WorldWideScience
 
 
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Is Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) Useful? A Systematic Review on Papers in a Decade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been applied by health researchers and practitioners to address health disparities and community empowerment for health promotion. Despite the growing popularity of CBPR projects, there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate CBPR projects. The present review attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to the successful or unsuccessful interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken using evidence identified through searching electronic databases, web sites, and reference list checks. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed by reviewers. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodologic quality, were assessed for 3 types of CBPR approaches, including interventional, observational, and qualitative research design as well as CBPR elements through separate abstraction forms. Each included study was appraised with 2 quality grades, one for the elements of CBPR and one for research design. RESULTS: Of 14,222 identified articles, 403 included in the abstract review. Of these, 70 CBPR studies, that 56 intervention studies had different designs, and finally 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that collaboration among community partners, researchers, and organizations led to community-level action to improve the health and wellbeing and to minimize health disparities. It enhanced the capacity of the community in terms of research and leadership skills. The result provided examples of effective CBPR that took place in a variety of communities. However, little has been written about the organizational capacities required to make these efforts successful. CONCLUSION: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant's levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.

Salimi Y; Shahandeh K; Malekafzali H; Loori N; Kheiltash A; Jamshidi E; Frouzan AS; Majdzadeh R

2012-06-01

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Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan; Embleton Lonnie; Ayuku David; Atwoli Lukoye; Gisore Peter; Ayaya Samuel; Vreeman Rachel; Braitstein Paula

2013-01-01

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Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. METHODS: The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. RESULTS: To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. CONCLUSION: CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda A; Embleton L; Ayuku D; Atwoli L; Gisore P; Ayaya S; Vreeman R; Braitstein P

2013-01-01

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Beyond Incentives for Involvement to Compensation for Consultants: Increasing Equity in CBPR Approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) strives for equitable collaboration among community and academic partners throughout the research process. To build the capacity of academia to function as effective research partners with communities, the North Carolina Translational and Clinical Sciences Institute (NC TraCS), home of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH)'s Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA), developed a community engagement consulting model. This new model harnesses the expertise of community partners with CBPR experience and compensates them equitably to provide technical assistance to community-academic research partnerships. Objectives: This paper describes approaches to valuing community expertise, the importance of equitable compensation for community partners, the impact on the community partners, opportunities for institutional change, and the constraints faced in model implementation. Methods: Community Experts (CEs) are independent contractor consultants. CEs were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction with their engagement and compensation for their work. Lessons Learned: (1) CEs have knowledge, power, and credibility to push for systems change. (2) Changes were needed within the university to facilitate successful consultation to community-academic partnerships. (3) Sustaining the CE role requires staff support, continued compensation, increased opportunities for engagement, and careful consideration of position demands. (4) The role provides benefits beyond financial compensation. (5) Opportunities to gather deepened relationships within the partnership and built collective knowledge that strengthened the project. Conclusions: Leveraging CE expertise and compensating them for their role benefits both university and community. Creating a place for community expertise within academia is an important step toward equitably including the community in research.

Black KZ; Hardy CY; De Marco M; Ammerman AS; Corbie-Smith G; Council B; Ellis D; Eng E; Harris B; Jackson M; Jean-Baptiste J; Kearney W; Legerton M; Parker D; Wynn M; Lightfoot A

2013-01-01

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Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

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An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD) and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC) recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334.

Sussman AL; Montoya C; Werder O; Davis S; Wallerstein N; Kong AS

2013-01-01

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Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN) students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL) at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Student Services (RSS) and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) within which we conducted the “What makes life good?” study aimed towards developing a QOL measure for AN students. Equally important was building a legacy of research trust among AN partners. Study design. We describe Phase I of a 2-phase study that employed a sequential mixed methods approach. Discussed are facilitators, challenges and lessons learned while striving to adhere to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Methods. Phase I included formative focus groups and QOL measurement development. The research involved the interplay among activities that were co-developed with the goal of enhancing trust and research capacity. Emphasis was placed on ensuring that data collection and analyses were student driven. Conclusions. All partners resided at the same university. However, trust and collaboration could not be assumed. Working within a collaborative framework, our partnership achieved the aim of developing a culturally informed QOL measure, while also creating an empowering experience for all partners who became co-investigators in a process that might normally be regarded with mistrust.

Ellen D.S. Lopez; Dinghy Kristine B. Sharma; Deborah Mekiana; Alaina Ctibor

2012-01-01

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Youth as partners, participants or passive recipients: a review of children and adolescents in community-based participatory research (CBPR).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an orientation to research that places value on equitable collaborations between community members and academic partners, reflecting shared decision making throughout the research process. Although CBPR has become increasingly popular for research with adults, youth are less likely to be included as partners. In our review of the literature, we identified 399 articles described by author or MeSH keyword as CBPR related to youth. We analyzed each study to determine youth engagement. Not including misclassified articles, 27 % of percent of studies were community-placed but lacked a community partnership and/or participatory component. Only 56 (15 %) partnered with youth in some phase of the research process. Although youth were most commonly involved in identifying research questions/priorities and in designing/conducting research, most youth-partnered projects included children or adolescents in several phases of the research process. We outline content, methodology, phases of youth partnership, and age of participating youth in each CBPR with youth project, provide exemplars of CBPR with youth, and discuss the state of the youth-partnered research literature.

Jacquez F; Vaughn LM; Wagner E

2013-03-01

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Old wine in new bottles? The positioning of participation in 17 NIH-funded CBPR projects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenced by Cooke and Kothari's (2001) suggestion that participation "remains a way of talking about rather than doing things" (p. 32), we question to what extent this is true in the public health funding process. Thus, the aim of this article was to investigate the ways in which recent National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects discursively positioned CBPR in their grant applications. We collected 17 NIH-funded CBPR proposals, analyzed them using a grounded theory approach, and subjected the findings to critical analysis focusing on the definition of community, the type of community "participation" promoted, and the nature of the research proposed. We conclude that certain types of CBPR projects are privileged in the funding review process and discuss the implications of these findings for future CBPR praxis.

Peterson JC; Gubrium A

2011-12-01

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Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with indigenous communities: producing respectful and reciprocal research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to grow despite an expanding body of research that attempts to address these inequalities, including increased attention from the field of health geography. Here, we draw upon a case study of our own community-based approach to health research with Anishinabe communities in northern Ontario as a means of advocating the growth of such participatory approaches. Using our own case as an example, we demonstrate how a collaborative approach to respectful and reciprocal research can be achieved, including some of the challenges we faced in adopting this approach.

Tobias JK; Richmond CA; Luginaah I

2013-04-01

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Time, Dual Roles, and Departments of Public Health: Lessons Learned in CBPR by an AIDS Service Organization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to inform the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment strategies. However, there is a paucity of literature describing CBPR from the perspective of community-based organizations (CBOs), specifically AIDS service organizations (ASO). Focusing on the perspective of the executive director (ED) from the partnering ASO, we describe in this paper lessons learned during Project Counseling Others About Contacts and Exposures with HIV (COACH), a CBPR, qualitative study intended to examine perspectives and experiences of professionals and clients regarding partner notification (PN) for HIV. Specifically, we describe opportunities and challenges associated with the time investment, balancing a dual role of service provider and researcher, and partnering with the department of public health. This description of the perspective of the ED from the ASO and the associated lessons learned may inform the actions of other CBOs, including ASOs, considering partnering with academic institutions for CBPR.

Cole CA; Edelman EJ; Boshnack N; Jenkins H; Richardson W; Rosenthal MS

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

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Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop a community-level HIV prevention intervention for Latinas: a local response to a global challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: The arsenal of interventions to reduce the disproportionate rates of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection among Latinos in the United States lags behind what is available for other populations. The purpose of this project was to develop an intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latinas. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership engaged in a multistep intervention development process. The steps were to (1) increase Latina participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an intervention team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore health-related needs and priorities of Latinas, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latinas' lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. RESULTS: The MuJEReS intervention contains five modules to train Latinas to serve as lay health advisors (LHAs) known as "Comadres." These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data, blend health behavior theory with the lived experiences of immigrant Latinas, and harness a powerful existing community asset, namely, the informal social support Latinas provide one another. CONCLUSION: This promising intervention is designed to meet the sexual health priorities of Latinas. It extends beyond HIV and STDs and frames disease prevention within a sexual health promotion framework. It builds on the strong, preexisting social networks of Latinas and the preexisting, culturally congruent roles of LHAs.

Rhodes SD; Kelley C; Simán F; Cashman R; Alonzo J; McGuire J; Wellendorf T; Hinshaw K; Allen AB; Downs M; Brown M; Martínez O; Duck S; Reboussin B

2012-05-01

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Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

Vaughn NA; Jacoby SF; Williams T; Guerra T; Thomas NA; Richmond TS

2013-03-01

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Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) Process Strengthens the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Method to Improve Health in Rural Delta Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose was to describe community workshops on the CPPE process to identify the top three nutrition- and health-related issues that could be addressed by nutrition and physical activity intervention research. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is ...

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Using community-based participatory research to prevent HIV disparities: assumptions and opportunities identified by the Latino partnership.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations in the United States, including recently arrived immigrant Latinos. However, the current arsenal of effective approaches to increase adherence to risk-reduction strategies and treatment within Latino populations remains insufficient. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership blends multiple perspectives of community members, organizational representatives, local business leaders, and academic researchers to explore and intervene on HIV risk within Latino populations. We used CBPR to develop, implement, and evaluate 2 interventions that were found to be efficacious. RESULTS: We identified 7 assumptions of CBPR as an approach to research, including more authentic study designs, stronger measurement, and improved quality of knowledge gained; increased community capacity to tackle other health disparities; the need to focus on community priorities; increased participation and retention rates; more successful interventions; reduced generalizability; and increased sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the advancement of CBPR as an approach to research, key assumptions remain. Further research is needed to compare CBPR with other more-traditional approaches to research. Such research would move us from assuming the value of CBPR to identifying its actual value in health disparity reduction. After all, communities carrying a disproportionate burden of HIV, including immigrant Latino communities, deserve the best science possible.

Rhodes SD; Duck S; Alonzo J; Ulloa JD; Aronson RE

2013-06-01

17

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes. PMID:23567297

Kneipp, Shawn M; Lutz, Barbara J; Levonian, Catherine; Cook, Christa; Hamilton, Jill B; Roberson, Dawne

2013-04-08

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Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes.

Kneipp SM; Lutz BJ; Levonian C; Cook C; Hamilton JB; Roberson D

2013-06-01

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Translating community-based participatory research principles into practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although academics are trained in research methods, few receive formal training in strategies for implementing equitable community engaged research. Academics and their community partners can benefit from such direction and assistance as they establish and maintain community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Research partners from the University of Pittsburgh, the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, and the House of Ruth Maryland, one of the nation's leading domestic violence centers serving Baltimore and the surrounding areas, joined together to design, implement, and evaluate a series of activities to increase local CPBR capacity. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an overview of process and findings from two CBPR workshops jointly held for academic and community members and explores specific suggestions from the workshop participants about how to put the CBPR principles into practice to promote community engaged research to address intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: Twenty-four academic and community partners with experience addressing IPV participated in the two workshops. Facilitators led discussions based on the core CPBR principles. Participants were asked to interpret those principles, identify actions that could help to put the principles into practice, and discuss challenges related to CBPR approaches for IPV research. Observational notes and transcripts of the discussions and workshop evaluations are summarized. RESULTS: The CBPR principles were interpreted and revised through consensus into common language that reflected the group discussion of the core CBPR principles. Workshop participants provided a range of actions for putting the principles into practice and identified the need for sensitivity in relation to IPV research. A majority of participants felt that the workshop generated novel ideas about how they could use CPBR in their own work. CONCLUSIONS: Translating CBPR principles into common, action-oriented language is a useful first step when building a new academic-community research partnership.

Burke JG; Hess S; Hoffmann K; Guizzetti L; Loy E; Gielen A; Bailey M; Walnoha A; Barbee G; Yonas M

2013-01-01

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Application of a CBPR framework to inform a multi-level tobacco cessation intervention in public housing neighborhoods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional "outsider driven" interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation intervention in public housing neighborhoods. The CBPR framework encompasses problem identification, planning and feasibility/pilot testing, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination. There have been multiple partners in this process including public housing residents, housing authority administrators, community health workers, tenant associations, and academic investigators. The advisory process has evolved from an initial small steering group to our current institutional community advisory boards. Our decade-long CBPR journey produced design innovations, promising preliminary outcomes, and a full-scaled implementation study in two states. Challenges include sustaining engagement with evolving study partners, maintaining equity and power in the partnerships, and long-term sustainability of the intervention. Implications include applicability of the framework with other CBPR partnerships, especially scaling up evolutionary grassroots involvement to multi-regional partnerships.

Andrews JO; Tingen MS; Jarriel SC; Caleb M; Simmons A; Brunson J; Mueller M; Ahluwalia JS; Newman SD; Cox MJ; Magwood G; Hurman C

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Sustaining CBPR partnerships to address health disparities in times of economic instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

In unstable economic environments, CBPR partnerships in underserved communities may face unanticipated obstacles that threaten success and sustainability. This report describes challenges experienced by HealthLink, a CBPR partnership to address cancer disparities in Queens, N.Y., and how HealthLink adapted. Recommendations for designing CBPR partnerships to overcome unexpected challenges are provided. PMID:23698667

Weiss, Elisa S; Stevenson, Alexis J; Erb-Downward, Jennifer; Combs, Sarah; Sabino, Eilleen E; Michel, Tamara A; Kemeny, M Margaret; Ackley-Kazdal, Tameron; O'Connor, Maureen; Rapkin, Bruce

2012-11-01

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Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 17, 2013: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301605).

Mikesell L; Bromley E; Khodyakov D

2013-10-01

23

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307

Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

2013-09-02

24

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care.

Yonas MA; Aronson R; Schaal J; Eng E; Hardy C; Jones N

2013-10-01

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Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perception of stakeholders, a dynamic model of the dimensions of community and partnership capacity served as the theoretical framework. Methods: In this descriptive research, stakeholder analysis helps us to identify appropriate of stakeholders (Key stakeholders). Data were collected using a topic guide concerned with capacity for preventing drug abuse. Interviews were audiotape and transcribed. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: CBPR has been undertaken to involve local people in making decisions about the kind of change they want in their community and the allocation of resources to reduce substance abuse. We identified key stakeholders and examining their interests, resources and constraints of different stakeholders. Conclusion: The current study has shown the benefits of community-based participatory approach in assessing capacity. Through CBPR process people who affected by Drug issue engaged in analysis of their own situation and helps identity innovative solutions for their complex problem. This participatory approach to a capacity assessment resulted in a synergistic effort that provided a more accurate picture of community issues and concerns.

KH Shahandeh; R Majdzadeh; E Jamshidi; N Loori

2012-01-01

26

Interpretations of interpretations: combining community-based participatory research and interpretive inquiry to improve health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Latina immigrants from Mexico suffer significantly increased morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer when compared with non-Hispanic White women, largely owing to lack of screening and appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that by combining the tools of community-based participatory research (CBPR) with the tools of interpretive inquiry, it is possible to address explicit community concerns surrounding a particular problem such as cervical cancer while also examining what other, perhaps less immediately visible, matters consume the time and attention of community members. METHODS: We first briefly discuss and compare CBPR as an approach to research and interpretive inquiry as a qualitative research method. We then provide a case study from our own research using a CBPR approach to examine beliefs and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention among Oregon Latinos. Methods in that study included extensive discussions with our community advisory board (CAB) and promotores (community health workers) regarding barriers to cervical cancer screening for Latinas and community health concerns in general, and in-depth interviews with more than 50 Latino immigrants. CONCLUSION: Combining the tools of CBPR with the tools of interpretive qualitative inquiry may allow researchers to address explicit community concerns while also examining what other, less immediately visible, issues consume the time and attention of community members. In our specific case, combining the insights of our community partners with the results of our interpretive analysis helped us shift the focus from cervical cancer alone to a focus on gender relations and family health as we design future interventions.

Gregg J; Centurion L; Maldonado J; Aguillon R; Celaya-Alston R; Farquhar S

2010-01-01

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A review of community-based participatory research in child health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review published studies that use an authentic community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in child health to highlight the benefits, barriers, and scope of this approach with pediatric populations. METHOD: Studies using CBPR in child health were identified using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science through MeSH heading and keyword searches. Keywords included "community-based participatory research" and "child," "youth," and "adolescent." Literature reviews and community-placed articles were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 34 CBPR studies focused on child health were identified and analyzed for this review. The most common child health issue in these studies was obesity/diabetes. Other child health topics included health needs assessments, reproductive health, female health, HIV treatment, physical activity, mental health, maternal/child health, substance abuse, asthma, and youth with disabilities/special healthcare needs. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSION: CBPR offers a unique approach for translating evidence-based models and research knowledge from child health into effective and sustainable interventions.

Vaughn LM; Wagner E; Jacquez F

2013-01-01

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Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a) the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b) youth-researcher partnerships, and (c) youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a) being useful by helping elders and (b) being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

2012-01-01

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H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.

Zoellner Jamie M; Connell Carol C; Madson Michael B; Wang Bo; Reed Vickie; Molaison Elaine; Yadrick Kathleen

2011-01-01

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Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), user-centered design (UCD), and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants' homes. METHODS: The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include a user-focused or community approach, equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases, an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders, and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. RESULTS: Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program's design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. CONCLUSIONS: The principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully applied in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

Henderson VA; Barr KL; An LC; Guajardo C; Newhouse W; Mase R; Heisler M

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of Burnout in Teachers: Contribution to the Adaptation Study of the CBP-R  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Teachers are considered one of the most vulnerable professional groups to suffer from occupational stress and burnout. It is recognized that the phenomena affects individual and educational contexts, so their evaluation becomes a relevant issue. This study aims at contributing to the adaptation of the European Portuguese version of the CBP-R, by studying a sample of Portuguese teachers from primary and secondary schools. The interest herein relates to the fact that it specifically evaluates the dimensions of burnout in teachers. Method: Once the authors’ permission to use the instrument was given, we adopted all the procedures necessary to ensure the translation of the CBP-R to European Portuguese. The instrument was then applied to a sample of 513 teachers aged between 22 and 66 years old (M = 41.88, SD = 9.461). We used the version 19.0 of the software SPSS and AMOS, to enter data and perform sample characterization and to study the reliability and confirmatory factor analysis of the CBP-R, respectively. Results: The dimensions of burnout included in CBP-R showed high factorial validity and high internal consistency, according to the tripartite Maslach Model of Burnout (1993). Conclusion: This work suggests that the European Portuguese version of the CBP-R is a useful and appropriate tool to evaluate burnout in teachers, particularly the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment.

Ivone Patrão; Joana Rita; João Maroco

32

Special issue: three models of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways.

Weiner J; McDonald JA

2013-04-01

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American Indian Cultures: How CBPR Illuminated Intertribal Cultural Elements Fundamental to an Adaptation Effort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ever-increasing numbers of ethnic minority populations in the USA seeking social services suggest that a "multicultural paradigm shift" is underway and gaining speed. This shift will increasingly demand that prevention programs and interventions be more culturally responsive. Interventions that are not aligned with prospective participants' world views and experiences are only minimally effective. Existing models for conducting culturally grounded program adaptations emphasize identifying distinct levels of cultural influences while preserving core elements of the original intervention. An effective adaptation requires competent language translation as well as trained translations of program concepts and principles that will be meaningful to the targeted group, without compromising program fidelity. This article describes how a university research team and curriculum developers worked with American Indian youth and adults in a large southwestern city using a CBPR process to identify cultural elements that became foundational to the adaptation of a prevention curriculum that is a national model program, with the objective of increasing its applicability for urban native youth.

Jumper-Reeves L; Dustman PA; Harthun ML; Kulis S; Brown EF

2013-02-01

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Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

2008-12-01

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Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals.

McCabe-Sellers B; Lovera D; Nuss H; Wise C; Ning B; Teitel C; Clark BS; Toennessen T; Green B; Bogle ML; Kaput J

2008-12-01

36

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH; Jo Anne Grunbaum, EdD; Barbara Sajor Gray, MIA; Adele Franks, MD; Eduardo Simoes, MD, MS, MPH

2007-01-01

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Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

38

How Can Primary Health Care System and Community-Based Participatory Research Be Complementary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health statistics leave little doubt that the current health system in Iran,which is mainly based on primary health care (PHC), is a functioningone, and that health in Iran has improved far beyond where it was 40years ago. However, this system has its limitations too. While PHC isvery effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesand other acute conditions, it is far less effective in addressingchronic and multi-factorial conditions which are now emerging in Iran.In this article, we review some of the salient features of the currenthealth system in Iran, its strengths and limitations, and then introducecommunity-based participatory research (CBPR) as a method thatcould potentially fill some of the gaps in the system. We will discussthe definition and steps needed to implement CBPR, provide someimportant references, and discuss how this approach may not onlyimprove the health system but it could also lead to improvement inother fields in the society too.

Payam Sheikhattari; Farin Kamangar

2010-01-01

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Boys must be men, and men must have sex with women: a qualitative CBPR study to explore sexual risk among African American, Latino, and White gay men and MSM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action.

Rhodes SD; Hergenrather KC; Vissman AT; Stowers J; Davis AB; Hannah A; Alonzo J; Marsiglia FF

2011-03-01

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"Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women": A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM  

Science.gov (United States)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low HIV and STD knowledge particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually “dominant” and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of “barebacking.” Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets; harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM; and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action.

Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Physicians as Part of the Solution? Community-Based Participatory Research as a Way to Get Shared Decision Making into Practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although support among policy makers and academics for the wide scale adoption of shared decision making (SDM) is growing, actual implementation is slow, and faces many challenges. Extensive systemic barriers exist that prevent physicians from being able to champion SDM and lead practice change. In other areas of public health where implementation has been a challenge, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has effectively engaged resistant stakeholders to improve practice and the delivery of care. Might CBPR, defined broadly as research that engages participants in the conception, design, and implementation of relevant health programs, be a more effective way to engage physicians, patients, and managers in the implementation process? Consequently, we argue that adopting a participatory approach may help to overcome recognized barriers to progress in this area.

Grande SW; Durand MA; Fisher ES; Elwyn G

2013-09-01

42

Intervention mapping as a participatory approach to developing an HIV prevention intervention in rural African American communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE integrated intervention mapping (IM) methodology with community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop a multilevel, multigenerational HIV prevention intervention. IM was carried out in a series of steps from review of relevant data through producing program components. Through the IM process, all collaborators agreed that we needed a family-based intervention involving youth and their caregivers. We found that the structured approach of IM can be adapted to incorporate the principles of CBPR.

Corbie-Smith G; Akers A; Blumenthal C; Council B; Wynn M; Muhammad M; Stith D

2010-06-01

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Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

2013-01-01

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A Pilot Test of the HOPE Intervention to Explore Employment and Mental Health Among African American Gay Men Living With HIV/AIDS: Results From a CBPR Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes.

Hergenrather KC; Geishecker S; Clark G; Rhodes SD

2013-10-01

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Using participatory research to build an effective type 2 diabetes intervention: the process of advocacy among female Hispanic farmworkers and their families in Southeast Idaho.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Formando Nuestro Futuro/Shaping our Future project (herewith, Formando) is a community-based participative research (CBPR) focused on type 2 diabetes. It was conceptualized and designed by a team of university-based researchers and community health workers (promotores). This article describes the process of establishing a CBPR project such as Formando and the most current results from that project. The Formando project is an example of health-focused advocacy with the Mexican agricultural workers in Southeast (SE) Idaho. To date, 172 qualitative interviews on participants' knowledge about type 2 diabetes have been carried out with farmworker women and their families. Biometric data (heights, weights, blood pressures and fasting blood glucoses) were obtained from participants. Fieldnotes, focus group discussions and key informants were used to triangulate findings. Significant quantitative findings include that age was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) (p < 0.001, Spearman Correlation < 0.001) and with elevated fasting blood glucose (p < 0.001, Spearman Correlation < 0.001). The qualitative interviews were thematically analyzed. Key themes associated with type 2 diabetes in this community were the connection between thinness and vanity, dieting and starvation and the onset of diabetes as a result of, what social scientists call, structural violence within the immigrants' daily lives. We conclude that long-term commitment to using the CBPR approach in these Mexican agricultural communities is an effective way to engage in health research and to establish real and meaningful dialogue with community members.

Cartwright E; Schow D; Herrera S; Lora Y; Mendez M; Mitchell D; Pedroza E; Pedroza L; Trejo A

2006-01-01

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Using participatory research to build an effective type 2 diabetes intervention: the process of advocacy among female Hispanic farmworkers and their families in Southeast Idaho.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Formando Nuestro Futuro/Shaping our Future project (herewith, Formando) is a community-based participative research (CBPR) focused on type 2 diabetes. It was conceptualized and designed by a team of university-based researchers and community health workers (promotores). This article describes the process of establishing a CBPR project such as Formando and the most current results from that project. The Formando project is an example of health-focused advocacy with the Mexican agricultural workers in Southeast (SE) Idaho. To date, 172 qualitative interviews on participants' knowledge about type 2 diabetes have been carried out with farmworker women and their families. Biometric data (heights, weights, blood pressures and fasting blood glucoses) were obtained from participants. Fieldnotes, focus group discussions and key informants were used to triangulate findings. Significant quantitative findings include that age was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) (p < 0.001, Spearman Correlation < 0.001) and with elevated fasting blood glucose (p < 0.001, Spearman Correlation < 0.001). The qualitative interviews were thematically analyzed. Key themes associated with type 2 diabetes in this community were the connection between thinness and vanity, dieting and starvation and the onset of diabetes as a result of, what social scientists call, structural violence within the immigrants' daily lives. We conclude that long-term commitment to using the CBPR approach in these Mexican agricultural communities is an effective way to engage in health research and to establish real and meaningful dialogue with community members. PMID:17135090

Cartwright, Elizabeth; Schow, Diana; Herrera, Silvia; Lora, Yezenia; Mendez, Maricela; Mitchell, Deborah; Pedroza, Elizabeth; Pedroza, Leticia; Trejo, Angel

2006-01-01

47

USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

Natasa GALEVSKA

1998-01-01

48

An innovative approach to facilitating nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Competing demands on the clinical time of nurses and midwives presents challenges to developing a research active culture. AIM: To engage nurses and midwives in a trust-wide research project. METHOD: A needs assessment of the local obstacles to participating in research was undertaken and a nursing and midwifery research strategy developed by representatives from clinical, research and academic departments. Following consultation with nursing and midwifery groups, an infection control research project was initiated and participatory workshops established. FINDINGS: In total 50 nurses and midwives contributed to questionnaire design, data collection and analysis. Initial results were discussed at nursing/midwifery forums and presented at a newly formed grand round. Overall there were 573 nursing and midwifery contacts throughout the research process. CONCLUSIONS: This approach to facilitating nursing and midwifery research across an NHS trust has enabled large numbers of clinical staff to experience and contribute to a 'live' research project.

