also highlighted a lack of knowledge about fast transient physical processes and the need of validated tools if a refined simulation is to be carried out. (author)
High application levels of fertilisers and agro-chemicals in The Netherlands have provoked increasingly stringent environmental policies. The development and evaluation of these policies have led to a shift in agricultural research. Starting in a tradition of factorial research, a systems-oriented approach was adopted. Building on results of earlier systems-oriented experimental research in the 1980s, an approach was developed where research on experimental farms increasingly became linked to...
Langeveld, J. W. A.; Keulen, H.; Haan, J. J.; Kroonen-backbier, B.; Oenema, J.
This paper explores the possibility of fashioning a queer methodology for educational research through analysis of three research studies. It begins with the question of queer visibility, asking about the ethics and utility of remaining closeted vs. disclosing one's identity. It then explores the question of researcher subjectivity and of putting…
Sheldon, James R.
Full Text Available The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is made on the available printed and online resources. The resources were mainly on the social science and medical education research methodologies. Medical education research steps must follow the various steps of social science research methodology. Due to various reasons case study methodology became popular approach in medical education. The case study comprises of interview survey, questionnaire survey, participant observation and documentary analysis. To overcome the inherent weakness of the non-experimental subjective research, triangulation methodology is being used in recent years. Case study approach is the best way to explore the research issues of the medical education. The triangulation methodology must be applied to overcome the inherent subjectivity of the research approach. This paper may be used as a guide to design the various steps of case study research approach in medical education.
In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.
Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh
The Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) has contributed to applied health and nursing services research in Canada by establishing the Regional Training Centres (RTCs). The interdisciplinary education and experience in applied health and nursing services research that the RTCs offer has produced graduates who are highly sought after by both academic and key health services decision-making agencies. Students educated in these multidisciplinary environments learn that different ...
Dallaire, Cle?mence; Critchley, Kim A.; Sheps, Sam; Cockerill, Rhonda
A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Commun...
Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?
Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje
Full Text Available The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use all varying types of tools and services. We explain a flexible model that uses state-of-the-art semantic technologies to model both structured and unstructured research data. The research data is extracted from many online resources and Social Media. We implement learning objects as an abstraction of the semantically modeled research data. We propose an environment that improves the scientific research and learning process by allowing researchers to efficiently browse the information and concepts represented as learning objects.
Laurens De Vocht
This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…
Perry, Justin C.
Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)
Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.
The results of safety research of objects consisting of heat-generating assemblies of WWER-1000 reactor in the transport container and neutron source target device driven by electron accelerator have been introduced in this paper. Research method used for these purposes included imitation modeling and program code MCNP4C and MCNPX.
This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…
Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy
This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...
Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi
Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership engaged in a multi-step process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership; (2) establish an Intervention Team; (3) review the existing sexual health literature; (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM; (5) narrow prio...
Rhodes, Scott D.; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; Garcia, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Alegria-ortega, Jose; Miller, Aas; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and research culture’. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers.Keywords: physician, clinical research, clinical trial, medical education
Sami F Shaban
We explore the relationship between current research directions in human health and environmental and public health policy. Specifically, we suggest there is a link between the continuing emphasis in biomedical research on individualized, therapeutic solutions to human disease and the increased reliance on individual choice in response to environmental and/or public health threats. We suggest that continued research emphasis on these traditional approaches to the exclusion of other approaches...
Gohlke, Julia M.; Portier, Christopher J.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.
Public dialogue can widen the knowledge base for decision making to make public policy and programmes more effective and accountable, in line with citizens’ priorities. Audience research can enhance the relevance of a communication strategy to its objectives and to participants’ needs and communication preferences. Audience research designs based on diffusion models of communication are, however, inadequate for the participatory objectives of public dialogue. This article, ...
Kruger, Jenni; Fourie, Ina; Dick, Archie L.
Although it is true that each local area or region possesses its own historiography – and for that matter its own environmental historiography – there should not be much difference in the research methodology, sources and pitfalls or drawbacks of doing environmental history research in labelled environmental crisis areas. This article presents a concise historiography on dealing with environmental crisis in literature is provided. This is followed by a proposed transdiscipl...
Eeden, Elize S.
Today, there is an ever-increasing amount of biological and clinical data available that could be used to enhance a systems-based understanding of disease progression through innovative computational analysis. In this paper we review a selection of published research regarding computational methodologies, primarily from systems biology, that support translational research from the molecular level to the bedside, with a focus on applications in trauma and critical care. Trauma is the leading c...
Mcguire, Mary F.; Iyengar, M. Sriram; Mercer, David W.
The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions. Global collaboration and scientific advances could be accelerated through broader access to scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. In this white paper we discuss the possibilities to open this registration to a global consortium of information institutes and libraries.
Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam
Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Research…
Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.
This paper presents the results of a project that aimed at restructuring the delivery of research methods training at the Information School at the University of Sheffield, UK, based on an Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) approach. The purpose of this research was to implement inquiry-based learning that would allow customization of research methods…
Albright, Kendra; Petrulis, Robert; Vasconcelos, Ana; Wood, Jamie
Regulatory research can be defined as activities comprising of research, testing and analysis undertaken for obtaining deeper insights into intricate safety issues towards arriving at scientifically sound and better optimized regulatory decisions. Regulatory research may be performed by the regulatory body itself or by the licensee or their technical support organizations. This could be either in fulfillment of regulatory requirements for novel designs or to resolve safety issues in existing facilities. New technologies are often introduced in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for safety enhancement or for improving plant efficiency or economics. The regulators are then faced with the challenging task of reviewing such technologies to assess and confirm their reliability and robustness before consenting for their use in the plant. Regulatory research provides a sound basis to support such regulatory decisions. The Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) makes significant use of regulatory research, both for addressing safety questions in existing facilities as also for assessing the reliability of new designs. Management of safety of coolant channels in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) based NPPs, safety assessment of unbonded prestressing system for primary containment building of an NPP and, analysis for arriving at the cause of a power rise incident in an NPP are some examples where intense played a key role in AERB's decision making process. This paper aims adecision making process. This paper aims at elaborating on the different aspects of regulatory research that help eliminate subjectivity in regulatory decisions and also improve the effectiveness of a regulatory organization through contributing to value addition to safety. Some examples of regulatory research in support of AERB's decisions are also covered in the paper. (author)
One of the major problems that a tree-approach to data analysis often encounters is the instability of tree-structures. The instability issue must be dealt with before data can be interpreted by this method. Examining instability at a node of a tree provides insight into the instability of the whole tree, because the same theory of instability…
This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…
Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn
This article from the September 2007 issue of BioScience provides background information and research on dedifferentiation in stem cells. Dedifferentiation is an important biological phenomenon whereby cells regress from a specialized function to a simpler state reminiscent of stem cells. Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of giving rise to differentiated cells when supplied with the appropriate factors. Stem cells that are derived by dedifferentiation of one's own cells could be a new resource for regenerative medicine, one that poses no risk of genetic incompatibility or immune rejection and provokes fewer ethical debates than the use of stem cells derived from embryonic tissue. Until now, it has not been quite clear why some differentiated cell types can dedifferentiate and proliferate, whereas others cannot. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in dedifferentiation may enable scientists to control and possibly alter the plasticity of the differentiated state, which may lead to benefits not only in stem cell research but also in regenerative medicine and even tumor biology. If so, dedifferentiation will offer an ethically acceptable alternative route to obtain an abundant source of stem cells. Dedifferentiation is likely to become a new focus of stem cell research. Here we compile recent advances in this emerging but significant research, highlighting its central concepts, research findings, possible signaling pathways, and potential applications.
SA CAI, XIAOBING FU, ZHIYONG SHENG (; )
This paper presents the structure of the ESF-founded TERM research project 'Environment Quality in European Space', and serves as the introduction to the special issue presenting the results of this project. The aim of the project was to organise existing European research teams in the area of spatial sustainability, focusing on two themes: 'transport and environment', and 'energy efficiency and spatial sustainability'. A number of criteria are identified for the comparison and evaluation of research in these areas for 12 European countries: UK, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Israel and Austria. These criteria involve 'intrinsic characteristics' (problem definition, policy options, theoretical assumptions, method and data) and 'meta characteristics' (scientific innovation and contribution to real policy-making). (Author)
Nijkamp, P.; Bergh, J. van den; Verhoef, E. [Free Univ., Dept. of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7 databases (2005-2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice-end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n?=?648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and interdisciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169
Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D; Reid, M C
In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey and compare them based on several criteria, such as coefficients, parsimony, model fit, plausibility, and consistency with the theory. A comparison of the estimates obtained from the two models clearly indicates that it is not at all a trivial matter whether cross-loadings are allowed in a measurement model or not. These results shed serious doubt on the generally accepted rule of thumb according to which (cross) loadings can safely be ignored if they do not have a “practically significant” loading with an absolute value of at least 0.30 or 0.40.
SØrensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina
Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable ...
Kevin Hamilton; Karrie Karahalios; Christian Sandvig; Cedric Langbort
This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied learning, and discussing these in light of a distinction between phenomenology as philosophy and as methodological orientation, our aim is to move bey...
Standal, Øyvind Førland; Engelsrud, Gunn
Abstract Background In certain cases, anti-idiotypic antibodies that recognize an antigen-combining site of an antibody can mimic the structure and/or function of certain nominal antigens. This feature makes them particularly useful if conventional experimental approaches fail to fulfil expectations, especially when the molecule of interest is infectious, toxic or difficult to isolate and purify. We suggest the application of an anti-idiotype concept to the field of prion biology, with the ai...
Narat Mojca; Koren Simon; Vranac Tanja; Bresjanac Maja; Colja Venturini Anja; Popovi? Mara; ?urin Šerbec Vladka
In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research…
Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David
Although research in the field of language teaching and learning has appeared to enhance classroom pedagogy, I argue here that these advances have had a relatively small impact on actual foreign language learning. Unlike in most school subjects, the recipients of language pedagogy, i.e. the students, arrive in the classroom with several…
Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.
The challenges and opportunities of globalization require art education scholars and practitioners to develop international competencies, but research in the specific field of comparative art education is very limited at present. In this article, I provide a pragmatic framework for studying art education policy as a subfield of comparative…
In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…
Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the developmental stages of academic publication collaborations through both research on the collaborative process itself, as well as through analysis of the discovery process. Using the qualitative software package, NUD*IST, the teleconferencing system, FirstClass, and standard e-mail, the study…
Winograd, David; Milton, Katherine
Current thinking on academic identities is heavily influenced by developments in other disciplines, notably sociology. This accords with Haggis's (2007) challenge for educational researchers to engage with current theory and methods from across the social sciences. However, the traditional sister discipline to education, psychology, seems…
The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…
Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel
The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…
Bleicher, Robert E.
I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…
Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants? community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka?s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.
A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.
Knight, V. H., Jr.
Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...
Tiwari, S. C.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits, problems in activities of daily living, and behavioral disturbances. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been demonstrated as a reliable tool in dementia research and diagnosis. The application of EEG in AD has a wide range of interest. EEG contributes to the differential diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease progression. Additionally such recordings can add important information related to t...
Anthoula Tsolaki; Dimitrios Kazis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Vasiliki Kosmidou; Magda Tsolaki
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometr...
Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A.
Mobile government, which is an emergent phenomenon, represents a solution for many countries to reach their citizens and to improve the services of government-to-citizens (G2C). Hence, most researchers have merely focused on the citizens’ adoption and usage issues, security, implementation and transformation, and the success factors of m-government services. However, in order to proceed with the study on examining the m-government services, it is vital to first analyze the most suitable res...
Noor Suriana Abu Bakar; Azizah Abdul. Rahman; Haza Nuzly Abdul Hamid?
The US National Institutes of health, Fogarty International Center (NIH-FIC) has, for the past 13 years, been a leading funder of international research ethics education for resource-limited settings. Nearly half of the NIH-FIC funding in this area has gone to training programs that train individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the impact of training investments, as well as the potential predictors of post-training success, can support curricular decision-making, help establish fundi...
Ali, Joseph; Kass, Nancy E.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; White, Tara D.; Hyder, Adnan A.
