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Journal clubs: an educational approach to advance understanding among community partners and academic researchers about CBPR and cancer health disparities.  

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Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants' needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/University and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants' assessment of the topic relevance. Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members' ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities. PMID:24078328

Vadaparampil, Susan T; Simmons, Vani N; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D

2014-03-01

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Is Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) Useful? A Systematic Review on Papers in a Decade  

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Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been applied by health researchers and practitioners to address health disparities and community empowerment for health promotion. Despite the growing popularity of CBPR projects, there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate CBPR projects. The present review attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to the successful or unsuccessful interventions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using evidence identified through searching electronic databases, web sites, and reference list checks. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed by reviewers. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodologic quality, were assessed for 3 types of CBPR approaches, including interventional, observational, and qualitative research design as well as CBPR elements through separate abstraction forms. Each included study was appraised with 2 quality grades, one for the elements of CBPR and one for research design. Results: Of 14,222 identified articles, 403 included in the abstract review. Of these, 70 CBPR studies, that 56 intervention studies had different designs, and finally 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that collaboration among community partners, researchers, and organizations led to community-level action to improve the health and wellbeing and to minimize health disparities. It enhanced the capacity of the community in terms of research and leadership skills. The result provided examples of effective CBPR that took place in a variety of communities. However, little has been written about the organizational capacities required to make these efforts successful. Conclusion: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant's levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.

Salimi, Yahya; Shahandeh, Khandan; Malekafzali, Hossein; Loori, Nina; Kheiltash, Azita; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Frouzan, Ameneh S.; Majdzadeh, Reza

2012-01-01

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Popular Arts and Education in Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): on the subtle craft of developing and enhancing channels for clear conversations among CBPR partners.  

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Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a methodology hinged on flexible power relationships and unobstructed flow of expert and local knowledge among project partners. Success in CBPR depends on authentic dialogue, free flow of information, and trust. But accurate, unmediated, and timely channels of communication, while key to successful CBPR, are difficult to create and maintain. As participatory methodologies evolve, popular arts and education techniques have increasingly taken center stage as culturally fluent, bidirectional modalities for conveying information, building responsive channels for communication, promoting policy, and enhancing the effectiveness of grassroots organizing. PMID:20129900

Sullivan, John; Siqueira, C Eduardo

2009-01-01

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Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR  

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Full Text Available Objectives. Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Student Services (RSS and the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR within which we conducted the “What makes life good?” study aimed towards developing a QOL measure for AN students. Equally important was building a legacy of research trust among AN partners. Study design. We describe Phase I of a 2-phase study that employed a sequential mixed methods approach. Discussed are facilitators, challenges and lessons learned while striving to adhere to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Methods. Phase I included formative focus groups and QOL measurement development. The research involved the interplay among activities that were co-developed with the goal of enhancing trust and research capacity. Emphasis was placed on ensuring that data collection and analyses were student driven. Conclusions. All partners resided at the same university. However, trust and collaboration could not be assumed. Working within a collaborative framework, our partnership achieved the aim of developing a culturally informed QOL measure, while also creating an empowering experience for all partners who became co-investigators in a process that might normally be regarded with mistrust.

Alaina Ctibor

2012-09-01

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Community-based Participatory Research: An Approach to Intervention Research With a Native American Community  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also sug...

2004-01-01

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Studying and addressing urban immigrant restaurant worker health and safety in San Francisco's Chinatown district: a CBPR case study.  

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With its emphasis on empowerment, individual and community capacity building, and translating research findings into action, community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be particularly advantageous in work with urban immigrant populations. This paper highlights eight ways in which CBPR has been shown to add value to work with urban underserved communities. It then describes the background, context, and methods of an ecological CBPR project, the Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Study, conducted in San Francisco, California, and draws on study processes and outcomes to illustrate each of the eight areas identified. Challenges of using CBPR, particularly with urban immigrant populations, briefly are described, drawing again on the Chinatown study to provide illustrative examples. We discuss lessons learned, through this and other studies, for the effective use of CBPR with urban immigrant populations. We conclude that despite its challenges, this transdisciplinary, community-partnered and action-oriented approach to inquiry can make substantial contributions to both the processes and the outcomes of the research. PMID:23793556

Chang, Charlotte; Minkler, Meredith; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pamela Tau; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San

2013-12-01

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Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

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Evaluating a community based participatory approach to research with disadvantaged women in the southern suburbs of Beirut.  

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This manuscript presents the evaluation of a 3 year community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach involving the testing of a psychosocial intervention to improve reproductive and mental health of married women in a disadvantaged community in Beirut, Lebanon. The community-based participatory approach involved a community advisory committee (CAC), a local women committee (LWC), and university researchers. The evaluation of the CBPR approach followed qualitative assessment which included: analysis of compiled field notes and minutes of meetings of CAC and LWC throughout the 3 years of the intervention, and focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted with the CAC and the LWC members following completion of the trial. The CBPR approach confirmed feasibility, cultural adequacy, as well as representation of community needs. Five main emerging themes came out of the FGD and interviews with CAC and LWC. The community and women involved viewed that the CBPR approach allowed for a good understanding of the community, they felt ownership of the study, acknowledged that participation gave the women voices, and established trust, and acknowledged the challenges faced. This manuscript describes how the community was involved, reports on their evaluation of the CBPR process, and discusses challenges to CBPR in this particular context. PMID:21311960

Kobeissi, Loulou; Nakkash, Rima; Ghantous, Zeina; Saad, Maya Abou; Yassin, Nasser

2011-10-01

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Forward steps and missteps: What we’ve learned through the process of conducting CBPR research in rural Alaska.  

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Historically, research in Alaska has disregarded community input, creating mistrust among tribal communities toward researchers, and resulting in communities limiting their involvement in research projects. Over the past few years, tribal communities are becoming more involved in the research process; including developing their own tribal review boards and approval processes. This has resulted in the development of rigorous tribal approval processes that protect both the tribal communities an...

2013-01-01

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Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health  

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Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...

Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

2009-01-01

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Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

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Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR appro...

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

2012-01-01

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A Systematic Review of Community-Based Participatory Research to Enhance Clinical Trials in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups  

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Objective To examine the effectiveness of current community-based participatory research (CBPR) clinical trials involving racial and ethnic minorities. Data Source All published peer-reviewed CBPR intervention articles in PubMed and CINAHL databases from January 2003 to May 2010. Study Design We performed a systematic literature review. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted on each study's characteristics, community involvement in research, subject recruitment and retention, and intervention effects. Principle Findings We found 19 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were published from 2007 to 2010. Articles described some measures of community participation in research with great variability. Although CBPR trials examined a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes, such trials had very high success rates in recruiting and retaining minority participants and achieving significant intervention effects. Conclusions Significant publication gaps remain between CBPR and other interventional research methods. CBPR may be effective in increasing participation of racial and ethnic minority subjects in research and may be a powerful tool in testing the generalizability of effective interventions among these populations. CBPR holds promise as an approach that may contribute greatly to the study of health care delivery to disadvantaged populations.

De Las Nueces, Denise; Hacker, Karen; DiGirolamo, Ann; Hicks, LeRoi S

2012-01-01

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NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.  

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The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit. PMID:24702662

McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

2014-01-01

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Incorporating community-based participatory research principles into environmental health research: challenges and lessons learned from a housing pilot study.  

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In environmental health research, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can effectively involve community members, researchers, and representatives from nonprofit, academic, and governmental agencies as equal partners throughout the research process. The authors sought to use CBPR principles in a pilot study; its purpose was to investigate how green construction practices might affect indoor exposures to chemicals and biological agents. Information from this pilot informed the development of a methodology for a nationwide study of low-income urban multifamily housing. The authors describe here 1) the incorporation of CBPR principles into a pilot study comparing green vs. conventionally built urban housing, 2) the resulting implementation and reporting challenges, and 3) lessons learned and implications for increased community participation in environmental health research. PMID:24988659

Ponder-Brookins, Paris; Witt, Joyce; Steward, John; Greenwell, Douglas; Chew, Ginger L; Samuel, Yvette; Kennedy, Chinaro; Brown, Mary Jean

2014-06-01

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A Community-Specific Approach to Cancer Research in Indian Country  

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Background Healthcare leaders in a small rural American Indian community and university partners used the community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to survey cancer survivors. Objectives To provide support for the use of CBPR to generate ideas for how to improve the detection and treatment of cancer in American Indian communities. Methods Partners worked together to develop a mail-out survey and send it to the Indian health clinic’s patients who had cancer in the past five years. The survey sought information on their experiences with cancer screenings, cancer diagnoses, and accessing and receiving cancer treatment. Results Community leaders identified three priority areas for intervention: 1) high incidence of breast cancer; 2) lack of culturally appropriate cancer education; and 3) need for a more in-depth assessment. Conclusions CBPR’s partnership principle allowed for results to be viewed within the community’s context, availability of community resources, and relevant cultural beliefs and traditions.

Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Matloub, Jacqueline; Creswell, Paul; Strickland, Rick; Anderson, Diane M.

2011-01-01

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A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

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The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

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Community-based research partnerships: Challenges and opportunities  

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The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address urban health problems. Following a br...

2005-01-01

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Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards  

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National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development...

Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; Mcdonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

2007-01-01

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A CBPR Partnership Increases HIV Testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): Outcome Findings from a Pilot Test of the CyBER/testing Internet Intervention  

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The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted CyBER/testing, a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing Internet chat rooms. Using a quasi-experimental, single-group study design, cross-sectional data were collected from chat room participants, known as “ch...

2011-01-01

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Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

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Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

Tara Ford

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
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H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.

Molaison Elaine

2011-06-01

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A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities.  

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Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

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Refining the research infrastructure at community health centers.  

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Background: Community health centers (CHC) often partner with academics to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR). Because of their research expertise, academic partners are usually the principal investigators (PIs); however, moving the home base of research to the community can prove beneficial to the CHC and its community.Objectives: The purpose of this paper was to discuss the lessons learned after conducting a CBPR project and to share identified solutions.Methods: A longitudinal perinatal risk reduction intervention study was conducted with primiparous Native Hawaiian women receiving prenatal care at a CHC. The intervention incorporated home visiting, social support, and lactation management.Results: Primary lessons learned from this participatory process can be grouped into infrastructure, human resources, and recruitment.Conclusions: Sharing lessons learned can serve to expand a CHC's involvement in research, and provide a venue for discovering innovative and viable community and practice based approaches to solving health disparity challenges. PMID:24859103

Oneha, Mary Frances; Dodgson, Joan E

2014-01-01

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Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

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Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

2008-12-01

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Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

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Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

2007-07-01

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Constructivist Approaches in Educational Research  

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The rationale for a constructivist approach to behavioral and social science research, and studies which have applied this methodology, are reviewed. The author suggests that ethnographic techniques of explaining behavior patterns may be as valuable as or more appropriate than traditional behavioral science methods. (GDC)

Magoon, A. Jon

1977-01-01

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Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

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Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails....

Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen

2012-01-01

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The Significance of Strategic Community Engagement in Recruiting African American Youth & Families for Clinical Research  

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We present baseline data and describe the utility of a community engaged, culturally relevant approach to recruiting African American youth and families for phase I of The AAKOMA Project. The AAKOMA Project is a two phase treatment development study to improve mental health service use among depressed African American youth. We completed capacity building activities using a community engaged framework and Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods. Replicating the (Alvarez et al. i...

Breland-noble, Alfiee M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy

2012-01-01

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Engaging the Deaf American Sign Language Community: Lessons From a Community-Based Participatory Research Center  

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Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations.

McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas

2013-01-01

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Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

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Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

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How Can Primary Health Care System and Community-Based Participatory Research Be Complementary?  

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Full Text Available Health statistics leave little doubt that the current health system in Iran,which is mainly based on primary health care (PHC, is a functioningone, and that health in Iran has improved far beyond where it was 40years ago. However, this system has its limitations too. While PHC isvery effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesand other acute conditions, it is far less effective in addressingchronic and multi-factorial conditions which are now emerging in Iran.In this article, we review some of the salient features of the currenthealth system in Iran, its strengths and limitations, and then introducecommunity-based participatory research (CBPR as a method thatcould potentially fill some of the gaps in the system. We will discussthe definition and steps needed to implement CBPR, provide someimportant references, and discuss how this approach may not onlyimprove the health system but it could also lead to improvement inother fields in the society too.

Payam Sheikhattari

2010-01-01

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Research Report: A Complementary Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Empirical research report can be seen as a specific monologue addressed to others (including other researchers in order to inspire them to critically assess its theses as well as to, possibly, reproduce and continue the research. From this perspective, the report becomes part of a peculiar dialogue, which lacks immediate feedback and defers the addressees' response. As the author of the report is accountable for any silences and omissions, a dilemma arises whether the omissions protect the research subjects or whether they mislead the report's target audience. The paper locates the empirical research report in the ethical context of scholarship.

Kazimierz Czerwi?ski

2013-05-01

33

“Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women”: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was u...

Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2011-01-01

34

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards...

Susan D Newman, Phd; Jeannette O Andrews, Phd; Gayenell S Magwood, Phd; Carolyn Jenkins, Drph; Melissa J Cox, Mph; Deborah C Williamson, Dha

2011-01-01

35

Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perce...

Kh, Shahandeh; Majdzadeh, R.; Jamshidi, E.; Loori, N.

2012-01-01

36

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Garcia Piedad

2009-03-01

37

Action Research as a Qualitative Research Approach in Inter-Professional Education: The QUIPPED Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education…

Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori

2007-01-01

38

Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

Rudel Ruthann A

2010-07-01

39

Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Foc...

Parsai, Monica Bermu?dez; Castro, Felipe Gonza?lez; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector

2011-01-01

40

Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

42

Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

Jani?ijevi? Nebojša

2011-01-01

43

Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer. PMID:22927757

Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

2012-01-01

44

Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

Sudarshan Mishra

2004-11-01

45

“Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects...

Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee

2009-01-01

46

"Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts"  

Science.gov (United States)

Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our ‘holistic’, systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: 1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; 2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community based listening sessions; and 3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: 4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and 5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge.

Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

2009-01-01

47

Complexities of holistic community-based participatory research for a low income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

2009-11-01

48

Research and research education in music – disciplinary or interdisciplinary approach?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...

2013-01-01

49

[Challenges of the grounded theory approach to a novice researcher].  