Nixon E; Young S; Sellick V; Wright K

2013-02-01

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Exploring Approaches to Researching Visual Literacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that visual literacy should be studied through a cognitive approach, and describes principles of punctuating and structuring that can be used to develop a new standard of experimental validity. Triadic interaction theory and the role of strategies in research are discussed, as well as a new orientation to research. (BK)

Cochran, Lida M.; And Others

1980-01-01

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A avaliação do Burnout em professores. Comparação de instrumentos: CBP-R e MBI-ED Evaluation of Burnout in teachers. Comparison tools: CBP-R and MBI-ED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A categoria de professores vem sendo apontada como uma das mais propensas ao estresse e burnout. O instrumento mais utilizado para a avaliação do burnout em docentes tem sido o MBI-Ed. No entanto, pelas especificidades da própria profissão, tem-se verificado a necessidade da elaboração de um questionário que contemple aspectos característicos da organização escolar e das atividades de ensino, inclusive avaliando os elementos antecedentes e conseqüentes da síndrome. Assim sendo foi desenvolvido o CBP. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os estudos efetuados com o CBP-R (Revisado), sua fiabilidade assim como validades interna e de convergência com o MBI-Ed. Pode-se concluir que o CBP-R e o MBI-Ed medem o mesmo fenômeno e que o primeiro destes, além do mais, permite analisar as diferentes fases do processo e explica melhor a sintomatologia dos profissionais acometidos pelo burnout, confirmando suas qualidades como instrumento.Teachers are being appointed as the ones more prone to stress and burnout. Up to now the most used tool for burnout evaluation on teachers are the MBI-Ed. However, due to the complexity of the profession there is a need of a specific questionnaire that involves school organization and learning activities, evaluating also the preceding and the consequential elements of the syndrome. For that, a CBP was developed. This work presents the studies done with CBP-R (revised), its reliabilities, internal validity and convergence with MBI-Ed. It was possible to conclude that CBP-R and MBI-Ed measure the same phenomenon and that the first allows the analysis of different phases of the emotional wear process and better explains the symptoms of professionals assaulted by burnout, confirming the qualities of alternative tools for the evaluation of professional wear on teachers.

Bernardo Moreno-Jimenez; Eva Garrosa-Hernandez; Macarena Gálvez; José Luis González; Ana Maria T. Benevides-Pereira

2002-01-01

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A lifelogging approach to automated market research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this pract...

Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O'Connor, Noel E.

52

An action research approach to curriculum development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy

1995-01-01

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Qualitative approaches in occupational therapy research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Development of research in occupational therapy requires a continuous critical discussion concerning methodological approaches. In this paper the authors wish to contribute to such a discussion by introducing the formal data-structure analysis approach (FDSA) as a method for understanding people's experiences. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review of selected publications from occupational therapy journals between 2003 and 2005 illustrated that qualitative articles within occupational therapy publications were mainly descriptive in nature. This finding raises questions about how to develop new knowledge that contributes to occupational therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper the authors suggest that it is possible to apply the FDSA approach not only when describing and categorizing qualitative phenomena, but also when aiming to reach an in-depth understanding of issues related to human meaning-making; for example, how we understand engagement in occupations or living with a disability. Examples of the application of the FDSA approach are included and discussed.

Borell L; Nygård L; Asaba E; Gustavsson A; Hemmingsson H

2012-11-01

54

Mental Health Research in Primary Care: Mandates from a Community Advisory Board  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE We wanted to obtain the viewpoints of a community advisory board in training junior minority faculty members and graduate students for community-based participatory research (CBPR) on mental health in primary care.

Chené, Roberto; García, Lorenzo; Goldstrom, Margie; Pino, Mandy; Roach, Delfy Peña; Thunderchief, Wendy; Waitzkin, Howard

55

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN; Jeannette O. Andrews, PhD, APRN-BC, FNP; Gayenell S. Magwood, PhD, RN; Carolyn Jenkins, DrPH, APRN, BC-ADM, RD, LD, FAAN; Melissa J. Cox, MPH; Deborah C. Williamson, DHA, MSN, CNM

2011-01-01

56

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Lindamer Laurie A; Lebowitz Barry; Hough Richard L; Garcia Piedad; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

2009-01-01

57

Materiomics: an -omics approach to biomaterials research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The past fifty years have seen a surge in the use of materials for clinical application, but in order to understand and exploit their full potential, the scientific complexity at both sides of the interface--the material on the one hand and the living organism on the other hand--needs to be considered. Technologies such as combinatorial chemistry, recombinant DNA as well as computational multi-scale methods can generate libraries with a very large number of material properties whereas on the other side, the body will respond to them depending on the biological context. Typically, biological systems are investigated using both holistic and reductionist approaches such as whole genome expression profiling, systems biology and high throughput genetic or compound screening, as already seen, for example, in pharmacology and genetics. The field of biomaterials research is only beginning to develop and adopt these approaches, an effort which we refer to as "materiomics". In this review, we describe the current status of the field, and its past and future impact on the biomedical sciences. We outline how materiomics sets the stage for a transformative change in the approach to biomaterials research to enable the design of tailored and functional materials for a variety of properties in fields as diverse as tissue engineering, disease diagnosis and de novo materials design, by combining powerful computational modelling and screening with advanced experimental techniques. PMID:23297023

Cranford, Steven W; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Buehler, Markus J

2013-01-07

58

A CBPR partnership increases HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): outcome findings from a pilot test of the CyBER/testing internet intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted CyBER/testing, a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing Internet chat rooms. Using a quasi-experimental, single-group study design, cross-sectional data were collected from chat room participants, known as "chatters," at pretest (n = 346) and posttest (n = 315). Extant profile data also were collected to describe the demographics of the online population. The intervention significantly increased self-reported HIV testing among chatters overall, increasing rates from 44.5% at pretest to nearly 60% at posttest (p < .001). Furthermore, chatters who reported having both male and female sexual partners had nearly 6 times the odds of reporting HIV testing at posttest. Findings suggest that chat room-based HIV testing intervention may increase testing among MSM who may be difficult to reach in traditional physical spaces.

Rhodes SD; Vissman AT; Stowers J; Miller C; McCoy TP; Hergenrather KC; Wilkin AM; Reece M; Bachmann LH; Ore A; Ross MW; Hendrix E; Eng E

2011-06-01

59

Alternative approaches to research in physical therapy: positivism and phenomenology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents philosophical approaches to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one approaches research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of phenomenology (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two approaches are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both approaches in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy.

Shepard KF; Jensen GM; Schmoll BJ; Hack LM; Gwyer J

1993-02-01

60

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR) is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs). We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1) were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali; A Forouzan; M Baradaran Eftekhari; M Azizabadi Farahani; HR Khoddami Vishteh

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Pilot intervention outcomes of an educational program for biospecimen research participation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biospecimen banking programs are critically dependent on participation of diverse population members. The purpose of this study was to test a pilot intervention to enhance recruitment to a biospecimen bank among racially diverse community members. A mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation was used to develop and pilot an intervention to educate and recruit participants to a biospecimen bank. Pre- and post-assessments of knowledge about research, perceived costs and benefits of participation (expected utility), and emotional states associated with research participation (affective associations) as well as post-intervention participation in biobanking were examined to determine intervention effectiveness. The pilot intervention educated 148 community members; 107 (73 %) donated blood and 77 (52 %) completed a 36-page lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-two percent of participants were African American and 11 % were Native American. Participating in the educational program significantly reduced negative affect associated with research involving collection of genetic material or completion of a survey. Improved knowledge and understanding of biobanking and research through a CBPR approach are likely to increase participation rates in biobanking for diverse community members. Accurate information and improved knowledge can reduce individual anxiety and concerns that serve as barriers to research participation.

Kiviniemi MT; Saad-Harfouche FG; Ciupak GL; Davis W; Moysich K; Hargrave NC; Ambrosone CB; Walker C; Erwin DO

2013-03-01

62

Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, treatment

Jabir NR; Tabrez S; Ashraf GM; Shakil S; Damanhouri GA; Kamal MA

2012-01-01

63

Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

Jani?ijevi? Nebojša

2011-01-01

64

What is nursing research: evolving approaches to methods and content.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addressing what constitutes nursing research in the 1990s, approaches to conducting nursing research and examples of studies are discussed in the context of historical forces. The early studies were characteristically educational in focus and quantitative by design. Nursing research has come a long way in regard to foci of the questions asked, diversity of approaches to knowledge development, and sophistication of research methods. Three approaches are described to illustrate the diversity in nursing research: quantitative, qualitative, and triangulation. PMID:1432272

Millor, G K; Haber, J E; Carter, E; Feldman, H R; Hott, J R; Jacobson, L

1992-09-01

65

What is nursing research: evolving approaches to methods and content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In addressing what constitutes nursing research in the 1990s, approaches to conducting nursing research and examples of studies are discussed in the context of historical forces. The early studies were characteristically educational in focus and quantitative by design. Nursing research has come a long way in regard to foci of the questions asked, diversity of approaches to knowledge development, and sophistication of research methods. Three approaches are described to illustrate the diversity in nursing research: quantitative, qualitative, and triangulation.

Millor GK; Haber JE; Carter E; Feldman HR; Hott JR; Jacobson L

1992-09-01

66

New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee) designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto

2011-01-01

67

Making nursing research "real": an experiential approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research can be a challenging subject for nursing students at all levels. Although a research course was a prerequisite for admittance to our masters of science in nursing program at Viterbo University, faculty found that students had varying levels of expertise with the content as well as differing attitudes toward research in practice. To initiate "research thinking" early in the program, 2 faculty members integrated research concepts across 2 of the core courses, one being the nursing research course. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were taught using didactic and experiential methods over 2 semesters. Through the combined activities in the 2 courses, many skills and a new appreciation for nursing research were instilled.

Moss V; Nesbitt B

2003-03-01

68

Making nursing research "real": an experiential approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research can be a challenging subject for nursing students at all levels. Although a research course was a prerequisite for admittance to our masters of science in nursing program at Viterbo University, faculty found that students had varying levels of expertise with the content as well as differing attitudes toward research in practice. To initiate "research thinking" early in the program, 2 faculty members integrated research concepts across 2 of the core courses, one being the nursing research course. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were taught using didactic and experiential methods over 2 semesters. Through the combined activities in the 2 courses, many skills and a new appreciation for nursing research were instilled. PMID:12646823

Moss, Vicki; Nesbitt, Bonnie

69

Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research  

Science.gov (United States)

The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

Kammen, Daniel M.

2013-03-01

70

A Hybrid Approach for Translational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Translational research has proven to be a powerful process that bridges the gap between basic science and medical practice. The complexity of translational research is two-fold: integration of vast amount of information in disparate silos, and dissemination of discoveries to stakeholders with different interests. We designed and implemented a…

Webster, Yue Wang

2010-01-01

71

Shifted research approach for new drug discovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systems biology and the Herbalome Project have good prospects if the specific episteme-method approach of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is taken into serious consideration. TCM takes advantage of a specific holistic method, which is based on the episteme method approach derived from the conceptions of unceasing movement and dynamic holism, to handle the diagnosis and treatments of certain diseases. Although the episteme method approach of TCM is quite different from that of modern medicine, some recent investigations have in principle clarified the episteme method characters of TCM. By means of high-tech purification methods, additional drugs than only artemisinin (qing hao-su) from TCM can be expected in the near future.

Liang T

2009-01-01

72

Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: ? The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research. BACKGROUND: ? The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations. DESIGN: ? Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study. METHODS: ? Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3?years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health. DISCUSSION: ? Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss.

Pastor-Montero SM; Romero-Sánchez JM; Paramio-Cuevas JC; Hueso-Montoro C; Paloma-Castro O; Lillo-Crespo M; Castro-Yuste C; Toledano-Losa AC; Carnicer-Fuentes C; Ortegón-Gallego JA; Frandsen AJ

2012-11-01

73

Approaches to space in game design research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this contribution, we gather major academic and design approaches for explaining how space in games is constructed and how it constructs games, thereby defining the conceptual dimensions of gamespace. Each concept’s major inquiry is briefly discussed, iterated if applicable, as well as named. Thu...

Walz, Steffen P.

74

Genomic approaches to research in pulmonary hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Genomics, or the study of genes and their function, is a burgeoning field with many new technologies. In the present review, we explore the application of genomic approaches to the study of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Candidate genes, important to the pathobiology of the disease, have been investigated. Rodent models enable the manipulation of selected genes, either by transgenesis or targeted disruption. Mutational analysis of genes in the transforming growth factor-? family have proven pivotal in both familial and sporadic forms of primary PH. Finally, microarray gene expression analysis is a robust molecular tool to aid in delineating the pathobiology of this disease.

Geraci Mark W; Gao Bifeng; Hoshikawa Yasushi; Yeager Michael E; Tuder Rubin M; Voelkel Norbert F

2001-01-01

75

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched involving the development of information, education, and communication (IEC) and training modules and training of the stakeholders of the block. Most of the members of each target group found that the IEC materials were culture fair (message is acceptable, understandable, and meaningful in the local context) and very useful. Analysis of Dwariknagar BPHC, DSH admission data showed a definite reduction of DSH incidents after this CBPR approach to prevention was initiated. Similar model of DSH prevention in the other blocks of Sundarban region or in agricultural community may help to reduce the enormous mortality and morbidity from pesticide-related DSH and suicide.

Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Banerjee, Sohini; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

2013-01-01

76

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched involving the development of information, education, and communication (IEC) and training modules and training of the stakeholders of the block. Most of the members of each target group found that the IEC materials were culture fair (message is acceptable, understandable, and meaningful in the local context) and very useful. Analysis of Dwariknagar BPHC, DSH admission data showed a definite reduction of DSH incidents after this CBPR approach to prevention was initiated. Similar model of DSH prevention in the other blocks of Sundarban region or in agricultural community may help to reduce the enormous mortality and morbidity from pesticide-related DSH and suicide.

Chowdhury AN; Banerjee S; Brahma A; Biswas MK

2013-01-01

77

Building Partnerships in Community-Based Participatory Research: Budgetary and Other Cost Considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers.

Hoeft TJ; Burke W; Hopkins SE; Charles W; Trinidad SB; James RD; Boyer BB

2013-04-01

78

Genomic approaches to research in lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The medical research community is experiencing a marked increase in the amount of information available on genomic sequences and genes expressed by humans and other organisms. This information offers great opportunities for improving our understanding of complex diseases such as lung cancer. In particular, we should expect to witness a rapid increase in the rate of discovery of genes involved in lung cancer pathogenesis and we should be able to develop reliable molecular criteria for classifying lung cancers and predicting biological properties of individual tumors. Achieving these goals will require collaboration by scientists with specialized expertise in medicine, molecular biology, and decision-based statistical analysis.

Gabrielson Edward

2000-01-01

79

Nurses' maths: researching a practical approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare a new practical maths test with a written maths test. The tests were undertaken by qualified nurses training for intravenous drug administration, a skill dependent on maths accuracy. The literature showed that the higher education institutes (HEIs) that provide nurse training use traditional maths tests, a practical way of testing maths had not been described. METHOD: Fifty five nurses undertook two maths tests based on intravenous drug calculations. One was a traditional written test. The second was a new type of test using a simulated clinical environment. All participants were also interviewed one week later to ascertain their thoughts and feelings about the tests. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in maths test scores for those nurses who took the practical maths test first. It is suggested that this is because it improved their conceptualisation skills and thus helped them to achieve accuracy in their calculations. CONCLUSION: Written maths tests are not the best way to help and support nurses in acquiring and improving their maths skills and should be replaced by a more practical approach.

Wilson A

2003-08-01

80

A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

Sadasivam RS; Tanik MM

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

|This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

Soiferman, L. Karen

2010-01-01

82

Creative approaches to increasing hospital-based nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Magnet-designated and aspiring hospitals use research and evidence-based practice initiatives to demonstrate new knowledge and innovation, a key component of the Magnet Recognition Program. Four creative approaches to supporting and conducting institutional nursing research and the implementation of evidence-based care are illustrated, along with examples of successful nurse staff-led projects.

Wilson B; Kelly L; Reifsnider E; Pipe T; Brumfield V

2013-02-01

83

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR) places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong; E-Shien Chang; Melissa Simon; Esther Wong

2011-01-01

84

A systematic approach to instruction in research ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a systematic approach for developing instructional programs that emphasizes defining learning needs, planning the learning environment, and evaluating learning to ensure continuous course improvement. This review outlines the nature of these interrelated components of instructional development and draws attention to issues specific to instruction in research ethics. Guiding questions summarize key, practical considerations, and the discussion suggests future steps in the pursuit of effective instruction in research ethics. Overall, the variety of approaches to instruction and mixed findings regarding its effectiveness underscore the need to apply a systematic framework to instruction in research ethics. PMID:24073607

Antes, Alison L

2014-01-01

85

A systematic approach to instruction in research ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes a systematic approach for developing instructional programs that emphasizes defining learning needs, planning the learning environment, and evaluating learning to ensure continuous course improvement. This review outlines the nature of these interrelated components of instructional development and draws attention to issues specific to instruction in research ethics. Guiding questions summarize key, practical considerations, and the discussion suggests future steps in the pursuit of effective instruction in research ethics. Overall, the variety of approaches to instruction and mixed findings regarding its effectiveness underscore the need to apply a systematic framework to instruction in research ethics.

Antes AL

2014-01-01

86

Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research

Passi, B. K.; Mishra, Sudarshan

2004-01-01

87

Curricular approaches to research ethics training for psychiatric investigators.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: Training in research ethics is crucial for psychiatric investigators. Addressing ethical dimensions of human subjects research requires knowledge about the rules and norms governing research; sensitivity to ethical implications of actions; and skills in ethics problem solving. Investigators in training who are physicians have the additional challenge of developing identities as investigators that sometimes conflict with their identities as physicians. OBJECTIVES: To propose a curriculum for psychiatric research ethics training. METHODS: Review of literature on ethics education and presentation of a curricular approach to research ethics training for psychiatric investigators. RESULTS: Research ethics can be learned and should be taught. Involvement of active investigators in teaching research ethics is important. While core topics of psychiatric research ethics training have not yet been identified, there are available models from which to draw. Research ethics should be introduced early and integrated throughout the research training period. Lack of resources and institutional support can be obstacles to development of comprehensive research ethics curricula. Small-group, case-based discussion is best for teaching ethics problem-solving skills. Examples of teaching module ideas and a fully developed sample teaching module are presented. CONCLUSIONS: There is opportunity for creative models for teaching psychiatric research ethics. Work is needed to identify core topics, target pedagogical strategies to trainees at different levels, and develop evaluation methods.

Chen DT

2003-12-01

88

Cardiovascular risk reduction: an interdisciplinary approach to research training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major health problems confronting most countries require interdisciplinary approaches to the provision of service, teaching, and investigation. Past research indicates difficulty in role relations between various types of health professionals and the importance of the interaction of selection, educational processes and work experiences in affecting long-term professional behaviour in collaborative directions. This paper applies these concepts to the analysis of the first five years of experience in a pre- and post-doctoral research training programme at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions concerned with educational and behavioural approaches to cardiovascular risk reduction. Concepts or processes specifically incorporated into the programme to increase the likelihood of graduates conducting their subsequent career activities from an interdisciplinary approach are described and analyzed. These include appropriate recruitment and selection; early interdisciplinary learning experiences; reinforcing socialization and professionalization processes; active faculty role model team approaches; and reinforcing research experiences. To date the programme has provided training to 14 post-doctoral and 16 predoctoral fellows. Analysis of the effect of the programme on the cardiovascular fellows in regard to their performance, interdisciplinary approach, subsequent career patterns and performance, as well as on other students not supported by the programme, and upon faculty, recommends this format for research training in health education and behavioural sciences.

Levine DM; Green LW

1981-01-01

89

Navigating risks and professional roles: research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer young people with intellectual disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine ethical issues that emerged during a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study in Toronto, Canada, exploring sexual health attitudes and practices among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people (ages 17-26) labeled with intellectual disabilities. These ethical concerns included: (1) managing the risk of coercion, (2) consent to participate in the study, (3) issues of confidentiality and disclosure, (4) balancing beneficence with self-determination, and (5) role conflict for researcher-practitioners who participate in CBPR projects. Incorporating critical disability perspectives and a heightened awareness of professional role conflict into CBPR practices has the potential to foster development of more inclusive and accessible sexual health initiatives and research environments. PMID:23086045

Marshall, Zack

2012-10-01

90

Navigating risks and professional roles: research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer young people with intellectual disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examine ethical issues that emerged during a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study in Toronto, Canada, exploring sexual health attitudes and practices among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people (ages 17-26) labeled with intellectual disabilities. These ethical concerns included: (1) managing the risk of coercion, (2) consent to participate in the study, (3) issues of confidentiality and disclosure, (4) balancing beneficence with self-determination, and (5) role conflict for researcher-practitioners who participate in CBPR projects. Incorporating critical disability perspectives and a heightened awareness of professional role conflict into CBPR practices has the potential to foster development of more inclusive and accessible sexual health initiatives and research environments.

Marshall Z

2012-10-01

91

Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS). The key benefits of the approach are the following: i) the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity) space is described; ii) depth statements about specific (cybersecurity) challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii) specific (cybersecurity) initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv) progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

2013-01-01

92

Capitalising on multiplicity: an transdisciplinary systems approach to landscape research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different disciplines have landscape as the focal point of their research. They are successful in presenting new findings about landscapes within their specialization, but collaboration - and thus, transfer of knowledge across disciplinary boundaries - is seldom realized because a common approach th...

Tress, B.; Tress, G.

93

FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

M.O. Izotov

2012-01-01

94

Patenting at public research organisations: a multidisciplinary approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

27 pages, 13 tables , In this paper, we stress two points. First, analysis of public patenting should expand their focus from universities to Public Research Organisations (PRO). Second, a multidisciplinary approach allows for a richer view and interpretation of results. We adopt historical and economi...

Azagra Caro, Joaquín; Romero de Pablos, Ana

95

PARTICIPATORY DEPRESSION. A CAVEAT FOR PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from parti...

Vaughan, Gregory; Lançon, Jacques

96

A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

Dymond, Stacy K.

2001-01-01

97

[A recovery oriented research approach to a Day Hospital program].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We are at a turning point for psychiatric practice brought on by the consolidation of the recovery paradigm. Both mental health interventions and research will have to adapt in order to promote recovery. Interventions will tend to focus in the community, and day hospital programs will have to be more versatile and also community oriented. The appropriate research approach for recovery oriented interventions has to combine quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to complementarily inform any given subject. Current hierarchy proposed by the evidence based medicine model will have to comply with recovery oriented practices, including and adequately appraising qualitative approaches and mixed methods. The results of a mixed methods approach to a day hospital program is presented, which includes assessment of: clinical state, functionality, quality of life, family burden, types of interventions, users and carers perspectives.

Vigo DV

2012-03-01

98

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing ...

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

99

The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics.

Gray GC

2013-09-01

100

The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153

Gray, Garry C

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI) and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30) to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

Cabassa Leopoldo J; Druss Benjamin; Wang Yuanjia; Lewis-Fernández Roberto

2011-01-01

102

Research on international terrorism: orthodox approach or critical study?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the epistemological, ontological, methodological and ethical challenges that the researchers of the new current of critical study on terrorism, put to the traditional research on this phenomenon. The study begins with the presentation of the orthodox theory of terrorism and its weaknesses, as they are captured by the critical theory that stresses the need for a new research agenda. Further, we intend to present "solutions" made by the researchers of critical study on terrorism and "commitments" that they take to the discipline. Finally, this study recognizes that each approach has valuable ideas and the controversies presented are nothing but a source of progress in the real and profound knowledge of the phenomenon of international terrorism.

Cristina Aboboaie

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of statistical approaches in quantitative nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purposes of this study were to (a) develop a tool to assess statistical methods and (b) use the tool to evaluate recently published quantitative research. We rated the statistical approaches used in 152 studies published in the 5 top impact-factor nursing research journals from September 2005 to August 2007. Studies were generally of high quality; 45% scored between 80% and 100%, and 22% achieved a score of 100%. Predictors of high scores were interdisciplinary authorship, a statistician coauthor, and the number of aims. The authors conclude that studies published in high impact-factor nursing journals are statistically sound and provide a solid foundation for evidence-based practice.

Gross Cohn E; Haomiao Jia; Larson E

2009-08-01

104

Commonly Used Data-collection Approaches in Clinical Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We provide an overview of the different data-collection approaches that are commonly used in carrying out clinical, public health, and translational research. We discuss several of the factors that researchers need to consider in using data collected in questionnaire surveys, from proxy informants, through the review of medical records, and in the collection of biologic samples. We hope that the points raised in this overview will lead to the collection of rich and high-quality data in observational studies and randomized controlled trials.

Saczynski JS; McManus DD; Goldberg RJ

2013-09-01

105

An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT) approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB) which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU) as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development). Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.