The objectives of this review were to assess the methods and approaches applied to end-of-life cancer research based on papers focusing on approaches or methodological issues related to seeking the views of people affected by terminal cancer. A comprehensive search of 10 databases (January 1980-February 2004) was undertaken. References were screened, quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. Analysis followed a meta-narrative approach. Fifteen papers were included. They discussed 'traditional' approaches, such as focus groups, interviews, surveys, as well as innovative approaches allied to the arts. They reveal that mixed methods are gaining popularity. The emotional demands placed on researchers and the ethical issues involved in this research area were also discussed. We concluded that researchers should embrace innovative approaches from other areas of social science, such as the use of arts-based techniques. This may facilitate recruitment of the hard-to-reach groups and engage with experiences that may be otherwise difficult to verbalize. Although researching the needs of the dying carries challenges, these are not the exclusive domain of the cancer field. This study reveals that diverse methods, from research-based drama to postal questionnaires, can enhance end-of-life research. However, this review reveals the need for more methodological work to be undertaken and disseminated. PMID:18485015
Harris, F M; Kendall, M; Bentley, A; Maguire, R; Worth, A; Murray, S; Boyd, K; Brown, D; Kearney, N; Sheikh, A
Guest Editorial. Acknowledgements. There is more to discourse than meets the ears: Looking at thinking as communicating to learn more about mathematical learning; A. Sfard. Educational forms of initiation in mathematical culture; B. van Oers. Cultural, discursive psychology: A socio-cultural approach to studying the teaching and learning of mathematics; S. Lerman. The multiple voices of a mathematics classroom community; E. Forman, E. Ansell. 'Can any fraction be turned into a decimal?' A case study of a mathematical group discussion; M.C. O'Connor. The mathematical discourse of 13-ye
For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686
Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J
Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…
In view of recent debates on the global spread of English and its international lingua franca role, what pronunciation models are appropriate for millions of EFL learners? Which aspects of English phonetics should be taught to foreign students and which can be neglected with little loss to successful communication? How can English pronunciation be taught in an interesting and effective way which is both learner- and teacher-friendly, in accordance with the latest scholarly and technological achievements? This research-based book addresses these and many other fundamental issues that are curren
We review research aimed at the development of a compelling taxonomy of personality-descriptive terms. We identify five issues central to the construction of personality taxonomies and discuss the advantages and limitations of the lexical approach. Our review of research stimulated by this approach begins with Allport and Odbert’s trait names, retraces the procedures that led to Cattell’s personality factors, and summarizes contemporary work in English and in Dutch. Taxonomers and lay peo...
John, Oliver P.; Angleitner, Alois; Ostendorf, Fritz
With distinctively different traditions of and influences to the academic study of the education and learning of adults in the field over the years, generalizations in narrations of approaches to research or change across Europe are bound to be reductive and flawed. The direction of approaches to research and scholarly activity in Europe have emerged in distinctive ways in different geographical locations. Events and trajectories could perhaps best be traced and characterized for the field th...
Fejes, Andreas; Nicoll, Katherine
Recent nationwide initiatives to accelerate clinical and translational research, including comparative effectiveness research, increasingly will require clinician participation in research-related activities at the point-of-care, activities such as participant recruitment for clinical research studies and systematic data collection. A key element to the success of such initiatives that has not yet been adequately addressed is how to provide incentives to clinicians for the time and effort tha...
Embi, Peter J.; Tsevat, Joel
This article details a consensus-building initiative to develop a statewide research agenda responding to needs of Illinois's child welfare community. Researchers conducted this process through a university-community partnership to engage those interested in child welfare services, and produced a document to guide child welfare research throughout…
Johnson, Michelle A.; Wells, Susan J.; Testa, Mark F.; McDonald, Jess
As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)
Erdebil, I. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Nuclear Laboratories and Research Reactors Div.; Omar, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Assessment Integration Div.
The epidemiology program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses a tiered approach to research. As research progresses from lower through higher tiers, there is a corresponding increase in study complexity, cost, and time commitment. The approach provides a useful strategy for directing research efforts towards those employee subgroups and health endpoints that can benefit most from more in-depth studies. A variety of potential exposures, health endpoints, and employee subgroups have been and continued to be studied by research groups such as Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Centers for Disease Control, SRP's Occupational Health Technology, and the Du Pont Company's corporate Epidemiology Section. These studies are discussed in the context of a tiered approach to research
In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine described a novel approach to killing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells without harming normal cells, an approach that could help fight off the disease in patients who have developed resistance to standard treatment. Dartmouth is home to the Norris Cotton Cancer Center.
Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.
The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series of preliminary studies found interesting to set up an EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. In the paper some general research methods pertinent to the area industrial management are discussed. The EEG concept is introduced and characterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG activities are described and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research process is proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological and quality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities could possibly contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper ends up looking at future research areas and research methods, including application of the EEG approach.
In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…
This article describes a mixed-methods approach to integrating the methodological tools of social network analysis and qualitative research to explore intersectionality as it pertains to faculty experiences in institutional contexts. These research strategies, employed at the individual and aggregate levels, can be useful tools as institutions aim…
Pifer, Meghan J.
This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…
Gannon, Theresa A.
With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…
This paper is based on the results of a survey on “Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience” conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well, allow for three main considerations: i) projects involved 5 different disciplines as average and geography and sociology were present in the majority of the projects; ii) the level of interconnection between disciplines seems intermediate, meaning that information and methods are exchanged, but a full integration of methods and concepts into a common shared language and system of axioms is missing; iii) the lack of a common framework and common terminology represents a major barrier to good interdisciplinary work. The results highlight the role played in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers to interdisciplinary work and improve the efficacy and quality of resilience design.
Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa
The Climate Change Research Center (CCRC) at the University of New Hampshire focuses on developing solutions to global geoscience problems through multi-disciplinary efforts involving mathematical modelers, atmospheric chemists, geochemists, biogeochemists, statisticians, oceanographers, anthropologists and physicists. The centre is directing a series of field and laboratory programs from atmospherically teleconnected high latitude sites and low to mid latitude sites to examine a variety of global climate change problems. CCRC's scientific projects include: (1) the New England Atmospheric Investigation Regional Mapping Analysis and Prediction project (AIRMAP), (2) the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), (3) and the United States' portion of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (US ITASE). Information derived from these programs is made available through the use of web sites, posters, videos, school visits, tours of CCRC facilities, written curricula materials and teacher workshops. In addition, the CCRC has partnered with the Boston Museum of Science, the American Museum of Natural History and other facilities to develop and disseminate educational materials for use in classrooms. The information focuses on climate and climate change. It was concluded that there is a definite need for standards-based, real-time, interactive, student outreach programs given the high level of public interest in global climate change. CCRC's programs can help make a positive impact on students and their teachers.
Smith, D.Z. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham, NH (United States). Climate Change Research Centre, Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space
A cDNA microarray allows biologists to examine the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Researchers may analyze the complete transcriptional program of an organism in response to specific physiological or developmental conditions. By design, a cDNA microarray is an experiment with many variables and few controls. One question that inevitably arises when working with a cDNA microarray is data reproducibility. How easy is it to confirm mRNA expression patterns? In this paper, a case study involving the treatment of a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was used to obtain a rough estimate of data reproducibility. Two trials were examined and a list of genes displaying either a > 2-fold or > 4-fold increase in gene expression was compiled. Variations in signal mean ratios between the two slides were observed. We can assume that erring in reproducibility may be compensated by greater inductive levels of similar genes. Steps taken to obtain results included serum starvation of cells before treatment, tests of mRNA for quality/consistency, and data normalization.
Hinman, R.; Thrall, B.; Wong, K,
Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both con...
‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978) and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009) and Svensson (2007) have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR) consultants exp...
Based on the experiences of the HANARO construction and operation, a project to design an advanced research reactor was launched in 2003 to prepare for the future needs of a research reactor. Many improvements identified during the HANARO operation and utilization will be incorporated into the design of the advanced research reactor. This paper deals with the basic principles of the design approach and the preliminary design features of the reactor under study
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding ...
Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge
Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.
Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.
Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...
Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities. PMID:25385692
Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R
Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.
Pamela K. Miller
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281
Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge
Full Text Available This is a collaborative essay that presents the design practice research of six postgraduate researchers (past and present, who have been working within the Architecture+Philosophy research stream at the School of Architecture, RMIT University, Melbourne. What unites the projects is an aspiration to maintain a creative relationship between architectural design project research and critical theory, with an emphasis on transdisciplinary potentialities.While the design research introduced here is diverse, the researchers all share an engagement in how to construct imaginary worlds using what can be identified as a ficto-critical approach that draws on the productive intersection of architecture and philosophy. Hélène Frichot, who will situate this research from her position as their primary doctoral advisor, argues that by pursuing a productive relay between theory and practice a novel Antipodean design imaginary can be seen to emerge across the collected projects.
Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.
Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini
At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and mentor students in research-based courses, 4) multiple levels of research questions in a course, some to be answered by group data and some by class data, 5) intentional explicit development of and support for research skills appropriate for the research question and student level, 6) written and oral presentation of research, 7) willingness of participating faculty to redesign their course structure to meet learning goals so that at least 1/3 of the course time (noncontiguous) is dedicated to the research project versus traditional formats, and 8) a faculty involvement model whereby leading research-based courses also contributes to their research agenda and regional service expectations. We think this model works and is sustainable at Western Carolina University, and is readily transferable to other disciplines and universities.
Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.
Full Text Available Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A `whole-animal approach' is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of this point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-animal-based approach may help to organize and integrate basic and clinical neuroscience research. Our proposal is in agreement with recent statements calling for more integrative approaches in biological and neuropsychiatric research
Full Text Available Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A `whole-animal approach' is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of thi [...] s point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-animal-based approach may help to organize and integrate basic and clinical neuroscience research. Our proposal is in agreement with recent statements calling for more integrative approaches in biological and neuropsychiatric research
ALEJANDRO, SERANI-MERLO; RODRIGO, PAZ; ANDRÉS, CASTILLO.
Multidisciplinary analysis and design is inherently a team activity due to the variety of required expertise and knowledge. As a team activity, multidisciplinary research cannot escape the issues that affect all teams. The level of technical diversity required to perform multidisciplinary analysis and design makes the teaming aspects even more important. A study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a model of multidiscipline teams that can be used to help understand their dynamics and identify key factors that influence their effectiveness. The study sought to apply the elements of systems thinking to better understand the factors, both generic and Langley-specific, that influence the effectiveness of multidiscipline teams. The model of multidiscipline research teams developed during this study has been valuable in identifying means to enhance team effectiveness, recognize and avoid problem behaviors, and provide guidance for forming and coordinating multidiscipline teams.
Waszak, Martin R.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.
This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoi...
Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044
Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu
Participant understanding is of particular concern when obtaining informed consent. Recommendations for improving understanding include disclosing information using culturally appropriate and innovative approaches. To increase the effectiveness of the consent process for a clinical trial in Malawi on interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding, formative research was conducted to explore the community’s understanding of medical research as well as how t...
Corneli, Amy L.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Sorenson, James R.; Henderson, Gail E.; Horst, Charles; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline; Tenthani, Lyson; Ahmed, Yusuf; Heilig, Charles M.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second a...
Stotz Karola; O'Malley Maureen A
Full Text Available The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i knowledge generation (i.e., through research; (ii research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach; and (iii policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers. This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.