Science.gov (United States)

The grounded theory approach has been used in nursing research since 1970. The latest methodological books describe the research process in details. However, there are many problems involved in the grounded theory approach, which especially need to be considered by a novice researcher. One of these problems is the question of how deeply and widely the researcher should get familiar with the research topic before the empirical study. The problems also include the need to focus the research problem and to choose the sampling method. Data analysis is a multistage process, which demands from the researcher sensitivity and time to work out the findings which emerge from the data. In this paper, the grounded theory approach is described as a process undertaken by the researcher. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the grounded theory approach and the problems encountered by a researcher using the method for the first time. PMID:10437449

Backman, K; Kyngäs, H

1998-01-01

50

Challenges of the grounded theory approach to a novice researcher.  

Science.gov (United States)

The grounded theory approach has been used in nursing research since 1970. The latest methodological books describe the research process in detail. However, there are many problems involved in the grounded theory approach, which especially need to be considered by a novice researcher. One of these problems is the question of how deeply and widely the researcher should familiarize her- or himself with the research topic before the empirical study. The problems also include the need to focus the research problem and to choose the sampling method. Data analysis is a multistage process, which demands from the researcher both sensitivity and time to work out the findings which emerge from the data. In this paper, the grounded theory approach is described as a process undertaken by the novice researcher. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the grounded theory approach and the problems encountered by a researcher using the method for the first time. PMID:10894637

Backman, K; Kyngäs, H A

1999-09-01

51

Alternatives to Peer Review: Novel Approaches for Research Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros ...

Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam

2011-01-01

52

Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.

AliaksandrBirukou

2011-12-01

53

Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities. PMID:22174702

Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam

2011-01-01

54

Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research  

Science.gov (United States)

The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

Kammen, Daniel M.

2013-03-01

55

Participatory action research approaches and methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

Nancy Gibson

2010-01-01

56

Participatory action research approaches and methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR. In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

Nancy Gibson

2010-11-01

57

Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemother...

Nr, Jabir; Tabrez S; Gm, Ashraf; Shakil S; Ga, Damanhouri; Ma, Kamal

2012-01-01

58

Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

2013-01-01

59

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

60

Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

Eikeland, Olav

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Genomic approaches to research in lung cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The medical research community is experiencing a marked increase in the amount of information available on genomic sequences and genes expressed by humans and other organisms. This information offers great opportunities for improving our understanding of complex diseases such as lung cancer. In particular, we should expect to witness a rapid increase in the rate of discovery of genes involved in lung cancer pathogenesis and we should be able to develop reliable molecular cr...

Gabrielson Edward

2000-01-01

62

Payout approaches in Alberta's joint oilsands research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost 2 decades of joint government-industry oilsands research in Alberta will move a step closer this year to a multi-billion barrel payout. The key to success is buried in a mine using new technology at a test facility operated by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra). This paper reports that pilot projects under way at the Underground Test Facility (UTF) 37 miles north of Fort McMurray in the Athabasca oilsands region are only two of scores that the agency has sponsored since it was established by the provincial government 18 years ago with $100 million in seed funding (see map and diagram). But authority spokesmen say the UTF tests are the most promising techniques to date to finally bring billions of barrels of bitumen reservoir within economic reach. A horizontal well in situ steam injection process designed as a precommercial pilot will being producing at a rate of 2,000 b/d in September or October. It is a follow-up to a smaller proof of concept pilot project that produced 130,000 bbl of bitumen over several years

1992-06-08

63

Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

Mandi?, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

64

One Approach to Demystifying Research in Primary Care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Research” means different things to different people. “Organized curiosity” has been proposed as a suitable description for family-practice research. Studies involving patients in community practices are becoming recognized as a unique type of research that contributes new understanding to matters relating to primary care. Such research, however, requires an infrastructure that makes a study as unobtrusive as possible in participating practices. One approach is the development of a p...

Elford, R. W.

1989-01-01

65

AN APPROACH TO HEALTH SERVICES DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process of planning and initiating health services development has been described as conceived and experienced by the working group of the Health Services Development Research Project in Iran. The technical steps (conceiving and describing the health services system, development of plans, preparatory step and implementation as well as political support needed are defined and described. The importance of clear definition of the system is stressed as the basis for situational analysis and plans. Data are presented to illustrate findings during field observations in the province of West Azarbaijan. As a mechanism to initiate the proposed changes, the choice of direction of development and objectives, as well as to focus on critical and productive elements of the existing system specifically building of a new front-line of primary health care services , have been proposed. The “functional unity” of agencies and organizations participating in health delivery system and management tools for perpetuating of development, complete the plans. After discussion of alternative plans for development it is concluded that at present it is essential to look at service systems comprehensively, use the existing services as the point of departure aim at adequate coverage and provide service as required by the population and not as conceived by professional pressure groups.

F.Amini

1973-11-01

66

A Bridge Between Communities: Video-making using principles of community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912

Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert

2004-10-01

67

Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing th...

McCourt Christine A; Morgan Philip A; Youll Penny

2006-01-01

68

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

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Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

69

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

70

Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

2012-01-01

71

Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

Hill, Gary A.

72

Respectful, Responsible, and Reciprocal Ruralities Research: Approaching and Positioning Educational Research Differently within Australian Rural Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based…

Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.

2012-01-01

73

A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches  

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Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.

James Gibson

2005-11-01

74

Exploring the Sexual Health Priorities and Needs of Immigrant Latinas in the Southeastern US: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern US. To identify sexual health priorities, gaps in information and skills, and key intervention characteristics to improve sexual health among immigrant Latinas, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership conducted four focus groups with Latinas, in central North Carolina. Findings revealed: a lack of knowledge about sexual health; shame and embarrassment related to clinical exams and conversations about sex; multi-level barriers to sexual health; and disease transmission misinformation. Findings also suggested that interventions should include information about a broad range of sexual and reproductive health topics and skill-building. Such interventions could serve to assist in diminishing health disparities experienced among this vulnerable population.

Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Siman, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D.

2012-01-01

75

Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pe...

Conner, Tamlin S.; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

2009-01-01

76

A guide to demand-driven agricultural research : the client-oriented research management approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The IER (Institut d’Economie Rurale) in Mali, and the DRD (Department of Research and Development) in Tanzania, in collaboration with KIT (Royal Tropical Institute) in the Netherlands developed the Client-Oriented Research Management Approach (CORMA) for the facilitation of this organizational change process. This guide provides tools for the assessment of the level of client-orientation by researchers and other stakeholders of the ARCs (Agricultural Research Centres), which should result i...

Heemskerk, W.; Lema, N.; Guindo, D.; Schouten, C.; Semgalawe, Z.; Verkuijl, H.; Steenhuijsen Piters, B.; Penninkhoff, P.

2003-01-01

77

Patenting at public research organisations: a multidisciplinary approach  

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In this paper, we stress two points. First, analysis of public patenting should expand their focus from universities to Public Research Organisations (PRO). Second, a multidisciplinary approach allows for a richer view and interpretation of results. We adopt historical and economic perspectives to address these issues, with data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. We distinguish three periods in the history of CSIC, according to the political context: ...

Azagra Caro, Joaqui?n; Romero Pablos, Ana

2006-01-01

78

Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

Cabassa Leopoldo J

2011-07-01

79

Combining methodological approaches in research: ethnography and interpretive phenomenology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a detailed account of two methodological approaches commonly used in qualitative research: ethnography and interpretive phenomenology. It traces both methodologies through the various stages of a research study--data collection, analysis and validation, before considering the most appropriate methods of reconstructing the participant experience for the given audience. The author puts forward a case for the combination of methodological approaches through the triangulation of data, suggesting that this can enhance our understanding of nursing. In the case of ethnographic and phenomenological data, triangulation may enable the researcher to highlight their interpretation of the phenomenon under review, whilst at the same time considering that phenomenon in terms of the participant group, their cultural background and day-to-day experiences. PMID:10632812

Maggs-Rapport, F

2000-01-01

80

Approaches to community nursing research partnerships: a case example.  

Science.gov (United States)

Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the collaborative initiation and maintenance of community partnerships. The model is informed by the recognition that cultural, social, economic, and knowledge backgrounds may vary greatly between nurse researchers and their community partners. The Familias En Acción violence prevention project exemplifies the use of the CPM in a transcultural partnership formation and implementation process. The collaborative approaches of the model guide community and research partners to interconnect and move flexibly through all partnership phases, thereby facilitating sustainability and community self-advocacy. PMID:24391121

Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; Oscós-Sánchez, Manuel Ángel; Piñeda, Daniel V; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Reflections on the ethnographic approach in three research studies  

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Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing three research studies that focused on the effects of the perception in adults´ attitudes with the purpose to improve the health care provided to children. Although each study had a distinct area of investigation, all of them adopted the ethnographic approach on the interaction between the adults and children. This work aimed at reporting the researchers' reflections with respect to: i the adoption of the ethnographic approach in Nursing studies; ii the theoretical perspectives that are relevant in the production of themes. Authors considered the value of this reflection after the research and its potential in order to understand how it can contribute to consolidate the health care theoretical frameworks in general, and the nursing care models, in particular.

Vieira Neiva Francenely Cunha

2003-01-01

82

An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT) approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB) which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustaina...

Cooke Jo; Nancarrow Susan; Dyas Jane; Williams Martin

2008-01-01

83

Research on international terrorism: orthodox approach or critical study?  

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Full Text Available This study examines the epistemological, ontological, methodological and ethical challenges that the researchers of the new current of critical study on terrorism, put to the traditional research on this phenomenon. The study begins with the presentation of the orthodox theory of terrorism and its weaknesses, as they are captured by the critical theory that stresses the need for a new research agenda. Further, we intend to present "solutions" made by the researchers of critical study on terrorism and "commitments" that they take to the discipline. Finally, this study recognizes that each approach has valuable ideas and the controversies presented are nothing but a source of progress in the real and profound knowledge of the phenomenon of international terrorism.

Cristina Aboboaie

2011-10-01

84

A Human Capital Approach to Reduce Health Disparities.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a human capital approach to reduce health disparities in South Carolina by increasing the number and quality of trained minority professionals in public health practice and research. METHODS: The conceptual basis and elements of Project EXPORT in South Carolina are described. Project EXPORT is a community based participatory research (CBPR) translational project designed to build human capital in public health practice and research. This project involves Claflin University (CU), a Historically Black College University (HBCU) and the African American community of Orangeburg, South Carolina to reduce health disparities, utilizing resources from the University of South Carolina (USC), a level 1 research institution to build expertise at a minority serving institution. The elements of Project EXPORT were created to advance the science base of disparities reduction, increase trained minority researchers, and engage the African American community at all stages of research. CONCLUSION: Building upon past collaborations between HBCU's in South Carolina and USC, this project holds promise for a public health human capital approach to reduce health disparities. PMID:21814634

Glover, Saundra H; Xirasagar, Sudha; Jeon, Yunho; Elder, Keith T; Piper, Crystal N; Pastides, Harris

2009-04-01

85

Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: Research needs and implementation strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. ?? 2010 The Royal Society.

Beard, Jr. , T. D.; Arlinghaus, R.; Cooke, S. J.; McIntyre, P. B.; De Silva, S.; Bartley, D.; Cowx, I. G.

2011-01-01

86

An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.

Dyas Jane

2008-06-01

87

Capitalising on multiplicity: an transdisciplinary systems approach to landscape research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different disciplines have landscape as the focal point of their research. They are successful in presenting new findings about landscapes within their specialization, but collaboration - and thus, transfer of knowledge across disciplinary boundaries - is seldom realized because a common approach that bridges the gaps between disciplines is missing. Instead, different landscape concepts exist side by side. Yet, cooperation is required to tackle the various environmental and social problems re...

Tress, B.; Tress, G.

2001-01-01

88

Nursing home research in Jinan, China: a focus group approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This qualitative research using the focus group approach has gathered pertinent perceptions from the stakeholders in Chinese elderly care environment, including community-based and institutionalised elderly, medical providers, administrators and governmental officials. The study found that the elderly are willing to live in nursing homes when they are not in good physical condition and are dependent on others for their activities of daily living. The utilisation of nursing home care has gaine...

Wu, Min; Li, Shi Xue; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Zhu, Ai Ai; Ning, Bo; Wan, Thomas T. H.; Unruh, Lynn

2012-01-01

89

PARTICIPATORY DEPRESSION. A CAVEAT FOR PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from participation continue to serve beneficiaries after the end of a project. These benefits would accrue more in projects with higher levels of participation. However, in the event of a premature end or an...

Vaughan, Gregory; Lanc?on, Jacques

2010-01-01

90

Impacting Society through Engineering Design Research : An alternative approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following the recent ICED11 conference in Copenhagen, Thomas Howard, ICED11 Assistant Chair and Ass. Professor at DTU has written a reflection on design research and design practice, suggesting that in addition to benefiting society through the improved understanding of methods of and approaches to design, the academic design community should through design practice produce empowering products which address societal needs unbound by the necessity for profit.

Howard, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

91

Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

2009-04-05

92

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for â??Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

93

Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge contribution from evaluation of the utility of an artifact. That is, utility-based evaluation often builds the argument on adoption of the artifact, assuming that adoption and utility in general validates also claims to knowledge contribution. We show that this mode of evaluation has philosophical and practical problems that need addressing in further research.

Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

2014-01-01

94

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

95

Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

2006-01-01

96

An evaluation approach for research project pilot technological applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In a world increasingly more competitive and in a constantly development and growth it's important that companies have economic tools, like frameworks to help them to evaluate and validate the technology development to better fits in each company particular needs. The paper presents an evaluation approach for research project pilot applications to stimulate its implementation and deployment, increasing its adequacy and acceptance to their stakeholders and consequently providing new business profit and opportunities. Authors used the DECIDE evaluation framework as a major guide to this approach, which was tested in the iSURF project to support the implementation of an interoperability service utility for collaborative supply chain planning across multiple domains supported by RFID devices.

Marcelino-Jesus, Elsa; Sarraipa, Joao; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

2013-10-01

97

A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching  

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Full Text Available This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to apply the various quantitative models in a spreadsheet. Indeed, imparting spreadsheet and modeling skills with OR skills will make students highly sought after in the modern workplace. This paper goes on to report on the experience in using spreadsheet in the Introductory OR course and students evaluations.

Susila Munisamy

2009-07-01

98

A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn ...

Susila Munisamy

2009-01-01

99

Investigating the Research Approaches for Examining Technology Adoption Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption of technology, a research topic within the Information Systems area, is usually studied at two levels: organizational level and user level. This paper examines the range of methods used for studying technology adoption issues at both these levels. The approaches were selected after conducting a review of 48 articles on technology adoption and usage, published in peer reviewed journals between 1985 and 2003. The journals reviewed include the MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, European Journal of Information Systems, Information Systems Journal, and other relevant journals in the IS area. The findings suggest that the survey method was used predominantly when investigating the topics of user adoption and the usage of technology. In contrast, the case study method is the most widely used when examining adoption issues at the organizational level.