Cooke Jo; Nancarrow Susan; Dyas Jane; Williams Martin

2008-01-01

106

Public's Approach to Surrogate Consent for Dementia Research: Cautious Pragmatism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES:: To describe how members of the older general public deliberate with one another in finding solutions to the dilemma of involving persons with decisional incapacity in dementia research. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:: One hundred sixty persons age 50 years and older who participated in an all-day deliberative democracy session on the ethics of surrogate consent for dementia research. The deliberative democracy day consisted of both extensive, interactive education with experts in clinical research and ethics, as well as small group deliberations. MEASUREMENTS:: Audiotaped small group deliberations were transcribed and analyzed and the main thematic elements were coded. RESULTS:: During deliberation, participants acknowledged the limitations of advanced research directives and discussed ways to improve their use. Although there was consensus about the necessity of surrogate consent, the participants recognized potential pitfalls and looked for ways to safeguard the process. Participants supporting surrogate consent for research emphasized societal and individual benefits, the importance of assent, and trust in surrogates and the oversight system. Other participants felt that the high risk of some research scenarios was not sufficiently offset by benefits to patients or society. CONCLUSIONS:: Members of the older general public are able to make use of in-depth education and peer deliberation to provide reasoned and informed opinions on the ethical use of surrogate consent for dementia research. The public's approach to surrogate consent is one of cautious pragmatism: an overall trust in science and future surrogates with awareness of the potential pitfalls, suggesting that their trust cannot be taken for granted.

De Vries R; Ryan KA; Stanczyk A; Appelbaum PS; Damschroder L; Knopman DS; Kim SY

2012-02-01

107

Public's Approach to Surrogate Consent for Dementia Research: Cautious Pragmatism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To describe how members of the older general public deliberate with one another in finding solutions to the dilemma of involving persons with decisional incapacity in dementia research. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred sixty persons age 50 years and older who participated in an all-day deliberative democracy session on the ethics of surrogate consent for dementia research. The deliberative democracy day consisted of both extensive, interactive education with experts in clinical research and ethics, as well as small group deliberations. MEASUREMENTS: Audiotaped small group deliberations were transcribed and analyzed and the main thematic elements were coded. RESULTS: During deliberation, participants acknowledged the limitations of advanced research directives and discussed ways to improve their use. Although there was consensus about the necessity of surrogate consent, the participants recognized potential pitfalls and looked for ways to safeguard the process. Participants supporting surrogate consent for research emphasized societal and individual benefits, the importance of assent, and trust in surrogates and the oversight system. Other participants felt that the high risk of some research scenarios was not sufficiently offset by benefits to patients or society. CONCLUSIONS: Members of the older general public are able to make use of in-depth education and peer deliberation to provide reasoned and informed opinions on the ethical use of surrogate consent for dementia research. The public's approach to surrogate consent is one of cautious pragmatism: an overall trust in science and future surrogates with awareness of the potential pitfalls, suggesting that their trust cannot be taken for granted.

De Vries R; Ryan KA; Stanczyk A; Appelbaum PS; Damschroder L; Knopman DS; Kim SY

2013-04-01

108

Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics.

Beard TD Jr; Arlinghaus R; Cooke SJ; McIntyre PB; De Silva S; Bartley D; Cowx IG

2011-08-01

109

Phenomenological approach to profile impact of scientific research Citation Mining  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, institutions) of the citing papers as well as their thematic characteristics.

Río, J A; García, E O; Ramírez, A M; Humenik, J A

2002-01-01

110

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

111

Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

2009-01-01

112

Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p?CBPR approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities. PMID:23606271

Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Mullan, Joseph T; Kwong, Yulanda; Hsu, Lydia; Huang, Peggy; Strycker, Lisa A; Shum, Tina; To, Diana; Kao, Rudy; Waters, Catherine M

2013-04-19

113

Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p?CBPR approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities.

Chesla CA; Chun KM; Kwan CM; Mullan JT; Kwong Y; Hsu L; Huang P; Strycker LA; Shum T; To D; Kao R; Waters CM

2013-08-01

114

Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

2008-01-01

115

Global change science: a revolutionary approach in climate change research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new research approach to climate change, called global change science is proposed. This approach would combine the environmental, socio-economic, moral and ethical dimensions of climate change and make possible a cooperative attack on the anticipated problems which involve the whole of human society. This holistic approach entails collaboration between at least four types of specialists: 'traditional' scientists in various disciplines, 'horizontal scientists' to comprehend and deal with spatial human-nature interactions, 'futurists' to envision potential trends in society, and 'modelers' to build the model scenarios based on the knowledge created by the other three groups. The enormity of the issues involved precludes any one nation to undertake this effort alone, therefore there is an urgent need to create an internationally funded and coordinated global research establishment. One way to create such an establishment might be by bringing together existing major international programs, extending and refining them, perhaps under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, all the while taking care that the effort would not interfere with the current openness of the IPCC work. 23 refs., 2 figs.

Kaykho, J. [Turku Univ., Dept of Geography, Finnish Global Change Research Programme, Turku (Finland)

2001-07-01

116

LANGKAWI GEODIVERSITY REPOSITORY SYSTEM: THE ACTION RESEARCH-BASED APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of a geodiversity information and repository system is a valuable solution that can assure the management and preservation of geological datasets are more interesting, reachable and shared to the public at large. This research was embarked upon based on the realisation that, with the advancement of information and communication technology, knowledge about geodiversity might be better represented and explored. This research attempted to establish how geodiversity components and their relationships could be modelled into various forms of digital object (DO) to enable access and sharing of geodiversity information. The objectives of this research were (1) to establish a data model for geodiversity repository, (2) to design and implement Geodiversity Repository System, and (3) to capture the Langkawi geodiversity data into a single repository specifically for tourism industries. This development was conducted through an action-research approach which comprised in five phases: diagnosing, action planning, action taking, evaluating and specifying learning. This paper presents the phases in the action-research cycle for the development of Langkawi Geodiversity System, also known as MyGeo-RS. It highlights the theoretical architecture, the design of geodiversity repository and the implementation. The data captured and provided in this system is suitable for tourism industries but gives little contribution to scientific applications. This will be the limitation of current design and architecture and further work needs to be done to accommodate the scientific requirements.

Aziz Deraman; Jamaiah H. Yahaya

2011-01-01

117

Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

2006-01-01

118

An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs.

1991-01-01

119

QM/MM approaches in medicinal chemistry research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the goals of medicinal chemistry concerns the ability to compute protein-ligand interactions based on the structural knowledge of the receptor. To this end, the majority of current approaches incorporate classical force field potentials to describe receptor-ligand interactions. One of the most critical problems of standard molecular mechanics (MM) force fields is their fixed-charge treatment of electrostatic interactions. Two problems are derived from this approximation, polarization and charge transfer. As an immediate step in computational complexity, it seems natural to incorporate Quantum Mechanics (QM) within a hybrid QM/MM approach, which has shown to be a useful tool to describe structural and mechanistic aspects of chromophores and prosthetic residues in proteins. In this review, we describe specifically the role of QM/MM methods and their various applications to computational drug design and medicinal chemistry research in general.

Menikarachchi LC; Gascón JA

2010-01-01

120

An evaluation approach for research project pilot technological applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In a world increasingly more competitive and in a constantly development and growth it's important that companies have economic tools, like frameworks to help them to evaluate and validate the technology development to better fits in each company particular needs. The paper presents an evaluation approach for research project pilot applications to stimulate its implementation and deployment, increasing its adequacy and acceptance to their stakeholders and consequently providing new business profit and opportunities. Authors used the DECIDE evaluation framework as a major guide to this approach, which was tested in the iSURF project to support the implementation of an interoperability service utility for collaborative supply chain planning across multiple domains supported by RFID devices.

Marcelino-Jesus, Elsa; Sarraipa, Joao; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Research on teacher education programs: logic model approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teacher education programs in the United States face increasing pressure to demonstrate their effectiveness through pupils' learning gains in classrooms where program graduates teach. The link between teacher candidates' learning in teacher education programs and pupils' learning in K-12 classrooms implicit in the policy discourse suggests a one-to-one correspondence. However, the logical steps leading from what teacher candidates have learned in their programs to what they are doing in classrooms that may contribute to their pupils' learning are anything but straightforward. In this paper, we argue that the logic model approach from scholarship on evaluation can enhance research on teacher education by making explicit the logical links between program processes and intended outcomes. We demonstrate the usefulness of the logic model approach through our own work on designing a longitudinal study that focuses on examining the process and impact of an undergraduate mathematics and science teacher education program.

Newton XA; Poon RC; Nunes NL; Stone EM

2013-02-01

122

Agricultural risk management : experiences from an action research approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory.

Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne

2005-01-01

123

Evaluation of statistical approaches in quantitative nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purposes of this study were to (a) develop a tool to assess statistical methods and (b) use the tool to evaluate recently published quantitative research. We rated the statistical approaches used in 152 studies published in the 5 top impact-factor nursing research journals from September 2005 to August 2007. Studies were generally of high quality; 45% scored between 80% and 100%, and 22% achieved a score of 100%. Predictors of high scores were interdisciplinary authorship, a statistician coauthor, and the number of aims. The authors conclude that studies published in high impact-factor nursing journals are statistically sound and provide a solid foundation for evidence-based practice. PMID:19448031

Gross Cohn, Elizabeth; Haomiao Jia; Larson, Elaine

2009-05-15

124

Investigating the Research Approaches for Examining Technology Adoption Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption of technology, a research topic within the Information Systems area, is usually studied at two levels: organizational level and user level. This paper examines the range of methods used for studying technology adoption issues at both these levels. The approaches were selected after conducting a review of 48 articles on technology adoption and usage, published in peer reviewed journals between 1985 and 2003. The journals reviewed include the MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, European Journal of Information Systems, Information Systems Journal, and other relevant journals in the IS area. The findings suggest that the survey method was used predominantly when investigating the topics of user adoption and the usage of technology. In contrast, the case study method is the most widely used when examining adoption issues at the organizational level.

Jyoti Choudrie; Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi

2005-01-01

125

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN) that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within a practice-based research network (PBRN) to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB), and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Dulin Michael F; Tapp Hazel; Smith Heather A; Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa; Furuseth Owen J

2011-01-01

126

Supporting prison nurses: an action research approach to education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since April 2006, commissioning responsibility for healthcare services in public prisons has been fully devolved to NHS primary care trusts (PCTs), with the expectation that offenders will have access to the same range and quality of health services available to the wider population. In order to support prison nurses in meeting this goal, a PCT and university established a partnership, which used an action research approach to develop, instigate and evaluate a bespoke educational programme for nurses working in two local prisons. This article outlines the processes involved in the design and implementation of the programme. It also reports on findings from pre- and post-intervention questionnaires and focus groups with course participants, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, which suggest that the innovation had a positive impact on the nurses' confidence, assertiveness, clinical expertise and approach to change. The article concludes that the action research project should continue, but its scope should now broaden to address educational support for healthcare assistants, collaborative learning between prison officers and prison nurses, and the implementation of clinical supervision and action learning sets.

Bennett C; Perry J; Lapworth T; Davies J; Preece V

2010-06-01

127

Si se puede: using participatory research to promote environmental justice in a Latino community in San Diego, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC's strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities.

Minkler M; Garcia AP; Williams J; LoPresti T; Lilly J

2010-09-01

128

[Mental health in primary care: an assistant research approach].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to comprehend the expectations and aspirations of a community about the deployment of a group of mental health in primary care. This is a qualitative study that uses the assistant convergent research approach. Data were collected through workshops with psychotropics users, accompanied by Primary Care in the South of Brazil. The first workshop aimed to reflect on and develop strategies to dealing with asylum model. The second discussed the importance of spaces that strengthen bonds of affection and act as means of prevention in mental health. The third discussed the issue of restriction of liberty imposed by mental suffering. It was found that spaces dedicated to mental health in the primary care will add to the effectiveness of the practices and to the construction of new knowledge to the user's health and life

Antonacci MH; de Pinho LB

2011-03-01

129

Nursing home research in Jinan, China: a focus group approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This qualitative research using the focus group approach has gathered pertinent perceptions from the stakeholders in Chinese elderly care environment, including community-based and institutionalised elderly, medical providers, administrators and governmental officials. The study found that the elderly are willing to live in nursing homes when they are not in good physical condition and are dependent on others for their activities of daily living. The utilisation of nursing home care has gained acceptance in the community as more elders recognise its advantages. The elderly study subjects expressed interest in the service environment, as well as the cultural and recreational activities in nursing homes. Most participants were satisfied with the quality of nursing care. Administrators and providers in the nursing homes agreed that skilled nursing facilities appear to be more competitive because they require more licensed providers and other professional staff members. A majority of nursing homes face serious financial difficulties.

Wu M; Li SX; Zhang NJ; Zhu AA; Ning B; Wan TT; Unruh L

2012-03-01

130

[Ethnographic approaches to research and intervention in mental health].  

Science.gov (United States)

The specifics of ethnographic approaches to mental health research are examined, highlighting the motives why the type of knowledge produced by ethnography is relevant to the context of Psychiatric Reform and the biomedicalization of existence. The discussion is focused on interpretation-based ethnography in the field of mental health, stressing the theoretical and methodological foundations of a comprehensive form of apprehending the scope of mental health as an object akin to a clinic of the individual. The centrality of social and cultural aspects in the ethnographic approach and the inflexions mediated by the type of ethnographic methodological undertaking is stressed. Lastly, the ethnography of madness is seen as a fitting example that substantiates some of these characteristics. The contention is that accessing psychotic persons (and others who may speak about these experiences) from varied areas of their daily life, situated in their various social inscriptions, while confronting these interpretations with other interpretative dimensions of their social reality and within the logic linked to local psychologies, is a pertinent procedure, from whence certain aspects of an understanding of madness (or causes of its incomprehension) can emerge. PMID:24061012

Nunes, Mônica de Oliveira; Torrenté, Maurice de

2013-10-01

131

Disclosure of individualized research results: a precautionary approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assessing and managing risks to participants is a central point of contention in the debate about disclosing individualized research results. Those who favor disclosure of only clinically significant results think that disclosing clinically insignificant results is risky and costly, and that harm prevention should take precedence over other ethical considerations. Those who favor giving participants the option of full disclosure regard these risks as insubstantial, and think that obligations to benefit participants and promote their autonomy and right to know outweigh the obligation to prevent harm or financial considerations. The risks of disclosing clinically insignificant research results are currently not quantifiable, due to lack of empirical data. The precautionary principle provides some insight into this debate because it applies to decision-making concerning risks that are plausible but not quantifiable. A precautionary approach would favor full disclosure of individualized results with appropriate safeguards to prevent, minimize, or mitigate risks to participants, such as: validating testing methods; informing participants about their options for receiving tests results and the potential benefits and risks related to receiving results; assessing participants' comfort with handling uncertainty; providing counseling and advice to participants; following-up with individuals who receive tests results; and forming community advisory boards to help investigators deal with issues related to disclosure.

Resnik DB

2011-11-01

132

Disclosure of individualized research results: a precautionary approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessing and managing risks to participants is a central point of contention in the debate about disclosing individualized research results. Those who favor disclosure of only clinically significant results think that disclosing clinically insignificant results is risky and costly, and that harm prevention should take precedence over other ethical considerations. Those who favor giving participants the option of full disclosure regard these risks as insubstantial, and think that obligations to benefit participants and promote their autonomy and right to know outweigh the obligation to prevent harm or financial considerations. The risks of disclosing clinically insignificant research results are currently not quantifiable, due to lack of empirical data. The precautionary principle provides some insight into this debate because it applies to decision-making concerning risks that are plausible but not quantifiable. A precautionary approach would favor full disclosure of individualized results with appropriate safeguards to prevent, minimize, or mitigate risks to participants, such as: validating testing methods; informing participants about their options for receiving tests results and the potential benefits and risks related to receiving results; assessing participants' comfort with handling uncertainty; providing counseling and advice to participants; following-up with individuals who receive tests results; and forming community advisory boards to help investigators deal with issues related to disclosure. PMID:22011068

Resnik, David B

2011-11-01

133

University Researchers Approach to Providing Computer Simulations to Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

University researchers perform in an exploratory mode in developing and applying computer simulations to their research problems. Post-docs and students make codes suited to their problems, and to thesis and article writing, with little code use planned beyond such. Industry product developers want well tested, cleanly applicable simulation codes, with freedom to go to the code developers for bug fixing and improvements (and not to have to hunt for a student who has graduated). Hence, these different modes clash; some cushion of understanding and new elements are needed to effect broader, continuing use of university developed codes. We and others have evolved approaches that appear to work, including providing free software, but with follow-ups done by small companies. (See Ref. 1 for more.) We will present our development of plasma device codes over 15 years, evolving into free distribution on the Internet (Ref. 2) with short courses and workshops; follow-ups are done by a small company (of former students, the code writers). In addition, an example of university code development will be given, that of application of the series (or dipole) resonance to providing plasma surface wave generated plasmas, drawing on decades old research; potential applications will be given. We will present what other university groups are doing and reflections on these modes by modelers and designers in the plasma processing industry (semiconductor manufacturing equipment companies), which is highly empirical at present. All of this interaction is still evolving. 9 Brown J. Browning, Sci.Am. Jan 1996, p.35 www See Internet address http://ptsg.eecs.berkeley.edu thebibliography

Birdsall, Charles

1996-05-01

134

Arts-Based Research: Trojan Horses and Shibboleths. The Liabilities of a Hybrid Research Approach. "What Hath Eisner Wrought?"  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and…

Pariser, David

2009-01-01

135

Training partnership dyads for community-based participatory research: strategies and lessons learned from the Community Engaged Scholars Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus-community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution's Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners.

Andrews JO; Cox MJ; Newman SD; Gillenwater G; Warner G; Winkler JA; White B; Wolf S; Leite R; Ford ME; Slaughter S

2013-07-01

136

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

M. Poggenpoel

1991-01-01

137

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

M. Poggenpoel

138

Different approaches to total knee replacement: a comparative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to compare traditional and miniinvasive approaches to total knee replacement. 145 patients were divided in four groups. In 1 group (50 pts) we used medial parapatellar approach, 2 group (30 pts) - lateral parapatellar approach, 3 group (34 pts) - midvastus approach, 4 group (31 pts) - Q-S approach. All replacements were done by one experienced surgeon. Intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, results of KSS and quality of positioning of implants were measured. Mininvasive approaches to knee replacement showed decreased blood loss, improved functional results and positioning was as much perfect, as with traditional approach. Mininvasive knee replacement is very effective, but it should be performed by experienced surgeon

Zelenyak ?.?.; Serebryakov A.B.

2010-01-01

139

Community capacity building and sustainability: outcomes of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes a community-academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. METHODS: "Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health" was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher-community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. RESULTS: Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to "transfer of knowledge" from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.

Hacker K; Tendulkar SA; Rideout C; Bhuiya N; Trinh-Shevrin C; Savage CP; Grullon M; Strelnick H; Leung C; DiGirolamo A

2012-01-01

140

The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The development of quality criteria for research: a Finnish approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health promotion research is distinct in some respects from research within its contributing disciplines. A study was conducted in Finland to identify the special characteristics and distinctiveness of health promotion research, to develop a set of specific quality evaluation criteria for health promotion research, and to test the usefulness of such criteria in selecting research applications for funding. A wide range of discussions supplemented a systematic literature review with experts within and outside Finland. The review was conducted with regard to the content of health promotion, its basic principles, as well as theories and models used to steer practical health promotion activities. This resulted in a proposal for quality criteria for health promotion research. Key informants from Finnish universities and institutes evaluated the criteria in three Delphi rounds, and they were suitably revised. The utility of the revised criteria was tested using 31 research proposals. After further revision, the criteria were tested with a further 16 research proposals. Seven health promotion research quality criteria were developed by these methods, as were seven general criteria of research quality, applicable to all social research, whether in the health promotion arena or not. The 14 criteria will undergo continuous revision for improvement, but they are already at this stage thought to be suitable for use by (a) funding agencies in the design of calls for health promotion research proposals, and calls for tenders; (b) researchers who respond to calls for health promotion research proposals and/or calls for tenders; (c) evaluators and proposal review groups; and (d) reviewers and auditors of research progress.

Lahtinen E; Koskinen-Ollonqvist P; Rouvinen-Wilenius P; Tuominen P; Mittelmark MB

2005-09-01

142

Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interviews form an essential part of data collection for many qualitative nursing studies. Information about how to individualize interview formats to meet the purpose and style of specific qualitative research approaches, however, is not readily accessible to the researcher. This paper offers an overview of use of the interviewer as an instrument in qualitative research, as well as ways in which the differing purposes and styles of ethnographic and phenomenological research approaches affect the format for the interview.

Sorrell JM; Redmond GM

1995-06-01

143

Interviews in qualitative nursing research: differing approaches for ethnographic and phenomenological studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interviews form an essential part of data collection for many qualitative nursing studies. Information about how to individualize interview formats to meet the purpose and style of specific qualitative research approaches, however, is not readily accessible to the researcher. This paper offers an overview of use of the interviewer as an instrument in qualitative research, as well as ways in which the differing purposes and styles of ethnographic and phenomenological research approaches affect the format for the interview. PMID:7665776

Sorrell, J M; Redmond, G M

1995-06-01

144

Ethical genetic research in Indigenous communities: challenges and successful approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous populations, in common with all populations, stand to benefit from the potential of genetic research to lead to improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a wide range of complex diseases. However, many Indigenous communities, especially ones that are isolated, are not included in genetic research efforts. This situation is largely a consequence of the challenges of ethically conducting genetic research in Indigenous communities and compounded by Indigenous peoples' negative past experiences with genetic issues. To examine ways of addressing these challenges, we review one investigation of a cancer cluster in remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Our experiences demonstrate that genetic research can be both ethically and successfully conducted with Indigenous communities by respecting the authority of the community, involving community members, and including regular community review throughout the research process. PMID:23007173

McWhirter, Rebekah E; Mununggirritj, Djapirri; Marika, Dipililnga; Dickinson, Joanne L; Condon, John R

2012-09-21

145

Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and research culture’. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers.Keywords: physician, clinical research, clinical trial, medical education

Sayeeda Rahman; Md Anwarul Azim Majumder; Sami F Shaban; et al

2011-01-01

146

[Grounded theory as an approach to interpretive research].  

Science.gov (United States)

Interpretative research comprehends studies on qualitative methodology and inductive research. According to Lowenberg's classification (1994), grounded theory is a type of interpretative research situated as a variant of symbolic interaction. The purpose of the present study was to discuss grounded theory as a methodological reference, presenting it and indicating its method. The following stages were presented: collection of empirical data, proceedings of data codification or analysis; open coding, axial coding or concept modification and integration and theory delimitation. The studies of CALIRI (1994) and CASSIANI (1994) exemplified the utilization of this methodological reference. Finally, authors visualized grounded theory as an useful reference of analysis, providing means and orienting, through its stages, the researcher aiming at using it. PMID:9070795

Cassiani, S H; Caliri, M H; Pelá, N T

1996-12-01

147

[Grounded theory as an approach to interpretive research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interpretative research comprehends studies on qualitative methodology and inductive research. According to Lowenberg's classification (1994), grounded theory is a type of interpretative research situated as a variant of symbolic interaction. The purpose of the present study was to discuss grounded theory as a methodological reference, presenting it and indicating its method. The following stages were presented: collection of empirical data, proceedings of data codification or analysis; open coding, axial coding or concept modification and integration and theory delimitation. The studies of CALIRI (1994) and CASSIANI (1994) exemplified the utilization of this methodological reference. Finally, authors visualized grounded theory as an useful reference of analysis, providing means and orienting, through its stages, the researcher aiming at using it.

Cassiani SH; Caliri MH; Pelá NT

1996-12-01

148

Quantitative Approach for Research Chairs Evaluation in King Saud University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research activities are considered prominent part of innovation and consequent wealth generation in any advanced country, thus the need for policy makers and wider public to get insight into the quality of research outputs is legitimate. However, qualitative evaluation techniques meet a number of difficulties. This paper addresses a novel quantitative methodology to indicate a measure of the performance of research chairs in King Saud University (KSU). It proposes an Evaluation Criteria (EC) assures sustainable competition among different Research Chairs (RCs). The best RC - if compared to the remaining RCs - is the one achieves more considerable scientific events (activates) with less cost and within shorter period of time. The study aims to be a further contribution to the assessment of a road map toward an equal internationally shared, quantitative evaluation system.

Ali S. Al-Ghamdi; Mohammad A.M. Wadaan; Ahmed M. El-Garhy; Mohamed E. El-Shimy; Essam F. Abou-Sawan

2011-01-01

149

Approach for a joint global registration agency for research data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions. Global collaboration and scientific advances could be accelerated through broader access to scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. In this white paper we discuss the possibilities to open this registration to a global consortium of information institutes and libraries.

Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam

2009-01-01

150

The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review research aimed at the development of a compelling taxonomy of personality-descriptive terms. We identify five issues central to the construction of personality taxonomies and discuss the advantages and limitations of the lexical approach. Our review of research stimulated by this approach ...

John, Oliver P.; Angleitner, Alois; Ostendorf, Fritz

151

Dedifferentiation: A New Approach in Stem Cell Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from the September 2007 issue of BioScience provides background information and research on dedifferentiation in stem cells. Dedifferentiation is an important biological phenomenon whereby cells regress from a specialized function to a simpler state reminiscent of stem cells. Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of giving rise to differentiated cells when supplied with the appropriate factors. Stem cells that are derived by dedifferentiation of one's own cells could be a new resource for regenerative medicine, one that poses no risk of genetic incompatibility or immune rejection and provokes fewer ethical debates than the use of stem cells derived from embryonic tissue. Until now, it has not been quite clear why some differentiated cell types can dedifferentiate and proliferate, whereas others cannot. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in dedifferentiation may enable scientists to control and possibly alter the plasticity of the differentiated state, which may lead to benefits not only in stem cell research but also in regenerative medicine and even tumor biology. If so, dedifferentiation will offer an ethically acceptable alternative route to obtain an abundant source of stem cells. Dedifferentiation is likely to become a new focus of stem cell research. Here we compile recent advances in this emerging but significant research, highlighting its central concepts, research findings, possible signaling pathways, and potential applications.

SA CAI, XIAOBING FU, ZHIYONG SHENG (;)

2007-09-01

152

A systems approach to research inquiry in accounting : a research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accounting research is strongly influenced by the research methodology and methods adopted in the natural sciences. As a result many researchers in Accounting have steered away from non-formal or interpretative methods. From a methodological perspective, Accounting research therefore has a narrow ba...