The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice. PMID:24625446
Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L
Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their…
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…
The process of writing a research paper must be broken into manageable units while at the same time retaining the recursive characteristic of the writing process. One approach does this by means of a series of assignments that also allow students to accumulate and practice the skills needed to write the final paper. These assignments are (1)…
Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…
Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn
There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…
Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua
The basic ideas underlying the Shine-Bower ANOVA for single-subject designs are combined with those of certain repeated measures designs to produce a highly flexible design possessing the advantages of the single-subject and multi- subject approaches to research. Schematic calculation procedures are presented for the two-way case. (Author)
Shine, Lester C., II
This article reports on an exploratory project that employed an action research approach to integrating sustainability into core subjects in the MBA program at an Australian university. It documents the change methodology used, the theoretical basis for this choice, and the project outcomes. It then identifies some key enabling factors and…
Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter
This review article discusses the importance of identifying gene-environment interactions for understanding the etiology and course of alcohol use disorders and related conditions. A number of critical challenges are discussed, including the fact that there is no organizing typology for classifying different types of environmental exposures, many key human environmental risk factors for alcohol dependence have no clear equivalents in other species, much of the genetic variance of alcohol dependence in human is not 'alcohol specific', and the potential range of gene-environment interactions that could be considered is so vast that maintaining statistical control of Type 1 errors is a daunting task. Despite these and other challenges, there appears to be a number of promising approaches that could be taken in order to achieve consilience and ecologically valid translation between human alcohol dependence and animal models. Foremost among these is to distinguish environmental exposures that are thought to have enduring effects on alcohol use motivation (and self-regulation) from situational environmental exposures that facilitate the expression of such motivations but do not, by themselves, have enduring effects. In order to enhance consilience, various domains of human approach motivation should be considered so that relevant environmental exposures can be sampled, as well as the appropriate species to study them in (i.e. where such motivations are ecologically relevant). Foremost among these are social environments, which are central to the initiation and escalation of human alcohol consumption. The value of twin studies, human laboratory studies and pharmacogenetic studies is also highlighted. PMID:20148780
Sher, Kenneth J; Dick, Danielle M; Crabbe, John C; Hutchison, Kent E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Heath, Andrew C
Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation
In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new, action-based longitudinal case study approach, which aims at helping scholars narrow the gap between the theory and practice of Operations Strategy (OS). First, we elaborate on the need for new research methods for studying OS in practice. Then, we present the two research strategies underpinning the approach proposed here: action research and longitudinal case study. Next, we illustrate the use of the method and exemplify it using a recent study of OS in practice. Then, based on this experience we present and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the method. Finally, we draw conclusions on its potential for operations strategy and operations management studies.
Rytter, Niels Gorm; Koch, Christian
Full Text Available This research reviews the approaches employed in banking empirical studies that use the resource-based view as a core theoretical anchor to relate bank resources to performance outcomes. The review dwelt on measurement issues and strategies for controlling confounding factors. Six approaches of measuring bank resources are identified as: indirect assessment through the use of observable attributes, direct assessment through output counts, direct assessment by top managers, direct assessment by customers, direct assessment by experts and indirect assessment through inductive case studies. Three approaches to measuring bank performance are identified as: the use of only financial measures, the use of only nonfinancial measures and the use of a mix of financial and nonfinancial measures. Overall, approaches that relate bank resources, strategy and performance have great potential to advance the resource-based view theory from being a mere theoretical framework to being a practical framework for practicing managers in banking firms.
This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. PMID:24418571
Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels
Recently, medical research has seen a strong push toward translational research, or "bench to bedside" collaborations, that strive to enhance the utility of laboratory science for improving medical treatment. The success of that paradigm supports the potential application of the process to other fields, such as risk assessment. Close collaboration among academic, government, and industry scientists may enhance the translation of scientific findings to regulatory decision making. The National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively academic and guideline-compliant research. An initial proof-of-concept collaboration, the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), uses bisphenol A (BPA) as a test chemical. The CLARITY-BPA program combines a core perinatal guideline-compliant 2-year chronic toxicity study with mechanistic studies/endpoints conducted by academic investigators. Twelve extramural grantees were selected by NIEHS through an RFA-based initiative to participate in the overall study design and conduct disease-relevant investigations using tissues and animals from the core study. While the study is expected to contribute to our understanding of potential effects of BPA, it also has ramifications beyond this specific focus. Through CLARITY-BPA, NIEHS has established an unprecedented level of collaboration among extramural grantees and regulatory researchers. By drawing upon the strengths of academic and regulatory expertise and research approaches, CLARITY-BPA represents a potential new model for filling knowledge gaps, enhancing quality control, informing chemical risk assessment, and identifying new methods or endpoints for regulatory hazard assessments. PMID:23747832
Schug, Thaddeus T; Heindel, Jerrold J; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Howard, Paul; Johnson, Anne F; Aungst, Jason; Keefe, Dennis; Newbold, Retha; Walker, Nigel J; Thomas Zoeller, R; Bucher, John R
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S
Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine and collaborators from the University of California, San Francisco developed a cancer model built in the fruit fly Drosophila, then used it to create a whole new approach to the discovery of cancer treatments. The result is an investigational compound AD80 that precisely targets multiple cancer genes. Tested in mouse models, the drug proved far more effective and less toxic than standard cancer drugs, which generally focus on a single target. This is the first time that whole-animal screening has been used in a rational, step-wise approach to polypharmacology. The study appears online in the journal Nature.
Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.
Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina
This paper presents a new approach to the Honours Undergraduate Research Course design and implementation. The course design process, assessment and evaluation rubrics are provided. Lessons learned and the experience of the faced challenges and opportunities for two cohort offerings of the course during the winter terms of 2011 and 2012 are highlighted. Assessments show that major benefits include increasing interaction with the faculty and increasing intellectual maturity, skills, knowledge and confidence for the students and for the faculty, the furthering of research projects by the participation of undergraduate students. The course can serve as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants
We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data. PMID:25417028
Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa
Full Text Available The integration and analysis of large datasets in translational research has become an increasingly challenging problem. We propose a collaborative approach to integrate established data management platforms with existing analytical systems to fill the hole in the value chain between data collection and data exploitation. Our proposal in particular ensures data security and provides support for widely distributed teams of researchers. As a successful example for such an approach, we describe the implementation of a unified single platform that combines capabilities of the knowledge management platform tranSMART and the data analysis system Genedata Analyst™. The combined end-to-end platform helps to quickly find, enter, integrate, analyze, extract, and share patient- and drug-related data in the context of translational R&D projects.
Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile andsafety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in depth, engineering aspects, site characteristics and safety analysis. Examples of application of this approach to safety assessment of the Canadian research reactors, Slowpoke and NRU, are presented. The SLOWPOKE reactor (20 kW) has inherent reactivity control by design, since any increase in core temperature has a negative reactivity effect causing a passive reduction of reactor power to limit any temperature excursion. The NRU reactor (135 MW) operates at low pressure and low temperature (except for the experimental loops) and it is used for material testing and isotope production. For SLOWPOKE reactors, less detailed assessment of radiation risk is needed in comparison to the NRU due to a smaller amount of fission product inventory in the core. Full assessment of defence in depth is required for the high power, complex NRU reactor. However, assessment of means to mitigate severe accidents may not be needed for SLOWPOKE reactors due to their inherent reactivity characteristics. A design of any reactor facility must provide the fundamental safety functions during and following postulated accident events. The extent and rigour for demonstrating that such safety functions are fulfilled can be graded and vary depending on the reactor design. In general, basic safety function related to control reactivity cannot be graded. However, the grading can be applied to SLOWPOKE reactors since they exhibit inherent self-limiting power levels, which physically limit the amount of positive reactivity that can be inserted in the core. Assessments of safety functions relevant to the reactor core cooling and confinement could be less extensive for the SLOWPOKE reactors since their cooling systems are less complex than those of NRU. Very small source terms of the SLOWPOKE reactors do not require a confinement system to be as stringent as those used in large research reactors. If the research reactor is designed without a confinement system (e.g., NRU), it must be justified to show that there is no potential release of radioactive materials
Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the body–related experiences and behaviors – the psychological and the cultural studies approaches – emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholars’ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core concept...
The objective of this thesis is to develop a model for assessing information technology infrastructure in large enterprises/organisations. The key components of this thesis are: first, to develop a generic assessment process approach that can be applied in IT enterprises, and secondly, to evaluate the practical application of these assessment processes and methods within an infrastructure transformation project in a large enterprise. The study covers theoretical research which gathers info...
Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women's perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively thro...
Emerson Sebastião; Kelechi Ibe-Lamberts; Julie Bobitt; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko
In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some releva...
Zwart, Sd; Poel, Ir; Mil, Hgj Harald; Brumsen, M.
Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-i...
Gliddon Terry; Woodruff Roger; Annells Merilyn; Swift Kathleen; Street Annette F; Oakley Anne; Ottman Goetz
Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of...
Facio Flavia M; Sapp Julie C; Linn Amy; Biesecker Leslie G
Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medi...
Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James
Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis. PMID:20738864
Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James
The purpose of this study was to develop a teaching style that used a modified research approach in a high school chemistry classroom. This modified research approach involved constructivist teaching practices, particularly the learning cycle. It emphasized the development of student science process skills, the mastery of science content, and a better understanding of attitudes about science in the classroom. It also promotes active learning in the classroom. The study also looks at the effectiveness of implementation of this teaching style. The methodology of the study involved designing modules which centered around nine basic chemistry concepts. These modules were guided by a research problem or question. Initially the teacher generated the research question but by the end of the study, students were generating their own research questions. Data were collected by student journals, concept webs, content tests, laboratory reports, teacher journal, laboratory practical exams, and a student attitude toward science survey. The results revealed that student science process skills that contributed directly to the problem solving nature of the research were increased. Student attitudes about science in the classroom were changed for the positive, indicated both in the student journals and the student attitude survey. Content mastery was achieved as measured statistically by test scores at the beginning of the class and the end of the class. Implementation was successful and students who enrolled in a second year chemistry class to the same instructor were better able to deal with independent work. It can be concluded from the results of the study that the students benefitted from the modified research teaching style and successful implementation was mirrored by student response to the teaching style. It was also concluded that the teacher in the study has a great deal of influence over student acceptance of something different and new.
Curtis, Krystal D. Berry
Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.
Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)
Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.
The objective of this article was to discuss potential benefits and drawbacks of using a time-to-think (TTT) approach in healthcare research. Implementing a TTT approach in a stated-preference survey study gives respondents the opportunity to reflect on their options before answering preference-elicitation questions. This article offers an evaluation of circumstances that are suited for implementing this approach, and highlights several remaining questions and problems that should be explored in future research. PMID:25209857
Full Text Available ‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978 and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009 and Svensson (2007 have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR consultants experienced, practised and understood their everyday interactions with clients, colleagues and journalists (Hochschild, 1983. If emotion is understood as a relational practice, the analysis of socially-constructed discourse is essential to access emotional meaning structures within occupational cultures such as public relations. I adopted an iterative analytical process whereby I interviewed, twice, a sample of six participants. From transcript analysis I produced a ‘description of practice’ document for participants to check (Aspers, 2006a; 2009. ‘Bracketing’ (Husserl, 1963/1913 involved writing self-memos throughout the research process, and finally, a self-reflexive account. Thematic analysis of findings resulted in a rich understanding of emotion management and identity work in public relations. This paper demonstrates that an iterative and reflexive analytical process that involves participants in co-creating social reality, is a compelling approach to understand the ‘lifeworld’ of social actors in occupational settings.
Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability. PMID:25011653
Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B
The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive. PMID:23419790
Full Text Available Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.
EUGENIA, URRA MEDINA; ROCÍO, NÚÑEZ CARRASCO; CARMEN, RETAMAL VALENZUELA; LUCY, JURE CARES.
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
Desarrollo de la investigación contable en el Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable / Development of the accounting research in the Colombian Center for Research on Accounting. Research approach
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los resultados de la investigación que se ha llevado a cabo en veintitrés años de trabajo en el Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable (Ccinco). Este centro reúne a profesores universitarios (contadores públicos) vinculados con distintas universidades de [...] Colombia que efectúan y promueven la investigación contable. Esta organización surgió en 1987 en un contexto en el cual la investigación contable empezó a ser reconocida en Colombia como una actividad fundamental para el desarrollo de la disciplina y la profesión. Este trabajo utiliza la propuesta taxonómica de Jorge Túa Pereda sobre los enfoques de investigación contable como herramienta para la identificación y clasificación de las hipótesis y problemas escogidos por los investigadores, y sobre éstos sondear el análisis epistemológico de su formulación, así como también las pruebas de contrastación de las hipótesis encontradas. Abstract in english The present work is a synthesis and analysis which reviews the research done by Ccinco (Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable or the Colombian Center for Research on Accounting) for the last 23 years. This research center brings together Public Accounting professors from various universities i [...] n Colombia with the objective of developing and promoting accounting research. This organization was started in 1987 in a context when accounting research was being recognized in Colombia as a key activity in the development of both the accounting discipline and the accounting profession. Jorge Túa Pereda's taxonomic proposal for an approach to accounting research is used here as a tool for the identification and classifcation of the hypotheses and problems chosen by researchers, and also explored is the epistemological analysis of their formulation which leads to scrutiny and discussion of their associated regulation.