Jyoti Choudrie

2005-01-01

100

Qualitative research approach in production engineering - an assessment of a research project and a sample of master of science dissertations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating applications of qualitative research approaches in the subject of operations management (OM, more specifically in industrial engineering. It firstly presents a brief review of research methods when using qualitative research approaches. This provides the backdrop for a content analysis of qualitative research in a research project in which a case study approach was employed. In addition, it analyses a sample of dissertations of a post graduate program in industrial engineering with regard to the qualitative research approaches used. These two cases highlighted are then used as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research approach in OM. The paper concludes that critical appraisal of qualitative research approach is needed and offers some recommendations for future work in this direction.

Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Research Experience for Undergraduates: A Non-Traditional Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REUs) have been documented to be an effective way to increase student retention in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) by exposing students to research. REUs typically run during the summer months, allowing students to travel to different universities away from their home institutions. We created an REU program, Pathways Research Experience for undergraduates Program (PREP) that ran during the fall and spring academic semesters and focused on the geosciences. These students were provided with a monthly stipend to work with a research mentor, and they were required to attend a weekly professional development meeting led by the Pathways PIs and the program coordinator. The weekly training program focused on research skills, presentation skills, and graduate school preparation. Since a majority of students at University of Texas at El Paso (a Hispanic Serving Institution with 70% Hispanic and 10% Mexican students) must work outside the university while attending college, the stipends enabled students to remain on campus to "work", with the hope that this may contribute to their overall academic success. By spending more time on campus, the participants were able to interact more with faculty and other students, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Participants were chosen on a basis of GPA and the contents of an application that included a statement of purpose, a resume, a transcript, and at least one letter of recommendation. Once the student was selected, they were required to find a mentor and research project. Through an analysis of surveys, we have found that participants enjoy the meetings, which gave them a sense of belonging to a group, and an additional source of academic support. Participants were also expected to take part in outreach activities as part of our goal to create a geosciences network in El Paso. With this REU approach, we believe that our success rate suggests that this approach works well in Hispanic Serving Institutions: 51% of our participants have gone on to graduate school, 22% are still undergraduates, 17% are unknown, 5% are in industry and 5% are teaching.

Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Hagedorn, E.; Velasco, A. A.

2012-12-01

102

Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

1992-12-01

103

The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

Gibbs, Michael

2009-11-01

104

Cultivating Research Skills: An interdisciplinary approach in training and supporting energy research  

Science.gov (United States)

Geoscience and energy research has essentially separate and diverse tracks and traditions, making the education process labor-intensive and burdensome. Using a combined forces approach to training, a multidisciplinary workshop on information and data sources and research skills was developed and offered through several departments at Stanford University. The popular workshops taught required skills to scientists - giving training on new technologies, access to restricted energy-related scientific and government databases, search strategies for data-driven resources, and visualization and geospatial analytics. Feedback and data suggest these workshops were fundamental as they set the foundation for subsequent learning opportunities for students and faculty. This session looks at the integration of the information workshops within multiple energy and geoscience programs and the importance of formally cultivating research and information skills.

Winkler, H.; Carbajales-Dale, P.; Alschbach, E.

2013-12-01

105

Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes the main outcomes of the work package on â??Interdisciplinary Methodologiesâ? in disaster resilience education and research (WP4) of the EU program â??Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize Educational Developmentâ? (ANDROID). A survey on interdisciplinary work in the field of disaster resilience has been undertaken within ANDROID network and beyond, with the aim of highlight the status of current research and education programs and identifying and promote best practices and innovative approaches in the field. To this purpose, a questionnaire has been implemented, which collected answers on 57 projects based in more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well. From a review of the answers, useful information on the number and type of disciplines involved has been obtained. Furthermore, it has been possible to identify the major obstacles to interdisciplinary work and get some insights on the causes and possible solutions to the problems. In particular, the lack of a common framework and terminology among the numerous disciplines involved in the projects seems to represent the most difficult obstacle to overcome, when working in projects on disaster resilience. It is argued that a consistent organization of terms and knowledge within the field of disaster resilience is needed, in order to promote innovation and development in the design of urban system against accidental events, and could most effectively achieved by the establishment of more educational programs in the field. This survey constitutes one of the first attempts to gather information on interdisciplinary methodologies in disaster resilience projects and to broadly disseminate it. In particular, the results of the survey will be made available in the Open Educational Resource (OER) platform, a free online archive aimed at offering free online material to students and academics for teaching and research purposes, and serve as basis for understanding the state of art and practice in designing more resilient urban systems towards natural and human induced hazards.

Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa

106

Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

2014-01-01

107

Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

Ehsan Mostafavi

2014-01-01

108

Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

2014-01-01

109

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

M. Poggenpoel

1991-09-01

110

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

Poggenpoel, M.

1991-01-01

111

Different approaches to total knee replacement: a comparative research  

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Full Text Available Purpose: to compare traditional and miniinvasive approaches to total knee replacement. 145 patients were divided in four groups. In 1 group (50 pts we used medial parapatellar approach, 2 group (30 pts - lateral parapatellar approach, 3 group (34 pts - midvastus approach, 4 group (31 pts - Q-S approach. All replacements were done by one experienced surgeon. Intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, results of KSS and quality of positioning of implants were measured. Mininvasive approaches to knee replacement showed decreased blood loss, improved functional results and positioning was as much perfect, as with traditional approach. Mininvasive knee replacement is very effective, but it should be performed by experienced surgeon

Zelenyak ?.?.

2010-12-01

112

Research Capacity Building in Teacher Education: Scottish Collaborative Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the context for education research, including teacher education research, in Scotland. Concerns about research capacity are shared with other parts of the UK, but the distinctive context for teacher development and engagement in practitioner research create fertile ground for developments in teacher education research. Schemes…

Christie, Donald; Menter, Ian

2009-01-01

113

A systems biology approach to infectious disease research: innovating the pathogen-host research paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past-including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology-have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm. PMID:21285433

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J; Law, G Lynn; McDermott, Jason G; Proll, Sean C; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G

2011-01-01

114

Integrative genome-wide approaches in embryonic stem cell research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocysts. They can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers and essentially any type of somatic cells. They therefore hold great potential in tissue regeneration therapy. The ethical issues associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells are resolved by the technical break-through of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from various types of somatic cells. However, how ES and iPS cells self-renew and maintain their pluripotency is still largely unknown in spite of the great progress that has been made in the last two decades. Integrative genome-wide approaches, such as the gene expression microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation based microarray (ChIP-chip) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the mechanism of the pluripotency, reprogramming and DNA damage response of ES and iPS cells. This frontier article summarizes the fundamental biological questions about ES and iPS cells and reviews the recent advances in ES and iPS cell research using genome-wide technologies. To this end, we offer our perspectives on the future of genome-wide studies on stem cells. PMID:20852801

Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Jing

2010-10-01

115

Safety Approach of BORAX Type Accidents in French Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility that a slow reactivity insertion would not lead to severe consequences on the core. It also highlighted a lack of knowledge about fast transient physical processes and the need of validated tools if a refined simulation is to be carried out. (author)

2011-11-14

116

The Politics of Data:Uncovering Whiteness in Conventional Social Policy and Social Work Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implementation of a robust community based participatory research (CBPR) study in Multnomah County, Oregon, has detailed broad and deep racial disparities across 27 institutions and systems. The process of this research has led to the identification of numerous practices that misrepresent and negate the experiences and very identity of communities of color. The research draws from engagement with numerous databases from the Census Bureau, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Substance Abus...

Ann Curry-Stevens; Amanda Cross-Hemmer; Nichole Maher; Julia Meier

2011-01-01

117

Marketing Research and Its Coordination in USDA: A Historical Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

For nearly 100 years, administration of marketing research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture and related agencies has ranged from nearly complete centralization in one agency to having marketing research in several agencies coordinated at a higher...

V. Wiser D. E. Bowers

1981-01-01

118

Systematic Review: An Innovative Approach to Reviewing Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives a thorough description of the systematic review (SR) research methodology. SRs are designed to reduce the problems associated with less rigorous literature review methods by employing strict, quantitative research methods that lead to obje...

D. B. Larson E. Anthony J. S. Lyons L. E. Pastro

1992-01-01

119

Approaches to Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: A Research Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

This research synthesis examines how teacher effectiveness is currently measured. By evaluating the research on teacher effectiveness and the different instruments used to measure it, this research synthesis contributes to the discussion of appropriate rigor and relevance of measures for different purposes (i.e., formative vs. summative…

Goe, Laura; Bell, Courtney; Little, Olivia

2008-01-01

120

An Alternative Approach to Conceptualizing Interviews in HRD Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative researchers in human resource development (HRD) frequently use in-depth interviews as a research method. Yet reports from qualitative studies in HRD commonly pay little or no analytical attention to the co-construction of interview data. That is, reports of qualitative research projects often treat interviews as a transparent method of…

Wang, Jia; Roulston, Kathryn J.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Challenges of Collaboration for Academic and Community Partners in a Research Partnership: Points to Consider1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

the philosophical underpinning of Community-Engaged Research (CEnR) entails a collaborative partnership between academic researchers and the community. The Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion of the collaboration between academic researchers and the community. In CPBR, the goal is for community partners to have equal authority and responsibility with t...

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

2010-01-01

122

Challenges of Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in Boston’s Neighborhoods to Reduce Disparities in Asthma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boston is one of the preeminent health care and research centers in the world, but for much of its urban core, these resources are largely out of reach. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides a model with the potential to bridge the gaps between its research prominence and the health of its residents. We report here two case studies of major research projects that were partnerships between universities in Boston and community based organizations and city agencies. The Healthy ...

Freeman, Elmer R.; Brugge, Doug; Bennett-bradley, Willie Mae; Levy, Jonathan I.; Carrasco, Edna Rivera

2006-01-01

123

The development of quality criteria for research: a Finnish approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health promotion research is distinct in some respects from research within its contributing disciplines. A study was conducted in Finland to identify the special characteristics and distinctiveness of health promotion research, to develop a set of specific quality evaluation criteria for health promotion research, and to test the usefulness of such criteria in selecting research applications for funding. A wide range of discussions supplemented a systematic literature review with experts within and outside Finland. The review was conducted with regard to the content of health promotion, its basic principles, as well as theories and models used to steer practical health promotion activities. This resulted in a proposal for quality criteria for health promotion research. Key informants from Finnish universities and institutes evaluated the criteria in three Delphi rounds, and they were suitably revised. The utility of the revised criteria was tested using 31 research proposals. After further revision, the criteria were tested with a further 16 research proposals. Seven health promotion research quality criteria were developed by these methods, as were seven general criteria of research quality, applicable to all social research, whether in the health promotion arena or not. The 14 criteria will undergo continuous revision for improvement, but they are already at this stage thought to be suitable for use by (a) funding agencies in the design of calls for health promotion research proposals, and calls for tenders; (b) researchers who respond to calls for health promotion research proposals and/or calls for tenders; (c) evaluators and proposal review groups; and (d) reviewers and auditors of research progress. PMID:15964888

Lahtinen, Eero; Koskinen-Ollonqvist, Pirjo; Rouvinen-Wilenius, Päivi; Tuominen, Päivi; Mittelmark, Maurice B

2005-09-01

124

An Enhanced Action Research Approach for Managing Risks in Software Process Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Managing risks in Software Process Improvement (SPI is a key point of software success. A software risk is considered as an essential characteristic of software development process which if ignored will increase the chance of project failure. For this purpose different risk management approaches are developed. These approaches lead to the identification, assessment and control of risk occurrence in software projects. Collaborative Practice Research (CPR is one of the action research approaches for managing risk in SPI. In this approach the focus is on gathering information regarding SPI and acknowledging risk management in process development by developing risk assessment strategies and models. The main challenge of this action research approach is to validate the developed risk approach. This paper has a critical review on the existing research approach i.e. CPR. It also provides an enhanced form of CPR which modifies the current CPR approach by including a risk validation activity.

Faiza Ayub Syed

2013-07-01

125

A Semantic Approach to Cross-Disciplinary Research Collaboration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use al...

Laurens De Vocht; Davy Van Deursen; Erik Mannens; Rik Van de Walle

2012-01-01

126

A Semantic Approach to Cross-Disciplinary Research Collaboration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use all varying types of tools and services. We explain a flexible model that uses state-of-the-art semantic technologies to model both structured and unstructured research data. The research data is extracted from many online resources and Social Media. We implement learning objects as an abstraction of the semantically modeled research data. We propose an environment that improves the scientific research and learning process by allowing researchers to efficiently browse the information and concepts represented as learning objects.

Laurens De Vocht

2012-11-01

127

Implementing the 3Rs in neuroscience research: a reasoned approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 3Rs--replacement, reduction, and refinement--are aimed at minimizing the welfare costs to animals used in research. Some neuroscientists fear that implementing the 3Rs will prohibit essential studies. Others view them as fundamental ethical principles that improve the quality of research. A regulatory system that integrates science and welfare is most likely to deliver public confidence. PMID:22998864

Blakemore, Colin; MaCarthur Clark, Judy; Nevalainen, Timo; Oberdorfer, Michael; Sussman, Arthur

2012-09-20

128

Using Hermeneutics as a Qualitative Research Approach in Professional Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…

Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy

2005-01-01

129

An Action Research Approach to Authentic Curriculum and Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication explores the literature on teacher action research and authentic instruction, and draws on investigations of teacher research activities in order to promote the use of more"authentic" curriculum and instruction, especially for students at risk. "Authentic" instruction is defined as instruction based around problems, questions, or…

Filby, Nikola N.

130

Towards an integrated approach for research on lifelong learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is little dispute that lifelong learning is essential to the further development of the knowledge society. Nonetheless, lifelong learning is not reaching its full potential because the currently used approaches to lifelong learning are too fragmented and, often, formal approaches to education and learning are simply ?translated? from initial secondary and higher education to the field of lifelong learning. This article discusses an integrated framework for carrying out researc...

Merrie?nboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred; Sloep, Peter B.; Caniels, Marjolein

2009-01-01

131

Statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...

Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi

2014-01-01

132

Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and research culture’. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers.Keywords: physician, clinical research, clinical trial, medical education

Sami F Shaban

2011-03-01

133

NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulat...

2010-01-01

134

Process diary as methodological approach in longitudinal phenomenological research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.