Koornhof, Carolina, 1959-

153

Fundamental research on estuaries: The importance of an interdisciplinary approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1974 the Geophysics Research Board completed a plan, for a series of studies to be carried out on various subjects related to geophysics. One purpose of the studies is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such an assessment is an evaluation of the adequacy of present geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of present research programs to provide information required for those decisions. This study examines the need for basic research to understand estuarine processes. The major unanswered questions relate to the interrelationships of estuarine circulation, biota, geology, and chemistry, where an interdisciplinary coordinated effort will be necessary. The areas were organized around a traditional disciplinary facet of estuaries but focused on the interdisciplinary needs. 58 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

1983-01-01

154

Comparative research on spatial quality in Europe: motivation and approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the structure of the ESF-founded TERM research project 'Environment Quality in European Space', and serves as the introduction to the special issue presenting the results of this project. The aim of the project was to organise existing European research teams in the area of spatial sustainability, focusing on two themes: 'transport and environment', and 'energy efficiency and spatial sustainability'. A number of criteria are identified for the comparison and evaluation of research in these areas for 12 European countries: UK, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Israel and Austria. These criteria involve 'intrinsic characteristics' (problem definition, policy options, theoretical assumptions, method and data) and 'meta characteristics' (scientific innovation and contribution to real policy-making). (Author)

Nijkamp, P.; Bergh, J. van den; Verhoef, E. [Free Univ., Dept. of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2001-07-01

155

SEM in applied marketing research : Towards more liberalised modelling approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey and compare them based on several criteria, such as coefficients, parsimony, model fit, plausibility, and consistency with the theory. A comparison of the estimates obtained from the two models clearly indicates that it is not at all a trivial matter whether cross-loadings are allowed in a measurement model or not. These results shed serious doubt on the generally accepted rule of thumb according to which (cross) loadings can safely be ignored if they do not have a “practically significant” loading with an absolute value of at least 0.30 or 0.40.

SØrensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

156

Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

Low, Sarah A.

2009-01-01

157

[Health services research in general practice. A new approach].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competence networks in medicine, involving departments of general practice (www.kompetenznetze-medizin.de), as well as a large research support program "General Practice" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (www.gesundheitsforschung-bmbf.de/de/439.php) mirror the increasing importance of academic general practice for health services research. The use and benefit of computerized medical records is exemplified by the classification of therapeutic measures and prevalence estimates of diseases. Computerized medical records from 134 practices could be extracted via the BDT (BehandlungsDatenTräger) interface. Using SQL (structured query language) queries, we identified patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), airway obstruction and chronic heart failure and the therapeutic management for these illnesses. Age and sex of the patients were nearly completely documented in the BDT data. Patients with UTI (6,239 consultations) received most often cotrimoxazole (69%) and fluoroquinolone (15%), less often trimethoprim (9%) and herbal UTI drugs (4%). About half of the 2,714 patients with asthma received inhaled steroids, to a somewhat lesser degree than patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (50 vs 53%). In a subsample of practices (n=44), we identified 4,120 patients with a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. Using refined analysis tools, computerized medical records from general practices may be helpful to answer relevant questions of health services research and contribute to quality assurance in ambulatory patient care.

Himmel W; Hummers-Pradier E; Kochen MM

2006-02-01

158

Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

Carmen Piqué-Noguera

2012-01-01

159

Reviewing CSR management and marketing communication research: A discourse approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To judge from the rapidly growing body of research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and marketing communication, there is an increasing interest in exploring the role of communication along with the transmission from implicit towards explicit CSR in the European context (Matten & Moon 2008). Many corporations today are concerned with gaining legitimacy through integrating the expectations of their stakeholders (employees, customers, NGOs, activists, government institutions, institutions of international governance) in the overall company strategy. This also includes stakeholders in or around business units established in developing countries and emerging markets (e.g. Jamali 2010; Reimann 2012). Along with the growing pressure on corporations to engage in CSR a seemingly growing number of these are concerned with disclosure, reporting, reputation, etc. issues, and act on them through different CSR communication initiatives, channels and technology, e.g. mass media and social media. However, in spite of the growing attention on adopting CSR communication strategies and tactics, there does not seem to be a common understanding and consensus of how and to which extent CSR communication may contribute to influence stakeholders’ perception of corporations’ CSR performance. At best, some studies hold that there is a general recognition of CSR communication as a potential reputation enhancer, but also that if addressed inappropriately, CSR communication cause more damage than glory to a company. Other studies focus on CSR communication as inevitable hypocrisy (Christensen et al. 2011) and as an embedded ‘promotional dilemma’ emerging when stakeholders claim CSR information, while rejecting companies who practice it as overly self-promotion (Coombs & Holladay 2012). Consequently, CSR management and marketing communication research contains understandings that point in different directions, calling for more substantial explorations of the underlying discourse arsenal that CSR researchers and practitioners draw on. Institutional theory is one way of investigating how companies deal with social change processes such as the insisting concern with CSR communication. According to institutionalists, corporations are social institutions that require institutional legitimacy in order to survive. Within an institutional framework, organizational change is addressed as a product of institutions’ pressure on companies to adopt similar practices in a given societal context (DiMaggio & Powel 1983). Considering CSR communication under the lens of insitutional theory opens for understanding the diversity and dynamics of CSR (Brammer et al. 2012).Moreover, the institutionalizing processes of CSR and related concepts enables us to explore emerging discourses, institutionalized through research and best practices of CSR. Accordingly, we address how the emergence of discourse from CSR as accountancy and transparency invites and legitimizes a new social order in which CSR is addressed as a forum for mutual understanding, recognition, negotiation and co-creation amongst stakeholders. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the discourse construction of CSR communication on the basis of how researchers frame corporations’ CSR doings and saying within marketing and management streams of CSR research. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze how the role of communication and interaction is conceptualized in specific social contexts such as managing and marketing corporations through CSR. Many researchers argue that CSR communication is likely to increase stakeholder engagement, corporate reputation and value creation (e.g. Porter & Kramer 2006; Du et al. 2010). By looking at the rapidly growing body of research in the field of CSR management and marketing communication, the paper focuses on the positions, arguments, con?icts and actors of CSR communication across specific CSR topics and initiatives e.g. disclosure, reporting, reputation, message, channel, etc. This research is evaluated from an o

Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Thomsen, Christa

160

Supercritical fluid technology: a promising approach in pharmaceutical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supercritical fluids possess the unique properties of behaving like liquids and gases, above their critical point. Supercritical fluid technology has recently emerged as a green and novel technique for various processes such as solubility enhancement of poorly soluble drugs, plasticization of polymers, surface modification, nanosizing and nanocrystal modification, and chromatographic extraction. Research interest in this area has been fuelled because of the numerous advantages that the technology offers over the conventional methods. This work aims to review the merits, demerits, and various processes such as rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS), particles from gas saturated solutions (PGSS), gas antisolvent process (GAS), supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) and polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS), that have enabled this technology to considerably raise the interest of researchers over the past two decades. An insight has been given into the numerous applications of this technology in pharmaceutical industry and the future challenges which must be appropriately dealt with to make it effective on a commercial scale.

Girotra P; Singh SK; Nagpal K

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium). While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens

2012-01-01

162

Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS). This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS) to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants? community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka?s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

Ju-Ling Shih; Jussi Nuutinen; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Nian-Shing Chen

2010-01-01

163

YouTube as a Research Tool: Three Approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The present paper provides empirical data to support the use of social media as research environment. YouTube was chosen as a most appropriate format to target adolescents in experimental and cross-sectional designs given its popularity as well as its plasticity. We uniquely applied the YouTube format as (a) an environment to present manipulated media materials in controlled experimental designs; (b) an environment to study effects of peer feedback on various media contents; (c) a format to design a media-based questionnaire, specifically, the Media, Morals and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue). Various studies have been conducted that demonstrate the appropriateness of our YouTube transformations for each of these three purposes. The focus in the present paper is on the methodology of these studies to illustrate how we effectively transformed YouTube as a research tool.

Konijn EA; Veldhuis J; Plaisier XS

2013-09-01

164

Generating and Analysing Data for Applied Research on Emerging Technologies: A Grounded Action Learning Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the difficulties of conducting applied qualitative research on the applications of emerging technologies is finding available sources of relevant data for analysis. Because the adoption of emerging technologies is, by definition, new in many organizations, there is often a lack of experienced practitioners who have relevant background and are willing to provide useful information for the study. Therefore, it is necessary to design research approaches that can generate accessible and relevant data. This paper describes two case studies in which the researchers used a grounded action learning approach to study the nature of e-facilitation for face-to-face and for distributed electronic meetings. The grounded action learning approach combines two research methodologies, grounded theory and action learning, to produce a rigorous and flexible method for studying e-facilitation. The implications of this grounded action learning approach for practice and research will be discussed.

Pak Yoong; David Pauleen

2004-01-01

165

Exploring the benefits of a subjective approach in qualitative nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing credibility of qualitative approaches for research in nursing has opened up new debates about methodology and rigour. Traditionally, qualitative methods have been scrutinized using some criteria that are more pertinent for quantitative research. The transition to a more subjective, reflexive approach to nursing research may be painful, but brings benefits. With the loss of scientific rigour comes the gain of eliciting true meaning, by recreating the experiences of others through co-operative enquiry. An openly subjective approach allows the researcher to be a real partner with informants, and to openly use her own experiences and reflections in order to uncover valuable meaning and to find a different type of objectivity. This paper explores some of the issues that are of concern and some of the benefits that may result from an openly subjective approach in qualitative nursing research. PMID:7963043

Schutz, S E

1994-09-01

166

Exploring the benefits of a subjective approach in qualitative nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increasing credibility of qualitative approaches for research in nursing has opened up new debates about methodology and rigour. Traditionally, qualitative methods have been scrutinized using some criteria that are more pertinent for quantitative research. The transition to a more subjective, reflexive approach to nursing research may be painful, but brings benefits. With the loss of scientific rigour comes the gain of eliciting true meaning, by recreating the experiences of others through co-operative enquiry. An openly subjective approach allows the researcher to be a real partner with informants, and to openly use her own experiences and reflections in order to uncover valuable meaning and to find a different type of objectivity. This paper explores some of the issues that are of concern and some of the benefits that may result from an openly subjective approach in qualitative nursing research.

Schutz SE

1994-09-01

167

Improving emergency care pathways: an action research approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Clinicians and managers across specialities are under pressure to review treatment and referral pathways to enable evidence-based practice, improve patient flow and provide a seamless service. This study outlines the processes and outcomes of an action research study conducted to reduce inappropriate attendances and unplanned pressures on Emergency Department (ED) staff in an English hospital during 2006-2008. METHODS: Action research, comprising three action/reflection cycles conducted with participants, was used. Data were collected using retrospective patient record review (n=35,200) interviews with staff members (n=28), observation of patient pathways (n=38 patients) and measurement of team climate (n=31) with literature reviews also informing each cycle of data collection. RESULTS: ED attendance and hospital emergency admission data were largely similar to the national picture with regards to time/day of attendance and seasonal variation. However, in the 'adult majors' subgroup, mean attendance on a Monday was significantly higher than the rest of the week (p<0.001) and 36% were self-referrals. Observation data revealed that patients were informally assessed by reception staff and directed to majors or minors; this practice was replaced by reinstatement of triage. Patients identified as 'inappropriate' were managed inconsistently, irrespective of department workload. ED attendance decreased as the project progressed and the number of attendees resulting in hospital admission rose slightly. CONCLUSIONS: Study data suggest that inappropriate attendances decreased; however, data collection exposed gaps in the existing management information systems and inconsistencies in working practices in the ED. Action research can have a practical value besides contributing to knowledge.

Endacott R; Cooper S; Sheaff R; Padmore J; Blakely G

2011-03-01

168

An expanded approach to batterer intervention programs incorporating neuroscience research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batterer Intervention Programs have been critiqued for failing to incorporate treatment strategies that are supported by neurobiology research. This article reviews findings that have informed the treatment of disorders that are strongly represented among perpetrators of intimate violence, such as addiction, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders. The article argues for an expanded perspective that recognizes the relationships among childhood trauma, emotional regulation impairment, and intimate partner violence. Recommendations and ways to draw on emerging knowledge to invigorate existing programs are provided. PMID:23978773

Siegel, Judith P

2013-08-26

169

An expanded approach to batterer intervention programs incorporating neuroscience research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Batterer Intervention Programs have been critiqued for failing to incorporate treatment strategies that are supported by neurobiology research. This article reviews findings that have informed the treatment of disorders that are strongly represented among perpetrators of intimate violence, such as addiction, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders. The article argues for an expanded perspective that recognizes the relationships among childhood trauma, emotional regulation impairment, and intimate partner violence. Recommendations and ways to draw on emerging knowledge to invigorate existing programs are provided.

Siegel JP

2013-10-01

170

The Australian approach to the regulation of ageing research reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) is responsible for monitoring and reviewing the safety of the nuclear plant owned and operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The NSB does not license nuclear plant, but it has powers to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out its functions, including placing restrictions on the operation of the plant. Most reactors outlive the standards to which they were designed and built, but changing standards by themselves do not suddenly make safe reactor operation unsafe. However, the length of time for which the public and authorities would tolerate a widening gap between existing plant safety standards and new standards is not indefinite or always predictable. Examples of the way in which the NSB approaches nuclear plant safety upgrades and ageing issues for the 10 MW reactor HIFAR are given. (orig.)

Diamond, T.V. [Nuclear Safety Bureau, Miranda, NSW 2228 (Australia)

1995-12-31

171

Anti-idiotypic antibodies: a new approach in prion research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In certain cases, anti-idiotypic antibodies that recognize an antigen-combining site of an antibody can mimic the structure and/or function of certain nominal antigens. This feature makes them particularly useful if conventional experimental approaches fail to fulfil expectations, especially when the molecule of interest is infectious, toxic or difficult to isolate and purify. We suggest the application of an anti-idiotype concept to the field of prion biology, with the aim of evoking a humoral immune response against the pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Different ways to induce anti-idiotypic responses were studied in mice and chickens using various forms of V5B2, a PrPSc-specific monoclonal antibody we have described previously. Results The preparation of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies was achieved with well-defined strategies of immunization, selection and subsequent characterization. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to induce a strong anti-idiotypic immune response against the V5B2 monoclonal antibody in both xenogeneic and syngeneic experimental systems. From the competition seen between polyclonal and monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies and the original immunogen, the P1 peptide, and even more importantly, the ultimate target antigen, PrPSc, we conclude that selected antibodies bind to the antigen-combining site of the V5B2 monoclonal antibody and might even resemble the PrPSc-specific epitope. The involvement of both antigen-combining sites in the interaction between V5B2 and the most promising monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody was further supported by molecular docking. Conclusion The results of the present study not only provide an example of the successful production of Ab2 monoclonal antibodies based on a well planned strategy for selection, but should also provide a new experimental approach that is applicable to the field of prion diseases.

Colja Venturini Anja; Bresjanac Maja; Vranac Tanja; Koren Simon; Narat Mojca; Popovi? Mara; ?urin Šerbec Vladka

2009-01-01

172

The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

Pantea Carmen; Veghes Calin

2008-01-01

173

[Use of psychotropic drugs and addiction: approaches to epidemiologic research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the phenomenon of drug abuse in France is well delimited, it constitutes a public health problem. The way it spreads is sometimes 'epidemic' in sub-groups especially exposed. The somtic or relational consequences are short-term and it concerns more and more adolescents or young adults. Two main research axes have been developed: studies in the general population, adolescents or adults, in order to know the general context of licit and illicit psychotropic use in France, and specific studies in detoxification centers in order to describe the characteristics of drug addicts and to evaluate their requirements. Results of some recent surveys can illustrate these axes. Total abstinence is exceptional. Psychotropic drug abuse is deeply established in traditional French social customs. Most subjects had a narrow relation with psychoactive drugs. The variety as well as quantity of products allow everyone to adopt a style of consumption. Globally, alcohol consumption has decreased. Moderate consumers seem to be those who especially confine their drinking to daily wine consumption. On the other hand, the consumption of aperitifs and other drinks in on the increase. The dissociation of alcohol consumption from meals enhances drunkness. Nicotine-poisoning in men had a parallel evolution and has increased in women. Psychotropic drugs (tranquillizers and hypnotics) are specially used by aged women on medical prescription. For the study of drug abuse, data is collected in specialised centers and prisons regarding socio-demographic variables, intoxication profile and medical and social consequences. For both the general and addict population, epidemiological research, especially typological analysis, allows to identify some sub-groups at risk of drug addiction.

Facy F; Rosch D

1990-04-01

174

In-home air filtration for improving cardiovascular health: lessons from a CBPR study in public housing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution, including from motor vehicles, is associated with cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To describe lessons learned from installing air filtration units in public housing apartments next to a major highway. METHODS: We reviewed experience with recruitment, retention, and acceptance of the air filtration units. RESULTS: Recruitment and retention have been challenging, but similar to other studies in public housing. Equipment noise and overheated apartments during hot weather have been notable complaints from participants. In addition, we found that families with members with Alzheimer's or mental disability were less able to tolerate the equipment. CONCLUSIONS: For this research, the primary lesson is that working closely with each participant is important. A future public health program would need to address issues of noise and heat to make the intervention more acceptable to residents.

Brugge D; Reisner E; Padró-Martínez LT; Zamore W; Owusu E; Durant JL

2013-01-01

175

How to conduct research on burnout: advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is somet...

Brenninkmeijer, V; VanYperen, N

176

LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

177

DNA Microarray Technologies: A Novel Approach to Geonomic Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cDNA microarray allows biologists to examine the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Researchers may analyze the complete transcriptional program of an organism in response to specific physiological or developmental conditions. By design, a cDNA microarray is an experiment with many variables and few controls. One question that inevitably arises when working with a cDNA microarray is data reproducibility. How easy is it to confirm mRNA expression patterns? In this paper, a case study involving the treatment of a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was used to obtain a rough estimate of data reproducibility. Two trials were examined and a list of genes displaying either a > 2-fold or > 4-fold increase in gene expression was compiled. Variations in signal mean ratios between the two slides were observed. We can assume that erring in reproducibility may be compensated by greater inductive levels of similar genes. Steps taken to obtain results included serum starvation of cells before treatment, tests of mRNA for quality/consistency, and data normalization.

Hinman, R.; Thrall, B.; Wong, K,

2002-01-01

178

Network pharmacology: a new approach for chinese herbal medicine research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dominant paradigm of "one gene, one target, one disease" has influenced many aspects of drug discovery strategy. However, in recent years, it has been appreciated that many effective drugs act on multiple targets rather than a single one. As an integrated multidisciplinary concept, network pharmacology, which is based on system biology and polypharmacology, affords a novel network mode of "multiple targets, multiple effects, complex diseases" and replaces the "magic bullets" by "magic shotguns." Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been recognized as one of the most important strategies in complementary and alternative medicine. Though CHM has been practiced for a very long time, its effectiveness and beneficial contribution to public health has not been fully recognized. Also, the knowledge on the mechanisms of CHM formulas is scarce. In the present review, the concept and significance of network pharmacology is briefly introduced. The application and potential role of network pharmacology in the CHM fields is also discussed, such as data collection, target prediction, network visualization, multicomponent interaction, and network toxicology. Furthermore, the developing tendency of network pharmacology is also summarized, and its role in CHM research is discussed.

Zhang GB; Li QY; Chen QL; Su SB

2013-01-01

179

Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967) which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

2008-01-01

180

Methodological approaches for assessing response shift in longitudinal health-related quality-of-life research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of health state changes on an individual's quality of life (QOL) has gained increased attention in social and medical clinical research. An emerging construct of relevance to this line of investigation is response shift phenomenon. This construct refers to the changes in internal standards, in values, or in the conceptualization of QOL which are catalyzed by health state changes. In an effort to stimulate research on response shift, we present methodological considerations and promising assessment approaches for measuring it in observational and interventional clinical research. We describe and evaluate individualized methods, preference-based methods, successive comparison methods, design approaches, statistical approaches and qualitative approaches. The hierarchical structure of the construct is also discussed, with particular emphasis on how it might be elucidated by empirical assessment which uses the proposed methods and approaches. It is also recommended that criterion measures of change be included in future studies of response shift.

Schwartz CE; Sprangers MA

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Using qualitative inquiry and participatory research approaches to develop prevention research: validating a life course perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of life course theory (LCT) holds promise for advancing knowledge toward the elimination of health disparities. This article validates the usefulness of employing a life course perspective when conducting health disparities research. We provide an overview of LCT as it applies to our research program in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Latino teen parents. We illustrate the goodness-of-fit of our research with the basic premises of LCT. Though early adverse life experiences impact health over the lifespan, strength-based HIV prevention programs designed for Latino teen parents that recognize the reality of their lives may alter their health trajectory.

Lesser J; Koniak-Griffin D

2013-01-01

182

Mind the gap: Griffith University's approach to the governance of ethical conduct in human research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is perhaps not coincidental that, at the same time the apparent institutional risks associated with the conduct of human research are increasing, so are the complaints from researchers about research ethics committees. Rather than seeking to implement systems that more efficiently catch wrong-doing, in 2003 Griffith University began implementing an alternative approach. This new approach focused on resourcing the reflective practice of researchers through every stage of their work--well before, and long after, they seek ethical clearance for that work. Institutions have a key role to play in human research ethics, and this can be usefully situated within the broader framework of the institution's governance framework. This paper summarises the new approach that Griffith University adopted in 2003, the implementation of this 'model', the experience to date, and the road ahead.

Allen G

2007-01-01

183

CONCEPTUALLY-METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO RESEARCH OF INNOVATIONS IN HOTEL SERVICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: ordering of types of classifications of innovations by various criteria. Methodology: comparison and the analysis of existing approaches to classification of innovations. Results: the offer of author's classification of the innovations based on the approach with use of various criteria. Practical implications: research of innovations in hotel service.

Skulmovskaja Lubov Grigorievna; Kudinova Olga Sergeevna

2012-01-01

184

Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

185

Less is more: the potential of qualitative approaches in conservation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conservation researchers are aware of the need to work with social sciences to manage human-wildlife interactions for better conservation outcomes, but extending natural science research approaches to a social science domain can compromise data quality and validity. As part of the interdisciplinary ...

Drury, R; Homewood, K; Randall, S

186

Less is more: the potential of qualitative approaches in conservation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conservation researchers are aware of the need to work with social sciences to manage human–wildlife interactions for better conservation outcomes, but extending natural science research approaches to a social science domain can compromise data quality and validity. As part of the interdisciplinary ...

Drury, R; Homewood, K; Randall, S

187

A solidarity-based approach to the governance of research biobanks.  

Science.gov (United States)

New opportunities for large-scale data linkage and data-mining have rendered biobanks one of the core resources of medical research in the twenty-first century. At the same time, research biobanking has been seen to pose particular ethical and legal challenges pertaining to, for example, data protection, and the minimisation of other risks for participants. These measures have in turn led to heavy administrative, logistical, and financial costs and attracted criticism for unduly impeding disease research. Based on a newly formulated approach to solidarity, we propose an approach to governance that recognises people's willingness to participate in a public research biobank, and poses stronger emphasis on harm mitigation. We argue that such a model avoids some of the pitfalls of previous approaches. It also allows moving beyond overly restrictive and burdensome, exclusively autonomy-based governance towards governance that is reflective of people's willingness to accept costs to assist others. PMID:23325780

Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena

2013-01-16

188

A solidarity-based approach to the governance of research biobanks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New opportunities for large-scale data linkage and data-mining have rendered biobanks one of the core resources of medical research in the twenty-first century. At the same time, research biobanking has been seen to pose particular ethical and legal challenges pertaining to, for example, data protection, and the minimisation of other risks for participants. These measures have in turn led to heavy administrative, logistical, and financial costs and attracted criticism for unduly impeding disease research. Based on a newly formulated approach to solidarity, we propose an approach to governance that recognises people's willingness to participate in a public research biobank, and poses stronger emphasis on harm mitigation. We argue that such a model avoids some of the pitfalls of previous approaches. It also allows moving beyond overly restrictive and burdensome, exclusively autonomy-based governance towards governance that is reflective of people's willingness to accept costs to assist others.

Prainsack B; Buyx A

2013-01-01

189

Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

Fersch, Barbara

2013-01-01

190

Towards Primary School Physics Teaching and Learning: Design Research Approach. Research Report 256  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis describes a project to design a primary school physics learning environment which takes into account teachers' needs, design procedures, properties of the learning environment, and pupil learning outcomes. The project's design team has wide experience in research and development work in relation to science education, the use of ICT in…

Juuti, Kalle

2005-01-01

191

Environmental and policy approaches for promoting physical activity in the United States: a research agenda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Environmental and policy approaches are promising strategies to raise population-wide rates of physical activity; yet, little attention has been paid to the development and prioritization of a research agenda on these topics that will have relevance for both researchers and practitioners. METHODS: Using input from hundreds of researchers and practitioners, a research agenda was developed for promoting physical activity through environmental and policy interventions. Concept mapping was used to develop the agenda. RESULTS: Among those who brainstormed ideas, 42% were researchers and 33% were practitioners. The data formed a concept map with 9 distinct clusters. Based on ratings by both researchers and practitioners, the policy research cluster on city planning and design emerged as the most important, with economic evaluation second. CONCLUSIONS: Our research agenda sets the stage for new inquiries to better understand the environmental and policy influences on physical activity.

Brownson RC; Kelly CM; Eyler AA; Carnoske C; Grost L; Handy SL; Maddock JE; Pluto D; Ritacco BA; Sallis JF; Schmid TL

2008-07-01

192

Using community-based participatory research to develop a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention with public housing neighborhoods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe surface and deep structure dimensions of a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention developed with southeastern US public housing neighborhoods. PROCEDURES: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods were used to develop this culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention by the following research partners: academicians, neighborhood residents, community health workers, and community advisory board. This CBPR involved a cyclical process with the following phases: assembling a research team; identifying smoking cessation as the health need of interest; developing the research method; establishing evaluation, feedback, and dissemination mechanisms; implementing the initial "Sister to Sister" community trial; analyzing and interpreting the data; disseminating the results; revising the intervention; and, establishing mechanisms to sustain outcomes. Culturally sensitive dimensions emerged during this process and were categorized as surface structure and deep structure. FINDINGS: Surface structure dimensions included written materials, incentives and food, and protocol delivery strategies. Deep structure dimensions included kinships, collectivism, storytelling, and spiritual expressions. Community health workers and the advisory board contributed to the identification and integration of both surface and deep structure dimensions. The six-month continuous smoking abstinence outcomes from the initial community trial were 27.5% vs 5.77% for the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods facilitate processes in which culturally sensitive dimensions can be effectively identified and integrated into health promotion interventions for marginalized populations. The incorporation of surface structure dimensions increases acceptance and feasibility, while deep structure improves overall impact and efficacy of the intervention.