Claudia, Barrios Álvarez; Tatiana, Fúquene Sánchez; Jorge Eduardo, Lemos de la Cruz.
We discuss approaches to building archives that support the way most science is done. Today research is done in formal teams and informal groups. However our on-line services are designed to work with a single user. We have begun prototyping a new approach to building archives in which support for collaborative research is built in from the start. We organize the discussion along three elements that we believe to be necessary for effective support: We must enable user presence in the archive environment; users must be able to interact. Users must be able to personalize the environment, adding data and capabilities useful to themselves and their team. These changes must be persistent: subsequent sessions must be able to build upon previous sessions. In building the archive we see the large multi-player interactive games as a paradigm of how this approach can work. These three 'P's are essential in gaming as well and we shall use insights from the gaming world and virtual reality systems like Second Life in our prototype.
McGlynn, Thomas A.
Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.
This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures the context and actual use of an artifact. With the holistic approach we encourage evaluation to be inclusive of different aspects and relationships between stakeholder groups in the evaluation activities. Further we think that concurrency is not narrowed to evaluation but also regards theorizing. While it makes sense for planning to distinguish between phases and stages of evaluation and theorizing, in practice they are intrinsically interlinked and concurrent.
Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria
Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.
Paul D. Juarez
Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data. PMID:23816868
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.
This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.
Hofstra University (Hofstra University)
Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to (i) the role played by dopamine neurotransmission; and (ii) the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD) to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it. PMID:25852500
Costa, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic approach to research education for graduate students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). A group of cross-disciplinary faculty members developed a series of graduate-level research methods-related workshops for pre- and in-service teachers. The investigators…
Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Ward, Hsuying C.; Overton, Terry; Shin, Yousun
Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.
Soto Ana M
Over the past three years, installation of the suite of instruments planned for investigations of atmospheric phenomena from the ground to the mesopause region at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian Arctic (Eureka, Nunavut, 80N, 86W) has been completed and observations have now started. A subset of this instrumentation is associated with the scientific theme, Waves and Coupling Processes of the Middle Atmosphere. This subset includes E-Region Wind Interferometer, the meteor radar, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager SATI), the PEARL All-Sky Imager, the ozone and Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidars, the VHF and cloud radar, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. This instrumentation set allows the wave environment above Eureka to be investigated and the coupling of the dynamics between atmospheric layers and geographical locations studied. These studies require contextual information on the large scale state of the atmosphere and collaborations with modelling groups, ground based observatories in the Arctic, and satellite teams have been initiated. This paper will describe the capabilities of the instrumentation involved in these studies, outline the scientific approach and present some initial results. PEARL is supported by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Science (CFCAS); Canadian Space Agency (CSA); Environment Canada (EC); Government of Canada IPY funding; Ontario Innovation Trust (OIT); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC); Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust (NSRIT); Ontario Research Fund (ORF); and the Polar Continental Shelf Program (PCSP).
Ward, William E.
The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities . Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.
Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.
The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.
Professor William Moerner
The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.
Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.
Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.
Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.
This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC)...
Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.
Schölzel, C.; Friederichs, P.
Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.
Neil H. Carter
There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…
Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.
Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address them—is vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.
Mankins, John C.
In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)
This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…
Palliative care researchers face many ethical and practical challenges. In particular, recruitment has proven difficult. New methodologies and methods need to be developed if barriers are to be overcome. This paper presents an example of a participatory approach to research with people receiving palliative care services. The approach was used for recruitment into an in-depth multi-methods study of weight loss and eating difficulties experienced by people with advanced cancer. Methods included a survey of patients on the case-loads of two community palliative care teams working in the South of England in 2003. The questionnaire was returned by 199 patients, 58% of the total patient population under the care of the two teams. Benefits of the approach taken are detailed, but also issues that emerged across the course of recruitment, thus highlighting points of interest for palliative care researchers. It is proposed that the success of the recruitment process can be attributed to the adoption of a context specific participatory approach. Successful recruitment into the study challenges the widely held belief that, for practical and ethical reasons, it is inappropriate to study people who are approaching the end of life. It demonstrates that a participatory approach enables clinical practice and research to share decision making and values, leading to a feasible and successful recruitment process that is acceptable to clinicians, researchers and patients. PMID:16295285
Hopkinson, Jane B; Wright, David N M; Corner, Jessica L
Full Text Available The promotion of information literacy in the UK higher education research sector has traditionally been the preserve of academic libraries. However, other professional groups have obvious interests in this area, and there is a strong case for providing a framework which enables different parties with a stake in information literacy to work together in order to reach practical objectives. In the UK, a coalition of partners has been set up to provide this collective framework and to provide synergy. This paper sets out the rationale for this approach, sets out the sort of activities that the coalition has fostered since its inception in late 2009 and reflects on whether it might serve as an example for other parts of Europe or for transnational collaborations.
Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify the requirements for data collection and collect data.
Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, SØren Marcus
In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apple’s iPhone, Dialog’s search system and Google’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples. The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than be derived from studies of individuals or from the study of abstract minds.
Full Text Available Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the body–related experiences and behaviors – the psychological and the cultural studies approaches – emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholars’ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core conceptual networks of each approach and some of the illustrative investigations carried out so far in the respective areas. Both highlight a set of significant differences on several layers, such as the external / internal localization of relevant factors of body-related experiences, the neutral / pathologically – oriented discourse on these experiences, the degree of exploration of their phenomenological realm, the more or less extended focus on the aesthetic evaluation of one’s body and the prevalent search for causes / purposes of the body experiences and uses.
Rapid and affordable access to space for university researchers and educators has always been a challenge. Despite the availability of lower-cost (e.g. Russian) launch vehicles, launching payloads 20 kg or less typically involves a certain minimum cost that necessitates a cost sharing arrangement among numerous parties and the handling of complex export control issues. In turn, this complicates mission scheduling and increases the risk of missing launch deadlines. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) has taken a leading role in addressing this challenge, and has successfully led a group of international spacecraft developers in manifesting one 1-kg Canadian spacecraft, two 1-kg Danish spacecraft, and one 3-kg American spacecraft on a 2003 Eurockot launch. This paper outlines the approach taken by UTIAS/SFL in negotiating and securing launches for its own spacecraft in collaboration with other spacecraft developers. A summary of how this approach is applied in planning and coordinating the June 2003 Eurockot launch is also presented.
Pranajaya, F.M.; Zee, R.E.
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported
The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.
Lo, Chor Pong
Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS) that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS) that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited. PMID:21884570
This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research…
This book provides an original perspective on a range of controversial issues in educational and social research through case studies of multi-disciplinary and mixed-method research involving children, teachers, schools and communities in Europe and the developing world. These case studies from researchers "across continents" and "across…
Rizvi, Sadaf, Ed.
Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation, getting to know the antecedents, the features, the possible interactions among antecedents and current features. Based on the recommendations found in the literature the eradication of manipulative processes is next to impossible but the limitation can be a reality. In this respect the researchers recommend controlling the conditions and motives that increase the likelihood of its presence and also developing stronger tools to detection.
Vladu Alina Beattrice
Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1 The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2 Compartment/network models, (3 Mesocosm experiments and (4 Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE. The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the system’s metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc. and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc. under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1 la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2 modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models, (3 experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y
Full Text Available This paper charts the steps taken and possible ways forward for the University of Warwick in its approach to research data management, providing a typical example of a UK research university’s approach in two strands: requirements and support. The UK government approach and funding landscape in relation to research data management provided drivers for the University of Warwick to set requirements and provide support, and examples of good practice at other institutions, support from a central national body (the UK Digital Curation Centre and learning from other universities’ experiences all proved valuable to the University of Warwick. Through interviews with researchers at Warwick, various issues and challenges are revealed: perhaps the biggest immediate challenges for Warwick going forward are overcoming scepticism amongst researchers, overcoming costs, and understanding the implications of involving third party companies in research data management. Building technical infrastructure could sit alongside and beyond those immediate steps and beyond the challenges that face one University are those that affect academia as a whole. Researchers and university administrators need to work together to address the broader challenges, such as the accessibility of data for future use and the reward for researchers who practice data management in exemplary ways, and indeed it may be that a wider, national or international but disciplinary technical infrastructure affects what an individual university needs to achieve. As we take these steps, universities and institutions are all learning from each other.
Taiwan launched its evidence-based health-promoting school (HPS) program via an action-research approach in 2010. The program featured a collaborative partnership between schools, local education authorities and university support networks. This study was focused on examining whether an HPS action-research approach was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy in Taiwan. In 2011, questionnaires were sent to 900 sample schools in Taiwan. A total of 621 schools returned the questionnaire, including 488 primary schools and 133 middle schools. The response rate was 69%. This study compared the difference in HPS implementation status, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy between those schools that had implemented action-research HPS (138 schools) and those that had not (483 schools). The univariate analysis results indicated that the HPS implementation levels for components that included school health policies, physical environment, social environment, teaching activities and school-community relations were significantly higher in action-research schools than in non-action-research schools. Teachers in action-research schools reported significantly higher levels of HPS impact and HPS efficacy than non-action-research schools. The multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for school level and HPS funding, the HPS action-research approach was significantly positively related to greater levels of HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy. PMID:23110766
Chang, Fong-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Chou, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tzu-Chau
Highlights: • The Bayes’ theorem is employed to support the decision making process in a research reactor. • The intention is to calculate parameters related to unanticipated occurrence of events. • Frequency, posterior distribution and confidence limits are calculated. • The approach is demonstrated using two real-world numerical examples. • The approach can be used even if no failures have been observed. - Abstract: Research reactors are considered as multi-tasking environments having the multiple roles of commercial, research and training facilities. Yet, reactor managers have to make decisions, frequently with high economic impact, based on little available knowledge. A systematic approach employing the Bayes’ theorem is proposed to support the decision making process in a research reactor environment. This approach is characterized by low level complexity, appropriate for research reactor facilities. The methodology is demonstrated through the study of two characteristic events that lead to unanticipated system shutdown, namely the de-energization of the control rod magnet and the flapper valve opening. The results obtained demonstrate the suitability of the Bayesian approach in the decision making context when unanticipated events are considered
This document discusses the verification of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) communication protocol as a demonstration of the Model Based Verification (MBV) portion of the verification instrument set being developed under the Reducing Software Security Risk (RSSR) Trough an Integrated Approach research initiative. Code Q of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds this project. The NASA Goddard Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) facility manages this research program at the NASA agency level and the Assurance Technology Program Office (ATPO) manages the research locally at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (California institute of Technology) where the research is being carried out.
Powell, John D.
Full text: Magnetic Fusion Energy has now entered its development era that steers the activities of traditional fusion laboratories. Recent achievements in fusion science and technology in support to both the ITER and the Broader Approach (BA) projects are reported here. On top of the direct contribution to ITER and JT-60SA procurement packages, many scientific activities, aiming at reducing risks in operation of ITER and BA, have been carried out using the CEA dedicated in-house facilities (Tore Supra tokamak, ICRH test facility for ITER, remote operated diagnostics, actively cooled PFC qualification, cryogenics test facilities from strand to sub size superconducting conductors characterization, etc). The paper reviews the research and development actions taken in the past two years by CEA in this context, in order to ensure an ITER safe operation (quench detection, disruption mitigation, surface monitoring of plasma facing components), qualify the long pulse RF Heating and Current Drive systems, and progress in MHD, turbulence and transport first principle simulations. A fully documented project, turning Tore Supra into a long pulse actively cooled diverted plasma test facility, is now being proposed to the ITER partners. This evolution allows the R and D and commissioning tests of actual ITER actively cooled tungsten divertor elements under ITER-relevant edge plasma conditions, during the ITER procurement phase, and targets its risk reduction. In parallel, the cont its risk reduction. In parallel, the contribution to the Broader Approach projects is shown to be complemented by an ambitious programme on integrated modeling of the main scenarios and an assessment of EC power needed for NTM stabilization. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.
Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.
Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.