Heidi, Woll.

135

Quantitative Approach for Research Chairs Evaluation in King Saud University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research activities are considered prominent part of innovation and consequent wealth generation in any advanced country, thus the need for policy makers and wider public to get insight into the quality of research outputs is legitimate. However, qualitative evaluation techniques meet a number of difficulties. This paper addresses a novel quantitative methodology to indicate a measure of the performance of research chairs in King Saud University (KSU. It proposes an Evaluation Criteria (EC assures sustainable competition among different Research Chairs (RCs. The best RC - if compared to the remaining RCs - is the one achieves more considerable scientific events (activates with less cost and within shorter period of time. The study aims to be a further contribution to the assessment of a road map toward an equal internationally shared, quantitative evaluation system.

Ali S. Al-Ghamdi

2011-08-01

136

Computational Approaches for Translational Clinical Research in Disease Progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, there is an ever-increasing amount of biological and clinical data available that could be used to enhance a systems-based understanding of disease progression through innovative computational analysis. In this paper we review a selection of published research regarding computational methodologies, primarily from systems biology, that support translational research from the molecular level to the bedside, with a focus on applications in trauma and critical care. Trauma is the leading c...

Mcguire, Mary F.; Iyengar, M. Sriram; Mercer, David W.

2011-01-01

137

The Chinese epidemiological approach of nasopharyngeal carcinoma research and control.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the major cancer killer in Cantonese Chinese, represents one of the three cancer research priorities in China. Apart from some fundamental research projects on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), their main efforts are epidemiologically and clinically oriented. Major surveys in GuangDong and GuangXi provinces showed that high EBV/IgA/VCA serum levels can detect NPC at an early stage of the disease. Characterization of "precancerous lesions" in the nasopharynx and amo...

De-the?, G.

1981-01-01

138

The origin of public research organisation patents: an economic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While some studies on patenting by public research organisations (PROs) and universities altogether tend to be positive and descriptive, normative concerns have risen mainly on the side of university patenting. The specific dynamics of PROs, e.g. on the growth of their personnel and the creation of research units, allow them to make strategic considerations which are less present in universities but which may have an impact on patenting. However, PROs are often subject to similar requirements...

Azagra Caro, Joaqui?n; Plaza Go?mez, Luis Manuel

2007-01-01

139

The Interaction of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Research: A View of the Second Language Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers both qualitative and quantitative research approaches on second language learning, with focus on second language classroom research. Concludes that both approaches are relevant to determining the important variables to investigate and the relationships those variables have to second language learning outcomes. (Author/CB)

Chaudron, Craig

1986-01-01

140

A systems approach to research inquiry in accounting : a research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accounting research is strongly influenced by the research methodology and methods adopted in the natural sciences. As a result many researchers in Accounting have steered away from non-formal or interpretative methods. From a methodological perspective, Accounting research therefore has a narrow base (Tomkins and Groves, 1983). A solution to expanding the research base may be to search for non-formal, naturalistic research methods in disciplines related to Accounting, where they are more est...

Koornhof, Carolina

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Optimization of Transportation System Using OR (Operational Research Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project aims at developing an algorithm to optimize the transportation system of our organization. Vehicle routing problem of the institution is taken as the issue which is to be solved. The data’s are collected from the transportation department. According to the data, Dijkstra’s algorithm is used to find the optimal path initially. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT is used to find the critical patha nad critical events present in the network. Then a heuristic approach i.e., Genetic Algorihm is used to validate the result obtained from the Dijkstra’s algorithm. Path length and cost is taken as the criteria for optimising the vehicle route. Djikstra’s algorithm is used to find the shortest path of the vehicle manually. Then a heuristic approach (Genetic algorithm is undertaken to validate the result obtained.

M. Janani, C. Chinna muthu, A. Arun, P. Gururaj, S. Jenson Thiyagaraj

2014-05-01

142

In Search of Holy Transcripts: Approaches to Researching Religious Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…

Hastie, David

2012-01-01

143

Cross-cultural research of youth subcultures: axiological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the given article the problem of youth subculture value system is considered through a prism of Intercultural communication theory. Values are generalised behaviour guidelines of individuals and groups of people; therefore their knowledge helps to achieve positive results in interaction. Researches of intercultural contacts local features are of particular interest today.

Olga Chibisova

2014-04-01

144

Family Planning Research in a Developing Area: A Different Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors discuss the difficulties in adapting American methods of field work to the cultural conditions in pre-industrial societies, in this case a pilot study on family planning in a Middle Eastern Moslem country. It is demonstrated that if the researcher is native and has kinship ties in a traditional community, he can use these assets: (1)…

Fathi, Asghar; Watson, Walter B.

145

Approaches to Needed Sociological Research on the Physically Handicapped.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors consider the possibilities for sociological rehabilitation research in three areas: deviance, minority-dominant relations, and law and politics. Among the areas investigated by medical sociologists are the stigma of disability, discrimination against the physically handicapped as compared to discrimination against minority groups, and…

Davis, F. James; Heyl, Barbara Sherman

146

Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

Low, Sarah A.

2009-01-01

147

Researching Academic Identity: Using Discursive Psychology as an Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Current thinking on academic identities is heavily influenced by developments in other disciplines, notably sociology. This accords with Haggis's (2007) challenge for educational researchers to engage with current theory and methods from across the social sciences. However, the traditional sister discipline to education, psychology, seems…

McLean, Neil

2012-01-01

148

Research Based Learning Approach: Students Perspective of Skills Obtained  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes undergraduate students' evaluation of skills gained from two different research experiences (observation vs. interview) while enrolled in a child development course (N=83). At the end of the semester students were asked to complete a skills questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three themes that were used to create the…

Kazura, Kerry; Tuttle, Harlee

2010-01-01

149

Approaching Institutional Contexts: Systemic versus Dialogic Research in CSCL  

Science.gov (United States)

The research literature in CSCL has rarely addressed the question of how institutional contexts contribute to constituting the meanings and functions of CSCL applications. The argument that we develop here concerns how the institutional context impacts the use of CSCL applications and how this impact should be conceptualized. In order to structure…

Arnseth, Hans Christian; Ludvigsen, Sten

2006-01-01

150

Personal reflections on observational and experimental research approaches to childhood psychopathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up (Robins, 1966; Yarrow, Campbell, & Burton, 1970) have had – and continue to have – unique impact on clinical research and practice. Epidemiological...

Rapoport, Judith L.

2009-01-01

151

Performative ontologies. Sociomaterial approaches to researching adult education and lifelong learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sociomaterial approaches to researching education, such as those generated by actornetwork theory and complexity theory, have been growing in significance in recent years, both theoretically and methodologically. Such approaches are based upon a performative ontology rather than the more characteristic representational epistemology that informs much research. In this article, we outline certain aspects of sociomaterial sensibilities in researching education, and some of the uptakes on issues ...

Fenwick, Tara; Edwards, Richard

2013-01-01

152

Environmental operations strategies: European approaches and research challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the environment has very recently emerged as a strategic issue, work has only begun to investigate the conceptual linkages between strategic management and the environment. A thoroughly revision of both academic and professional literature evidences that such scarcity of research doubles, or even trebles, when the scenery of the European Operations Management Strategies is considered. The main objective of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the impact of the design of the environmenta...

A?lvarez Gil, Mari?a Jose?; Rivera Camino, Jaime

1998-01-01

153

Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS). This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS) to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used t...

2010-01-01

154

SOCIAL MARKETING : A NEW APPROACH IN MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...

Tiwari, S. C.

1998-01-01

155

Generating and Analysing Data for Applied Research on Emerging Technologies: A Grounded Action Learning Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the difficulties of conducting applied qualitative research on the applications of emerging technologies is finding available sources of relevant data for analysis. Because the adoption of emerging technologies is, by definition, new in many organizations, there is often a lack of experienced practitioners who have relevant background and are willing to provide useful information for the study. Therefore, it is necessary to design research approaches that can generate accessible and relevant data. This paper describes two case studies in which the researchers used a grounded action learning approach to study the nature of e-facilitation for face-to-face and for distributed electronic meetings. The grounded action learning approach combines two research methodologies, grounded theory and action learning, to produce a rigorous and flexible method for studying e-facilitation. The implications of this grounded action learning approach for practice and research will be discussed.

Pak Yoong

2004-01-01

156

A Mixed Method Approach to Quality of Life Research: A Case Study Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased use of qualitative and quantitative methods in quality of life projects necessitates an examination of how to effectively work within a mixed method framework. The research objectives of this paper are to (1) operationalize the two goals of mixed method research (confirmation and comprehension) and (2) develop a strategy for using mixed…

Dunning, Heather; Williams, Allison; Abonyi, Sylvia; Crooks, Valorie

2008-01-01

157

A collaborative approach to combining service, teaching, and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To describe a faculty-student collaborative model and its outcomes on teaching, service, and scholarship. Design. A Medicare Part D elective course was offered that consisted of classroom and experiential learning where pharmacy students participated in community outreach events to assist Medicare beneficiaries with Part D plan selection. The course training was expanded to include medication therapy management (MTM) and the administration of immunizations. At the completion of the course, students collaborated with faculty members on research endeavors. Evaluation. During the first 6 years of this course, the class size more than doubled from 20 to 42 students, and all students participating in the course met the IPPE requirements for community outreach. Over that same period, the number of beneficiaries receiving assistance with their Part D plan grew from 72 to 610; and with the help of students starting in 2011, faculty members had 28 poster presentations at national conferences, 7 invited podium presentations at national/international meetings, and published 8 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion. Through collaborative efforts, this model took an elective course and provided classroom and experiential learning for students, needed health services for the community, and opportunities to pursue wide ranging research projects for faculty members and students. PMID:24761019

Galal, Suzanne M; Carr-Lopez, Sian M; Gomez, Seth; Duong, Van; Mizoshiri, Caitlin; Ujihara, Lauren; Tran, Tina H; Patel, Rajul A; Woelfel, Joseph A

2014-04-17

158

A Collaborative Approach to Combining Service, Teaching, and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To describe a faculty-student collaborative model and its outcomes on teaching, service, and scholarship. Design. A Medicare Part D elective course was offered that consisted of classroom and experiential learning where pharmacy students participated in community outreach events to assist Medicare beneficiaries with Part D plan selection. The course training was expanded to include medication therapy management (MTM) and the administration of immunizations. At the completion of the course, students collaborated with faculty members on research endeavors. Evaluation. During the first 6 years of this course, the class size more than doubled from 20 to 42 students, and all students participating in the course met the IPPE requirements for community outreach. Over that same period, the number of beneficiaries receiving assistance with their Part D plan grew from 72 to 610; and with the help of students starting in 2011, faculty members had 28 poster presentations at national conferences, 7 invited podium presentations at national/international meetings, and published 8 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. Conclusion. Through collaborative efforts, this model took an elective course and provided classroom and experiential learning for students, needed health services for the community, and opportunities to pursue wide ranging research projects for faculty members and students.

Carr-Lopez, Sian M.; Gomez, Seth; Duong, Van; Mizoshiri, Caitlin; Ujihara, Lauren; Tran, Tina H.; Patel, Rajul A.; Woelfel, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

159

E-learning as a Research Area: An Analytical Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The concept of E-learning is very broad. It was coined in late 90s as the technological enhanced learning mechanism through Internet. Now it captures a broad range of electronic media like Internet, Intranets, Extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV and CD-ROM to make the learning procedure more flexible and user friendly. Because of the flexible nature of E-learning, it has got more demand among the people of our country and the demand is increasing day by day. As the demand is increasing, this is the time to standardize the whole e-learning system in a proper way and the time to increase the quality of existing standards. Though many standards are already there and has accepted by many academia, institutes and organisations, still there are some gaps and works are going on to make them more practicable and more systematic.This paper analyses the current e-learning procedure and showing the new dimension of research work on this area that follows the important and most neglected research areas till today in this domain. It also analyses the importance of e-education system and recent market of e-learning procedure.

Sangeeta Kakoty

2011-09-01

160

Anti-idiotypic antibodies: a new approach in prion research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In certain cases, anti-idiotypic antibodies that recognize an antigen-combining site of an antibody can mimic the structure and/or function of certain nominal antigens. This feature makes them particularly useful if conventional experimental approaches fail to fulfil expectations, especially when the molecule of interest is infectious, toxic or difficult to isolate and purify. We suggest the application of an anti-idiotype concept to the field of prion biology, with the aim of evoking a humoral immune response against the pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc. Different ways to induce anti-idiotypic responses were studied in mice and chickens using various forms of V5B2, a PrPSc-specific monoclonal antibody we have described previously. Results The preparation of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies was achieved with well-defined strategies of immunization, selection and subsequent characterization. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to induce a strong anti-idiotypic immune response against the V5B2 monoclonal antibody in both xenogeneic and syngeneic experimental systems. From the competition seen between polyclonal and monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies and the original immunogen, the P1 peptide, and even more importantly, the ultimate target antigen, PrPSc, we conclude that selected antibodies bind to the antigen-combining site of the V5B2 monoclonal antibody and might even resemble the PrPSc-specific epitope. The involvement of both antigen-combining sites in the interaction between V5B2 and the most promising monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody was further supported by molecular docking. Conclusion The results of the present study not only provide an example of the successful production of Ab2 monoclonal antibodies based on a well planned strategy for selection, but should also provide a new experimental approach that is applicable to the field of prion diseases.

Narat Mojca

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site...

2013-01-01

162

Developing a Bidirectional Academic–Community Partnership with an Appalachian-American Community for Environmental Health Research and Risk Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles c...

Haynes, Erin N.; Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.

2011-01-01

163

The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

Pantea Carmen

2008-04-01

164

Discovering the Value of Multidisciplinary Approaches to Research: Insights from a Sabbatical  

CERN Multimedia

In this informal report, I outline my research efforts, collaborations, and other experiences while participating in the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)'s Advanced Graduate Research Program (AGRP), aka Sabbatical, from October 2008 through September 2009. This report is in no way intended to present the technical details of the various research projects, but rather a broad overview of the small ways my efforts may have contributed to ongoing research. I wish to convey to the reader the value of multidisciplinary approaches to scientific research and how the AGRP facilitates these opportunities.

Bentrem, Frank W

2010-01-01

165

Theoretico-metodological basis of gender researches in modern linguistics. Gender ideal: lingual rhetoric approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article contains information about theoretical and methodological basis of gender research in modern linguistics. The term and the notion «gender ideal» as linguistic categories are postulated on the basis of lingual rhetoric approach.