Andrews JO; Bentley G; Crawford S; Pretlow L; Tingen MS

2007-01-01

193

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

2013-04-01

194

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence.

Puffer ES; Pian J; Sikkema KJ; Ogwang-Odhiambo RA; Broverman SA

2013-04-01

195

The 'whole-animal approach' as a heuristic principle in neuroscience research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A `whole-animal approach' is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of this point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-animal-based approach may help to organize and integrate basic and clinical neuroscience research. Our proposal is in agreement with recent statements calling for more integrative approaches in biological and neuropsychiatric research

ALEJANDRO SERANI-MERLO; RODRIGO PAZ; ANDRÉS CASTILLO

2005-01-01

196

A mixed method approach to clarify the construct validity of interprofessional collaboration: an empirical research illustration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapid development of empirical studies in the field of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) calls for a wide array of scientific approaches ranging from recruitment and motivation to measurement and design questions. Regardless of whether researchers choose qualitative or quantitative approaches, they must substantiate their findings. We argue that more attention should be given to reliability and validity issues to improve our understanding of IPC as a phenomenon and practice. A mixed methods approach is presented as a relevant design format for the study of IPC. This paper aims to argue that a combination of methodologies may be a feasible way to enhance our understanding of IPC, with a special focus on reliability and validity issues; illustrate the application of different methodologies in an IPC research project; and emphasize the distinction between validity and validation to mitigate possible obstacles in integrating qualitative and quantitative research in the study of IPC.

Ødegård A; Bjørkly S

2012-07-01

197

[Multidisciplinary approach in public health research. The example of accidents and safety at work  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article critically analyses the various scientific approaches taken to industrial accidents, particularly in epidemiology, ergonomie and sociology, by attempting to outline the epistemological limitations in each respective field. An occupational accident is by its very nature not only a physical injury but also an economic, social and legal phenomenon, which more so than illness, enables us to examine the problems posed by the need for a multidisciplinary approach in Public Health research.

Lert F; Thebaud A; Dassa S; Goldberg M

1982-01-01

198

Capacity-building for health research in developing countries: a manager's approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both contrasts with and is complementary to that of research managers, who must build capacity "from the ground up" in a variety of health service settings within countries and with differing mandates, resources, and constraints. In health organizations the concept of research is broad, and practices vary widely. However, building research capacity is not altogether different from building other kinds of organizational capacity, and it involves two major dimensions: strategic and operational. In organizations in the health field, if reference to research is not in the mission statement, then developing a relevant research capacity is made vastly more difficult. Research capacities that take years to develop can be easily damaged through inadequate support, poor management, or other negative influences associated with both internal and external environments. This paper draws from key international research policy documents and observations on the behavior of research and donor agencies in relation to developing countries. It examines capacity-building primarily as a challenge for research managers, realities underlying operational effectiveness and efficiency, approaches to resource mobilization, and the need for marketing the research enterprise. Selected examples from South Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are presented.

White Franklin

2002-01-01

199

Missing data approaches in eHealth research: simulation study and a tutorial for nonmathematically inclined researchers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Missing data is a common nuisance in eHealth research: it is hard to prevent and may invalidate research findings. OBJECTIVE: In this paper several statistical approaches to data "missingness" are discussed and tested in a simulation study. Basic approaches (complete case analysis, mean imputation, and last observation carried forward) and advanced methods (expectation maximization, regression imputation, and multiple imputation) are included in this analysis, and strengths and weaknesses are discussed. METHODS: The dataset used for the simulation was obtained from a prospective cohort study following participants in an online self-help program for problem drinkers. It contained 124 nonnormally distributed endpoints, that is, daily alcohol consumption counts of the study respondents. Missingness at random (MAR) was induced in a selected variable for 50% of the cases. Validity, reliability, and coverage of the estimates obtained using the different imputation methods were calculated by performing a bootstrapping simulation study. RESULTS: In the performed simulation study, the use of multiple imputation techniques led to accurate results. Differences were found between the 4 tested multiple imputation programs: NORM, MICE, Amelia II, and SPSS MI. Among the tested approaches, Amelia II outperformed the others, led to the smallest deviation from the reference value (Cohen's d = 0.06), and had the largest coverage percentage of the reference confidence interval (96%). CONCLUSIONS: The use of multiple imputation improves the validity of the results when analyzing datasets with missing observations. Some of the often-used approaches (LOCF, complete cases analysis) did not perform well, and, hence, we recommend not using these. Accumulating support for the analysis of multiple imputed datasets is seen in more recent versions of some of the widely used statistical software programs making the use of multiple imputation more readily available to less mathematically inclined researchers.

Blankers M; Koeter MW; Schippers GM

2010-01-01

200

[Research approach for biological basis of Chinese medical syndromes of chronic viral hepatitis B].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) is a major infectious disease greatly harmful to the health of Chinese people. Chinese medicine has its speciality and advantages in treating it depending syndrome-differentiation. The objectified researches regarding Chinese medical syndromes in CHB heretofore were reviewed in this article. Moreover, aiming at existing problems and taking the angle of "disease-syndrome combining" study, authors put forward research approach, and approaches for studying systemic biology based biological basis of Chinese medical syndrome in hepatitis B with reductionism and holism, cybernetics and system theories in combination.

Su SB; Hu YY; Zhao LP

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Research approach for biological basis of Chinese medical syndromes of chronic viral hepatitis B].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) is a major infectious disease greatly harmful to the health of Chinese people. Chinese medicine has its speciality and advantages in treating it depending syndrome-differentiation. The objectified researches regarding Chinese medical syndromes in CHB heretofore were reviewed in this article. Moreover, aiming at existing problems and taking the angle of "disease-syndrome combining" study, authors put forward research approach, and approaches for studying systemic biology based biological basis of Chinese medical syndrome in hepatitis B with reductionism and holism, cybernetics and system theories in combination. PMID:21425585

Su, Shi-Bing; Hu, Yi-Yang; Zhao, Li-Ping

2011-02-01

202

Non-animal approaches for consumer safety risk assessments: Unilever's scientific research programme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-animal based approaches to risk assessment are now routinely used for assuring consumer safety for some endpoints (such as skin irritation) following considerable investment in developing and applying new methods over the past 20 years. Unilever's research programme into non-animal approaches for safety assessment is currently focused on the application of new technologies to risk assessments in the areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhalation toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biological and chemical processes that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement with EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, carcinoGENOMICS), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. COLIPA, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US 'Human Toxicology Project' consortium).

Carmichael P; Davies M; Dent M; Fentem J; Fletcher S; Gilmour N; MacKay C; Maxwell G; Merolla L; Pease C; Reynolds F; Westmoreland C

2009-12-01

203

Nursing research with refugee clients: a call for more qualitative approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nursing research with refugee populations, who lack an understanding of the importance of research, presents unique challenges. These challenges include bureaucratic requirements for gaining permission for research, navigating through camps, identifying potential participants, gaining acceptance, building rapport and trust, maintaining privacy, and respecting participants' status in the camp. Few studies exist regarding Palestinian refugees, with no reported studies that address nursing or healthcare, especially in Jordan. FINDINGS: Quantitative research, which often requires participants who read and write, may be ineffective with long-term refugee populations. Additionally, many research tools are not culturally valid. Consequently, refugees, many of whom are illiterate, are largely unstudied. RECOMMENDATIONS: Qualitative approaches, such as interviewing and observation, allow participants to describe their healthcare concerns, and their management of them. Rapport and trust can then enable the researcher to provide interventions and education.

Halabi JO

2005-12-01

204

A Knowledge Based Approach to Detection of Idea Plagiarism in Online Research Publications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism is on the rise because of the easy access to information through World Wide Web. Web pages are growing in the internet on daily basis. Researchers want to be well connected globally to popularize their ideas. Therefore, allowing download of research documents are inevitable. However, this falls prey to those who turn the cake and spoil the issue. Even unknowingly, a researcher ends in verbatim copying of other former researchers’ ideologies or conclusions to quote / use in their own research paper. This paper presents an analysis of NLP based plagiarism detection approaches which leads to proposing of an ontology based solution to detect text plagiarism more meaningfully. We address wordword and paraphrasing techniques and investigate the use of ontology in detecting idea plagiarism. The main objective is to investigate the exclusion of ‘Related Work’ section and the use of WordNet for plagiarism detection in research publications.

Deepika J.; Archana V.; Bagyalakshmi V.; Preethi P.; Mahalakshmi G.S.

2011-01-01

205

Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

2013-01-25

206

Sustaining a regional emerging infectious disease research network: a trust-based approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

Silkavute P; Tung DX; Jongudomsuk P

2013-01-01

207

Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

Pornpit Silkavute; Dinh Xuan Tung; Pongpisut Jongudomsuk

2013-01-01

208

Commentary: Evaluating faculty productivity in research: an interesting approach, but questions remain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Academic institutions must have strategies for evaluating research productivity by faculty. Such strategies are useful in guiding resource allocations for the research enterprise, for decisions on faculty promotions, and for broader institutional planning, including program development. Commonly, decisions about research space utilization, and funding to support the space, are considered within the purview of the institutional administration. Peer review, in manuscript and grant submissions and the promotions process, is more commonly used to evaluate the impact of faculty research. The article by Iyengar et al in this issue of Academic Medicine takes an interesting approach to evaluate research productivity of individual faculty by integrating benchmarks for research funding and publication impact. The strategy of using these benchmarks to partition faculty into quadrants to guide faculty development activities is clever and useful. Less clear are the philosophy and long-term utility of the approach. The applicability to the stated goal of promoting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary translational research is not obvious, nor is it apparent that faculty will continue to view decisions as transparent and fair over the longer term. Nevertheless, the authors' article is a welcome contribution at a time when many institutions are struggling with issues of evaluating faculty investigators and allocating resources for research.

Joiner KA

2009-11-01

209

New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need f (more) or face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

Vlassoff, Carol

1992-01-01

210

New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

Carol Vlassoff

1992-01-01

211

Scenario Development as a Basis for Formulating a Research Program on Future Agriculture: A Methodological Approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers.

Oborn I; Bengtsson J; Hedenus F; Rydhmer L; Stenström M; Vrede K; Westin C; Magnusson U

2013-07-01

212

Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers.

Oborn I; Bengtsson J; Hedenus F; Rydhmer L; Stenström M; Vrede K; Westin C; Magnusson U

2013-11-01

213

An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment.

Weber-Main AM; Finstad DA; Center BA; Bland CJ

2013-07-01

214

Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers. PMID:23836311

Oborn, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Jan; Hedenus, Fredrik; Rydhmer, Lotta; Stenström, Maria; Vrede, Katarina; Westin, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-07-09

215

An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment. PMID:23702527

Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Finstad, Deborah A; Center, Bruce A; Bland, Carole J

2013-07-01

216

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

217

Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tr...

Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

218

THE TEACHING RESEARCH FOCUSED ON THE MOVEMENT: HEURISTIC APPROACHES AND ELEMENTS OF COMPLEXITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation

AIELLO PAOLA; MAURIZIO SIBILIO

2010-01-01

219

Efficiency of Research Performance of Australian Universities: A Reappraisal using a Bootstrap Truncated Regression Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motivation of the study stems from the results reported in the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) 2010 report. The report showed that only 12 universities performed research at or above international standards, of which, the Group of Eight (G8) universities filled the top eight spots. While performance of universities was based on number of research outputs, total amount of research income and other quantitative indicators, the measure of efficiency or productivity was not considered. The objectives of paper are twofold. First, to provide a review of the research performance of 37 Australian universities using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap approach of Simar and Wilson (J Econ, 136:31–64, 2007). Second, to determine sources of productivity drivers by regressing the efficiency scores against a set of environmental variables.

Boon L. Lee

2011-01-01

220

Strategic Management Approaches Preference in Turkish Industry: A Research on ISO 1000 Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positioning school approach that gives prominence to the effect of positioning and environmental powers in industry and resource-based approach that emphasize the importance of firm’s resource, capabilities and competences are two basic approaches that express firms’ performance differences in strategic management field. Which one of these basic approaches will be chosen occupies an important place in strategic management subjects. Purpose of this study is to reveal preferences of managers and accordingly firms about strategic management approaches in branch of Turkish industry and to determine whether positioning school approach or resource-based approach is efficient and predominant in success of firms from the viewpoints of managers. The research was carried out upon the first 500 big industrial enterprises and second 500 big industrial enterprises carrying on their business in industrial sector in Turkey as published by Istanbul Chamber of Industry (ISO). As a result of the analysis of the acquired data, it has been precipitated that in Turkey, managers of the biggest 1000 industrial enterprises, accordingly firms, adopt positioning school approach.

Yucel Erol; Ali Riza Ince; Mehtap Aras

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A Review of Approaches of Resource-based Empirical Research in Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research reviews the approaches employed in banking empirical studies that use the resource-based view as a core theoretical anchor to relate bank resources to performance outcomes. The review dwelt on measurement issues and strategies for controlling confounding factors. Six approaches of measuring bank resources are identified as: indirect assessment through the use of observable attributes, direct assessment through output counts, direct assessment by top managers, direct assessment by customers, direct assessment by experts and indirect assessment through inductive case studies. Three approaches to measuring bank performance are identified as: the use of only financial measures, the use of only nonfinancial measures and the use of a mix of financial and nonfinancial measures. Overall, approaches that relate bank resources, strategy and performance have great potential to advance the resource-based view theory from being a mere theoretical framework to being a practical framework for practicing managers in banking firms.

L. Liu; V. Timothy; Y. Gao

2010-01-01

222

Processes of International Collaboration in Management Research : A Reflexive, Autoethnographic Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina

2013-01-01

223

Conducting requirements analyses for research using routinely collected health data: a model driven approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical research increasingly requires the linkage of data from different sources. Conducting a requirements analysis for a new application is an established part of software engineering, but rarely reported in the biomedical literature; and no generic approaches have been published as to how to link heterogeneous health data. METHODS: Literature review, followed by a consensus process to define how requirements for research, using, multiple data sources might be modeled. RESULTS: We have developed a requirements analysis: i-ScheDULEs - The first components of the modeling process are indexing and create a rich picture of the research study. Secondly, we developed a series of reference models of progressive complexity: Data flow diagrams (DFD) to define data requirements; unified modeling language (UML) use case diagrams to capture study specific and governance requirements; and finally, business process models, using business process modeling notation (BPMN). DISCUSSION: These requirements and their associated models should become part of research study protocols.

de Lusignan S; Cashman J; Poh N; Michalakidis G; Mason A; Desombre T; Krause P

2012-01-01

224

Processes of international collaboration in management research : A reflexive, autoethnographic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina

2013-01-01

225

Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Reseña: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jane ELLIOTT hat mit Using Narrative in Social Research einen originären und gut zugänglichen Beitrag zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Methodenliteratur geleistet. Die Originalität ist insbesondere den beiden Zielen geschuldet, die sie mit diesem Buch verfolgt: ELLIOTT beschreibt nicht nur qualitative und quantitative narrationsanalytische Verfahren, sondern sie nutzt das Konzept der "Narration" auch zur Dekonstruktion traditioneller Grenzen zwischen qualitativer und quantitativer Sozialforschung. Im Grunde kommt dem zweiten Ziel auch größere Aufmerksamkeit zu, und insoweit eröffnet das Buch auch weniger eine praktische Annäherung an Narrationsanalysen als der Titel des Buches vermuten lassen würde. Vor allem anderen erlaubt Using Narrative in Social Research insbesondere fortgeschrittenen Studierenden und Forschenden eine profunde Reflektion des Gegensatzes zwischen qualitativen und quantitativen Ansätzen sowie Möglichkeiten, über diesen Gegensatz hinauszugehen. Obwohl das Buch für alle Sozialwissenschaftler(innen) lesenswert ist, richtet es sich doch in erster Linie an ein eher "quantitatives Publikum", um es für den "interpretive turn" zu interessieren. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192With Using Narrative in Social Research Jane ELLIOTT has made an original and very accessible contribution to the methodological literature in social research. The originality of the work lies most of all in its double aim. ELLIOTT not only presents both qualitative and quantitative approaches to narrative analysis but also uses the concept of narrative as a sensitizing tool to explore and to deconstruct the boundaries between qualitative and quantitative social research. Actually, this second aim receives more attention than the first. Consequently, the book offers less practical guidance to the analysis of narratives than its title suggests. Most of all it provides advanced students and researchers with a sound reflection on the qualitative-quantitative divide and on possible ways to overcome it. Although insightful for every social scientist, the book tries in the first place to win the "quantitative audience" for an interpretive turn. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192Con Uso de la narrativa en la investigación social, Jane ELLIOTT realiza una contribución original y muy accesible a la literatura metodológica en investigación social. La originalidad del trabajo consiste sobre todo en su doble objetivo: ELLIOT no solo presenta las aproximaciones cualitativa y cuantitativa al análisis narrativo, también utiliza el concepto de narrativa como una herramienta sensible para explorar y deconstruir las fronteras entre investigación social cualitativa y cuantitativa. Realmente, este segundo objetivo recibe una mayor atención que el primero. En consecuencia, el libro ofrece menos orientación práctica para el análisis de narrativas de lo que sugiere el título. Sobre todo proporciona a estudiantes avanzados e investigadores una profunda reflexión sobre la división cualitativo-cuantitativo y posibles modos de superarla. Aunque es intuitivo para cualquier investigador social, el libro trata en primer término de ganar a la "audiencia cuantitativa" para un giro interpretativo. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602192

Leen Beyers

2006-01-01

226

Forging New Service Paths: Institutional Approaches to Providing Research Data Management Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to bring support for data management and eScience to their communities. The approaches described include two library-based, integrated service models and one collaboratively-staffed, center-based service model.Results: Three institutions describe their experiences in creating the organizational capacity for research data management support services. Although each institutional approach is unique, common challenges include garnering administrative support, managing the integration of services with new or existing staff structures, and continuing to meet researchers needs as they evolve.Conclusions: There is no one way to provide research data management services, but any staff position, committee, or formalized center reflects an overarching organizational commitment to data management support.

Regina Raboin; Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen; Dorothea Salo

2012-01-01

227

Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants

1979-01-01

228

Research approaches to qualify aluminum for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the efforts of the Solar Energy Research Institute's Materials Research Branch in the technical support of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power systems. The report presents the results of an intense literature search and discusses the test loops being operated in support of OTEC. It also includes the preliminary findings of electrochemical experimentation that generate support information. A brief overview of this program was presented for review at the annual meeting of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) in April 1981. Comments and suggestions from that review are included. Finally, an approach to addressing those areas of continued concern is offered.

Russell, P.; Pohlman, S.; Gross, G.

1984-06-01

229

Catalysis by design: A coordinated approach to catalyst research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials-by-Design approach is currently being extended to the research and development of industrial catalysts. The resulting program, referred to as ''Catalysis-by-Design'' (CBD), is the subject of this paper. The paper includes an overview of the CBD Program, an assessment of its potential impacts on the US catalysts industry, and a discussion of how government and industry can undertake a collaborative R and D effort in the field of catalysis. This last issue is particularly important, since most of the research information in industry is considered to be proprietary. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.; Eberhardt, J.; Keay, L.

1989-08-01

230

A novel approach to enhance food safety: industry-academia-government partnership for applied research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An independent collaborative approach was developed for stimulating research on high-priority food safety issues. The Fresh Express Produce Safety Research Initiative was launched in 2007 with $2 million in unrestricted funds from industry and independent direction and oversight from a scientific advisory panel consisting of nationally recognized food safety experts from academia and government agencies. The program had two main objectives: (i) to fund rigorous, innovative, and multidisciplinary research addressing the safety of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and (ii) to share research findings as widely and quickly as possible to support the development of advanced safeguards within the fresh-cut produce industry. Sixty-five proposals were submitted in response to a publicly announced request for proposals and were competitively evaluated. Nine research projects were funded to examine underlying factors involved in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce, spinach, and other leafy greens and potential strategies for preventing the spread of foodborne pathogens. Results of the studies, published in the Journal of Food Protection, help to identify promising directions for future research into potential sources and entry points of contamination and specific factors associated with harvesting, processing, transporting, and storing produce that allow contaminants to persist and proliferate. The program provides a model for leveraging the strengths of industry, academia, and government to address high-priority issues quickly and directly through applied research. This model can be productively extended to other pathogens and other leafy and nonleafy produce.

Osterholm MT; Ostrowsky J; Farrar JA; Gravani RB; Tauxe RV; Buchanan RL; Hedberg CW

2009-07-01

231

Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis.

Goecks J; Nekrutenko A; Taylor J

2010-01-01

232

Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis. PMID:20738864

Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

2010-08-25

233

Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

Greenfeld M; Pavlichin DS; Mabuchi H; Herschlag D

2012-01-01

234

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

2011-09-15

235

Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh; A Setareh Forouzan; F Pourmalek; H Malekafzali

2009-01-01

236

Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive. PMID:23419790

Hardeman, Sjoerd

2012-07-21

237

Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive.

Hardeman S

2013-03-01

238

Ethical issues and approaches in stem cell research: from international insights to a proposal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years and months, human stem cell research has dominated many scientists' interests, the media, public debate, and social policy. This paper aims to consider, first, the major scientific data on stem cell research that are available. Second, I reflect on them by examining how they shaped policies in Europe and the United States. I also point to current changes in policy-making concerning the creation of ad hoc committees to address this novel issue and how, in a few instances, different ethical positions are part of the documents produced. In other words, diverse approaches are not solved but kept in tension. Finally, I suggest that the current state of research on human stem cell will benefit from an ethics of risk.

Vicini A

2003-01-01

239

Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

2012-11-30

240

Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

Zander K; Stolz H; Hamm U

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller; Viola Waghiyi; Gretchen Welfinger-Smith; Samuel Carter Byrne; Jane Kava; Jesse Gologergen; Lorraine Eckstein; Ronald Scrudato; Jeff Chiarenzelli; David O. Carpenter; Samarys Seguinot-Medina

2013-01-01

242

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Miller, Pamela K.; Waghiyi, Viola; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Byrne, Samuel Carter; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Eckstein, Lorraine; Scrudato, Ronald; Chiarenzelli, Jeff; Carpenter, David O.; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys

2013-01-01

243

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000-2012. METHODS: As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b-d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape--using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. RESULTS: Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. INTERVENTIONS: An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. CONCLUSIONS: As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Miller PK; Waghiyi V; Welfinger-Smith G; Byrne SC; Kava J; Gologergen J; Eckstein L; Scrudato R; Chiarenzelli J; Carpenter DO; Seguinot-Medina S

2013-01-01

244

Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining : An Evaluation Approach In Design Science Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures the context and actual use of an artifact. With the holistic approach we encourage evaluation to be inclusive of different aspects and relationships between stakeholder groups in the evaluation activities. Further we think that concurrency is not narrowed to evaluation but also regards theorizing. While it makes sense for planning to distinguish between phases and stages of evaluation and theorizing, in practice they are intrinsically interlinked and concurrent.

Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria

2011-01-01

245

Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

O'Malley Maureen A; Stotz Karola

2011-01-01

246

Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data.

Lolas F

2013-01-01

247

Approaches to facilitate institutional review board approval of multicenter research studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for a multicenter research study can be a lengthy and time-consuming process. It can increase the complexity of consent forms, decreasing patient understanding and lowering recruitment numbers. It also leads to increased costs through the duplication of effort. This paper examines some of the strategies used to streamline the IRB review process for multicenter studies and provides examples used by 2 existing multicenter comparative effectiveness research networks. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify sources that described the challenges and potential strategies to facilitate multicenter IRB approval. The most promising avenues were identified and included in this review. Phone interviews were conducted with the Principal Investigators and Project Managers of 2 successful multicenter research networks to learn their "keys to success" and their lessons learned. RESULTS: Three strategies were identified that held the most promise: working with IRBs before submission, the use of central and/or federated IRBs, and the establishment of an umbrella protocol. Each of these strategies was used to some degree by the case study projects. CONCLUSIONS: Although the approaches documented here can help streamline the IRB approval process, they are not a "silver bullet." Because some of these approaches are still relatively new, empirical data are sparse. However, it is believed that they will significantly reduce the administrative burden of the project as a whole and lead to a decrease in the overall time to protocol approval.

Marsolo K

2012-07-01

248

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

249

The Delphi Technique in nursing research - Part 1. The classical methodological approach and its main modifications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Delphi Technique (DT) is a research methodology that uses turns or rounds between the researcher and a group of experts, until a desired level of agreement or consensus between the members of the expert panel has been reached with regards to the question in hand. Despite its popular use in the social sciences' domain and its progressive adoption by nurse-researchers internationally, in Greece, there is a lack of its application; its comprehension, usage, and methodological merits are still in question within the Greek nursing research community. Aim: To provide a detailed presentation of the epistemological and practical value of the DT, through a series of four consecutive papers which expand on the following: i) the classical methodological approach and its main modifications, ii) the methodological reflections iii) analysis and presentation of results, and iv) the use and usefulness of the method in application to nursing research. The first of the four papers provides a description and a comparative assessment of the main variations of the DT. Results: A review of the literature elucidated three main sub-types of technique: the Classic or Conventional Delphi, the Policy Delphi and the Decision Delphi Technique. Nevertheless, due to many variations of the basic philosophy of the method and the many differentiations in its application, it is quite difficult to classify each study that used Delphi, with precision. The main methodological differences that can challenge the researcher are discussed and finally, examples that show the advantages and the usefulness of the individual Delphi techniques are given. Conclusions: Use of the DT in research has many advantages and it can become exceptionally useful once the content of the method and its practical applications are fully understood.