In the current programme for research and development on the technical aspects of geological disposal, it is of significance to establish techniques for evaluating solute transport utilizing information from surface-based investigations through the processes of data interpretation, modeling and parameter designation within the immediate five years following the H17 Report documentation. This report presents a basic approach to promoting multidisciplinary research activities involving field investigations and relevant solute transport analysis. (author)
Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.
Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.
Full Text Available Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has chang
Lunar and Mars exploration and research require not only scientific and technological inter-disciplinary cooperation, but also the consideration of budding ethical and scientific integrity issues. COSPAR's planetary protection policy (in coordination with the United Nations Com-mittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations) serves as the consensus standard for biological contamination prevention under the 1967 Outer Space Treaty1 . Space agencies Planetary Protection Policies are mostly consis-tent with the COSPAR policy. Geoethics was formerly promoted in 1991 as a new discipline, involving scientific and societal aspects2 , and its institutionalization was officially established in 2004 with the backing of the Association of Geoscientists for International Development, AGID3 (IUGS/ICSU). Recently, it has been proposed that the integration of geoethical issues in studies on planetary geology and astrobiology would enrich their methodological and con-ceptual character4-6 . The incorporation through geoethics of new questions and approaches associated to the "abiotic world" would involve: 1) extrapolating to space the recently defined and approved IUCN/UNESCO guidelines and recommendations on geodiversity7 as "planetary geodiversity", and 2) widening the classical concept of Planetary Protection, giving an addi-tional "abiotic" dimension to the exploration and research of the Moon and Mars. Given the geological characteristics and planetary evolution of the Moon and Mars, it is obvious that they require tailored geoethical approaches. Some fundamental aspects include, among others: the interrelation with bioethics and organics vs. inorganic contamination in Planetary Protection, the appropriate regulations of some necessary natural disturbances (e.g. on the Moon) dur-ing robotic and manned planetary missions, wilderness/planetary parks8,9 , the correct use of mineralogical and geochemical analytical procedures related to the study of Lunar and Mar-tian meteorites, and also the research, taking into account this new perspective, of the Earth locations which are called terrestrial analogs. 1 UN (1967) Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies Article I . U.N. Doc. A/RES/2222/(XXI) (25 Jan 1967). United Nations TIAS No. 6347. 2 Nemec, V. Nemcova, L. (2008) 33rd Inter-national Geological Congress, Oslo, August 6-14th. 3 http://www.bgs.ac.uk/agid/ 4 Martinez-Frias, J. et al. (2009) Bolides and Meteorite Falls, Prague, May 10-15, 14-15. 5 Martinez-Frias, J. et al. (2009) EANA'09, Brussels, 12-14 October 2009. 6 http://tierra.rediris.es/Geoethics Planetary Prot 7 IUCN (2008) http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/WCC-4th-004.pdf 8 Cockell, C.S. Hor-neck, G. (2004) Space Policy 20: 291-295. 9 Cockell, C.S. Horneck, G. (2006) Space Policy 22: 256-261.
Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Horneck, Gerda; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Rull, Fernando
This report provides practical information, experience and assistance to practitioners who are faced with decommissioning of a small nuclear facility, yet have limited or no previous experience. In such circumstances, it is also conceivable that newcomers to decommissioning may be faced with inadequate financial and scientific resources to complete the task; making it all the more important to avoid costly errors. Furthermore, it is also possible that a worker may need some guidance in starting the process of obtaining finance and resources to progress with the task of decommissioning. The aim of this report is to provide useful practical advice to newcomers to decommissioning to aid them in the planning and management of hands-on decommissioning technologies for small nuclear facilities, using a step wise approach, through to facility and site release. This report breaks down the process of decommissioning into a number of manageable stages, such that the inexperienced practitioner has the opportunity to build confidence as they progress with each stage. Whilst acknowledging that there may be a wide diversity of regulatory licence termination conditions throughout the world, the generic stages of decommissioning will broadly be the same, such that this report should be a basic handbook of use in all instances of small facility decommissioning. This text emphasizes, at each stage, the importance of appropriate interface and dialogue with the Regulatory Body and other alogue with the Regulatory Body and other stakeholders, not only as a means of advancing any regulatory permission required for decommissioning and licence termination, but also for the many benefits gained by early and ongoing dialogue. This report covers the practical aspects of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities typically found in medical, research and industrial applications. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large chemical facilities, and all forms of waste disposal are outside the scope of this report and have been covered adequately elsewhere. Typical facilities covered by this report include: - Medical facilities with radiography and radiotherapy units and those using radioisotopes; - Industrial facilities, such as those producing radioisotopes, using irradiation and radiography devices, and manufacturing products incorporating radioactive materials; - Research facilities such as particle accelerators, and those associated with the nuclear industry (e.g. critical assemblies or zero-power reactors), pharmaceuticals and medicine; - Laboratories in universities and hospitals. This publication has been structured as a series of sequential actions, and is supported by tables identifying lessons learned during decommissioning of small facilities. This should assist the inexperienced worker in following a logical stepwise approach to decommissioning. Whereas it is not possible to include all the specific detail of every aspect of decommissioning in this report, a number of useful references are included at each stage, thereby directing the reader to further information. This report is structured as a number of practical stages, some of which can be initiated in parallel rather than sequentially, taking note that many factors under consideration may change throughout the decommissioning process up to achievement of release conditions. An accompanying CD includes a range of practical examples of decommissioning projects from around the world in the annexes, specifically providing details of project planning and implementation, along with lessons learned. (author)
...New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects AGENCY...New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects'' on September...or email@example.com. TTY users should contact the Federal TTY...
The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…
Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.
The authors extend findings from qualitative research on the effects of action research by reporting two linked quantitative studies (N = 80 and 105). They found that teachers who participated in collaborative action research experienced statistically significant improvements in attitudes to educational research and teacher efficacy. The pre-post…
Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.
In 1983, the National Institute of Education funded the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development to conduct a study, Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE). The ARTE:RUETE study's purpose is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current research…
This paper summarizes two presentations and a panel discussion engaging health scientists, educators, and community outreach professionals who have drawn upon their experiences as researchers and agricultural workers to describe research challenges related to access, trust, language, culture, and participant benefit. These presentations and discussion took place at the New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008. An overview of changing demographics of the western agricultural workforce was provided followed by a presentation of the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles including cultural considerations. Using an interview format, the panel participants discussed challenges related to involving members of vulnerable agricultural worker populations throughout the research process. Lessons learned and recommendations were explored and successes identified. PMID:19894159
Levin, Jeffrey L; Doyle, Eva I; Gilmore, Karen H; Wickman, Amanda J; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Huff, Sharon D
This paper is assessing the intake that case study as a research strategy drives forward research in economics area. Development in research in economics field in the last decade together with the growth of information and communication technologies led to an internationalization of education. The first section of the paper defines and compares different types of case study research with other research strategies. The next two sections of the paper are of applicative nature: one of them expla...
Teiu, Codrin-marius; Juravle, Daniel
In Introduction to Social Research, Keith F. Punch wants to ‘demystify’ and ‘simplify’ the research process, in an attempt to show that quality research can always be achieved. With its straightforward language, an intuitive structure, and well-defined learning objectives, this book does just that, finds Sophie Lecheler. This third edition features a number of interesting updates, such as chapters on research ethics and conducting research online.
Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community-based risk communication sources. PMID:21680278
Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.
This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488
Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J
The graded approach has been implemented for a long time for research reactor projects in France. The purpose of this paper is to focus on their implementation for mechanical components and the associated lessons learned from research reactor projects and operations. The presentation and the full paper will present the implementation of the graded approach, the main requirements associated with the safety classes, the principles of their implementation into the design and construction codes, the principles of interaction with the nuclear pressure equipment regulations and the provisions taken into account in the design and construction code and the benefits of these practices and the lessons learned in this field on the basis of some examples. (author)
Full text: The research nuclear reactor of a basin-type IRT with the designed power of 1 MW was put into operation in 'Sosny' settlement not far from Minsk-city in the Republic of Belarus in 1962. In 1971 after its modernization the power was increased up to 4 MW and maximum density of neutron flux in the core was: Thermal 5·1013 neutr./cm2.s Fast (E>0.8 MeV) 2·1013 neutr./cm2.s The reactor has been used for carrying out investigations in the field of solid-state physics, radiation construction materials, radiobiology, gaseous chemically reacting coolants and others. After the Chernobyl NPP accident, in the former USSR the requirements on safety of nuclear reactors have become sufficiently stricter. As to some parameters these requirements became the same as for reactors of nuclear power plants. In this connection the reactor in 'Sosny' settlement did not answer these new requirements by a number of performances such as seismicity of building, efficiency of control and protection system, corrosion in the reactor vessel and others, and it was shutdown in 1987 and its decommissioning was performed during 1988-1999. At the Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research -'SOSNY' have been carried out investigations on feasibility of creation of the research reactor with pebble-bed core. The concept of such reactor supposes using the following technical approaches: - Using as fuel the brought sphere micro fuel elements with the ght sphere micro fuel elements with the diameter of 500-750 mkm to an industrial level; - Organization of reactor operation in the regime with minimum possible fueling with 235U; - Implementation of hydraulic loading - unloading of micro fuel elements with the frequency of one or several days. Physical calculations of the core were carried out with the help of MCU-RFFI program based on the Monte-Carlo method. Two configurations of the pebble-bed core in the high flux reactor have been considered. The first configuration is the core with a neutron trap and an annular fuel layer formed with charging of micro fuel elements, and the second one has the annular fuel layer formed with cylindrical fuel assemblies containing one-section charging of micro fuel elements of rectangular shape inside. The results obtained and available experimental data showed that for reactor configuration with thin (3-5 cm thickness) annular fuel layer under organization of heat removal with radial circulation of the coolant (D2O) the steady heat removal can be provided at energy release in the layer of micro-fuel elements of 10 MW/l. Here, the maximum temperature on the surface of sphere micro-fuel elements is lower by more than 100 deg. C the temperature of boiling coolant. In dependence of combination of internal and external moderators and charging with 235U the flux of thermal neutrons of =2x1016 neutron/(cm2.s) can be reached in the trap. For reaching maximum thermal neutron fluxes the reactor operation in the regime of minimum possible loading with 235U is necessary to be organized and, relatively, with frequent, in one or two days, refueling. Such refueling due to a number of reasons is impossible in reactors with rod or plate fuel elements, but can be reached quickly enough in reactors with sphere micro fuel elements with hydro transportation of micro fuel elements. (author)
Using the principles of Both Ways (incorporating cross-cultural perspectives), five Aboriginal health workers developed evaluation guidelines for research on Aboriginal populations. The guidelines address whether and how the perspectives of the population are integrated into the research. (SK)
Grootjans, John; Spiers, Michele
Abstract:This research effort aims to use a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach for the unavailable information in a marketing research tool language based on real integrated price and attempts to investigate its advantages over traditional expert systems approach. Marketing research tool divided into the different parts language Scripting Editor, language debugger, Web Interface. is an application for writing script for collecting the information for Marketing research tools. The collect the...
Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research propos...
Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini; Mohamed Othman; Latiffah Latiff; Syed Tajudin Syed Hassan; Reyhaneh Bazargni; Parichehr Hanachi
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review differ...
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
In 2003, researchers from various disciplines (biology, physics, geology, economics, sociology, linguistics, psychology and science education) founded the Centre IRIS – Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Sustainability (www.iris.unito.it) based at the University of Torino (Italy). IRIS links research in science with educational practice: as new conceptual tools are produced and research findings are published, they are discussed within the group and ‘metabolised’, turned into liter...
Camino, Elena; Perazzone, Anna; Colucci Gray, Laura
Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.
Ethnography provides a means to carry out interpretive science; it offers an alternative research perspective for vocational education and can be used to address questions concerning larger issues in the field. Interpretive science provides the appropriate research paradigm for those research questions studied by an ethnographer. (Author)
Jax, Judy Annette
Education researchers are increasingly working in practice-based partnerships in order to direct their research efforts toward important problems of practice. We argue for the creation of an infrastructure to support routine and sustained interaction among researchers, practitioners, and designers in order to make partnership efforts more…
Donovan, M. Suzanne; Snow, Catherine; Daro, Phil
This is the first book about action research devoted to the complex issues faced by children with disabilities and their teachers. The authors begin by providing the historical and philosophical underpinnings of action research and then present a framework for conducting action research in special education. In addition, they feature four examples…
Bruce, Susan M.; Pine, Gerald J.