Oleg V. Skulkin

2010-12-01

166

Qualitative Approaches to Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Issues and Challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…

McLeod, John

1996-01-01

167

The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review research aimed at the development of a compelling taxonomy of personality-descriptive terms. We identify five issues central to the construction of personality taxonomies and discuss the advantages and limitations of the lexical approach. Our review of research stimulated by this approach begins with Allport and Odbert’s trait names, retraces the procedures that led to Cattell’s personality factors, and summarizes contemporary work in English and in Dutch. Taxonomers and lay peo...

1988-01-01

168

Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.

2008-06-01

169

Experience Exchange Group (EEG) Approach as a Means for Research to be rooted in Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series of preliminary studies found interesting to set up an EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. In the paper some general research methods pertinent to the area industrial management are discussed. The EEG concept is introduced and characterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG activities are described and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research process is proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological and quality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities could possibly contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper ends up looking at future research areas and research methods, including application of the EEG approach.

Bruun, Peter

1997-01-01

170

Exploring Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Approaches to Business Communication Research  

Science.gov (United States)

With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…

Pope-Ruark, Rebecca

2012-01-01

171

Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

2012-01-01

172

Team Approach in the First Research Experience for Undergraduates in Botany/Zoology 152: Evaluation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document summarizes the findings of the Learning through Evaluation, Adaptation and Dissemination (LEAD) Center's report on the team approach to the first research experience for undergraduates in botany and zoology. Students (N=25) and faculty (N=12) were interviewed and a comparison was made between students who performed the research in…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. LEAD Center.

173

Approaches and Methodological As Well As Interpretative Issues in Quality of Life Research in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of life measures are designed to enable patients’ perspectives on the impact of health and healthcare interventions on their lives to be assessed and taken into account in clinical decision-making and research. This paper discusses some approaches, methodological as well as interpretative issues of health related quality of life research.

Hasanah, C. I.

2003-01-01

174

The Need for a Broader Approach to Emotion Regulation Research in Autism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maladaptive emotional reactions are common among individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and often impair functioning. Most research on emotional processes in ASD has focused on the recognition of emotion in others. This article argues for a broader approach to affective research in ASD, one that includes investigations into emotional reactivity and regulation. For example, research has typically looked at perseveration in ASD from a cognitive or perceptual perspective, y...

Mazefsky, Carla A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Dahl, Ronald E.

2012-01-01

175

Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

Fersch, Barbara

2013-01-01

176

A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

2009-08-01

177

An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and mentor students in research-based courses, 4) multiple levels of research questions in a course, some to be answered by group data and some by class data, 5) intentional explicit development of and support for research skills appropriate for the research question and student level, 6) written and oral presentation of research, 7) willingness of participating faculty to redesign their course structure to meet learning goals so that at least 1/3 of the course time (noncontiguous) is dedicated to the research project versus traditional formats, and 8) a faculty involvement model whereby leading research-based courses also contributes to their research agenda and regional service expectations. We think this model works and is sustainable at Western Carolina University, and is readily transferable to other disciplines and universities.

Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

2013-12-01

178

Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are included from recent research and development programs for both subsonic and supersonic transports.

Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

2005-01-01

179

Comparing different scientific approaches to personalized medicine: research ethics and privacy protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, two different scientific approaches to personalized medicine are compared. Biorepository at Vanderbilt University (BioVU) is a genomic biorepository at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN, USA. Genetic biosamples are collected from leftover clinical blood samples; medical information is derived from an electronic medical records. Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine is a research resource at the University of Greifswald, Germany, comprised of clini...

Langanke, Martin; Brothers, Kyle B.; Erdmann, Pia; Weinert, Jakob; Krafczyk-korth, Janina; Do?rr, Marcus; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Assel, Heinrich

2011-01-01

180

Innovative Approaches for Pharmaceutical Policy Research in Developing Countries: The View Through a Market Lens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite one-third of the world lacking access to essential medicines, a dearth of pharmaceutical policy research in developing countries has resulted in policy decisions based upon opinion and conventional wisdom rather than evidence. While historical approaches to improve access to medicines focused on public sector interventions, organizations now recognize the role of the private sector, adopting market-based approaches to improve access to medicines. The main goal of this thesis is t...

Waning, B. J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Disentangling approaches to framing in conflict and negotiation research: a meta-paradigmatic perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Divergent theoretical approaches to the construct of framing have resulted in conceptual confusion in conflict research.We disentangle these approaches by analyzing their assumptions about 1) the nature of frames ¿ that is, cognitive representations or interactional coconstructions, and 2) what is getting framed ¿ that is, issues, identities and relationships, or interaction process. Using a meta-paradigmatic perspective, we delineate the ontological, theoretical and methodological assumpti...

Dewulf, A. R. P. J.; Gray, B.; Putnam, L.; Lewicki, R.; Aarts, M. N. C.; Bouwen, R.; Woerkum, C. M. J.

2009-01-01

182

Demonstration of the reactivity constraint approach on SNL's annual core research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the initial demonstration of the reactivity constraint approach and its implementing algorithm, the MIT-CSDL Non-Linear Digital Controller, on the annual core research reactor (ACCR) that is operated by the Sandia National Laboratories. This demonstration constituted the first use of reactivity constraints for the closed-loop, digital control of reactor power on a facility other than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) research reactor (MITR-II). Also, because the ACRR and the MITR-II are of very different design, these trials established the generic nature of the reactivity constraint approach

1989-08-06

183

The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article consists of determination the peculiarities of marketing researches of the regional product market and formation the system approach to marketing research for the regional market of meat and processed meats. The results of the analysis. The author considered theoretical approaches to determination of a sense of marketing research of market and proposed a definition of a concept «marketing research of a regional product market», taking into account its peculiarities. The author proposed the system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats. Especially, an object, a subject, an aim, tasks, directions, procedures, and methodical support are thoroughly considered. Also, the system of principles of marketing research of this market is improved. All this aspects are components of scientific novelty of the done research. Taking into consideration a key role of the market of meat and processed meats and its importance for increase of a food safety level during a current period, research and prognostication of this product market facilitate determination of basic principles on support of an appropriate amount of production of meat and processed meats and saturation of the market with a required amount of products that are of high quality and have an optimal price in attempt to provide all social classes with such products. Since results of such researches are more and more required, development of the system approach to marketing research of the market of meat and processed meats is of great practical importance. Using the methods for rating valuation of regions, each region is given a rank according to a level of an absolute figure. According to results of the research the author determined that only five regions of Ukraine have a considerably higher level of development of the market of meat and processed meats compared to other regions. These regions include AR Crimea, Dnipropetrovska, Donetska, Kyivska, Cherkaska regions. Cherkaska region is an absolute leader for a level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. The researches showed that 44% of Ukrainian regions are characterized by a low level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats is developed and substantiated in the article. All components of the approach are thoroughly characterized. The results of research show that there is significant differentiation of conditions and tendencies of development of Ukrainian market of meat and processed meats through three types of regions. This process causes necessity of studying of regional peculiarities and working up of regional target programs of development of this product market. To form regional target program of development of the market of meat and processed meats the state should create more considerable researches of social and economic conditions and indicators of a potential of development of the market of meat and processed meat. Such researches are the direction of further scientific work. The approach enables to do complex marketing research of a modern state and peculiarities of development the market of meat and processed meats of Kharkiv region.

O.P. Afanasieva

2014-06-01

184

A Knowledge Based Approach to Detection of Idea Plagiarism in Online Research Publications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plagiarism is on the rise because of the easy access to information through World Wide Web. Web pages are growing in the internet on daily basis. Researchers want to be well connected globally to popularize their ideas. Therefore, allowing download of research documents are inevitable. However, this falls prey to those who turn the cake and spoil the issue. Even unknowingly, a researcher ends in verbatim copying of other former researchers’ ideologies or conclusions to quote / use in their own research paper. This paper presents an analysis of NLP based plagiarism detection approaches which leads to proposing of an ontology based solution to detect text plagiarism more meaningfully. We address wordword and paraphrasing techniques and investigate the use of ontology in detecting idea plagiarism. The main objective is to investigate the exclusion of ‘Related Work’ section and the use of WordNet for plagiarism detection in research publications.

Deepika J.

2011-01-01

185

Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of...

2011-01-01

186

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

Zoellner Jamie

2012-01-01

187

Specimen Collection for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research: Harmonizing the Approach to Informed Consent  

Science.gov (United States)

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have elicited excitement in both the scientific and ethics communities for their potential to advance basic and translational research. They have been hailed as an alternative to derivation from embryos that provides a virtually unlimited source of pluripotent stem cells for research and therapeutic applications. However, research with iPSCs is ethically complex, uniquely encompassing the concerns associated with genomics, immortalized cell lines, transplantation, human reproduction, and biobanking. Prospective donation of tissue specimens for iPSC research thus requires an approach to informed consent that is constructed for this context. Even in the nascent stages of this field, approaches to informed consent have been variable in ways that threaten the simultaneous goals of protecting donors and safeguarding future research and translation, and investigators are seeking guidance. We address this need by providing concrete recommendations for informed consent that balance the perspectives of a variety of stakeholders. Our work combines analysis of consent form language collected from investigators worldwide with a conceptual balancing of normative ethical concerns, policy precedents, and scientific realities. Our framework asks people to consent prospectively to a broad umbrella of foreseeable research, including future therapeutic applications, with recontact possible in limited circumstances. We argue that the long-term goals of regenerative medicine, interest in sharing iPSC lines, and uncertain landscape of future research all would be served by a framework of ongoing communication with donors. Our approach balances the goals of iPSC and regenerative medicine researchers with the interests of individual research participants.

Lowenthal, Justin; Lipnick, Scott; Rao, Mahendra

2012-01-01

188

Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers. PMID:23836311

Oborn, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Jan; Hedenus, Fredrik; Rydhmer, Lotta; Stenström, Maria; Vrede, Katarina; Westin, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf

2013-11-01

189

Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

2013-01-01

190

Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

2011-01-01

191

Systems biologists seek fuller integration of systems biology approaches in new cancer research programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems biology takes an interdisciplinary approach to the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems. This approach seeks to decipher the emergent behaviors of complex systems rather than focusing only on their constituent properties. As an increasing number of examples illustrate the value of systems biology approaches to understand the initiation, progression, and treatment of cancer, systems biologists from across Europe and the United States hope for changes in the way their field is currently perceived among cancer researchers. In a recent EU-US workshop, supported by the European Commission, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the National Cancer Institute of the NIH, the participants discussed the strengths, weaknesses, hurdles, and opportunities in cancer systems biology. PMID:20028868

Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Auffray, Charles; Baltrusch, Simone; Blüthgen, Nils; Byrne, Helen; Cascante, Marta; Ciliberto, Andrea; Dale, Trevor; Drasdo, Dirk; Fell, David; Ferrell, James E; Gallahan, Daniel; Gatenby, Robert; Günther, Ulrich; Harms, Brian D; Herzel, Hanspeter; Junghanss, Christian; Kunz, Manfred; van Leeuwen, Ingeborg; Lenormand, Philippe; Levi, Francis; Linnebacher, Michael; Lowengrub, John; Maini, Philip K; Malik, Arif; Rateitschak, Katja; Sansom, Owen; Schäfer, Reinhold; Schürrle, Karsten; Sers, Christine; Schnell, Santiago; Shibata, Darryl; Tyson, John; Vera, Julio; White, Michael; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Jaster, Robert

2010-01-01

192

Efficiency of Research Performance of Australian Universities: A Reappraisal using a Bootstrap Truncated Regression Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motivation of the study stems from the results reported in the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA 2010 report. The report showed that only 12 universities performed research at or above international standards, of which, the Group of Eight (G8 universities filled the top eight spots. While performance of universities was based on number of research outputs, total amount of research income and other quantitative indicators, the measure of efficiency or productivity was not considered. The objectives of paper are twofold. First, to provide a review of the research performance of 37 Australian universities using the data envelopment analysis (DEA bootstrap approach of Simar and Wilson (J Econ, 136:31–64, 2007. Second, to determine sources of productivity drivers by regressing the efficiency scores against a set of environmental variables.

Boon L. Lee

2011-12-01

193

Strategic Management Approaches Preference in Turkish Industry: A Research on ISO 1000 Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positioning school approach that gives prominence to the effect of positioning and environmental powers in industry and resource-based approach that emphasize the importance of firm’s resource, capabilities and competences are two basic approaches that express firms’ performance differences in strategic management field. Which one of these basic approaches will be chosen occupies an important place in strategic management subjects. Purpose of this study is to reveal preferences of managers and accordingly firms about strategic management approaches in branch of Turkish industry and to determine whether positioning school approach or resource-based approach is efficient and predominant in success of firms from the viewpoints of managers. The research was carried out upon the first 500 big industrial enterprises and second 500 big industrial enterprises carrying on their business in industrial sector in Turkey as published by Istanbul Chamber of Industry (ISO. As a result of the analysis of the acquired data, it has been precipitated that in Turkey, managers of the biggest 1000 industrial enterprises, accordingly firms, adopt positioning school approach.

Yucel Erol

194

Mount Sinai and UCSF researchers develop a multi-target approach to treating tumors  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine and collaborators from the University of California, San Francisco developed a cancer model built in the fruit fly Drosophila, then used it to create a whole new approach to the discovery of cancer treatments. The result is an investigational compound AD80 that precisely targets multiple cancer genes. Tested in mouse models, the drug proved far more effective and less toxic than standard cancer drugs, which generally focus on a single target. This is the first time that whole-animal screening has been used in a rational, step-wise approach to polypharmacology. The study appears online in the journal Nature.

195

Forging New Service Paths: Institutional Approaches to Providing Research Data Management Services  

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Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to bring support for data management and eScience to their communities. The approaches described include two library-based, integrated service models and one collaboratively-staffed, center-based service model.Results: Three institutions describe their experiences in creating the organizational capacity for research data management support services. Although each institutional approach is unique, common challenges include garnering administrative support, managing the integration of services with new or existing staff structures, and continuing to meet researchers needs as they evolve.Conclusions: There is no one way to provide research data management services, but any staff position, committee, or formalized center reflects an overarching organizational commitment to data management support.

Regina Raboin

2012-01-01

196

Catalysis by design: A coordinated approach to catalyst research and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Materials-by-Design approach is currently being extended to the research and development of industrial catalysts. The resulting program, referred to as ''Catalysis-by-Design'' (CBD), is the subject of this paper. The paper includes an overview of the CBD Program, an assessment of its potential impacts on the US catalysts industry, and a discussion of how government and industry can undertake a collaborative R and D effort in the field of catalysis. This last issue is particularly important, since most of the research information in industry is considered to be proprietary. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.; Eberhardt, J.; Keay, L.