Dimitrios Kosmidis; Sotiria Koutsouki; Dimitrios Theofanidis

2011-01-01

250

The promise of the state space approach to time series analysis for nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nursing research, particularly related to physiological development, often depends on the collection of time series data. The state space approach to time series analysis has great potential to answer exploratory questions relevant to physiological development but has not been used extensively in nursing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to introduce the state space approach to time series analysis and demonstrate potential applicability to neonatal monitoring and physiology. METHODS: We present a set of univariate state space models; each one describing a process that generates a variable of interest over time. Each model is presented algebraically and a realization of the process is presented graphically from simulated data. This is followed by a discussion of how the model has been or may be used in two nursing projects on neonatal physiological development. RESULTS: The defining feature of the state space approach is the decomposition of the series into components that are functions of time; specifically, slowly varying level, faster varying periodic, and irregular components. State space models potentially simulate developmental processes where a phenomenon emerges and disappears before stabilizing, where the periodic component may become more regular with time, or where the developmental trajectory of a phenomenon is irregular. DISCUSSION: The ultimate contribution of this approach to nursing science will require close collaboration and cross-disciplinary education between nurses and statisticians.

Levy JA; Elser HE; Knobel RB

2012-11-01

251

Approach for providing information of research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In recent years, the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is produced mainly from the nuclear power program, has been nearing implementation. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) integrated the results of research and development (R and D) for the geological disposal of HLW in November 1999. JNC is responsible for providing technical information on the results of R and D for geological disposal in Japan. On the other hand, the majority of the Japanese people remain unaware of not only geological disposal but also the presence of HLW. It is therefore difficult to initiate and maintain productive dialogue within the public domain on this issue. Under these circumstances, JNC has attempted various approaches aimed at providing information on geological disposal to each category in the public domain. This paper describes these approaches and responses. (author)

Maekawa, Keisuke [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Head Office, Executive Office for the Policy Planning and Administration, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

2001-09-01

252

Approach for providing information of research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years, the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), which is produced mainly from the nuclear power program, has been nearing implementation. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) integrated the results of research and development (R and D) for the geological disposal of HLW in November 1999. JNC is responsible for providing technical information on the results of R and D for geological disposal in Japan. On the other hand, the majority of the Japanese people remain unaware of not only geological disposal but also the presence of HLW. It is therefore difficult to initiate and maintain productive dialogue within the public domain on this issue. Under these circumstances, JNC has attempted various approaches aimed at providing information on geological disposal to each category in the public domain. This paper describes these approaches and responses. (author)

2001-01-01

253

Disentangling Scale Approaches in Governance Research: Comparing Monocentric, Multilevel, and Adaptive Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today's network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilevel governance, and adaptive governance. It does so by analyzing the differences in (1) underlying views on governing, (2) assumptions about scales, (3) dominant problem definitions regarding scales, and (4) preferred responses for dealing with multiple scales. Finally, this paper identifies research opportunities within and across these approaches.

Catrien J.A.M. Termeer; Art Dewulf; Maartje van. Lieshout

2010-01-01

254

The Power of Visual Approaches in Qualitative Inquiry: The Use of Collage Making and Concept Mapping in Experiential Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The burgeoning interest in arts-informed research and the increasing variety of visual possibilities as a result of new technologies have paved the way for researchers to explore and use visual forms of inquiry. This article investigates how collage making and concept mapping are useful visual approaches that can inform qualitative research. They are experiential ways of doing/knowing that help to get at tacit aspects of both understanding and process and to make these more explicit to the researcher and more accessible to audiences. It outlines specific ways that each approach can be used with examples to illustrate how the approach informs the researcher's experience and that of the audience. The two approaches are compared and contrasted and issues that can arise in the work are discussed.

Lynn Butler-Kisber; Tiiu Poldma

2010-01-01

255

A Framing Approach to Cross-disciplinary Research Collaboration: Experiences from a Large-scale Research Project on Adaptive Water Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different p...

Art Dewulf; Greet François; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Tharsi Taillieu

256

A framing approach to cross-disciplinary research collaboration: experiences from a large-scale research project on adaptive water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different p...

Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Francois, G.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Taillieu, T.

257

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p

2011-01-01

258

An overview of proteomics approaches applied to biopharmaceuticals and cyclotides research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolution in proteomics approaches is notable, including quantitative proteomics and strategies for elucidation of post-translational modifications. Faster and more accurate mass spectrometers as well as cleverer bioinformatics tolls are making the difference in such advancement. Among the wide range of research in plant proteomics, biopharmaceutical production using plants as "biofactories" and the screening of new activities of new molecules, in this case, peptides, are quite important regarding translational proteomics. The present review is focused on "recombinant proteins and bioactive peptides", with biopharmaceuticals and cyclotides chosen as examples. Their application and challenges are focused on a "translational proteomics" point of view, in order to exemplify some new areas of research based on proteomics strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics.

Demartini DR; Pasquali G; Carlini CR

2013-06-01

259

Being part of something: transformative outcomes of a community-based participatory study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Calls for public health practices, including research, to better integrate social theories of power, agency, and social change suggest that increased reflexivity about both the process and outcomes of community engagement is warranted. Yet few community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects specifically report nonresearch outcomes of such projects. The authors analyzed "secondary outcomes" of Protecting the 'Hood Against Tobacco (PHAT), a CBPR project conducted in San Francisco, California. METHODS: Interpretive analysis of quasi-ethnographic project documentation, including meeting minutes, field notes, retrospective observations, and interviews. RESULTS: PHAT participation created "ripple effects," encouraging healthier behaviors and public health promotion among community research partners, prompting academics to confront power asymmetries and recognize community knowledge, and widening social networks. CONCLUSIONS: CBPR benefits both communities and researchers beyond the findings of the research itself. More systematically capturing these effects, perhaps through wider use of ethnographic approaches, could help enhance understanding of CBPR's true contributions.

Malone RE; McGruder C; Froelicher ES; Yerger VB

2013-03-01

260

Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.

Soto Ana M; Sonnenschein Carlos

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

An asset-based approach of the Romanian research-development and innovation system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper experiments a new model of analysis for the Research-Development and Innovation (RDI) field of research, namely the Asset-Based Development strategy or Appreciative Planning and Action, which unfolds at the community level the same core principle that Appreciative Inquiry Methods at the organizational level: strengths elevating, strengths combining, strengths extending systems. Following the four “D stages” (Discovery, Dream, Design and Destiny/ Deliver) pattern, the authors outlined many strengths and achievements of the Romanian RDI system in order to depict the positive trends, structures and mechanism, as well as to map out the main routes towards fulfilling a new vision. Building upon ideas, opinions, studies, interviews of different representatives of the research community (managers, scientists, professors, users etc) expressed in specialised literature, newspapers, journals, or in direct contact and dialogue with them, we intended this approach encompass the appreciative contributions of the main stakeholders: universities, public and private research institutes, the business sector, public policy-makers. In this complex and rather rigid RDI system, whose elements are heterogeneous institutions and communities, that interacting each other in a special environment such as a network structure, effective change is still to be brought by individuals who possess the necessary power to continue transform their mind and attitudes and thus to initiate, diffuse change and, influencing the RDI environment. This might be a viable way to improve, in a positive manner, the RDI system’s efficiency.

Steliana SANDU; Irina ANGHEL

2010-01-01

262

Leveling the playing field? Exploring the merits of the ethics-as-process approach for judging qualitative research proposals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been a recent growth in claims that qualitative research proposals are not treated equitably by ethics committees. In response, recent arguments centered on establishing the ethics of qualitative research, in the eyes of ethics committees, have indicated the need for an "ethics-as-process" approach. Accordingly, in this article, the authors illustrate the merits of this approach and provide three examples from the field: the outcomes of participating in qualitative interviews, sensitive handling of ending in qualitative research relationships, and the ongoing establishment of informed consent. The authors hope to increase awareness of the potential benefits of this approach and contribute to the ensuing debate.

Cutcliffe JR; Ramcharan P

2002-09-01

263

SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.

Professor William Moerner

2010-07-09

264

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kayunze KA; Kiwara AD; Lyamuya E; Kambarage DM; Rushton J; Coker R; Kock R; Rweyemamu MM

2012-01-01

265

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious (more) Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kayunze, Kim A.; Kiwara, Angwara D.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Kambarage, Dominic M.; Rushton, Jonathan; Coker, Richard; Kock, Richard; Rweyemamu, Mark M.

2012-01-01

266

Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

2002-01-01

267

Integration of approaches in David Wake's model-taxon research platform for evolutionary morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

What gets integrated in integrative scientific practices has been a topic of much discussion. Traditional views focus on theories and explanations, with ideas of reduction and unification dominating the conversation. More recent ideas focus on disciplines, fields, or specialties; models, mechanisms, or methods; phenomena, problems. How integration works looks different on each of these views since the objects of integration are ontologically and epistemically various: statements, boundary conditions, practices, protocols, methods, variables, parameters, domains, laboratories, and questions all have their own structures, functions and logics. I focus on one particular kind of scientific practice, integration of "approaches" in the context of a research system operating on a special kind of "platform." Rather than trace a network of interactions among people, practices, and theoretical entities to be integrated, in this essay I focus on the work of a single investigator, David Wake. I describe Wake's practice of integrative evolutionary biology and how his integration of approaches among biological specialties worked in tandem with his development of the salamanders as a model taxon, which he used as a platform to solve, re-work and update problems that would not have been solved so well by non-integrative approaches. The larger goal of the project to which this paper contributes is a counter-narrative to the story of 20th century life sciences as the rise and march of the model organisms and decline of natural history.

Griesemer J

2013-04-01

268

Integration of approaches in David Wake's model-taxon research platform for evolutionary morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

What gets integrated in integrative scientific practices has been a topic of much discussion. Traditional views focus on theories and explanations, with ideas of reduction and unification dominating the conversation. More recent ideas focus on disciplines, fields, or specialties; models, mechanisms, or methods; phenomena, problems. How integration works looks different on each of these views since the objects of integration are ontologically and epistemically various: statements, boundary conditions, practices, protocols, methods, variables, parameters, domains, laboratories, and questions all have their own structures, functions and logics. I focus on one particular kind of scientific practice, integration of "approaches" in the context of a research system operating on a special kind of "platform." Rather than trace a network of interactions among people, practices, and theoretical entities to be integrated, in this essay I focus on the work of a single investigator, David Wake. I describe Wake's practice of integrative evolutionary biology and how his integration of approaches among biological specialties worked in tandem with his development of the salamanders as a model taxon, which he used as a platform to solve, re-work and update problems that would not have been solved so well by non-integrative approaches. The larger goal of the project to which this paper contributes is a counter-narrative to the story of 20th century life sciences as the rise and march of the model organisms and decline of natural history. PMID:23588059

Griesemer, James

2013-04-12

269

The substance of love when encountering suffering: an interpretative research synthesis with an abductive approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study presents the results of an interpretative research synthesis undertaken to explore the essence of love when encountering suffering. The idea of caring as an expression of love and compassion belongs with ideas that have shaped caring for hundreds of years. Love and suffering are the core concepts in caring science and thus demand a basic research approach. METHODS: The synthesis was undertaken by the interpretation of 15 articles focusing on love in different aspects, but within a caring science perspective. The research process was guided by a hermeneutical perspective with an abductive approach. RESULTS: The substance of love, when encountering suffering, reveals itself in three themes: love as a holy power, love as fundamental for being and love as an ethical act, which are to be found, respectively, within three dimensions: love as holiness, love as a communion and love as an art. Love is a holy power and encompasses everything; it is the well of strength that heals. No human can exist without love: this points to the ethical responsibility one has as a neighbour. In the ethical act, love is evident in concrete caring actions. CONCLUSIONS: The core of the substance of love within the three dimensions can be understood as agape. Agape connects and mirrors the dimensions, while at the same time it is clear that agape stems from and moves towards holiness, enabling love to be the ethical foundation when encountering suffering. Through the dimensions of love as communion and love as an art agape intertwine with eros forming caritas enabling the human being to move towards the dimension of holiness, which signifies becoming through suffering.

Thorkildsen KM; Eriksson K; Råholm MB

2013-06-01

270

78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for Assessing...the workshop. As background for the workshop, a literature review document on these health outcomes will be...

2013-04-05

271

A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

2004-01-01

272

A suggested approach for design of oak (Quercus L.) regeneration research considering regional differences  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research on oak (Quercus L.) regeneration has generally consisted of small-scale studies of treatments designed to favor oak, including consideration of site quality and topographic effects on oak regeneration. However, these experiments have not consistently factored in broader-scale ecological differences found in the eastern United States. Oak regeneration experiments should be replicated at appropriate ecological scales to address the similarities and differences in regeneration following prescribed silvicultural treatments among ecological units. Patterns in oak regeneration can be better understood in an ecological context by considering how oak species interact in the differing physical environments and are able to maintain dominance in changing complexes of competing vegetation among the selected eco-units. Our understanding of oak regeneration response to specific silvicultural practices and our ability to model regeneration is improved when we use replication, blocking, or factorial deployment of relatively small-scale (0.5-1.0 ha) treatment plots within an ecological classification system. We present an example of this approach to understanding oak regeneration dynamics in a synthesis of research to regenerate northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) by underplanting shelterwoods in Arkansas, Missouri and Indiana. We summarize important considerations to guide the design of future research in oak regeneration.

Dey DanielC; Spetich MartinA; Weigel DaleR; Johnson PaulS; Graney DavidL; Kabrick JohnM

2009-03-01

273

Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Reseña: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jane ELLIOTT hat mit Using Narrative in Social Research einen originären und gut zugänglichen Beitrag zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Methodenliteratur geleistet. Die Originalität ist insbesondere den beiden Zielen geschuldet, die sie mit diesem Buch verfolgt: ELLIOTT beschreibt nicht nur qualitative u...

Leen Beyers

274

Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions, scientific revolutions were identifiable in which breakaway researchers had abandoned the prevailing paradigm and introduced a new set of concepts, theories and empirical methods. We concluded that meta-narrative review adds value to the synthesis of heterogeneous bodies of literature, in which different groups of scientists have conceptualised and investigated the 'same' problem in different ways and produced seemingly contradictory findings. Its contribution to the mixed economy of methods for the systematic review of complex evidence should be explored further.

Greenhalgh T; Robert G; Macfarlane F; Bate P; Kyriakidou O; Peacock R

2005-07-01

275

Black African immigrant community leaders' views on participation in genomics research and DNA biobanking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The emergence of DNA biobanks and the power they lend to genomics research promise substantial advances in disease prevention and treatment. Greater participation of racial/ethnic minority populations is necessary to assure a future of personalized medicine for all. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore perspectives on genomics research and DNA biobanking among black African immigrants, an often overlooked US subpopulation. METHODS: As part of a larger staged study using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, we conducted four focus groups with 27 leaders in the black African immigrant community, exploring perceptions about genomics, barriers, and facilitators to participation in DNA biobanks and ethical ways to engage communities. FINDINGS/DISCUSSION: Prominent in their views on genomics research was the legacy of colonial mistreatment and exploitation by Western researchers in their home countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The central dilemma for participants was balancing responsibilities to protect their people from harm and to find solutions for African generations to come. They insisted that nothing short of a transformation of research practice would elicit the full and sustained participation of African immigrants in the genomics enterprise. CONCLUSION: To better align practice and policy in the field of genomics research and DNA biobanking with values expressed by African immigrant leaders, it is recommended that the field adopt a CBPR model for research and a benefit-sharing model for policy.

Buseh AG; Underwood SM; Stevens PE; Townsend L; Kelber ST

2013-07-01

276

Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurophenomenological (NP) methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for "lessons learned," that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1) addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2) making sure that NP experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3) conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.

Bockelman P; Reinerman-Jones L; Gallagher S

2013-01-01

277

A Partnership Approach to Promoting Information Literacy for Higher Education Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of information literacy in the UK higher education research sector has traditionally been the preserve of academic libraries. However, other professional groups have obvious interests in this area, and there is a strong case for providing a framework which enables different parties with a stake in information literacy to work together in order to reach practical objectives. In the UK, a coalition of partners has been set up to provide this collective framework and to provide synergy. This paper sets out the rationale for this approach, sets out the sort of activities that the coalition has fostered since its inception in late 2009 and reflects on whether it might serve as an example for other parts of Europe or for transnational collaborations.

Stéphane Goldstein

2012-01-01

278

Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA  

Science.gov (United States)

In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives.

Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Alba-Duran, J.; Allegretti, L.; Allfrey, S.; Amiel, S.; Ané, J. M.; Aniel, T.; Antar, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Arnaud, J.; Arranger, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Audisio, D.; Aumeunier, M.; Autissier, E.; Azcona, L.; Back, A.; Bahat, A.; Bai, X.; Baiocchi, B.; Balaguer, D.; Balme, S.; Balorin, C.; Barana, O.; Barbier, D.; Barbuti, A.; Basiuk, V.; Baulaigue, O.; Bayetti, P.; Baylard, C.; Beaufils, S.; Beaute, A.; Bécoulet, M.; Bej, Z.; Benkadda, S.; Benoit, F.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Berne, A.; Bertrand, B.; Bertrand, E.; Beyer, P.; Bigand, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Borel, G.; Boron, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Bouchand, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Bourg, J.; Bourmaud, S.; Brémond, S.; Bribiesca Argomedo, F.; Brieu, M.; Brun, C.; Bruno, V.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buravand, Y.; Cai, L.; Cantone, V.; Cantone, B.; Caprin, E.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Castagliolo, A.; Belo, J.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Caulier, G.; Chaix, J.; Chantant, M.; Chatelier, M.; Chauvin, D.; Chenevois, J.; Chouli, B.; Christin, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Clapier, R.; Cloez, H.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Colas, L.; Colledani, G.; Commin, L.; Coquillat, P.; Corbel, E.; Corre, Y.; Cottet, J.; Cottier, P.; Courtois, X.; Crest, I.; Dachicourt, R.; Dapena Febrer, M.; Daumas, C.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Gentile, B.; Dechelle, C.; Decker, J.; Decool, P.; Deghaye, V.; Delaplanche, J.; Delchambre-Demoncheaux, E.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Devynck, P.; Dias Pereira Bernardo, J.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doceul, L.; Dong, Y.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Dubuit, N.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Ducobu, L.; Dugue, B.; Dumas, N.; Dumont, R.; Durocher, A.; Durocher, A.; Duthoit, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elbeze, D.; Escarguel, A.; Escop, J.; Faïsse, F.; Falchetto, G.; Farjon, J.; Faury, M.; Fedorzack, N.; Féjoz, P.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Fiet, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Francisquez, M.; Franel, B.; Frauche, J.; Frauel, Y.; Futtersack, R.; Garbet, X.; Garcia, J.; Gardarein, J.; Gargiulo, L.; Garibaldi, P.; Garin, P.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gaye, O.; Geraud, A.; Gerome, M.; Gervaise, V.; Geynet, M.; Ghendrih, P.; Giacalone, I.; Gibert, S.; Gil, C.; Ginoux, S.; Giovannangelo, L.; Girard, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Goletto, C.; Goncalves, R.; Gonde, R.; Goniche, M.; Goswami, R.; Grand, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Gravil, B.; Grisolia, C.; Gros, G.; Grosman, A.; Guigue, J.; Guilhem, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Guillerminet, B.; Guimaraes Filho, Z.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Gurcan, O.; Guzman, F.; Hacquin, S.; Hariri, F.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hennequin, P.; Hernandez, C.; Hertout, P.; Heuraux, S.; Hillairet, J.; Honore, C.; Hornung, G.; Houry, M.; Hunstad, I.; Hutter, T.; Huynh, P.; Icard, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Isoardi, L.; Jacquinot, J.; Jacquot, J.; Jiolat, G.; Joanny, M.; Joffrin, E.; Johner, J.; Joubert, P.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Jouve, M.; Junique, C.; Keller, D.; Klepper, C.; Kogut, D.; Kubi?, M.; Labassé, F.; Lacroix, B.; Lallier, Y.; Lamaison, V.; Lambert, R.; Larroque, S.; Latu, G.; Lausenaz, Y.; Laviron, C.; Le, R.; Le Luyer, A.; Le Niliot, C.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Lebourg, P.; Lefevre, T.; Leroux, F.; Letellier, L.; Li, Y.; Lipa, M.; Lister, J.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, F.; Loarer, T.; Lombard, G.; Lotte, P.; Lozano, M.; Lucas, J.; Lütjens, H.; Magaud, P.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Mahieu, J.-F.; Maini, P.; Malard, P.; Manenc, L.; Marandet, Y.; Marbach, G.; Marechal, J.-L.; Marfisi, L.; Marle, M.; Martin, C.; Martin, V.; Martin, G.; Martinez, A.; Martino, P.; Masset, R.; Mazon, D.; Mellet, N.; Mercadier, L.; Merle, A.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Messina, P.; Meyer, O.; Millon, L.; Missirlian, M.; Moerel, J.; Molina, D.; Mollard, P.; Moncada, V.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, M.; Moreau, P.; Morel, P.; Moriyama, T.; Motassim, Y.; Mougeolle, G.; Moulton, D.; Moureau, G.; Mouyon, D.; Naim Habib, M.; Nardon, E.; Négrier, V.; Nemeth, J.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, M.; Nicolas, L.; Nicolas, T.; Nicollet, S.; Nilsson, E.; N'Konga, B.; Noel, F.; Nooman, A.; Norscini, C.; Nouailletas, R.; Oddon, P.; Ohsako, T.; Orain, F.; Ottaviani, M.; Pagano, M.; Palermo, F.; Panayotis, S.; Parrat, H.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Passeron, C.; Pastor, P.; Patterlini, J.; Pavy, K.; Pecquet, A.-L.; Pégourié, B.; Peinturier, C.; Pelletier, T.; Peluso, B.; Petrzilka, V.; Peysson, Y.; Pignoly, E.; Pirola, R.; Pocheau, C.; Poitevin, E.; Poli, V.; Poli, S.; Pompon, F.; Porchy, I.; Portafaix, C.; Preynas, M.; Prochet, P.; Prou, M.; Ratnani, A.; Raulin, D.; Ravenel, N.; Renard, S.; Ricaud, B.; Richou, M.; Ritz, G.; Roche, H.; Roubin, P.; Roux, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabathier, F.; Sabot, R.; Saille, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sakamoto, R.; Salasca, S.; Salmon, T.; Salmon, T.; Samaille, F.; Sanchez, S.; Santagiustina, A.; Saoutic, B.; Sarazin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Schlosser, J.

2013-10-01

279

Integrative approaches to hybrid multifunctional materials: from multidisciplinary research to applied technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Achieving nanostructured or hierarchical hybrid architectures involves cross-cutting synthetic strategies where all facettes of chemistry (organic, polymers, solid-state, physical, materials chemistries, biochemistry, etc..), soft matter and ingenious processing are synergistically coupled. These cross-cutting approaches are in the vein of bio-inspired synthesis strategies where the integration of different areas of expertise allows the development of complex systems of various shapes with perfect mastery at different size scales, composition, porosity, functionality, and morphology. These strategies coined "Integrative Chemistry" open a land of opportunities to create advanced hybrid materials with organic-inorganic or bio-inorganic character. These hybrid materials represent not only a new field of basic research where creative chemists can express themselves, but also, via their remarkable new properties and multifunctional nature, hybrids are allowing the emergence of innovative industrial applications in extremely diverse fields.

Nicole L; Rozes L; Sanchez C

2010-08-01

280

An integrated expert system/operations research approach for the optimization of natural gas pipeline operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on a project, conducted jointly between SaskEnergy/Transgas and the University of Regina, which aims at developing an integrated decision support system for the optimization of natural gas pipeline operations. In this integrated approach, both expert systems and operations research techniques are used to model the operations of the gas pipelines. The decision support system can perform the tasks of (1) determining the state of the line pack of the pipelines and recommending the control commands to be issued, (2) determining the associated horsepower requirement, and (3) determining the specific compressor unit to be turned on or off. The first two tasks are performed by an expert system, and the third by a fuzzy programming model. The expert system has been developed on G2 and validated using a simulation program. (author)

Chi Ki Sun; Uraikul, V.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering; Chan, C.W. [University of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Science

2000-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

An action research approach for the professional development of Vietnamese nurse educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurse education in Viet Nam is undergoing substantial reform. In order to facilitate the change, in 2007 the Viet Nam Nurses Association formed a collaborative partnership with the School of Nursing and Midwifery at an Australia university. This collaboration gave rise to the Viet Nam Nursing Capacity Building Project under the leadership of Professor Genevieve Gray, funded by the Atlantic Philanthropies. The new four year competency based nursing curriculum frame is expected to be implemented in September 2011 following approval by the Viet Nam Ministry of Education. The focus of this paper is the Teaching Fellowship Program, an initiative of the Viet Nam Nursing Capacity Building Project, developed to help meet the challenges associated with leading and dealing with the curriculum change. The paper explores the development of the program and justifies an action research approach, illuminates key issues, and briefly refers to changes to the next fellowship program. PMID:22138354

Chapman, Helen; Lewis, Peter; Osborne, Yvonne; Gray, Genevieve

2011-12-03

282

The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program.

Kanna Balavenkatesh; Deng Changchun; Erickson Savil N; Valerio Jose A; Dimitrov Vihren; Soni Anita

2006-01-01

283

Recent approaches in design of peptidomimetics for antimicrobial drug discovery research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resistant pathogenic microbial strains are emerging at a rate that far exceeds the pace of new anti-infective drug development. In order to combat resistance development, there is pressing need to develop novel class of antibiotics having different mechanism of action in comparison to existing antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified as ubiquitous components of innate immune system and widely regarded as a potential source of future antibiotics owing to a remarkable set of advantageous properties ranging from broad spectrum of activity to low propensity of resistance development. However, AMPs present several drawbacks that strongly limit their clinical applicability as ideal drug candidates such as; poor bioavailability, potential immunogenicity and high production cost. Thus, to overcome the limitations of native peptides, peptidomimetic becomes an important and promising approach. The different research groups worldwide engaged in antimicrobial drug discovery over the past decade have paid tremendous effort to design peptidomimetics. This review will focus on recent approaches in design of antimicrobial peptidomimetics their structure-activity relationship studies, mode of action, selectivity & toxicity.