A report is presented on the progress of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study. The purpose of the study is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current research findings on effective instruction and effective schools and to assess the impact of the…
Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-t...
Dimitrov Vihren; Valerio Jose A; Erickson Savil N; Deng Changchun; Kanna Balavenkatesh; Soni Anita
As a building type, nuclear and research laboratories demands our attention because they represent the spirit and culture of our era and attracts some of the greatest intellectual and economic recourses of our society. Unfortunately, nuclear and research laboratories are also a prodigious consumer of natural resources and energy intensive. for example, research laboratories typically consume 5 to 10 times more energy per square meter than the office buildings. so, the challenge for architects, engineers, and other building professionals is to design and construct the next generation of nuclear and research laboratories with energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and sustainable design practices in mind. this parer describes some energy efficient strategies for designing and equipping the new generation of nuclear and research laboratories. it introduces the basic issues associated with energy consumption in the nuclear and research laboratories, summarizes the opportunities to improve and optimize energy performance during each phase of the design, and operation of nuclear and research laboratories
Full text: The German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is involved in dry cask storage site operation surveillance performed by the competent State authorities. The institute also investigates the long term behaviour of storage casks under service conditions. Based on this experience, the following approaches to managing ageing have been developed. Material ageing effects, if they occur, do not lead to a safety relevant reduction of the properties of the cask, owing to their thick walls. The most sensitive components of casks for dry storage of spent fuel are the metallic seals used with the lid system responsible for the safe enclosure of the nuclear inventory. These metallic seals consist of an inner helical spring made of a nickel based alloy, an inner metallic jacket made of stainless steel and an outer jacket made of aluminium or silver. Seal installation requires a wide range of quality assurance measures, starting with fabrication standards and ending with the installation procedure itself. Within the German licensing procedures the long term suitability of such seals has been investigated and demonstrated taking into consideration the required service conditions. The service conditions are characterized by the absence of water, which has to be removed carefully by suitable drying procedures if the casks are loaded under water. The cask body and the cavity between the lids are filled with inert gas in order to minimize possible corrosi gas in order to minimize possible corrosion reactions. Finally, protection measures against environmental influences are taken by using a sealed protection plate above the barrier lid system with its metallic seals. The worldwide operation experience of several hundred dry storage casks in service for up to about 20 years (in 2003) shows few problems with the long term stability of this concept. Specifically, no safety relevant material ageing mechanisms have occurred. Problems were minor and included unsuitable operation conditions such as water getting into sealing systems or the reaction of condensed atmospheric humidity with outer cask metal components because of an inadequate quality of epoxy coatings. In connection with the German concept of realizing on-site storage facilities for the interim storage of spent fuel from power reactors, the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK), which advises the Federal Environment Ministry, published Safety Guidelines for Dry Interim Storage of Irradiated Fuel Assemblies in Storage Casks in 2001. These recommendations contain a chapter entitled Long-term and Ageing Effects, Long-term Monitoring, which defines the following requirements: (a) An observation programme on long term and ageing effects during the storage period must be submitted. (b) Special attention must be paid to components developed for the entire period of use, for example the casks, including safety relevant components such as the sealing systems and neutron absorbers, and the storage facility. (c) The safety relevant properties of system and component parts must be guaranteed for the entire service period, and cask handling inside the facility must be possible at any time. (d) The observation programme has to consider the following demands: (i) Inspection of the storage building and all other storage components: status report every 10 years. (ii) Spot check inspection of storage casks. (iii) Assessment of findings of recurrent inspections. Two main conclusions about the German approach to managing ageing in dry spent fuel storage facilities can be made: - Firstly, the design and licensing phase must consider the possibility of ageing effects by referring to the service conditions (radiation, temperature, mechanical stresses and environmental conditions) in combination with the types of material to be used. Metallic sealing systems for the long term safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory should be used under guaranteed dry and inert conditions. - Secondly, the operation phase should be accompanied by an appropriate observation programme in ord
The responsible conduct of research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case-based discussion and in-person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to National Institutes of Health-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250
Schmidt, Karen L; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher
In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory Design are outlined.
The intellectual divisions common among scientists involved in research in specific disciplines are frequently not shared by the broader community of learners. For example, in K-12 education, the Earth sciences and the space sciences have generally been taught in an integrated approach, until opportunities for more advanced courses become available at the higher grade levels in some fortunate school districts. When scientists involved in EPO activities retain a perspective limited to their particular science mission, rather than stepping back to a broader perspective that places the research in a larger context, they risk limiting the usefulness of these activities to a broad cross-section of learners that seek to learn in a contextual framework. The re-integration of Earth and space sciences within NASA's Science Mission Directorate provides an opportunity to more systematically take advantage of the fact that Earth is one of many examples of possible planetary evolution scenarios presented in our solar system and beyond. This development should encourage integration of research across the SMD into a broader context that encourages the development of higher learning skills and a systems thinking approach. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the interdisciplinary nature of the research problems we address requires an approach that integrates Earth and space science, and we parallel this in our education and outreach activities, ranging from our exhibits on climate change to our professional development workshops and online courses to our websites and curriculum development efforts. The Windows to the Universe project (http://www.windows.ucar.edu), initiated at the University of Michigan with support from NASA in 1995 and now developed and maintained at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, has maintained this integrated approach from its inception with great success - leading to over 6 million users of our English and Spanish language content, curriculum activities, and interactives from around the world in 2004. An exciting new web-based development interface utilizing templates and an image database allows scientists from around the world to collaborate with the Windows to the Universe team, becoming remote developers on the website. This approach has proven to work effectively for scientists eager to efficiently get their science research results out to the public, taking advantage of their specialized expertise and yet not requiring them to become specialists in informal or formal K-12 education.
Johnson, R. M.; Barnes, T.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Lagrave, M.; Munoz, R.; Russell, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mastie, D.; Pennington, P.
Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, th identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) supports research to reduce human health and performance risks inherent in future human space exploration missions. Understanding risk outcomes and contributing factors in an integrated manner allows HRP research to support development of efficient and effective mitigations from cross-disciplinary perspectives, and to enable resilient human and engineered systems for spaceflight. The purpose of this work is to support scientific collaborations and research portfolio management by utilizing modeling for analysis and visualization of current and potential future interdisciplinary efforts.
Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark
Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination. The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofor...
The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of ...
Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to plan and organize the workshops. A total of 236 Chinese community-dwelling older adults participated in different health works...
Xinqi Dong; Yawen Li; Ruijia Chen; E-Shien Chang; Melissa Simon
Abstract Background This paper, which draws upon an Emancipatory Action Research (EAR) approach, unearths how the complexities of context influence the realities of nursing practice. While the intention of the project was to identify and change factors in the practice context that inhibit effective person-centred pain management practices with older people (65 years or older), reflective critical engagement with the findings identified that enhancing pain management practices with older peopl...
McCormack Brendan G; Brown Donna
...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...preventing or mitigating drug shortages. DATES: Either electronic...Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug...
Background: DIALIGN-T is a reimplementation of the multiple-alignment program DIALIGN. Due to several algorithmic improvements, it produces significantly better alignments on locally and globally related sequence sets than previous versions of DIALIGN. However, like the original implementation of the program, DIALIGN-T uses a a straight-forward greedy approach to assemble multiple alignments from local pairwise sequence similarities. Such greedy approaches may be vulnerable to spurious random...
Subramanian, Amarendran R.; Kaufmann, Michael; Morgenstern, Burkhard
In order to improve the accuracy and operability of Six Sigma Business Scorecard (SSBS) method, the model of enhanced SSBS based on entropy weight and relative approach degree was proposed. For overcoming the lack of specific method in determining the indexes weight, entropy weight theory was introduced to modify the subjective weight which improved the accuracy of the index weight determination process in SSBS. Moreover, approach degree theory was also int...
Weimin Ye; Deyong Zhao; Woye Liu; Jingzhong Li; Xiao Chen; Yu Bai
A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended
A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended.
Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009–10 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)
The authors discuss the challenges that researchers from university and community systems face in gaining access to and partnering with K-12 school systems to conduct research. Borrowing from Szapocznik, Hervis, and Schwartz's (2003) brief strategic family theory and therapy and Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory, the authors…
Hooper, Lisa M.; Britnell, Heather Brandt
Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse, and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure widespread availability of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy.
Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H.
Full Text Available As the time passes by, people are seeing more and more research activities in various fields including medicine, pure science, and technology and so on. The research works are published by the researchers in various journals and conferences, which are made publically available by the publishers. Though such research is spread all over the world, there should be a distinct pattern for this, which suggest that different geographical areas observes distinct trend towards particular direction of research. Government and the other state organizations periodically need adaptation of certain new technology or process for improving or implementing certain policies. Such new requirements are generally met by calling for researchers to join in hand with the organization with their proposal. Filtering such proposals also takes a hectic schedule and thorough understanding of the researchers profile and to gauge his ability to complete the work. In order to solve this problem we emphasize on extracting meaningful information from the web through web mining techniques that helps understanding the region wise trends in research domain activities and further extract more meaningful information like patterns that suggest the progress in a particular area and prominent contributors in the area.
Dr vijay Singh Rathore
The Australian National Data Service (ANDS) has been working to add value to Australia’s research data environment since 2009. This paper looks at the changes that have occurred over this time, ANDS’ role in those changes and the current state of the Australian research sector at this time, using case studies of selected institutions.
Groenewegen, David; Treloar, Andrew
Nursing students received research training and used clinical assessment tools to gather information from women after cesarean births. The project enhanced skills for clinical assessment and helped students understand the relationship between the nursing process and nursing research. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)
Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Weiss, Marianne
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. Confirmatory research is needed to validate that safety-related issues concerning the installation of instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in the electromagnetic environment of commercial nuclear power plants are being addressed adequately
Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a science curriculum that was more relevant and personalized. In addition, the action research process provided a feasible and effective forum for both curriculum development and professional development.
Goodnough, Karen Catherine
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the range of research paradigms employed in a smaller subset of Information Systems (IS literature, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. A systematic literature review based on papers that mentioned ERPs was drawn from eight of the most highly ranked journals according to their h-index. The findings indicate that the majority (96.6% of the ERP research papers were conducted within a positivist research paradigm, which is a far higher proportion than is suggested by other research in the general IS literature (approximately 81%. This paper suggests that there is a strong case for ERP researchers to look at existing paradigm selection and how effectively their research relates to the ERP body of knowledge, especially in respect to the issues of importance to managers within organizations (notably social and change management issues. This research also identified areas where existing paradigm evaluation methods could be enhanced and refined in respect to non-positivist classifications.
The work of the Jisc Managing Research Data programme is – along with the rest of the UK higher education sector – taking place in an environment of increasing pressure on research funding. In order to justify the investment made by Jisc in this activity – and to help make the case more widely for the value of investing time and money in research data management – individual projects and the programme as a whole must be able to clearly express the resultant benefits to the host instit...
Molloy, Laura; Hodson, Simon; Poschen, Meik; Tedds, Jonathan
We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literature. We provide examples of the course content and structure as well as representative examples of student learning in the class.
Wittmann, M C; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.
The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011. PMID:22011426
Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper; Schipperjin, Jasper
For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.
Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to ...
Regina Raboin; Reznik-zellen, Rebecca C.; Dorothea Salo
Affective computing is an interdisciplinary research field that has made plentiful and substantial achievements in this decade. In previous Artificial Intelligence research, computers are expected to be endowed with intelligence analogous to human intelligence. In affective computing, computers are expected to be endowed with Emotional Intelligence, which means that the computer can recognize and interpret the emotional states of humans and adapt its behavior to give an appropriate response t...
Xiaomei Tao; Qinzhou Niu; Mike Jackson
This paper describes the evolution of research in retailing comparing three different geographic regions: Spain, Europe and the United States. Working on the basis of a bibliographic review of the academic research published between 1996 and 2000 together with a content analysis, the results of this study reveal a heterogeneous evolution in nine thematic areas related to the field of retailing. The differences are particularly noticeable when comparing those of Europe with thos...