1989-08-01

197

RESEARCHING THE OPINIONS OF PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS ABOUT CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In constructivist approach, teachers are of great importance in helping students construct their pre-knowledge, finding out and removing students’ misconceptions acquired through their previous experiences, and setting up a learning environment. Therefore, it is thought to be necessary to determine the opinions of the pre-service science teachers, who will apply constructivist approach in their professional life, toward constructivist approach. In this study, “the constructivist approach opinion scale” developed by researchers for pre-service science teachers is applied to pre-service teachers in fourth and third classes in Science Education department in Buca Faculty of Education at Dokuz Eylul University. The data gathered from this study are analyzed according to different variables. The analysis of data has shown that the opinions of pre-service teachers about constructivist approach are positive. In addition, , there is no significant difference in the opinions of pre-service teachers about constructivist approach in terms of independent variables, such as sex, age, class and high school graduation.

Didem ?NEL

2009-05-01

198

Canadian Experience in Application of Graded Approach for Safety Assessment of Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in depth, engineering aspects, site characteristics and safety analysis. Examples of application of this approach to safety assessment of the Canadian research reactors, Slowpoke and NRU, are presented. The SLOWPOKE reactor (20 kW) has inherent reactivity control by design, since any increase in core temperature has a negative reactivity effect causing a passive reduction of reactor power to limit any temperature excursion. The NRU reactor (135 MW) operates at low pressure and low temperature (except for the experimental loops) and it is used for material testing and isotope production. For SLOWPOKE reactors, less detailed assessment of radiation risk is needed in comparison to the NRU due to a smaller amount of fission product inventory in the core. Full assessment of defence in depth is required for the high power, complex NRU reactor. However, assessment of means to mitigate severe accidents may not be needed for SLOWPOKE reactors due to their inherent reactivity characteristics. A design of any reactor facility must provide the fundamental safety functions during and following postulated accident events. The extent and rigour for demonstrating that such safety functions are fulfilled can be graded and vary depending on the reactor design. In general, basic safety function related to control reactivity cannot be graded. However, the grading can be applied to SLOWPOKE reactors since they exhibit inherent self-limiting power levels, which physically limit the amount of positive reactivity that can be inserted in the core. Assessments of safety functions relevant to the reactor core cooling and confinement could be less extensive for the SLOWPOKE reactors since their cooling systems are less complex than those of NRU. Very small source terms of the SLOWPOKE reactors do not require a confinement system to be as stringent as those used in large research reactors. If the research reactor is designed without a confinement system (e.g., NRU), it must be justified to show that there is no potential release of radioactive materials out of the facility for any accident condi

2011-11-14

199

Advanced Pre-Clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging tech...

2012-01-01

200

Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis. PMID:20738864

Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medi...

Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

2010-01-01

202

Strategic siRNA screening approaches to target cancer at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RNAi Screening Facility at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute combines siRNA genome-wide screening with drug screening coupled with High Content Imaging and fluorescence-based phenotypic assays to target multiple types of cancer. Here, we describe the infrastructure of the Facility and the approaches we utilise. We also share our experiences in running such a facility and developing and executing screening campaigns, with particular regard to high content multiparametric analysis, data management and statistical analysis. PMID:24661213

Shanks, Emma J

2014-05-01

203

Surgical Approaches to Vascular Access for Large-Caliber Devices in Preclinical Research Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Percutaneous vascular access options in preclinical models are often smaller than the relevant structures in humans or undersized for early-prototype research devices. Here we describe the surgical approaches and results for surgical vascular access sites in preclinical swine and sheep models. Fourteen adult miniature swine underwent successful 18-French vascular access by means of thoracotomy to the brachiocephalic artery. In addition, 11 swine and 10 sheep underwent successful 22-French vas...

2010-01-01

204

End-stage kidney disease: a survey of recent research to support a palliative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey examines the quantity, quality, and accessibility of recent research that contributes to the evidence-based implementation of a palliative approach to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). An electronic search identified published articles (between September 2009 and August 2011) relevant to adults with ESKD (n = 1628). Few articles (n = 136) referred to key themes in a palliative approach to care: life-limiting illness, holistic care, and unit of care. Most of the relevant empirical articles used designs that did not allow a causal variable to be identified, and evaluations of interventions were rare. The literature was dispersed and often in journals unlikely to be regularly accessed by renal clinicians. Literature supporting the implementation of a full evidence-based palliative approach to ESKD is expanding but remains limited and is difficult to identify and access. PMID:23585549

Crawford, Gregory B; Robinson, Julie A; Baker, Amy E Z; Crail, Susan M

2014-05-01

205

Gene-based approaches in pain research and exploration of new therapeutic targets and strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large panel of gene-based techniques is used for many years specifically in the pain research field. From the first identification (cloning) of some "mythic" genes, such as those encoding opioid or capsaicin receptors allowing then the creation of first-generation knockout mice, to the today conditional (time, tissue, cell-type and even pathology-dependent) and regulatable modulation of a gene function, these approaches largely contributed to fundamental leaps forward in our understanding of the function of some proteins and of their interest as possible druggable targets. Perhaps one of the most remarkable evolution in the last years is the passage of these approaches from the bench to the patient; whether it concerns the identification of genes involved in inherited pain insensibility/susceptibility, the search for genetic markers of pain types, the individual pharmacogenomics or even the first gene therapy trials. From many possible variants of gene-grounded techniques used in pain research we focus here on gene knockouts and some recent developments, on viral vectors-based gene transfer and on transgenic models for the tracing of pain pathways. Through these selected examples we attempted to emphasize the immense potential of these approaches and their already well-recognized contribution in both the basic and clinical pain research. PMID:23500201

Molet, Jenny; Pohl, Michel

2013-09-15

206

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

2011-09-15

207

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

2011-09-01

208

Minimal modeling approaches to value of information analysis for health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Value of information (VOI) techniques can provide estimates of the expected benefits from clinical research studies that can inform decisions about the design and priority of those studies. Most VOI studies use decision-analytic models to characterize the uncertainty of the effects of interventions on health outcomes, but the complexity of constructing such models can pose barriers to some practical applications of VOI. However, because some clinical studies can directly characterize uncertainty in health outcomes, it may sometimes be possible to perform VOI analysis with only minimal modeling. This article 1) develops a framework to define and classify minimal modeling approaches to VOI, 2) reviews existing VOI studies that apply minimal modeling approaches, and 3) illustrates and discusses the application of the minimal modeling to 2 new clinical applications to which the approach appears well suited because clinical trials with comprehensive outcomes provide preliminary estimates of the uncertainty in outcomes. The authors conclude that minimal modeling approaches to VOI can be readily applied in some instances to estimate the expected benefits of clinical research. PMID:21712493

Meltzer, David O; Hoomans, Ties; Chung, Jeanette W; Basu, Anirban

2011-01-01

209

Approach the Good, Withdraw from the Bad—A Review on Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Measures in Applied Psychological Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Basic research has established a strong relationship between stimulus induced human motivation for approach-related behavior and left-frontal electrophysiological activity in the alpha band, i.e. frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Since approach motivation is also of interest for various fields of applied research, several recent studies investigat...

2013-01-01

210

A Framing Approach to Cross-disciplinary Research Collaboration: Experiences from a Large-scale Research Project on Adaptive Water Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants’ evaluations, and our own observations...

Art Dewulf; Greet François; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Tharsi Taillieu

2007-01-01

211

Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

2013-03-01

212

Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is a continuing need for research capacity building initiatives for primary health care professionals. Historically strategies have focused on interventions aimed at individuals but more recently theoretical frameworks have proposed team-based approaches. Few studies have evaluated these new approaches. This study aims to evaluate a team-based approach to research capacity building (RCB) in primary health using a validated quantitative measure of res...

Holden Libby; Pager Susan; Golenko Xanthe; Ware Robert S; Weare Robyn

2012-01-01

213

Collapsing ROC approach for risk prediction research on both common and rare variants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk prediction that capitalizes on emerging genetic findings holds great promise for improving public health and clinical care. However, recent risk prediction research has shown that predictive tests formed on existing common genetic loci, including those from genome-wide association studies, have lacked sufficient accuracy for clinical use. Because most rare variants on the genome have not yet been studied for their role in risk prediction, future disease prediction discoveries should shift toward a more comprehensive risk prediction strategy that takes into account both common and rare variants. We are proposing a collapsing receiver operating characteristic (CROC) approach for risk prediction research on both common and rare variants. The new approach is an extension of a previously developed forward ROC (FROC) approach, with additional procedures for handling rare variants. The approach was evaluated through the use of 533 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 candidate genes from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome data set. We found that a prediction model built on all SNPs gained more accuracy (AUC = 0.605) than one built on common variants alone (AUC = 0.585). We further evaluated the performance of two approaches by gradually reducing the number of common variants in the analysis. We found that the CROC method attained more accuracy than the FROC method when the number of common variants in the data decreased. In an extreme scenario, when there are only rare variants in the data, the CROC reached an AUC value of 0.603, whereas the FROC had an AUC value of 0.524. PMID:22373267

Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

2011-01-01

214

Advanced Pre-clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.

ChengWang

2012-10-01

215

Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

Stotz Karola

2011-01-01

216

An Overview of Geographical Perspectives and Approaches in Terrorism Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geographical perspectives and approaches are implemented in some areas of conflict research, but can benefit many more. While the body of geographically-oriented terrorism literature has been growing since the 2001, a geo-spatial focus has traditionally been absent from most research on terrorism research and remains largely unfamiliar to many terrorism researchers. This article explores geographical literature on terrorism and its contributions to the understanding of terrorism as an empirical phenomenon. The article suggests three particular contributions from geographical perspectives: 1 the geography of terrorism is linked to specific places and contexts throughout the world where governance failures lead to grievance and opportunity; 2 the terrorist attack cycle occurs along specific spatial trajectories that can be identified and possibly policed; and 3 terrorist attacks have significant negative impacts but are spatially limited and not as severe as presumed by much of the conventional literature.  These aspects vary, depending on whether the violence is waged by territorial or non-territorial groups. Included in the article is a list of data sources that may serve as a partial guide for future geographic research

Karim Bahgat

2013-03-01

217

A Military-Centered Approach to Neuroprotection Research for Traumatic Brain Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies in animals show that many compounds and therapeutics have the potential to greatly reduce the morbidity and post-injury clinical sequela for soldiers experiencing TBI. However, to date there are no FDA approved drugs for the treatment of TBI. In fact, expert opinion suggests that combination therapies will be necessary to treat any stage of TBI recovery. Our approach to this research effort is to conduct comprehensive preclinical neuroprotection studies in military relevant animal models of TBI using the most promising neuroprotective agents. In addition, emerging efforts incorporating novel treatment strategies such as stem cell based therapies and alternative drug delivery approaches will be discussed. The development of a non-surgical, non-invasive brain injury therapeutic clearly addresses a major, unresolved medical problem for the Combat Casualty Care Research Program (CCCRP. Since drug discovery is too expensive to be pursued by DOD in the TBI arena, this effort capitalizes on partnerships with the Private Sector (Pharmaceutical Companies and academic collaborations (Operation Brain Trauma Therapy Consortium to study therapies already under advanced development. Candidate therapies selected for research include drugs that are aimed at reducing the acute and delayed effects of the traumatic incident, stem cell therapies aimed at brain repair, and selective brain cooling to stabilize cerebral metabolism. Each of these efforts can also focus on combination therapies targeting multiple mechanisms of neuronal injury.

DeborahShear

2013-06-01

218

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

219

A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth  

Science.gov (United States)

A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

Ling, Douglas C.

1992-06-01

220

An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

ENFOQUES DE ESTUDIO DE CASOS EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA / CASE STUDY APPROACHES IN NURSING RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.

EUGENIA, URRA MEDINA; ROCÍO, NÚÑEZ CARRASCO; CARMEN, RETAMAL VALENZUELA; LUCY, JURE CARES.

222

Problematics of approaches to research of the use safety of ergatic control systems on railway transport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the protective state influence of ergatic control system on a railway transport on their use safety. Making recommendations concerning its accounting for regulations and testing during the development and implementation. Methodology. Research is executed on the base of reliability theory with the use of exponential law of refusals distribution. Findings. It is shown that confirmation of ergatic technical control facilities accordance and trains traffic arrangement to certain functional level of security is not sufficient for guaranteeing of their use safety. It is established that the protective refusal of ergatic control system does not exclude, but only postpones the dangerous condition of the system. Originality. Further development of approach and requirements to research of use safety of ergatic control system on a railway transport are received. Unlike previous they take into account the indexes of not only functional unconcern, but also faultlessness at setting of norms and proof of these systems safety. Practical value. Accounting of protective refusals of technical facilities at tests on their safety application, and also setting of norms of characteristics reliability of control systems by responsible technological processes on a railway transport in accordance with offered approach allows to increase level of their use safety in the exploitation process.

O. Y. Kamenyev

2013-04-01

223

Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.

2002-01-01

224

A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

2004-10-01

225

Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cy...

Hyejeong Ahn

2012-01-01

226

Multidisciplinary Approaches to Educational Research: Case Studies from Europe and the Developing World. Routledge Research in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This book provides an original perspective on a range of controversial issues in educational and social research through case studies of multi-disciplinary and mixed-method research involving children, teachers, schools and communities in Europe and the developing world. These case studies from researchers "across continents" and "across…

Rizvi, Sadaf, Ed.

2011-01-01

227

Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

Botte, Alexander

2007-01-01

228

Science and Technology Research and Development in Support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.

Becoulet, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hoang, G T [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Abiteboul, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Achard, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Alarcon, T. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL

2013-01-01

229

Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA  

Science.gov (United States)

In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives.

Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.; Abiteboul, J.; Achard, J.; Alarcon, T.; Alba-Duran, J.; Allegretti, L.; Allfrey, S.; Amiel, S.; Ané, J. M.; Aniel, T.; Antar, G.; Argouarch, A.; Armitano, A.; Arnaud, J.; Arranger, D.; Artaud, J. F.; Audisio, D.; Aumeunier, M.; Autissier, E.; Azcona, L.; Back, A.; Bahat, A.; Bai, X.; Baiocchi, B.; Balaguer, D.; Balme, S.; Balorin, C.; Barana, O.; Barbier, D.; Barbuti, A.; Basiuk, V.; Baulaigue, O.; Bayetti, P.; Baylard, C.; Beaufils, S.; Beaute, A.; Bécoulet, M.; Bej, Z.; Benkadda, S.; Benoit, F.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Berne, A.; Bertrand, B.; Bertrand, E.; Beyer, P.; Bigand, A.; Bonhomme, G.; Borel, G.; Boron, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bottollier-Curtet, H.; Bouchand, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Bourg, J.; Bourmaud, S.; Brémond, S.; Bribiesca Argomedo, F.; Brieu, M.; Brun, C.; Bruno, V.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buravand, Y.; Cai, L.; Cantone, V.; Cantone, B.; Caprin, E.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Castagliolo, A.; Belo, J.; Catherine-Dumont, V.; Caulier, G.; Chaix, J.; Chantant, M.; Chatelier, M.; Chauvin, D.; Chenevois, J.; Chouli, B.; Christin, L.; Ciazynski, D.; Ciraolo, G.; Clairet, F.; Clapier, R.; Cloez, H.; Coatanea-Gouachet, M.; Colas, L.; Colledani, G.; Commin, L.; Coquillat, P.; Corbel, E.; Corre, Y.; Cottet, J.; Cottier, P.; Courtois, X.; Crest, I.; Dachicourt, R.; Dapena Febrer, M.; Daumas, C.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Gentile, B.; Dechelle, C.; Decker, J.; Decool, P.; Deghaye, V.; Delaplanche, J.; Delchambre-Demoncheaux, E.; Delpech, L.; Desgranges, C.; Devynck, P.; Dias Pereira Bernardo, J.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doceul, L.; Dong, Y.; Douai, D.; Dougnac, H.; Dubuit, N.; Duchateau, J.-L.; Ducobu, L.; Dugue, B.; Dumas, N.; Dumont, R.; Durocher, A.; Durocher, A.; Duthoit, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Elbeze, D.; Escarguel, A.; Escop, J.; Faïsse, F.; Falchetto, G.; Farjon, J.; Faury, M.; Fedorzack, N.; Féjoz, P.; Fenzi, C.; Ferlay, F.; Fiet, P.; Firdaouss, M.; Francisquez, M.; Franel, B.; Frauche, J.; Frauel, Y.; Futtersack, R.; Garbet, X.; Garcia, J.; Gardarein, J.; Gargiulo, L.; Garibaldi, P.; Garin, P.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gaye, O.; Geraud, A.; Gerome, M.; Gervaise, V.; Geynet, M.; Ghendrih, P.; Giacalone, I.; Gibert, S.; Gil, C.; Ginoux, S.; Giovannangelo, L.; Girard, S.; Giruzzi, G.; Goletto, C.; Goncalves, R.; Gonde, R.; Goniche, M.; Goswami, R.; Grand, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Gravil, B.; Grisolia, C.; Gros, G.; Grosman, A.; Guigue, J.; Guilhem, D.; Guillemaut, C.; Guillerminet, B.; Guimaraes Filho, Z.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J. P.; Gurcan, O.; Guzman, F.; Hacquin, S.; Hariri, F.; Hasenbeck, F.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hennequin, P.; Hernandez, C.; Hertout, P.; Heuraux, S.; Hillairet, J.; Honore, C.; Hornung, G.; Houry, M.; Hunstad, I.; Hutter, T.; Huynh, P.; Icard, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Irishkin, M.; Isoardi, L.; Jacquinot, J.; Jacquot, J.; Jiolat, G.; Joanny, M.; Joffrin, E.; Johner, J.; Joubert, P.; Jourd'Heuil, L.; Jouve, M.; Junique, C.; Keller, D.; Klepper, C.; Kogut, D.; Kubi?, M.; Labassé, F.; Lacroix, B.; Lallier, Y.; Lamaison, V.; Lambert, R.; Larroque, S.; Latu, G.; Lausenaz, Y.; Laviron, C.; Le, R.; Le Luyer, A.; Le Niliot, C.; Le Tonqueze, Y.; Lebourg, P.; Lefevre, T.; Leroux, F.; Letellier, L.; Li, Y.; Lipa, M.; Lister, J.; Litaudon, X.; Liu, F.; Loarer, T.; Lombard, G.; Lotte, P.; Lozano, M.; Lucas, J.; Lütjens, H.; Magaud, P.; Maget, P.; Magne, R.; Mahieu, J.-F.; Maini, P.; Malard, P.; Manenc, L.; Marandet, Y.; Marbach, G.; Marechal, J.-L.; Marfisi, L.; Marle, M.; Martin, C.; Martin, V.; Martin, G.; Martinez, A.; Martino, P.; Masset, R.; Mazon, D.; Mellet, N.; Mercadier, L.; Merle, A.; Meshcheriakov, D.; Messina, P.; Meyer, O.; Millon, L.; Missirlian, M.; Moerel, J.; Molina, D.; Mollard, P.; Moncada, V.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, D.; Moreau, M.; Moreau, P.; Morel, P.; Moriyama, T.; Motassim, Y.; Mougeolle, G.; Moulton, D.; Moureau, G.; Mouyon, D.; Naim Habib, M.; Nardon, E.; Négrier, V.; Nemeth, J.; Nguyen, C.; Nguyen, M.; Nicolas, L.; Nicolas, T.; Nicollet, S.; Nilsson, E.; N'Konga, B.; Noel, F.; Nooman, A.; Norscini, C.; Nouailletas, R.; Oddon, P.; Ohsako, T.; Orain, F.; Ottaviani, M.; Pagano, M.; Palermo, F.; Panayotis, S.; Parrat, H.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Passeron, C.; Pastor, P.; Patterlini, J.; Pavy, K.; Pecquet, A.-L.; Pégourié, B.; Peinturier, C.; Pelletier, T.; Peluso, B.; Petrzilka, V.; Peysson, Y.; Pignoly, E.; Pirola, R.; Pocheau, C.; Poitevin, E.; Poli, V.; Poli, S.; Pompon, F.; Porchy, I.; Portafaix, C.; Preynas, M.; Prochet, P.; Prou, M.; Ratnani, A.; Raulin, D.; Ravenel, N.; Renard, S.; Ricaud, B.; Richou, M.; Ritz, G.; Roche, H.; Roubin, P.; Roux, C.; Ruiz, K.; Sabathier, F.; Sabot, R.; Saille, A.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Sakamoto, R.; Salasca, S.; Salmon, T.; Salmon, T.; Samaille, F.; Sanchez, S.; Santagiustina, A.; Saoutic, B.; Sarazin, Y.; Sardain, P.; Schlosser, J.

2013-10-01

230

Radon entry into basements: Approach, experimental structures, and instrumentation of the small structures research project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to monitor radon concentrations and other relevant parameters over a period of one year or more. Two nearly air-tight structures have been constructed at the first site. The floor of each structure contains adjustable-width slots that serve as the only significant pathway for advective entry of radon. A layer of gravel underlays the floor of one structure; otherwise they are identical. The structures are instrumented for continuous or periodic monitoring of soil, structural, and meteorological parameters that affect radon entry. The pressure difference that drives advective radon entry can be maintained constant or varied over time. Soil gas and radon entry rates and associated parameters, such as soil gas pressures and radon concentrations, have been monitored for a range of steady-state and time-varying pressure differences between the interior of the structure and the soil. Examples of the experimentally-measured pressure and permeability fields in the soil around a structure are presented and discussed.

Fisk, W.J.; Modera, M.P.; Sextro, R.G.; Garbesi, K.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Nuzum, T.; Tsang, Y.W.

1992-02-01

231

User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization : A Theoretical Analysis of the Research Literature.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Appleâ??s iPhone, Dialogâ??s search system and Googleâ??s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples. The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than be derived from studies of individuals or from the study of abstract minds.

Hjørland, Birger

2013-01-01

232

An Affordable, Low-Risk Approach to Launching Research Spacecraft as Tertiary Payloads  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rapid and affordable access to space for university researchers and educators has always been a challenge. Despite the availability of lower-cost (e.g. Russian) launch vehicles, launching payloads 20 kg or less typically involves a certain minimum cost that necessitates a cost sharing arrangement among numerous parties and the handling of complex export control issues. In turn, this complicates mission scheduling and increases the risk of missing launch deadlines. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) has taken a leading role in addressing this challenge, and has successfully led a group of international spacecraft developers in manifesting one 1-kg Canadian spacecraft, two 1-kg Danish spacecraft, and one 3-kg American spacecraft on a 2003 Eurockot launch. This paper outlines the approach taken by UTIAS/SFL in negotiating and securing launches for its own spacecraft in collaboration with other spacecraft developers. A summary of how this approach is applied in planning and coordinating the June 2003 Eurockot launch is also presented.

Thomsen, Per Lundahl; Blanke, Mogens

2003-01-01

233

Participatory research approaches in the development of improved management practices in indigenous chickens production systems with smallholder farmers in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...

Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu

2012-01-01

234

Enfoque filosófico dialéctico-materialista de la investigación científica / Dialectical - materialistic philosophical approach to scientific research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de contribuir al debate actual sobre la necesidad del esclarecimiento de los fundamentos filosóficos de la investigación científica y su declaración en el discurso que expone sus principales resultados, se valoró la forma en que se asume la perspectiva dialéctico-materialista y se pr [...] ecisó en torno a algunos enfoques polémicos sobre la necesidad de su empleo consecuente como referente cosmovisivo en la construcción de la ciencia y la legitimación de sus resultados. Se enfatizó en la necesidad de su consecuente empleo en el proceso de investigación. Abstract in english In order to contribute to the current debate on the necessity for clarification of the philosophical foundations of scientific research and its interpretation in discourse that exposes its main results, it was assessed how dialectical materialistic perspective is assumed and it was clarified around [...] some controversial approaches about the necessity of its consistent use as a comprehensive reference in building science and the legitimacy of its results. It was emphasized on the need of its consistent use in the research process.

Rafael Claudio, Izaguirre Remón.

235

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

1994-10-24

236

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

Kercel, S.W.

1995-02-01

237

Measuring the environmental effects of converting cropland to short-rotation woody crops: a research approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conversion of cropland to short-rotation woody biomass crops (SRWC) has received increasing interest as biomass utilization technologies have improved and concerns for effects of fossil fuel emissions on global climate have developed. Effects of this conversion on erosion, hydrology, water quality and soil productivity may be significant. A large cooperative research project began in the spring of 1995 at three sites representative of the lower Tennessee Valley to compare the environmental effects of growing traditional row crops with the production of SRWCs over 3- to 5-year rotations. This paper presents the research approach to be used to evaluate these effects and a few preliminary results from the initial 3 months of the study. Small watersheds cultivated in row crops: corn (Zea mays L.) or cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), are being compared with small watersheds in tree crops: sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) or eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) with respect to: (1) erosion; (2) run-off quality (nutrients, pesticides) and quantity; (3) groundwater quality; (4) soil chemical changes (carbon, nutrients, pesticides); (5) soil physical changes (infiltration, bulk density, aggregate stability); (6) soil biological changes; and (7) wildlife populations. (author)

Joslin, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Norris (United States). Atmospheric Sciences; Schoenholtz, S.H. [Mississippi Forestry and Wildlife Research Center (United States). College of Forest Resources

1997-12-31

238

Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. [Report recommends biocatalyst approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation's fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes. The integration of these programs as viable bioprocessing initiatives proposes an innovative and conceptual principle for the development of a new'' approach to fossil energy biotechnology. This unifying principle is NON-AQUEOUS BIOCATALYSIS. Biocatalysis coupled to conventional chemical catalysis in organic-based media offers bioprocessing options uniquely characterized by the selectivity of biocatalysts plus fast reaction rates and specificity of chemical catalysts.

Finnerty, W.R. (Consultec Scientific, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-04-01

239

Journal de-selection in a biomedical research library: A mediated mathematical approach. [Cancellation of subscriptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the mathematical formula developed for journal de-selection decisions. The formula factors in subscription cost, shelving and storage cost, interlibrary loan cost, staffing cost, and usage level to determine the )open quotes)institutional cost ratio)close quotes) which serves as an indicator of the cost-effectiveness of subscribing to each title. Once the institutional cost ratio was calculated for each of the 537 titles, a committee of library staff and senior library customers reviewed the ranked list to decide which subscriptions should be canceled based on the rankings. The committee also considered possible exceptions based on subjective criteria such as availability at local libraries, unrecorded usage, and relative importance of the journal. The preliminary cancellation list was then reviewed by the researchers who use the Library. The researchers were able to justify Library subscriptions to a few additional titles. By using this method, we were able to cut our subscription costs by 46)percent), while cutting only 8)percent) of the total usage. In addition, by mediating the mathematical approach with human intervention, we were able to make these severe cuts without unduly distressing our patrons.

Hunt, R.K.

1988-01-01

240

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

1995-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

The KNOO research consortium: work package 3 - an integrated approach to waste immobilisation and management - 16375  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Keeping the Nuclear Option Open (KNOO) research consortium is a four-year research council funded initiative addressing the challenges related to increasing the safety, reliability and sustainability of nuclear power in the UK. Through collaboration between key industrial and governmental stakeholders, and with international partners, KNOO was established to maintain and develop skills relevant to nuclear power generation. Funded by a research grant of Pounds 6.1 M from the 'Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy Programme' of the UK Research Councils, it represents the single largest university-based nuclear research programme in the UK for more than 30 years. The programme is led by Imperial College London, in collaboration with the universities of Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Cardiff and the Open University. These universities are working with the UK nuclear industry, who contributed a further Pounds 0.4 M in funding. The industry/government stakeholders include AWE, British Energy, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Environment Agency, the Health and Safety Executive, Doosan Babcock, the Ministry of Defence, Nirex, AMEC NNC, Rolls-Royce PLC and the UK Atomic Energy Authority. Work Package 3 of this consortium, led by the University of Leeds, concerns 'An Integrated Approach to Waste Immobilisation and Management', and involves Imperial College London, and the Universities of Manchester and Sheffield. The aims of this work package are: to study the re-mobilisation, transport, solid-liquid separation and immobilisation of particulate wastes; to develop predictive models for particle behaviour based on atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale simulations; to develop a fundamental understanding of selective adsorption of nuclides onto filter systems and their immobilisation; and to consider mechanisms of nuclide leaving and transport. The paper describes highlights from this work in the key areas of multi-scale modeling (using atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale models), the engineering properties of waste (linking microscopic and macroscopic behaviour, and transport and rheology), and waste reactivity (considering waste hosts and wasteforms, generation IV wastes, and waste interactions). (authors)

2009-10-11

242

DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation, getting to know the antecedents, the features, the possible interactions among antecedents and current features. Based on the recommendations found in the literature the eradication of manipulative processes is next to impossible but the limitation can be a reality. In this respect the researchers recommend controlling the conditions and motives that increase the likelihood of its presence and also developing stronger tools to detection.