Lohan S; Bisht GS

2013-06-01

284

Approach to oil shale health and environmental research: a concept paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated research approach is discussed for understanding the complex health and environmental issues that affect both the extent and rate of development of the US oil shale resource. Our main purpose is to investigate process modifications that mitigate any health and environmental impacts while improving or maintaining the yield and quality of shale oil. Because many of the recognized problems are influenced by the physics and chemistry of the retorting process, they must be understood in the context of those process parameters that control the identity and behavior of products, wastes, and effluents. To develop an orderly perspective of health and environmental consequences of oil shale processing, the identity and behavior of the raw material, the chemical principles operative during processing, and the interaction of the raw material and the process to yield products, effuents, and solid wastes must be understood. This approach allows us to determine the nature, magnitude, and time dependence of the organic compound, major, and trace element releases as functions of the raw shale mineralogy, retorting conditions, and spent shale and effluent compositions. This information is essential for understanding and quantifying the environmental behavior and health effects that may result from shale oil extraction and processing.

Peterson, E.J.; Spall, W.D.; Wagner, P.; Holland, L.M.; Tillery, M.I.; Parkinson, W.J.; Strniste, G.F.

1983-11-01

285

Approach the Good, Withdraw from the Bad—A Review on Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Measures in Applied Psychological Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Basic research has established a strong relationship between stimulus induced human motivation for approach-related behavior and left-frontal electrophysiological activity in the alpha band, i.e. frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Since approach motivation is also of interest for various fields of applied research, several recent studies investigated the usefulness of FAA as a diagnostic tool of stimulus induced motivational changes. The present review introduces the theory and the methods commonly used in approach/ withdrawal motivation research, and summarizes work on applied FAA with a focus on product design, marketing, brain-computer communication and mental health studies, where approach motivation is of interest. Studies investigating and developing the application of FAA training in the treatment of affective disorders such as major depressive disorder and anxiety disorder are also introduced, highlighting some of the future possibilities.

Benny B. Briesemeister; Sascha Tamm; Angela Heine; Arthur M. Jacobs

2013-01-01

286

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

1995-01-01

287

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

Kercel, S.W.

1995-02-01

288

Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Andressa da Silveira; Joanita Cechin Donaduzzi; Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira; Eliane Tatsch Neves

2010-01-01

289

A reflection about research approach with emphasis in the qualitative-quantitative integration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to promote a reflection about the theoretical-methodological approaches, giving eminence to the qualitative-quantitative integration analysis in health research. It is emphasized, on one hand, the importance of each method, according to their characteristics, for sciences consolidation as a revelation tool of their specific objects. In counterpart, the authors invite us to a reflection about the subjacent integration of methods. For this purpose, they show differences between the ways of idealizing the research, suscitated by different reference charts to perceive and understand phenomenons, concluding with the consideration that, even different in relation to shape and emphasis, the qualitative and quantitative methods do not oppose each other, neither exclude each other, but they complement themselves with the purpose to reveal, in the most complete way as possible, the facets of a given phenomenon or social reality. Reflection in this field can help to clearly see the entails and the meaning of working with the integration of methods, in the actual context in which the knowledge production process needs to allow itself to transit between the disciplines, as a way of increasing its potential of intervention in society.

Fátima Luna Pinheiro Landim; Lídia Andrade Lourinho; Roberta Cavalcante Muniz Lira; Zélia Maria Souza Araújo Santos

2006-01-01

290

Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS) that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS) that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited.

Nadkarni Prakash M; Kemp Rowena; Parikh Chirag R

2011-01-01

291

The KNOO research consortium: work package 3 - an integrated approach to waste immobilisation and management - 16375  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Keeping the Nuclear Option Open (KNOO) research consortium is a four-year research council funded initiative addressing the challenges related to increasing the safety, reliability and sustainability of nuclear power in the UK. Through collaboration between key industrial and governmental stakeholders, and with international partners, KNOO was established to maintain and develop skills relevant to nuclear power generation. Funded by a research grant of Pounds 6.1 M from the 'Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy Programme' of the UK Research Councils, it represents the single largest university-based nuclear research programme in the UK for more than 30 years. The programme is led by Imperial College London, in collaboration with the universities of Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Cardiff and the Open University. These universities are working with the UK nuclear industry, who contributed a further Pounds 0.4 M in funding. The industry/government stakeholders include AWE, British Energy, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Environment Agency, the Health and Safety Executive, Doosan Babcock, the Ministry of Defence, Nirex, AMEC NNC, Rolls-Royce PLC and the UK Atomic Energy Authority. Work Package 3 of this consortium, led by the University of Leeds, concerns 'An Integrated Approach to Waste Immobilisation and Management', and involves Imperial College London, and the Universities of Manchester and Sheffield. The aims of this work package are: to study the re-mobilisation, transport, solid-liquid separation and immobilisation of particulate wastes; to develop predictive models for particle behaviour based on atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale simulations; to develop a fundamental understanding of selective adsorption of nuclides onto filter systems and their immobilisation; and to consider mechanisms of nuclide leaving and transport. The paper describes highlights from this work in the key areas of multi-scale modeling (using atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale models), the engineering properties of waste (linking microscopic and macroscopic behaviour, and transport and rheology), and waste reactivity (considering waste hosts and wasteforms, generation IV wastes, and waste interactions). (authors)

2009-01-01

292

How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

2013-04-01

293

Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems) can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the system’s metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc.) and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc.) under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour) and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estruct

Matthias Wolff

2002-01-01

294

Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify the requirements for data collection and collect data.

Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

2012-01-01

295

The Effect of Evaluative Research on Clinicians' Feelings of Competence, Attitudes Toward Research and Acceptance of a New Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

A community psychiatric team intimately involved themselves in evaluative research predicting the significant reduction of dysfunctional client behaviors. Following completion of the study team members responded to a 26 item Staff Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) determining clinicians' feelings of competence, attitudes about research, and acceptance…

Becker, Roy E.; And Others

296

Walk together children with no wasted steps: community-academic partnering for equal power in NIH proposal development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches equitably involve community members and researchers throughout the research process. A developing literature examines problems in CBPR partnerships, but less is written about community groups using CBPR to access university resources to address community-prioritized health concerns. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine issues in two stages of a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded CBPR partnership: (1) joint proposal preparation, and (2) grant administration. METHODS: We used a case study approach to analyze data (partner dialogs, meeting notes, interviews, and press coverage) from a longstanding community-academic partnership. RESULTS: The partnership received NIH Partners in Research Program funding. During joint proposal preparation, issues included (1) learning to practice operating principles, such as "talking in ways that all people can understand," (2) streamlining proposal design to facilitate communication with community members, and (3) addressing inequities inherent in community-academic budget sharing. During the administration phase, issues included (1) community partner struggles with administrative requirements, (2) inequities in indirect cost (IDC) allocations, and (3) the impact of a natural disaster. CONCLUSION: Separately funded CBPR grants can contribute to community partner development, but make substantive demands on small, grassroots community organizations. Funders should consider taking more responsibility in developing community resources and infrastructure to ensure that grassroots community groups have the power to be equal partners. More accurate accounting of costs and benefits of CBPR to vulnerable communities should be in place to ensure communities receive adequate return on the time they invest in partnering with universities.

Williams KJ; Cooks JM; May M; Peranteau J; Reifsnider E; Hargraves MA

2010-01-01

297

Review: Keith F. Punch (2005). Introduction to Social Research – Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches Review: Keith F. Punch (2005). Introduction to Social Research—Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches Reseña: Keith F. Punch (2005). Introduction to Social Research—Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction to Social Research enthält insgesamt zwölf sehr detaillierte und gut zugängliche Kapitel über quantitative, qualitative und mixed-method Ansätze und richtet sich an Personen, die gerade beginnen, sich mit den Sozialwissenschaften zu befassen. In die nun vorgelegte 2. Auflage wurden zahlreiche illustrative Anwendungsbeispiele aufgenommen, die es Studierenden ermöglichen, die Grundlagen sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung zu verstehen. Ich selbst werde dieses Buch neuen Studentinnen und Studenten als praktische Hilfe für ihre Forschung unbedingt empfehlen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249PUNCH's book is composed of 12 comprehensive and very accessible chapters on quantitative, qualitative and mixed empirical methods, intended for newcomers to the social sciences. This second edition of the book provides a wide range of illustrative examples, making it easier for the student to comprehend the basics of research. I would strongly recommend it to my undergraduate students as a practical and friendly guide for their studies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249El libro de Punch está compuesto por 12 capítulos muy comprensibles y accesibles sobre los métodos empíricos cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, deseables para los recién llegados a las ciencias sociales. Esta segunda edición del libro proporciona una amplia gama de ejemplos ilustrativos, haciendo más fácil para el estudiante la comprensión de los fundamentos de la investigación. Lo recomendaría especialmente a mis estudiantes no graduados como guía práctica y amigable para sus estudios. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249

Constantinos N. Phellas

2006-01-01

298

A Framing Approach to Cross-disciplinary Research Collaboration: Experiences from a Large-scale Research Project on Adaptive Water Management  

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Full Text Available Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants’ evaluations, and our own observations during meetings, we analyze three aspects of frame diversity in a large-scale research project. First, we identify dimensions of difference in the way project members frame the central concept of adaptive water management. Second, we analyze the challenges provoked by the multiple framings of concepts. Third, we analyze how a number of interventions (interactive workshops, facilitation, group model building, and concrete case contexts) contribute to the connection and integration of different frames through a process of joint learning and knowledge construction.

Art Dewulf; Greet François; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Tharsi Taillieu

2007-01-01

299

Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197) scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166). Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers). Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.

Street Annette F; Swift Kathleen; Annells Merilyn; Woodruff Roger; Gliddon Terry; Oakley Anne; Ottman Goetz

2007-01-01

300

Strategic Approach for Funding Research: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Patient Safety Initiative 2000-2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical errors result in considerable morbidity, mortality, and costs to the health care system. Regardless, research efforts to understand and improve patient safety received relatively little attention or funding prior to 2001. While the Agency for Heal...

M. A. Keyes E. Ortiz D. Queenan R. Hughes F. Chesley

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Finding a Probabilistic Approach to Develop a Fuzzy Expert System for the Assessment of Research Projects using ANP Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, project selection is a vital decision in many organizations. Because competition among research projects in order to gain more budgets and to attain new scientific domain has increased. Due to multiple objectives and budgeting restrictions for academic research projects have led to the use of expert system for decision making by academic and research centers. The existing methods suffer from deficiencies such as solution time inefficiency, ineffective assessment process, and unclear definition of appropriate criteria. In this paper, a fuzzy expert system is developed and improved for decision making in allocating budgets to research projects, by using the analytic network process(ANP). This has led to fewer rules and regulation, faster and more accurate decision-making, fewer calculations, and less system complexity. The rules of the expert system exacted in C# environment, consider all of the conditions and factors affecting the system. We describe the results of proposed model to measure its advantages and compare to existing selection processes for 120 projects. We also discuss the potential of proposed expert system in supporting decision making. The implementation results show that this system is significantly valid in selecting high-priority projects with respect to the known criteria , decision making regarding the determination of the assessment factors, budget allocation, and providing the appropriate initiatives for the improvement of the low-priority projects.

Hassan Khademizare,; Tahereh Aliheidari bioki,

2012-01-01

302

Thermoelectric materials -- New directions and approaches. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 478  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermoelectric materials are utilized in a wide variety of applications related to solid-state refrigeration or small-scale power generation. Thermoelectric cooling is an environmentally friendly method of small-scale cooling in specific applications such as cooling computer chips and laser diodes. Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide range of applications from beverage coolers to power generation for deep-space probes such as the Voyager missions. Over the past thirty years, alloys based on the Bi-Te systems {l{underscore}brace}(Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2} (Te{sub 1{minus}x}Se{sub x}){sub 3}{r{underscore}brace} and Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} systems have been extensively studied and optimized for their use as thermoelectric materials to perform a variety of solid-state thermoelectric refrigeration and power generation tasks. Despite this extensive investigation of the traditional thermoelectric materials, there is still a substantial need and room for improvement, and thus, entirely new classes of compounds will have to be investigated. Over the past two-to-three years, research in the field of thermoelectric materials has been undergoing a rapid rebirth. The enhanced interest in better thermoelectric materials has been driven by the need for much higher performance and new temperature regimes for thermoelectric devices in many applications. The essence of a good thermoelectric is given by the determination of the material's dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = ({alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}/{lambda})T, where {alpha} is the Seebeck coefficient, {sigma} the electrical conductivity and {lambda} the total thermal conductivity. The best thermoelectric materials have a value of ZT = 1. This ZT = 1 has been an upper limit for more than 30 years, yet no theoretical or thermodynamic reason exits for why it can not be larger. The focus of the symposium is embodied in the title, Thermoelectric Materials: New Directions and Approaches. Many of the researchers in the field believe that future advances in thermoelectric applications will come through research in new materials. The authors have many new methods of materials synthesis and much more rapid characterization of these materials than were available 20--30 years ago. They have tried to focus the symposium on new directions and new materials such as skutterudites, quantum well and superlattice structures, new metal chalcogenides, rare earth systems, and quasicrystals. Other new materials are also presented in these proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume.

Tritt, T.M.; Kanatzidis, M.G.; Lyon, H.B. Jr.; Mahan, G.D. [eds.

1997-07-01

303

Research on Logistics Network Infrastructure Based on HCA and DEA-PCA Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Logistics Network Infrastructure (LNI) is an important area of Logistics Infrastructure Capability (LIC). The connotation of LNI is analyzed in this paper. Compared with the extensive research on LNI in developed world, empirical work is still rare in China. In this paper the theory of LNI is firstly overviewed. Then a new evaluation index system for LNI evaluation is set up which contains factors that reflect economic development level, transportation accessibility and turnover volume of freight traffic. Thirdly, an empirical study is carried out by using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach to classify LNI into 4 clusters for 25 cities in Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Fourthly, according to the characteristics of the 4 clusters, suggestions are proposed for improving their LNI. Finally, after comparing different LNI of 25 cities in Yangtze River Delta Region of China, this paper focuses on that different LNI including Hub, Central Distribution Center & Cross Docking Center, Regional Distribution Center or Distribution Center should be build reasonably in order to meet the customer’s requirement in the 4 different cluster cities.

Changbing Jiang

2010-01-01

304

A "Bottom-Up" Approach to Aetiological Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviors of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioral, communicative, and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviors observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW), and in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – are associated with greater behavioral homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this “proof of principle” paper provide support for this “bottom-up” approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.

Unwin, Lisa M.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John A.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

2013-01-01

305

An Epidemiological Approach to Welfare Research in Zoos: The Elephant Welfare Project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

Carlstead K; Mench JA; Meehan C; Brown JL

2013-10-01

306

New molecular approaches in the diagnosis of acute diarrhea: advantages for clinicians and researchers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the advantages of new-generation molecular diagnostics as regards acute diarrhea, and to evaluate how they can help clinicians and researchers diagnose this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Thanks to real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, many enteropathogens can now be identified simultaneously within hours. Most techniques are based on amplification of specific nucleotide sequences. With high-resolution melting analyses, microarrays, and metagenomic analyses, multiple genomic sequences can be evaluated in a single sample; thus, a wide range of enteropathogens can be evaluated in one run. Molecular techniques have elucidated the role of major enteropathogens such as norovirus and bocavirus and their evolving epidemiology. They have revealed novel transmission routes, also in food-borne diarrhea outbreaks, and have opened the way to new therapies and preventive measures, as well as to surveillance of emerging rotavirus strains after vaccine introduction. SUMMARY: Molecular approaches are best suited for epidemiologic purposes and for selected clinical conditions such as early identification of treatable agents in at-risk patients, rather than for cases requiring only oral rehydration. In the field of acute diarrhea, the major application of molecular techniques is the identification of novel agents of gastroenteritis and their epidemiology.

Guarino A; Giannattasio A

2011-01-01

307

Measuring alcohol consumption--should the 'graduated frequency' approach become the norm in survey research?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To analyse whether recommendations for the graduated frequency (GF) approach to measure alcohol consumption are justified in a multi-cultural comparative study. DESIGN: Representative surveys, conducted between 1995 and 2003, of 10 countries participating in the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study). MEASUREMENTS: Usual quantity, usual frequency and mean consumption per day measured with three instruments: GF, generic quantity-frequency (QF) and beverage-specific quantity-frequency (QFBS). FINDINGS: The GF did not consistently yield higher volumes and quantities across all countries compared with the generic QF, while the QFBS resulted in higher quantities and higher volumes compared with the GF (in all but one country) and the QF. Frequencies were mostly higher on the GF compared with the QF and QFBS but there was also evidence of over-reporting of frequencies with the GF. Results for the GF suggested that it was implemented improperly in at least three of the 10 countries. CONCLUSION: The GF does not appear to be appropriate for cross-cultural research. It results in over-reporting of frequencies and appears to be too complex to be administered correctly in many countries. The best measure for these purposes appeared to be the QFBS particularly because it captures more effectively the variability of different alcoholic beverages with different ethanol contents and consumption with different vessel sizes.

Gmel G; Graham K; Kuendig H; Kuntsche S

2006-01-01

308

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel Ghini; Emília Hamada; Francislene Angelotti; Lúcio B. Costa; Wagner Bettiol

2012-01-01

309

Basic approach to solute transport analysis utilizing information from surface-based investigations at two Generic Underground Research Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current programme for research and development on the technical aspects of geological disposal, it is of significance to establish techniques for evaluating solute transport utilizing information from surface-based investigations through the processes of data interpretation, modeling and parameter designation within the immediate five years following the H17 Report documentation. This report presents a basic approach to promoting multidisciplinary research activities involving field investigations and relevant solute transport analysis. (author)

2007-01-01

310

Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has become home to growing numbers of immigrants and refugees from countries where the traditional practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is prevalent. These women under-utilize reproductive health care, and challenge healthcare providers in providing culturally appropriate care. PURPOSE: This study examined Somali immigrant women's experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, such as FGC, influence their use of reproductive health care. METHODS: A mixed-method community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaboration with a Somali refugee community was conducted from 2005 to 2008 incorporating surveys, semi-structured focus groups, and individual interviews. Providers caring for this community were also interviewed to gain their perspectives and experiences. RESULTS: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around shared goals of voicing unique healthcare concerns of the community to inform the development of interventional programs to improve culturally-competent care. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research using mixed-methods is critical to facilitating trust-building and engaging community members as active participants in every phase of the research process, enabling the rigorous and ethical conduct of research with refugee communities.

Johnson CE; Ali SA; Shipp MP

2009-12-01

311

Translating basic behavioral and social science research to clinical application: the EVOLVE mixed methods approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease populations. METHOD: We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM) and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention and then conducted 3 randomized controlled trials with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA versus an informational control and were followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. RESULTS: Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The 3 randomized controlled trials enrolled 242 participants who had undergone PCI, 258 with ASM, and 256 with HTN (n = 756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of informational control participants achieved successful behavior change (p = .001). In multivariate analysis, PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p < .002, odds ratio = 1.66), 95% CI [1.22, 2.27], controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking, and age. CONCLUSIONS: The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations.

Peterson JC; Czajkowski S; Charlson ME; Link AR; Wells MT; Isen AM; Mancuso CA; Allegrante JP; Boutin-Foster C; Ogedegbe G; Jobe JB

2013-04-01

312

Music's relevance for adolescents and young adults with cancer: a constructivist research approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Music is one of the most widely used activities amongst young people, significant in personal and group identity, motivation, physical release, and emotional support. Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) require specialized care because of intensified challenges related to developmental vulnerability, treatment toxicity effects, and slower improvements in survival rates compared to other age groups. To advance effective supportive care for AYA, understanding their thoughts about music is necessary. This study examines AYAs' perspectives about music's role in their lives. METHODS: A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Twelve people, 15 to 25 years old, known to onTrac@PeterMac Victorian Adolescent & Young Adult Cancer Service, participated. Respondents completed a brief music demographic questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. RESULTS: Participants mostly reported music's calming, supportive, and relaxing effects, which alleviated hardship associated with their cancer diagnoses. Themes encompassed: music backgrounds, changed "musicking", endurance and adjustment, time with music therapists, and wisdom. Music provided supportive messages, enabled personal and shared understandings about cancer's effects, and elicited helpful physical, emotional, and imagery states. Music therapy could also promote normalized and supportive connections with others. A musician, however, struggled to get music "back" post-treatment. Supportive music-based strategies were recommended for other AYA and their health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: Music can signify and creatively enable AYAs' hope, endurance, identity development, and adjustment through cancer treatment and post-treatment phases. Health professionals are encouraged to support AYAs' music-based self-care and "normalized" activities.

O'Callaghan C; Barry P; Thompson K

2012-04-01

313

Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

|The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

2008-01-01

314

Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

2006-01-01

315

HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk among Male Hispanic/Latino Migrant Farmworkers in the Southeast: Findings from a Pilot CBPR Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Little is known about the HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors of Hispanic/Latino farmworkers. This study was designed to describe risk factors for HIV and STD infection, explore personal characteristics associated with condom use, and evaluate the feasibility of collecting self-report and biomarker data from farmworkers. Methods Self-report and biomarker data were collected from a sample of male farmworkers living in 29 camps in North Carolina during the 2008 growing season. Results Over half of the 100 male workers, mean age 37.1 (range 19–68) years, reported binge drinking during the past 12 months. Forty percent of those who reported having had sex during the past three months indicated that they were under the influence of alcohol. Knowledge of HIV and STD transmission and prevention was low. Among the 25 workers who reported having had sex during the past three months, 16 and 2 reported using a condom consistently during vaginal and anal sex, respectively, and nearly one out of six workers reported paying a woman to have sex. Two workers tested positive for syphilis. Conclusions Farmworkers in this sample demonstrated significant HIV and STD risks; however, when exploring potential bivariate associations with consistent condom use no statistically significant associations were identified perhaps due to the small sample size. Because it was feasible to collect self-report and biomarker data related to HIV and STDs from Hispanic/Latino farmworkers, research needed to further explore risks and develop interventions to reduce disease exposure and transmission among this vulnerable population.

Rhodes, Scott D.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Burnell, Jacqueline M.; Whalley, Lara E.; Walkup, Michael P.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

316

Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC), based on Vygotsky’s notion of scaffolding. Assessment was conducted by comparing students’ writing samples, before and after the teaching intervention. The results indicated that the teacher’s active scaffolding processes at the early stage of the cycle benefited students by making them aware of the different ways texts are organised for different communicative purposes. In addition, students’ confidence level increased and the approach encouraged a positive attitude towards writing.

Hyejeong Ahn

2012-01-01

317

Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering genomic data more sensitive than other personal medical data. Moreover, the disease of patients, the educational level and the patient's country of origin were factors associated with the perception of risks related to genomic information. As a conclusion, it is mandatory to clarify the criteria required to establish when individual results from genomic research should be offered to participants.

Valle Mansilla JI

2011-01-01

318

Genomic research with human samples. Points of view from scientists and research subjects about disclosure of results and risks of genomic research. Ethical and empirical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomedical researchers often now ask subjects to donate samples to be deposited in biobanks. This is not only of interest to researchers, patients and society as a whole can benefit from the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention that the advent of genomic medicine portends. However, there is a growing debate regarding the social and ethical implications of creating biobanks and using stored human tissue samples for genomic research. Our aim was to identify factors related to both scientists and patients' preferences regarding the sort of information to convey to subjects about the results of the study and the risks related to genomic research. The method used was a survey addressed to 204 scientists and 279 donors from the U.S. and Spain. In this sample, researchers had already published genomic epidemiology studies; and research subjects had actually volunteered to donate a human sample for genomic research. Concerning the results, patients supported more frequently than scientists their right to know individual results from future genomic research. These differences were statistically significant after adjusting by the opportunity to receive genetic research results from the research they had previously participated and their perception of risks regarding genetic information compared to other clinical data. A slight majority of researchers supported informing participants about individual genomic results only if the reliability and clinical validity of the information had been established. Men were more likely than women to believe that patients should be informed of research results even if these conditions were not met. Also among patients, almost half of them would always prefer to be informed about individual results from future genomic research. The three main factors associated to a higher support of a non-limited access to individual results were: being from the US, having previously been offered individual information and considering genomic data more sensitive than other personal medical data. Moreover, the disease of patients, the educational level and the patient's country of origin were factors associated with the perception of risks related to genomic information. As a conclusion, it is mandatory to clarify the criteria required to establish when individual results from genomic research should be offered to participants. PMID:22977961

Valle Mansilla, José Ignacio

319

Approach and research models of quality and business performance: a critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper synthesizes the research based on the relationship between quality and performance. This review is carried out from different research design types: measures of quality management and business performance, and different research models. We focus our review on research studies written to analyze the relationship between TQM and business performance suggesting that some models that simultaneously use subjective and objective business performance measures could contribute to understand conclusion diversity on this field.

LUZ MARÍA MARÍN VINUESA

2009-01-01

320

A Phased Approach to Researching with Young Children: Lessons from Singapore and beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Research Findings: Research with young children is a complex enterprise and often fraught with ethical and practical dilemmas. This paper seeks to discuss the experience of an Australian early childhood academic undertaking research with children 3 to 6 years of age. It draws upon a series of projects that examine young children's standpoints on…

Harcourt, Deborah

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Priorities and approach of the Dutch research in organic food and farming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic research in the Netherlands is strongly tuned to the actual demand from the organic sector or enterprises on one hand and future societal development on the other hand. It comprises research activities at different levels varying from strategic (long term) research to production of applied k...

Blom-Zandstra, M.; Wijnands, F.G.