Frasquet Deltoro, Marta; Gil Saura, Irene; Molla? Descals, Alejandro; Vallet Bellmunt, Teresa
A new program, On Recent Discoveries by Emory Researchers (ORDER), has been developed as a bridge across the ever-widening gap between graduate and undergraduate education in the sciences. This bridge is created by merging the needs of graduate/postdoctoral students to educate more interdisciplinary scholars about their research discoveries with the need for the entering freshman to understand the process of discovery and the scientific method.
Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems B...
Soto Ana M.; Sonnenschein Carlos
The budget of a university essentially depends on the number of students it enrols. In multidepartment universities resources created in one department may be redistributed to other departments. This redistribution affects the way academics share their working time between research and teaching activities. Redistribution creates free-riding on teaching efforts. In this paper, we show that by designing internal financial rules which create yardstick competition for research funds, a multi-depa...
Gautier, Axel; Wauthy, Xavier
In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the dif...
Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Jebamalar Tamilselvi, Dr J.
The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such “a-priorism” is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitut...
Article is the presentation of the same name monograph, which is planned to be issued. In the article the perspective problems of further development risk-oriented approach (ROA) for the grounding and realization of measures on increase of safety and operational efficiency of NPP are considered. Unlike the traditional approach for the ROA, mean due the definition of probabilistic and/or deterministic methods of risk parameters, as criterion functions essence and the measure of the estimation are defined by the solution of specific problem in nuclear field. The ROA application allows essentially expanding opportunities of the substantiations and realizations of measures on safety and operational efficiency increase of NPP
A computational methodology is presented for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design
One of the most difficult challenges in pediatric drug research is in exposing children to risk, often without a balanced chance of benefits. While the concept of risk is similar in adult research, the adult patient can decide for himself/herself on an acceptable level of risk, whereas children have to accept the decisions of their guardians. This paper attempts to put the complexities of estimating risk in pediatric drug research into their practical perspective, and to familiarize the reader with the way such processes are conducted in different parts of the world. Although there are regional differences, all authorities typically quantify risks of pediatric research in general, and drug research in particular, in three levels: those experienced in day-to-day life; risks slightly above this 'baseline' risk; and risks substantially above 'baseline risk'. Proportionally, the diligence of the ethics process depends on these levels, as well as on the potential benefits (or lack of) to the child involved in the research. Importantly, risk is context dependent, and a particular intervention may be effective or safe in one setting but not in another, based on local experience, staffing levels, and similar variabilities. PMID:25408294
Full Text Available Software reusability is an attribute that refers to the expected reuse potential of a software component. Software reuse not only improves productivity but also has a positive impact on the quality and maintainability of software products. The move toward reuse is becoming so widespread that it has even changed software industry ’s vocabulary. This study reviews the research literature on the concept of Software Reusability (SR. This study was conducted to provide a systematic review of the literature identify the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with the content of software reusability, a literature search was conducted on several electronic databases. Studies published from the years 1977-2013 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology intervention to software reusability. In addition to that, a systematic review has been investigated on software reusability approaches and benefits. A deep investigation has been conducted on the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. The concept of software reusability comprised of 11 approaches includes, design patterns, component-based development, application frameworks, legacy system wrapping, service-oriented systems, application product lines, COTS integration, program libraries, program generators, aspect-oriented software development and configurable vertical applications. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communication technology over the last decade, there is a limited evidence suggesting the adaption of software reusability. This study will help the information and communication technology industry to clarify how software reusability can benefit them by adapting the software reusability approaches.
Ibraheem Y.Y. Ahmaro
Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale (Funk et al. 1991, which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%. All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also raised in focus groups, where language, presentation, and time to engage with research were considered significant influences. Qualitative aspects of the study also revealed scepticism about research application and relevance.All proposed LIS were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents who expressed an opinion (those who choose “no opinion” or did not respond, 6–8%, were excluded.Conclusions – The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed about proposed library services and training reveals the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicates that a holistic, collaborative approach to promoting the effective use of research collections and resources is required. Mixed-method data collection (focus group and survey provided a rich source of information, and may offer a useful approach for future study.
Since the terrible events of 11 Sep 2001 the response to security vulnerabilities has been to throw "Guns, Gates and Guards" at the problem. Three years later and it is clear that, although this may have had a short-term effect, it is unsustainable and unaffordable in the long term. The war on terrorism is going to be fought for a very long time. Defending against terrorism and enhancing the resilience and robustness of society and its processes now requires constant vigilance. Only technology can provide that vigilance at an efficiency that can provide certainty of detection and fast response. A technology led approach, integrating with people and their processes calls for innovation and a new generation of technology that fuses the physical world with the logical world. This approach is measurable in terms of capability and investment, in the way that the previous Newtonian security approach of cause and effect is not. This paper will address this new security environment and the different approach that R&D has to take to ensure that life and Democracy thrive and terrorism is defeated.
Increasing use of mechanistically-based molecular and biochemical endpoints and in vitro assays is being advocated as a more efficient and cost-effective approach for generating chemical hazard data. However, development of effective assays and application of the resulting data i...
A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of person fit in item response theory (IRT) models is presented. In a posterior predictive check, the observed value on a discrepancy variable is positioned in its posterior distribution. In a Bayesian framework, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure can be used to generate samples of the posterior distribution…
Glas, Cees A. W.; Meijer, Rob R.
"Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches" focuses on many of the major innovations developed over the past 100 years by noted educators to assist students in the study and analysis of key social issues that impact their lives and society. This book complements earlier books that address other aspects of studying and…
Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.
The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)
Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe a grassroots model for research support and explore the success and evolving directions of this model based on three iterative needs assessments administered by the Librarian and Archivist Research Support Network (LARSN Steering Committee at The University of Western Ontario. Needs assessments were identified as a critical tool to ensure that LARSN programming is relevant to librarians’ and archivists’ changing research needs. In the first four years of LARSN, three needs assessments were administered: in fall 2007, fall 2009, and spring 2011. The iterative needs assessments aimed to capture how the environment and research needs were evolving over time and the ways in which LARSN might continue to support a healthy and productive research environment. LARSN is faced with challenges that include a diversity of needs within its community, inconsistent participation levels in LARSN initiatives, and the inability to be all things to all people at all times. Still, LARSN is well received overall and rated positively by its community members. This is, in large part, because it has stayed true to its original mission to be needs-driven and responsive.
Ken N. Meadows
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Vehicle Health Management program touches on many different research areas while striving to enable the automated detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation of adverse events at the aircraft and system level. At the system level, the research focus is on the evaluation of multidisciplinary integrated methods, tools, and technologies for achieving the program goal. The participating program members form a diverse group of government, industry, and academic researchers. The program team developed the Research and Test Integration Plan in order to track significant test and evaluation activities, which are important for understanding, demonstrating, and communicating the overall project state and project direction. The Plan is a living document, which allows the project team the flexibility to construct conceptual test scenarios and to track project resources. The Plan also incorporates several desirable feature requirements for Plan users and maintainers. A wiki has proven to be the most efficient and effective means of implementing the feature requirements for the Plan. The wiki has proven very valuable as a research project management tool, and there are plans to expand its scope.
Delaney, Michael M.; Koshimoto, Edwin T.; Noble, Deleena; Duggan, Christopher
The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)
Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529
Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene
Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project. PMID:17911575
Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara
The principal effort of the Department of Energy's Environmental Research Park program on the Oak Ridge Reservation is directed at identification and preservation of a diverse assortment of natural communities representative of the Appalachian region of East Tennessee. Designation of natural areas provides a degree of protection for unique plant and animal species. Concommitantly, establishment of research reference areas provides sites which will be used to evaluate changes brought about in similar natural communities as a result of activities related to energy-producing technologies. Agglomerative cluster analysis of 184 continuous forest inventory (CFI) plots on the Reservation initially was used to objectively define forest types. Thus, types identified by cluster analysis formed a basis for determining what forest elements were present and which were representative of the Appalachian region. Subsequently, cluster analysis similarly was used within these research areas to define the overstory, understory, and shrub structure of the particular forest community.
Kitchings, J. T.; Mann, L. K.; Joslin, D. J.; Bunnell, R. C.
Full Text Available O presente texto tem como foco as investigações sobre professores iniciantes e faz um balanço do tema a partir de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, tendo em vista a atual tendência dos estudos sobre essa etapa do desenvolvimento profissional do professor. Para tanto, são analisados os trabalhos apresentados nas reuniões da ANPEd, nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2007, e as pesquisas disponíveis no banco de teses da CAPES - 2000 a 2007 (mestrado e doutorado. Também é analisada a pesquisa de Brzezinski (2006, em que foi apresentado o estado do conhecimento sobre a formação de profissionais da educação. O estudo evidencia que a maioria das pesquisas analisa o professor, focando sua prática pedagógica, a construção de sua identidade, a socialização profissional e as dificuldades encontradas. Demonstra também a quase inexistência de ações de formação para esses professores e a necessidade das pesquisas brasileiras se dedicarem mais ao tema, que é pouco explorado, se considerada a relevância dessa etapa profissional.The following text focuses on the investigation into "Inexperienced Teachers" and ponders on the theme based on researches conducted in Brazil, regarding current trends about this stage of the teacher's professional development. In order to accomplish this objective, we analyzed the work presented at the ANPEd meetings in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007 and the researches available at the CAPES Thesis Bank from 2000 to 2007 (for mastering and doctorate degrees. The research carried out by Brzezinski (2006 was also taken as an object of analysis In this research, the state of knowledge on the development of professionals working with education was presented. The study reveals that most of the researchers analyzed the teachers, focusing on their pedagogic practice, identity construction, and professional socialization, as well as on the difficulties found. It also demonstrates the nearly inexistence of development actions for those teachers and the need for further research by Brazilian specialists, since this issue has been poorly explored considering its relevance.
Silmara de Oliveira Gomes Papi
This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.
Teodorescu, Raluca Elena
Full Text Available In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the different affected business areas which discusses the data mining algorithms by higher fraud coverage. It also highlights the important challenges and limitations involved with the data mining techniques for detecting fraudulent activities.
Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.
A description is given of a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the functioning of the land-use-transport system; (2) a literature study on methodologies for the evaluation of transport scenarios; (3) a review of evaluation methodologies used in recent transport scenarios; (4) the development of a methodology for the ecological, economic and social assessment of transport scenarios; (5) the application of the methodology in case studies.
Full Text Available Mobile e-commerce information search will become popular with the mobile devices being widely used. Thus,how to provide content-rich and precise commerce information to mobile end-users becomes a challenge. Therise of mashup technology provides a promising solution for this challenge. In this paper the platformarchitecture of mobile e-commerce information search based on mashup technology is presented, and then themain components are described and discussed to illustrate how the platform facilitates mobile e-commerceinformation search. In section 4 a new approach of web search results processing adapted to mobile devices isproposed. An experiment is carried out to show the flow of web search results processing based on the presentedapproach. Mobile operators and internet operators can realize mutual benefits with the presented approach.
Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in t...
Yan-qing Wu; Ying-wu Zhou; Xiu-de Qin; Sheng-yu Hua; Yu-lian Zhang; Li-yuan Kang
This volume investigates to what extent existing approaches to pragmatics and discourse shed light on how the form of a text creates stylistic effects. Taking a cross-cultural perspective, the book focuses on five key stylistic features of writing – paragraph structure, length and construction of sentences, organization of information in sentences, relative formality of vocabulary, amount of nominalization – widely seen as partly responsible for the different impressions created by academ...
Owtram, Nicola T.
Successful field evaluation of informatics initiatives designed to create technology-enhanced professional practice relies on adequate training of experimental participants. However, such training presents design, implementation and evaluation challenges. A macroergonomic approach, focusing on an organizational view of people, technology, task and environment interactions in work systems, provides a framework for training that allows anticipation and compensation for challenges. In the HeartC...
Kossman, Susan; Casper, Gail R.; Severtson, Dolores J.; Grenier, Anne-sophie; Or, Calvin; Carayon, Pascale; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a d...