322

Approaching disaster mental health research after the 9/11 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes the author's experiences with disaster research in the post-9/11 period, first in application of prior research findings to the new situation and later in consultation on the design and development of new research specific to 9/11. The article begins by reviewing the important role of the science of disaster mental health, which was reinforced by the many requests for information from prior research for application to the post-9/11 situation. Next, the article summarizes enduring principles of disaster research application that apply across disaster sites, including 9/11. Addressing unique aspects of the post-9/11 setting, novel considerations for the disaster mental health field are introduced with a new model for conceptualization of subpopulations based on exposure level. Experience in developing research in the post-9/11 setting encountered a number of issues, suggesting need for new policy recommendations that may facilitate research in future disaster settings. PMID:15325495

North, Carol S

2004-09-01

323

Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing need for research capacity building initiatives for primary health care professionals. Historically strategies have focused on interventions aimed at individuals but more recently theoretical frameworks have proposed team-based approaches. Few studies have evaluated these new approaches. This study aims to evaluate a team-based approach to research capacity building (RCB) in primary health using a validated quantitative measure of research capacity in individual, team and organisation domains. Methods A non-randomised matched-pairs trial design was used to evaluate the impact of a multi-strategy research capacity building intervention. Four intervention teams recruited from one health service district were compared with four control teams from outside the district, matched on service role and approximate size. All were multi-disciplinary allied health teams with a primary health care role. Random-effects mixed models, adjusting for the potential clustering effect of teams, were used to determine the significance of changes in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention. Comparisons of intervention versus control groups were made for each of the three domains: individual, team and organisation. The Individual Domain measures the research skills of the individual, whereas Team and Organisation Domains measure the team/organisation's capacity to support and foster research, including research culture. Results In all three domains (individual, team and organisation) there were no occasions where improvements were significantly greater for the control group (comprising the four control teams, n = 32) compared to the intervention group (comprising the four intervention teams, n = 37) either in total domain score or domain item scores. However, the intervention group had a significantly greater improvement in adjusted scores for the Individual Domain total score and for six of the fifteen Individual Domain items, and to a lesser extent with Team and Organisation Domains (two items in the Team and one in the Organisation domains). Conclusions A team-based approach to RCB resulted in considerable improvements in research skills held by individuals for the intervention group compared to controls; and some improvements in the team and organisation's capacity to support research. More strategies targeted at team and organisation research-related policies and procedures may have resulted in increased improvements in these domains.

Holden Libby; Pager Susan; Golenko Xanthe; Ware Robert S; Weare Robyn

2012-01-01

324

The field of Participatory Design : Issues and approaches in dynamic constellations of use, design and research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory Design are outlined.

Törpel, Bettina

2007-01-01

325

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships.

Young-Lorion J; Davis MM; Kirks N; Hsu A; Slater JK; Rollins N; Aromaa S; McGinnis P

2013-01-01

326

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

2013-01-01

327

Straight talk. New approaches in healthcare. Managing medical research: strategies for success.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical research programs are under significant pressure both from declines in the growth rates of government funding as well as from increases in government oversight of the privacy and safety of human research subjects. To cope, forward-thinking healthcare institutions are applying the same no-nonsense business rules to their research programs that they apply to other programs and departments. Modern Healthcare and PricewaterhouseCoopers present Straight Talk. In the session on medical research, we discuss how and why the world of medical research is changing, and what health systems should do to manage research programs successfully. The session was held on March 4, 2003 at Modern Healthcare's Chicago headquarters. Charles S. Lauer, publisher of Modern Healthcare, was the moderator.

McDougall G; Rohrbach R; Katz P; Anderson J; Ramsay MA

2003-03-01

328

Iterating between the laboratory and the field: One researcher`s approach to the study of environmental chemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental chemistry is inextricably linked to its context of the {open_quotes}environment{close_quotes} - an extraordinarily complex setting which may bear little relationship to simple laboratory systems. This milieu is distinguished by the sheer number and diversity of different species which may interact with the chemical of interest. One consequence of the complexity of natural systems is that environmental chemists are forced to draw from a broad array of different fields. Hence, environmental chemistry is inherently highly interdisciplinary, and many practitioners have entered this discipline through routes that might be viewed as somewhat unorthodox, or conduct research in environmental chemistry outside of traditional chemistry departments. Although environmental {open_quotes}reagents{close_quotes} are often difficult to characterize and vary in abundance from one locale to the next, they can exert an important effect on transformation pathways, with important implications to rates of contaminant removal as well as to the nature of contaminant transformation products. The real world may be dishearteningly complex, and laboratory systems may be unrealistically simplistic -- nevertheless, by iterating between the two, it is often possible to deduce factors that govern the fate of contaminants in the environment as this talk will illustrate.

Roberts, A.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

329

To enter the kitchen door to people’s lives : A Multi-Method Approach in the Research of Transnational Practices among Lifestyle Migrants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces and evaluates an ethnological qualitatively-based multi-method approach in researching lifestyle migrant’s transnational practices in destinations of lifestyle migration. Drawing on research of individual and collective practices of transnationality among lifestyle migr...

Linderson, Annie

330

A practitioner-focused approach to the provision of psychological support in soccer: adopting action research themes and processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review, we explore a practitioner-focused approach to the provision of psychological support in soccer. Support is depicted to be a collaborative exercise and is associated with action research themes and processes. Various procedures and perspectives that are associated with action research are outlined. The ideas presented suggest that many soccer-based practitioners (coaches, managers and physiotherapists) have the capacity to influence how sport psychology practice might be experienced by players. The sport scientist is depicted here as someone who acts as a critical friend to those practitioners who are interested in developing aspects of their own working practice. Having established these ideas, the review provides an illustration of how a combination of action research themes and qualitative research techniques has been used to influence and support heads of education and welfare in UK soccer academies across the north-west of England.

Gilbourne D; Richardson D

2005-06-01

331

A practitioner-focused approach to the provision of psychological support in soccer: adopting action research themes and processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we explore a practitioner-focused approach to the provision of psychological support in soccer. Support is depicted to be a collaborative exercise and is associated with action research themes and processes. Various procedures and perspectives that are associated with action research are outlined. The ideas presented suggest that many soccer-based practitioners (coaches, managers and physiotherapists) have the capacity to influence how sport psychology practice might be experienced by players. The sport scientist is depicted here as someone who acts as a critical friend to those practitioners who are interested in developing aspects of their own working practice. Having established these ideas, the review provides an illustration of how a combination of action research themes and qualitative research techniques has been used to influence and support heads of education and welfare in UK soccer academies across the north-west of England. PMID:16195013

Gilbourne, David; Richardson, David

2005-06-01

332

Trends in the theoretical and research methodological approaches applied in doctoral studies in information and knowledge management: an exploration of ten years of research in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past ten years have seen the field of information and knowledge management develop and implement new and improved technologies. Because of the ease with which information is exchanged the contribution to information overload has increased exponentially and the need for information and knowledge management is more real than ever before. Research in itself is a science of knowledge creation that continuously evolves in line with newly developed theories and research methodologies. An investigation of the theories and research methodologies that doctoral theses, completed in South Africa, ascribed to over the past ten years were conducted. Search strings containing 'information management', 'knowledge management' and 'information and knowledge management' were searched within citation, abstract and subject fields. A sample of 30 theses from a possible 47 in the relevant population was identified. Qualitative and mixed methods research design was favoured, making use of case studies and surveys, but paying little attention to theoretical approaches or paradigms. The boundaries between disciplines are continuously re-defined, new disciplines evolve and traditional disciplines suffer under the pressures of changing problems of the world. The importance of research in the field of information and knowledge management being grounded in the most recent scientific thought is emphasized.

M. A. Mearns

2010-01-01

333

Trends in the theoretical and research methodological approaches applied in doctoral studies in information and knowledge management: an exploration of ten years of research in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past ten years have seen the field of information and knowledge management develop and implement new and improved technologies. Because of the ease with which information is exchanged the contribution to information overload has increased exponentially and the need for information and knowledge management is more real than ever before. Research in itself is a science of knowledge creation that continuously evolves in line with newly developed theories and research methodologies. An investigation of the theories and research methodologies that doctoral theses, completed in South Africa, ascribed to over the past ten years were conducted. Search strings containing 'information management', 'knowledge management' and 'information and knowledge management' were searched within citation, abstract and subject fields. A sample of 30 theses from a possible 47 in the relevant population was identified. Qualitative and mixed methods research design was favoured, making use of case studies and surveys, but paying little attention to theoretical approaches or paradigms. The boundaries between disciplines are continuously re-defined, new disciplines evolve and traditional disciplines suffer under the pressures of changing problems of the world. The importance of research in the field of information and knowledge management being grounded in the most recent scientific thought is emphasized.

M. A. Mearns

2008-01-01

334

Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.

2013-01-01

335

Environmental justice research and action: a case study in political economy and community-academic collaboration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-university partnerships increasingly are being created to study and address environmental injustices. This article describes a case study of one such effort and its contributions to a decade-long community struggle to curb the growth of industrial hog operations and their adverse health effects in the United States' rural south. Worldwide transformation of livestock production from family farms to large-scale industrial agricultural complexes has resulted in the degradation of local environments, with negative impacts on public health. In the rural south, the concentration of industrial livestock operations has been most pronounced in low income African-American communities. Using political economy and community-based participatory research (CBPR) as a conceptual framework, this article explores the partnership between a strong community-based organization, Concerned Citizens of Tillery, and researchers at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Public Health to study and address this problem. The political, economic, and historical context of the partnership is examined, as are the challenges faced, and the partnership's contributions to maintaining grassroots community organizing and activism and affecting local policy change. Implications for other CBPR partnerships are discussed.

Tajik M; Minkler M

2007-01-01

336

AN APPROACH TO MEASURE RESEARCH RELATED DOMAINS USING WEB-MINING TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the time passes by, people are seeing more and more research activities in various fields including medicine, pure science, and technology and so on. The research works are published by the researchers in various journals and conferences, which are made publically available by the publishers. Though such research is spread all over the world, there should be a distinct pattern for this, which suggest that different geographical areas observes distinct trend towards particular direction of research. Government and the other state organizations periodically need adaptation of certain new technology or process for improving or implementing certain policies. Such new requirements are generally met by calling for researchers to join in hand with the organization with their proposal. Filtering such proposals also takes a hectic schedule and thorough understanding of the researchers profile and to gauge his ability to complete the work. In order to solve this problem we emphasize on extracting meaningful information from the web through web mining techniques that helps understanding the region wise trends in research domain activities and further extract more meaningful information like patterns that suggest the progress in a particular area and prominent contributors in the area.

Nilesh Jain; Dr vijay Singh Rathore

2011-01-01

337

Methodical approaches to the analysis of the results of research activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of scientific medical information and its impact indicators (researcher’s publishing activity, citation, impact factor, Hirsch index, etc) is considered. Sources of relevant indicators are specified. Data on scientometric indicators of Russian and international scientific cardiology journals are presented.

S.A. Trushchelev; R.G. Oganov

2010-01-01

338

Natural Vs. Precise Concise Languages For Human Operation Of Computers: Research Issues And Experimental Approaches  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper raises concerns that natural language frontends for computer systems can limit a researcher'sscope of thinking, yield inappropriately complex systems,and exaggerate public fear of computers. Alternativemodes of computer use are suggested and the role ofpsychologically oriented controlled experimentation isnphasized. Research methods and recent experimentalresults are briefly reviewed

Ben Shneiderman; Department Of Computer Science

339

Needs Assessment in Health Research Projects: A New Approach to Project Management in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The science and technology health plan has defined the outline of health research to the national vision of Iran by 2025. The aim of this study was to focus on the process of needs assessment of health research projects also health research priority setting in Iran.Methods: The project management life cycle has four phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution and Closure. Based on abovementioned points we conducted the study.Results: Focusing on the needs assessment led to systematic implementation of needs assessment of health project in all of the medical sciences universities. Parallel with this achieved strategies health research priority setting was followed through specific process from empowerment to implementation.Conclusion: We should adopt with more systematic progressive methods of health project managements for both our national convenience as well as our international health research programs.

Niloofar Peykari; Parviz Owlia; Hossein Malekafzali; Mostafa Ghanei; Abdolreza Babamahmoodi; Shirin Djalalinia

2013-01-01

340

Preliminary Characterization and Analysis of the Designs and Research-Manufacturing Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.

Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong

2000-10-30

 
 
 
 
341

Point of View: Approaches to Undergraduate Research and Their Practical Impact on Faculty Productivity in the Natural Sciences  

Science.gov (United States)

The many and diverse demands on faculty at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) are such that any research endeavors undertaken must be efficient and beneficial to both students and faculty. Sustaining faculty productivity into midcareer and beyond thus requires careful consideration of strategic approaches and processes. For this reason, faculty should be aware of the potential pitfalls associated with certain situations that any undergraduate project may succumb to and that lessen the likelihood that the research experience will be productive for both faculty and students. Some of these situations are examined in this article.

Thompson, Karen J.; Harvey, Lilia C.

2009-05-01

342

Understanding social forces involved in diabetes outcomes: a systems science approach to quality-of-life research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The field of quality-of-life (QOL) research would benefit from learning about and integrating systems science approaches that model how social forces interact dynamically with health and affect the course of chronic illnesses. Our purpose is to describe the systems science mindset and to illustrate the utility of a system dynamics approach to promoting QOL research in chronic disease, using diabetes as an example. METHODS: We build a series of causal loop diagrams incrementally, introducing new variables and their dynamic relationships at each stage. RESULTS: These causal loop diagrams demonstrate how a common set of relationships among these variables can generate different disease and QOL trajectories for people with diabetes and also lead to a consideration of non-clinical (psychosocial and behavioral) factors that can have implications for program design and policy formulation. CONCLUSIONS: The policy implications of the causal loop diagrams are discussed, and empirical next steps to validate the diagrams and quantify the relationships are described.

Lounsbury DW; Hirsch GB; Vega C; Schwartz CE

2013-09-01

343

Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers). These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA; Liliana STAN

2013-01-01

344

Managing clinical research permissions electronically: A novel approach to enhancing recruitment and managing consents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One mechanism to increase participation in research is to solicit potential research participants' general willingness to be recruited into clinical trials. Such research permissions and consents typically are collected on paper upon patient registration. We describe a novel method of capturing this information electronically. PURPOSE: The objective is to enable the collection of research permissions and informed consent data electronically to permit tracking of potential research participants' interest in current and future research involvement and to provide a foundation for facilitating the research workflow. METHODS: The project involved systematic analysis focused on key areas, including existing business practices, registration processes, and permission collection workflows, and ascertaining best practices for presenting consent information to users via tablet technology and capturing permissions data. Analysis was followed by an iterative software development cycle with feedback from subject matter experts and users. RESULTS: An initial version of the software was piloted at one institution in South Carolina for a period of 1 year, during which consents and permission were collected during 2524 registrations of patients. The captured research permission data were transmitted to a clinical data warehouse. The software was later released as an open-source package that can be adopted for use by other institutions. LIMITATIONS: There are significant ethical, legal, and informatics challenges that must be addressed at an institution to deploy such a system. We have not yet assessed the long-term impact of the system on recruitment of patients to clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that by improving the ability to track willing potential research participants, we can improve recruitment into clinical trials and, in the process, improve patient education by introducing multimedia to informed consent documents.

Sanderson IC; Obeid JS; Madathil KC; Gerken K; Fryar K; Rugg D; Alstad CE; Alexander R; Brady KT; Gramopadhye AK; Moskowitz J

2013-08-01

345

A abordagem sistêmica na pesquisa em Engenharia de Produção The systems approach to the Production Engineering research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Engenharia de Produção está afeta a problemas que se caracterizam pela complexidade. Para serem resolvidos, esses problemas demandam conhecimentos que vão além da matemática e da física, como ocorre nas engenharias mais clássicas. Eles necessitam de uma abordagem que permita o acesso ao conhecimento de várias disciplinas simultaneamente, ou seja, uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Para praticar a interdisciplinaridade e sistematizar o processo de pesquisa na Engenharia de Produção é apresentada a abordagem sistêmica. Ela é capaz de levar em conta o conjunto das variáveis que caracterizam os problemas considerados complexos. A base metodológica escolhida para implementar a abordagem sistêmica é a sistemografia, que permite ampliar o horizonte de pesquisa para aproximar a realidade do fenômeno observado. Finalmente, será mostrada como a abordagem sistêmica permite que o pesquisador trabalhe em um nível maior de subjetividade sem perder a tão necessária "objetividade" científica.Production Engineering is beset by problems that may be characterized by their complexity. To solve these problems demands knowledge that goes beyond mathematics and physics, since they occur within the classical areas of engineering. It requires an approach that allows access to knowledge of several disciplines simultaneously, that is, an interdisciplinary approach. To perform the interdisciplinarity and to systemize the research process in Production Engineering, a systemic approach is imparted. This is capable of taking into account the set of variables that characterize the perceived problems as complex. The methodological base chosen to implement the systemic approach is sistemography. This allows the research scope draw closer to the reality of the observed phenomenon. Finally, it will be demonstrated how the systemic approach allows the researcher to work at a higher level of subjectivity without losing the indispensable scientific "objectivity".

Alfredo Iarozinski Neto; Maria Silene Leite

2010-01-01

346

Evaluate the radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor using TLD approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor, TRR, was evaluated using TLD approach. The decay radionuclide was verified to be Co-60. The dose along the TRR central thimble hole was detected and revised by performing an unfolding analysis. The revised data reduced to 70-90% of the original data (for example, the maximum dose rate was reduced from 6447 to 4831 mSv/h,) and were more reliable.

Lee LH; Sher HF; Lu IH; Pan LK

2012-04-01

347

Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009)) and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies). The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a) advancing knowledge, b) capacity building, c) informing decision-making, d) health benefits, e) broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social) are often valued differently in different models.

Banzi Rita; Moja Lorenzo; Pistotti Vanna; Facchini Andrea; Liberati Alessandro

2011-01-01

348

The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions. PMID:11345657

Krumeich, A; Weijts, W; Reddy, P; Meijer-Weitz, A

2001-04-01

349

The benefits of anthropological approaches for health promotion research and practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years health education practitioners have been looking for ways to extend the social psychological analysis of human behavior with approaches that focus on the cultural and social context of human behavior. In this article the value of the 'thick description' approach, borrowed from anthropology, is explored by examples from the Caribbean and South Africa. It demonstrates that an anthropological approach has much to offer as a basis for sound interventions for understanding human behavior. However, although an anthropological approach offers valuable starting points for interventions, its broad scope exceeds the traditional goals of health education (changing health beliefs, health counseling). Interventions will not aim at informing individuals, but at improving cultures. They may concern the change of basic cultural and social structures such as gender roles. To limit the risk of ethnocentrism, adequate ways need to be developed to make optimal use of the information thick description offers, while avoiding ethnocentrism. The article ends with a discussion concerning the assets of a dialogical approach towards health promotion. A dialogue between health promoters and their target population may help solve the problem of ethnocentrism in broadly scoped interventions.

Krumeich A; Weijts W; Reddy P; Meijer-Weitz A

2001-04-01

350

What would judgment and decision making research be like if we took a Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Judgment and decision making research overwhelmingly uses null hypothesis significance testing as the basis for statistical inference. This article examines an alternative, Bayesian approach which emphasizes the choice between two competing hypotheses and quantifies the balance of evidence provided by the data---one consequence of which is that experimental results may be taken to strongly favour the null hypothesis. We apply a recently-developed ``Bayesian $t$-test'' to existing studies of the anchoring effect in judgment, and examine how the change in approach affects both the tone of hypothesis testing and the substantive conclusions that one draws. We compare the Bayesian approach with Fisherian and Neyman-Pearson testing, examining its relationship to conventional $p$-values, the influence of effect size, and the importance of prior beliefs about the likely state of nature. The results give a sense of how Bayesian hypothesis testing might be applied to judgment and decision making research, and of both the advantages and challenges that a shift to this approach would entail.

William J. Matthews

2011-01-01

351

Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: challenges, opportunities, and research needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended.

Burgess-Herbert SL; Euling SY

2013-09-01

352

Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.

Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott

2011-01-01

353

The geosystem approach in complex researches 30-kilometer zone of the projected power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the conducted scientific research works the electronic map of geosystems of 30 kilometre zones of the atomic power station (M 1:50000) to be used in design workings-out is made. (authors)

2009-01-01

354

Expanding the frontiers of population nutrition research: new questions, new methods, and new approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research.

Pelletier DL; Porter CM; Aarons GA; Wuehler SE; Neufeld LM

2013-01-01

355

Current Research Approaches to Neural Mechanisms of Learning and Memory. Preliminary Report on a Conference Held at Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute of Education takes a fundamental approach to the problems it is addressing. This implies the creation of an intellectual framework for the problem areas, which can be used to systematize existing knowledge and research approaches and suggest promising new directions for research and development. Neural mechanisms of learning…

Bengelsdorf, Irving S.; And Others

356

Implementation science approaches for integrating eHealth research into practice and policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To summarize key issues in the eHealth field from an implementation science perspective and to highlight illustrative processes, examples and key directions to help more rapidly integrate research, policy and practice. METHODS: We present background on implementation science models and emerging principles; discuss implications for eHealth research; provide examples of practical designs, measures and exemplar studies that address key implementation science issues; and make recommendations for ways to more rapidly develop and test eHealth interventions as well as future research, policy and practice. RESULTS: The pace of eHealth research has generally not kept up with technological advances, and many of our designs, methods and funding mechanisms are incapable of providing the types of rapid and relevant information needed. Although there has been substantial eHealth research conducted with positive short-term results, several key implementation and dissemination issues such as representativeness, cost, unintended consequences, impact on health inequities, and sustainability have not been addressed or reported. Examples of studies in several of these areas are summarized to demonstrate this is possible. CONCLUSIONS: eHealth research that is intended to translate into policy and practice should be more contextual, report more on setting factors, employ more responsive and pragmatic designs and report results more transparently on issues important to potential adopting patients, clinicians and organizational decision makers. We outline an alternative development and assessment model, summarize implementation science findings that can help focus attention, and call for different types of more rapid and relevant research and funding mechanisms.

Glasgow RE; Phillips SM; Sanchez MA

2013-07-01

357

Structural Equations Modeling: Presentation of a multivariate statistical approach to research in Physical Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Structural equation modeling is a multivariate statistical technique for assessing, simultaneously, relationships between multiple constructs. The aim of this paper is to present the principles of this approach, its elements, its characteristics, its stages of implementation and its limitations. Finally, we present future perspectives and possibilities of applying this statistical technique in studies of Physical Education.

A.N. Campana; M.C. Tavares; D. Silva

2009-01-01

358

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

359

Omic techniques in systems biology approaches to traditional Chinese medicine research: present and future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Omic techniques have become key tools in the development of systems biology. As the holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and new tendencies in Western medicine towards personalised medicine require in-depth knowledge of mechanisms of action and active com...

BOSISIO, ENRICA ANGELA

360

Measuring network reliability considering paradoxes: multiple network demon approach Transportation Research Record  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

peer-reviewed , Traditionally, game theoretic approaches to measuring transport network reliability have relied on the outcome of a game played between network users seeking to minimize their travel costs and an OD-specific demon that seeks the opposite by damaging links in the network. This problem as...

O'MAHONY, MARGARET MARY

 
 
 
 
361

Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)

2010-01-01

362

USO DEL ENFOQUE POR PROCESOS EN LA ACTIVIDAD INVESTIGATIVA USE OF THE APPROACH BY PROCESSES IN THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La realización de una investigación no sólo comprende actividades propias del campo de conocimiento de donde proviene la idea, sino también labores de gestión que permitan llevar a cabo de manera efectiva todas las etapas investigativas. Estas labores, en la mayoría de los casos subvaloradas en el campo investigativo, pero bien apreciadas en el contexto empresarial, son determinantes en el éxito de un proyecto de investigación. El enfoque por procesos constituye una de las principales bases de las prácticas de gestión que caracterizan a exitosas organizaciones empresariales y, en esta oportunidad, se exhibe la experiencia de aplicarlo al trabajo de campo de la investigación realizada por un grupo de la Universidad de Antioquia (Colombia). Este artículo pretende motivar y potenciar el desarrollo y/o la adaptación de modelos y técnicas de gestión en el ámbito investigativo, que propicien un desarrollo más eficaz y eficiente de las labores de investigación. En esta experiencia se define la misión del trabajo de campo, se identifican los procesos clave, se describe y se documenta cada uno de ellos y se realiza sensibilización y capacitación del equipo investigador en tales temas.Research requires management tasks that allow effective execution of all the research stages. In most cases, these activities, which are decisive for the success of the project, are undervalued in the research context, but well appreciated in the enterprise context. The approach by processes is one of the main foundations of successful enterprise management practices. In this opportunity, the use of the aforementioned approach in the fieldwork stage of the research performed by a group of the Universidad de Antioquia (Colombia) is shown. This article intends to motivate and promote the development and/or adaptation of management models and tools, which will lead to a better development of the research. The mission of the fieldwork stage is defined, and the key processes are identified, described, and documented. Additionally, the research team is brought into awareness and trained in these topics.

Jorge Iván Pérez Rave; Jairo Antonio Ruiz Córdoba; Carlos Mario Parra Mesa

2007-01-01

363

Research involving mental health consumers and carers: a reference group approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Policy changes within the mental health system are creating an increasing expectation that service providers increase the opportunities for consumer and carer participation in the planning, delivery and evaluation of mental health services. If they are to reflect this change in philosophy, researchers have an obligation to ensure the involvement of consumers and carers, above and beyond involvement as a participant in all relevant mental health research. This paper describes the establishment and function of a reference group, established to guide and assist with the conduct of a research project examining the experiences of consumers and carers with psychiatric disability support services. The formation and operation of, and the valuable contribution made by, the reference group is discussed. PMID:15660595

Lammers, John; Happell, Brenda

2004-12-01

364

Research involving mental health consumers and carers: a reference group approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Policy changes within the mental health system are creating an increasing expectation that service providers increase the opportunities for consumer and carer participation in the planning, delivery and evaluation of mental health services. If they are to reflect this change in philosophy, researchers have an obligation to ensure the involvement of consumers and carers, above and beyond involvement as a participant in all relevant mental health research. This paper describes the establishment and function of a reference group, established to guide and assist with the conduct of a research project examining the experiences of consumers and carers with psychiatric disability support services. The formation and operation of, and the valuable contribution made by, the reference group is discussed.

Lammers J; Happell B

2004-12-01

365

Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform  

Science.gov (United States)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

366

An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

CERN Document Server

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic

2008-01-01

367

Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the different affected business areas which discusses the data mining algorithms by higher fraud coverage. It also highlights the important challenges and limitations involved with the data mining techniques for detecting fraudulent activities.

Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Dr. J. Jebamalar Tamilselvi

2013-01-01

368

Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss and present results of the research work undertaken as well as further expected, important spin-off applications of DMP devices.

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Barriers and Facilitators to Research Use Among Allied Health Practitioners: A Mixed-Method Approach to Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS) collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD) field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale) (Funk et al. 1991), which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%). All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also