This study examines the implementation of strategies for the development of a physical activity program for children and youth with autism. The aim of the study was the collaborative development of a sustainable physical activity program with families with children with autism. A phenomenological approach was employed in the study, which used participant observation that included conversations to obtain the lived experiences of the participants. Close observations were made of the interaction...
Full Text Available Under the market situation of economic globalization, the premise of enterprise existence and development is to foster the competitiveness of enterprise. Starting from the network view, this article will confirm the interest relatives of enterprise and systematically discuss the approach of enterprise competitiveness through such aspects as the formation of enterprise competitive potential, the increase of enterprise competitiveness and the continual renovation of competitiveness.
Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potentia...
In the development of methods to explore student views on creative learning processes using digital media, Q methodology and its applications offer a promising framework. The method addresses the complexity of subjective viewpoints by applying a technique and analysis that combine materials to investigate shared patterns among students’ experiences. The integration of a qualitative approach with quantitative technique provides a special interview and ensures that the analysis remains focused on the students’ perspective. This approach offers a way to overcome problems with weak links between data materials in mixed-method studies, as the viewpoints expressed by study participants are initially mapped by a quantification procedure designed to integrate open-ended questioning and survey technique. The study presented here illustrates the use of this approach in an enquiry into students’ experiences of activities in digital media workshops in a Danish museum of contemporary art. Data were collected from 85 students, who participated in three types of workshops, and the results show a typology of four distinct views regarding three interrelated aspects: (1) views on art, which entail students’ general attitudes about art; (2) use of digital media for the creation of audio or animated cartoon digital files; and (3) reflective thinking during and after the workshop.
Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a mechanism in mice that triggers inflammation in the liver and transforms normal cells into cancerous ones. In addition, they demonstrated in a mouse model that a particular micro-RNA (miR-124) – a member of a recently discovered class of molecular regulators – could be harnessed to treat or even prevent liver cancer.
This paper describes the first set of experiments defined by the MIRACLE (Multilingual Information RetrievAl for the CLEf campaign) research group for some of the cross language tasks defined by CLEF. These experiments combine different basic techniques, linguistic-oriented and statistic-oriented, to be applied to the indexing and retrieval processes.
Marti?nez Ferna?ndez, Jose? Luis; Villena Roma?n, Julio; Fombella Mourelle, Jorge; Garci?a Serrano, Ana; Marti?nez Ferna?ndez, Paloma; Gon?i Menoyo, Jose? Miguel; Gonza?lez Cristo?bal, Jose? Carlos
The nature of learning is being augmented by new digital tools, particularly by mobile devices and the networks and structures to which they connect people. In this paper I examine some longitudinal research "threads" that have pervaded my work over the last two decades: (i) the powerful perspectives on learning and development put forward by…
Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2011, s. 70-81. ISBN 978-80-7204-775-8 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP404/10/0021; GA ?R GA403/09/1839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender diversity * gender in organisations * women in management Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography
Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…
Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph
Background: Integrating 3D virtual world technologies into educational subjects continues to draw the attention of educators and researchers alike. The focus of this study is the use of a virtual world, Second Life, in higher education teaching. In particular, it explores the potential of using a virtual world experience as a learning component…
Mathews, Shane; Andrews, Lynda; Luck, Edwina
How the experience of science-based Ph.D. students working in or funded by Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs) compares with their peers in regular university science-based departments is the key focus of this article. CRC doctoral programmes that integrate industry needs with professional development offer an alternative to traditional…
Harman, Kay M.
This paper presents an example using university student satisfaction survey data to demonstrate how to address problems associated with the hierarchical or nested nature of the data. Massive large-scale secondary data have been used in higher education research, and ignoring hierarchically structured data may lead to inaccurate or misleading…
Nigeria is embarking on a fuel conversion programme in view of her being a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by extension, acceptance of the non-proliferation programme which encompasses a global effort to convert her type of research reactor to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) is a 31kW miniature neutron source reactor situated at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The reactor was acquired through the tripartite project and supply agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria, International Atomic Energy Agency and China Institute of Atomic Energy. The reactor attained criticality on the 3rd February 2004 and has since been used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Experiments and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology. NIRR-1 uses U-235 fuel enriched to about 90.2%. This paper analyzes the status of NIRR-1 conversion programme from a regulatory perspective, especially the major milestones fulfilled towards the submission/review of the feasibility/LEU conversion report. The paper considers the legal framework including the Act, Regulations and guidance documents developed or in the process of development for effective regulation of the conversion from project schedule to shipping requirements. The various international instruments endorsed by Nigeria as a demonstration of her commitment to conversion programme in form of Treaties, Conventions and Agreements are highlighted. The status of the draft Regulations on Research Reactors and the key elements of the Regulations are discussed.
The NRC Resident Research Associateship Program at NIST provides two-year temporary appointments for outstanding scientists and engineers. This book describes program applicants and awardees and offers suggestions for an in-depth assessment of career outcomes. Preliminary investigation indicates that outreach efforts produce more qualified…
Sislin, John, Ed.
This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…
Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.
This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.
White, Scott R.
Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large. PMID:20192112
Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L
Cancer innovations, such as biobanking technologies, are continuously evolving to improve our understanding and knowledge about cancer prevention and treatment modalities. However, the public receives little communication about biobanking and is often unaware about this innovation until asked to donate biospecimens. It is the researchers’ ethical duty to provide clear communications about biobanking and biospecimen research. Such information allows the public to understand biobanking processes and facilitates informed decision making about biospecimen donation. The aims of this paper are 1) to examine the importance of clear communication as an ethical imperative when conveying information about cancer innovations and 2) to illustrate the use of an organizing framework, the CLEAN (Culture, Literacy, Education, Assessment, and Networking) Look approach for creating educational priming materials about the topic of biobanking. PMID:23124500
Koskan, Alexis; Arevalo, Mariana; Gwede, Clement K.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa A.; Luque, John S.; Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.
Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.
Dra. María Isabel Míguez González
The USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) has recently initiated a national effort to encourage people at different levels of expertise—from backyard naturalists to professional scientists—to observe phenological events and contribute to a national database that will be used to greatly improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in phenology and associated phenological responses to climate change. Traditional phenological observation protocols identify specific single dates at which individual phenological events are observed, but the scientific usefulness of long-term phenological observations can be improved with a more carefully structured protocol. At the USA-NPN we have developed a new approach that directs observers to record each day that they observe an individual plant, and to assess and report the state of specific life stages (or phenophases) as occurring or not occurring on that plant for each observation date. Evaluation is phrased in terms of simple, easy-to-understand, questions (e.g. "Do you see open flowers?"), which makes it very appropriate for a broad audience. From this method, a rich dataset of phenological metrics can be extracted, including the duration of a phenophase (e.g. open flowers), the beginning and end points of a phenophase (e.g. traditional phenological events such as first flower and last flower), multiple distinct occurrences of phenophases within a single growing season (e.g multiple flowering events, common in drought-prone regions), as well as quantification of sampling frequency and observational uncertainties. The system also includes a mechanism for translation of phenophase start and end points into standard traditional phenological events to facilitate comparison of contemporary data collected with this new "phenophase status" monitoring approach to historical datasets collected with the "phenological event" monitoring approach. These features greatly enhance the utility of the resulting data for statistical analyses addressing questions such as how phenological events vary in time and space, and in response to global change.
Denny, Ellen; Miller-Rushing, Abraham; Haggerty, Brian; Wilson, Bruce; Weltzin, Jake
Purpose: This article provides an empirical identification of groups of marketing scholars who share common beliefs about the role of science and the logic of scientific discovery. Design: We use Topology Representing Network quantization to empirically identify classes of marketing researchers within a representative sample of marketing professors. Findings: We find six distinct classes of marketing scholars. They differ with regard to popularity (size) and productivity (level...
Franke, Nikolaus; Mazanec, Josef
Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.
McElwain Terry F
Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have carried out a clinical trial in which patients with metastatic melanoma were given chemotherapy and an immunotherapy of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Tumor tissues were surgically removed from patients, minced and grown in culture. The treatment, using techniques developed at the National Cancer Institute, combined chemotherapy, then ACT with TIL, followed by interleukin-2 (IL-2). The combination therapy drew a high response rate from some patients.
The development of the IRIS (Integration of Research Into Science-outreach) initiative is aimed at using field- and laboratory- based videos and blog entries to enable a sustained outreach relationship between university researchers and local classrooms. IRIS seeks to communicate complex, cutting-edge scientific research in the Earth and Planetary sciences to school-aged children in a simple and interesting manner, in the hope of ameliorating the overall decline of children entering into science and engineering fields in future generations. The primary method of delivery IRIS utilizes is the media of film, ';webinars' and blog entries. Filmed sequences of laboratory work, field work, science demos and mini webinars on current and relevant material in the Earth and Planetary sciences are ';subscribed' to by local schools. Selected sequences are delivered in 20-30 minute film segments with accompanying written material. The level at which the subject matter is currently geared is towards secondary level school-aged children, with the purpose of inspiring and encouraging curiosity, learning and development in scientific research. The video broadcasts are supplemented by a hands-on visit 1-2 times per year by a group of scientists participating in the filmed sequences to the subscribing class, with the objective of engaging and establishing a natural rapport between the class and the scientists that they see in the broadcasts. This transgresses boundaries that traditional 'one off' outreach platforms often aren't able to achieve. The initial results of the IRIS outreach initiative including successes, problems encountered and classroom feedback will be reported.
Clay, P. L.; O'Driscoll, B.
Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an indivi...
Nadkarni Prakash M; Kemp Rowena; Parikh Chirag R
Used on a wide scale in the natural sciences, the experimental method wasaccepted and used in the research field of the economic sciences much laterand with a lot of restraint. Although the application of the experiment in thefield of the economic sciences implies a lot of real problems, the experimentalmethod is, today, a proceeding used in the scientific economic investigations,having an important role both in verification and demonstration of the causalhypothesis and in the improvement and...
Dragomir Stefanescu, Camelia
The German WDC Cluster Earth System Research has been founded in 2003 and is build from three WDCs and one candidate: WDC-C - World Data Center for Climate (MPI-M, Hamburg) WDC-MARE - World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (AWI, MARUM) WDC-RSAT - World Data Center for Remote Sensing (DFD/DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen) WDC-TERRA - World Data Center of the Lithosphere (candidate) (GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam) The WDC cluster has identified information management challenges in geo-scientific research. There are many problems and issues faced by the geo-scientific research community when it comes to managing data and information: Lack of adequate facilities and resources for long-term archiving: the cost of archiving data, especially large sets, in systems where the data is easily retrieved, is very often prohibitive Data set publication: the science related to the production of basic data is often not easily recognized as publishable work with the same merits as information derived from basic data Interdisciplinary audience for geo-scientific data: Effective understanding of the whole earth relies on better understanding of the interaction of multiple earth systems. In order to do this, wider and more diverse audiences, especially interdisciplinary science teams, should have a facilitated appreciation of the applicable data sets which are available. The partners in the WDC cluster start cooperation within the frame of national research projects but international cooperation with other WDCs and long-term archives for geo-scientific data is required especially with respect to networking, data sharing and data publication.
Lautenschlager, M.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Klump, J.; Paliouras, E.
In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations. Hypermediated forms of presentation afford not just a capability for accommodating non-sequentiality,polyphony and multi-perspectivalism, I will argue, but acknowledge and foreground the inevitable processes of selection and interpretation which lies at the heart of each and every practice of ‘authoring'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can be accommodated with a continued commitment to the production of a form of authoring which maintains intellectual coherence, is thereby at the focus of the preliminary assessment of the potential of hypermediated forms of academic authoring that this paper seeks to contribute to.
In Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research, Nick Emmel evaluates widely used sampling strategies, identifying key theoretical assumptions and considering how empirical and theoretical claims are made from these diverse methods. Drawing on case studies from across the social sciences Emmel shows how ideas drive choices, how cases are used to work out the relation between ideas and evidence, and why it is not the size of a sample that matters, it is how cases are used to interpret a...
St Denny, Emily
Despite decades of research on the etiology and treatment of depression, a significant proportion of the population is affected by the disorder, fails to respond to treatment and is plagued by relapse. Six prominent scientists, Aaron Beck