Vladu Alina Beattrice

2011-12-01

243

Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1 The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2 Compartment/network models, (3 Mesocosm experiments and (4 Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE. The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the system’s metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc. and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc. under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1 la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2 modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models, (3 experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y

Matthias Wolff

2002-06-01

244

Research Data Management at the University of Warwick: recent steps towards a joined-up approach at a UK university  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper charts the steps taken and possible ways forward for the University of Warwick in its approach to research data management, providing a typical example of a UK research university’s approach in two strands: requirements and support. The UK government approach and funding landscape in relation to research data management provided drivers for the University of Warwick to set requirements and provide support, and examples of good practice at other institutions, support from a central national body (the UK Digital Curation Centre and learning from other universities’ experiences all proved valuable to the University of Warwick. Through interviews with researchers at Warwick, various issues and challenges are revealed: perhaps the biggest immediate challenges for Warwick going forward are overcoming scepticism amongst researchers, overcoming costs, and understanding the implications of involving third party companies in research data management. Building technical infrastructure could sit alongside and beyond those immediate steps and beyond the challenges that face one University are those that affect academia as a whole. Researchers and university administrators need to work together to address the broader challenges, such as the accessibility of data for future use and the reward for researchers who practice data management in exemplary ways, and indeed it may be that a wider, national or international but disciplinary technical infrastructure affects what an individual university needs to achieve. As we take these steps, universities and institutions are all learning from each other.

Jenny Delasalle

2013-10-01

245

Review: Keith F. Punch (2005. Introduction to Social Research – Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches Review: Keith F. Punch (2005. Introduction to Social Research—Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches Reseña: Keith F. Punch (2005. Introduction to Social Research—Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction to Social Research enthält insgesamt zwölf sehr detaillierte und gut zugängliche Kapitel über quantitative, qualitative und mixed-method Ansätze und richtet sich an Personen, die gerade beginnen, sich mit den Sozialwissenschaften zu befassen. In die nun vorgelegte 2. Auflage wurden zahlreiche illustrative Anwendungsbeispiele aufgenommen, die es Studierenden ermöglichen, die Grundlagen sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung zu verstehen. Ich selbst werde dieses Buch neuen Studentinnen und Studenten als praktische Hilfe für ihre Forschung unbedingt empfehlen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249PUNCH's book is composed of 12 comprehensive and very accessible chapters on quantitative, qualitative and mixed empirical methods, intended for newcomers to the social sciences. This second edition of the book provides a wide range of illustrative examples, making it easier for the student to comprehend the basics of research. I would strongly recommend it to my undergraduate students as a practical and friendly guide for their studies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249El libro de Punch está compuesto por 12 capítulos muy comprensibles y accesibles sobre los métodos empíricos cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, deseables para los recién llegados a las ciencias sociales. Esta segunda edición del libro proporciona una amplia gama de ejemplos ilustrativos, haciendo más fácil para el estudiante la comprensión de los fundamentos de la investigación. Lo recomendaría especialmente a mis estudiantes no graduados como guía práctica y amigable para sus estudios. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249

Constantinos N. Phellas

2006-03-01

246

LA FORMACIÓN INTEGRAL: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA INVESTIGACIÓN / WHOLE EDUCATION: AN APPROACH FROM RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.

Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.

247

Abordagens metodológicas na pesquisa biográfica / Methodological approaches to biographical research / Abordajes metodológicos en la investigación biográfica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda a pesquisa biográfica, seus pressupostos epistemológicos, suas práticas metodológicas e alternativas de análise. O texto inicia com uma discussão sobre o que constitui especificamente o projeto epistemológico da pesquisa biográfica, confrontando sua perspectiva teórica com a abordage [...] m sociológica. Nesse sentido, assume a concepção de indivíduo como ser singular, biográfico, que possui sua própria experiência. A seguir, desenvolve os aspectos metodológicos da pesquisa biográfica, considerando o material biográfico propriamente dito, as formas típicas de coleta com a entrevista biográfica, sua condução e suas implicações no trabalho de campo. Finaliza com uma discussão sobre a análise das entrevistas biográficas, por meio das seguintes categorias: "formas do discurso", "esquema de ação", "motivos recorrentes" e "gestão biográfica", presentes no material coletado. Abstract in spanish El artículo aborda la investigación biográfica, sus presupuestos epistemológicos, sus prácticas metodológicas y alternativas de análisis. El texto empieza con una discusión sobre qué constituye específicamente el proyecto epistemológico de la investigación biográfica, confrontando su perspectiva teó [...] rica con el abordaje sociológico. En ese sentido, asume la concepción de individuo como ser singular, biográfico, que posee su propia experiencia. Luego, desarrolla los aspectos metodológicos de la investigación biográfica, considerando el material biográfico propiamente dicho, las formas típicas de recopilación de datos con la entrevista biográfica, su conducción y sus implicaciones en el trabajo de campo. Termina con una discusión sobre el análisis de las entrevistas biográficas por medio de las siguientes categorías: "formas del discurso"; "esquema de acción"; "motivos recurrentes" y "gestión biográfica", presentes en el material recopilado. Abstract in english This article discusses biographical research, its epistemological assumptions, methodological practices and alternatives of analysis. The text begins with a discussion of what specifically constitutes the epistemological project of biographical research, comparing its theoretical perspective to the [...] sociological approach. In this sense, it takes the concept of the individual as a singular, biographical being who has his or her own experience. Next, it develops the methodological aspects of biographical research, considering the biographical material itself, the typical forms of collection with biographical interviews, their conduction and their implications for fieldwork. It ends with a discussion on the analysis of biographical interviews through the following categories: "forms of discourse", "framework for action", "recurring motifs" and "biographical management", present in the material collected.

Christine, Delory-Momberger.

248

Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1996-01-01

249

A 'bottom-up' approach to aetiological research in autism spectrum disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs – are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this ‘proof of principle’ paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.

LisaMarieUnwin

2013-09-01

250

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel Ghini

2012-02-01

251

Health research based on geospatial tools: a timely approach in a changing environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibilities of disease prediction based on the environmental characteristics of geographical areas and specific requirements of the causative infectious agents are reviewed and, in the case of parasites whose life cycles involve more than one host, the needs of the intermediate hosts are also referred to. The geographical information systems framework includes epidemiological data, visualization (in the form of maps), modelling and exploratory analysis using spatial statistics. Examples include climate-based forecast systems, based on the concept of growing degree days, which now exist for several parasitic helminths such as fasciolosis, schistosomiasis, dirofilariasis and also for malaria. The paper discusses the limits of data collection by remote sensing in terms of resolution capabilities (spatial, temporal and spectral) of sensors on-board satellites. Although the data gained from the observation of oceans, land, elevations, land cover, land use, surface temperatures, rainfall, etc. are primarily for weather forecasting, military and commercial use, some of this information, particularly that from the climate research satellites, is of direct epidemiological utility. Disease surveillance systems and early-warning systems (EWS) are prime examples of academic approaches of practical importance. However, even commercial activities such as the construction of virtual globes, i.e. computer-based models of the Earth, have been used in this respect. Compared to conventional world maps, they do not only show geographical and man-made features, but can also be spatially annotated with data on disease distribution, demography, economy and other measures of particular interest. PMID:19728898

Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura

2010-03-01

252

Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discus

Matthias, Wolff.

253

Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities: A Simplified Stepwise Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides practical information, experience and assistance to practitioners who are faced with decommissioning of a small nuclear facility, yet have limited or no previous experience. In such circumstances, it is also conceivable that newcomers to decommissioning may be faced with inadequate financial and scientific resources to complete the task; making it all the more important to avoid costly errors. Furthermore, it is also possible that a worker may need some guidance in starting the process of obtaining finance and resources to progress with the task of decommissioning. The aim of this report is to provide useful practical advice to newcomers to decommissioning to aid them in the planning and management of hands-on decommissioning technologies for small nuclear facilities, using a step wise approach, through to facility and site release. This report breaks down the process of decommissioning into a number of manageable stages, such that the inexperienced practitioner has the opportunity to build confidence as they progress with each stage. Whilst acknowledging that there may be a wide diversity of regulatory licence termination conditions throughout the world, the generic stages of decommissioning will broadly be the same, such that this report should be a basic handbook of use in all instances of small facility decommissioning. This text emphasizes, at each stage, the importance of appropriate interface and dialogue with the Regulatory Body and other stakeholders, not only as a means of advancing any regulatory permission required for decommissioning and licence termination, but also for the many benefits gained by early and ongoing dialogue. This report covers the practical aspects of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities typically found in medical, research and industrial applications. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large chemical facilities, and all forms of waste disposal are outside the scope of this report and have been covered adequately elsewhere. Typical facilities covered by this report include: - Medical facilities with radiography and radiotherapy units and those using radioisotopes; - Industrial facilities, such as those producing radioisotopes, using irradiation and radiography devices, and manufacturing products incorporating radioactive materials; - Research facilities such as particle accelerators, and those associated with the nuclear industry (e.g. critical assemblies or zero-power reactors), pharmaceuticals and medicine; - Laboratories in universities and hospitals. This publication has been structured as a series of sequential actions, and is supported by tables identifying lessons learned during decommissioning of small facilities. This should assist the inexperienced worker in following a logical stepwise approach to decommissioning. Whereas it is not possible to include all the specific detail of every aspect of decommissioning in this report, a number of useful references are included at each stage, thereby directing the reader to further information. This report is structured as a number of practical stages, some of which can be initiated in parallel rather than sequentially, taking note that many factors under consideration may change throughout the decommissioning process up to achievement of release conditions. An accompanying CD includes a range of practical examples of decommissioning projects from around the world in the annexes, specifically providing details of project planning and implementation, along with lessons learned. (author)

2011-09-01

254

The Biological Efficiency of the Petten Research Reactor Beam on Human Lymphocytes (Methodological Approach)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present preliminary results of examination of the biological efficiency of the Petten Research Reactor mixed beam with respect to 250 kV X-rays for the induction of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated by the beam from Research Reactor in ECN Petten, Netherlands and dose response relationships for the level of damage induced were investigated. In order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture, chemical pretreatment with boric acid or mercaptoborane (containing boron-10 ions) was done. The estimation of the DNA damage was done with the use of a single cell gel-electrophoresis method (SCGE), to asses the frequency of chromosomal aberrations culturing of lymphocytes for the evaluation of cytogenetic damage was performed. Abnormal behavior of blood samples during a culture procedure and abnormally low metaphases frequency was noticed. During the analysis of DNA damage by SCGE assay we have also found the abnormalities in shapes and brightness of investigated comets. Part of the studied lymphocytes was bigger than others and had much bigger fraction of the DNA in tail. Very poor dose response relationship was observed in those results. From this reason, our paper presents the methodological approach and discussion of the results obtained and also studies on the parameters reflecting the level of the DNA in human lymphocytes. In order to eliminate outstanding comets (fluffy) we measured for all our results the relation of the fraction of DNA in tail to the length of the comet tail. The value of this ratio usually fluctuated in range of 0.1 to 0.70. For the fluffy comets mentioned before the tDNA/TL ratio was generally about 0.9, or even more than 1.0 that means that the percentage of fraction of DNA in tail was higher than in usually seen comets with such a tail length. After analysis of distribution of frequency cells with various tDNA/TL ratio, we decided to establish 0.8 as cut off value for the filtration software to eliminate the outstanding results. Elimination of the fluffy comets corrected our results and let observe various dose response relationships for various treatments (X-rays, modified beam of reactor neutrons in normal and boron pretreated cells). Applied correction usually leaded to improvement of statistics. Our additional studies showed that appearance of outstanding comets is also observed as results of disturbance of suspension medium. We have achieved the similar fluffy comets studying with application of the Comet assay the influence of hypotonic solution in cell suspension on comets shape after electrophoresis. (author)

2000-01-01

255

Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach

Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

2008-01-01

256

Professional development of beginner teachers : an action research approach to mentoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research investigates the use of action research and Whole Brain Teaching© for beginner teachers professional development through the use of peer mentoring. Five beginner teachers formed part of a peer mentoring group.

2012-01-01

257

Knowledge translation in health research: A novel approach to health sciences education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The salient role of knowledge translation process, by which knowledge is put into practice, is increasingly recognized by various research stakeholders. However, medical schools are slow in providing medical students and health professionals engaged in research with the sufficient opportunities to examine more closely the facilitators and barriers to utilization of research evidence in policymaking and implementation, or the effectiveness of their research communication strategies. Memorial U...

Reitmanova, Sylvia

2009-01-01

258

Linking research and education to promote an integrated approach to sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2003, researchers from various disciplines (biology, physics, geology, economics, sociology, linguistics, psychology and science education) founded the Centre IRIS – Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Sustainability (www.iris.unito.it) based at the University of Torino (Italy). IRIS links research in science with educational practice: as new conceptual tools are produced and research findings are published, they are discussed within the group and ‘metabolised’, turned into liter...

Camino, Elena; Perazzone, Anna; Colucci Gray, Laura

2005-01-01

259

Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

2014-01-01

260

FEHR-Practicum: A Computer-Simulation Approach to Teaching Research and Evaluation Methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Formative Evaluation and Heuristic Research (FEHR) Practicum, a computer-simulated educational research and evaluation experience, was assessed as a means of improving participants' knowledge and skill in traditional research. Trainee activities include the preparation of preliminary surveys, evaluation proposals, budgets, computer commands,…

Shiffler, Nancy L.; And Others

 
 
 
 
261

A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR, the proper design level should be determin

Suh, Yong Suk; Park, Jae Kwan; Kim, Taek Kyu; Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

262

A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR, the proper design level should be determin

2012-10-01

263

Approach of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing to managing ageing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is involved in dry cask storage site operation surveillance performed by the competent State authorities. The institute also investigates the long term behaviour of storage casks under service conditions. Based on this experience, the following approaches to managing ageing have been developed. Material ageing effects, if they occur, do not lead to a safety relevant reduction of the properties of the cask, owing to their thick walls. The most sensitive components of casks for dry storage of spent fuel are the metallic seals used with the lid system responsible for the safe enclosure of the nuclear inventory. These metallic seals consist of an inner helical spring made of a nickel based alloy, an inner metallic jacket made of stainless steel and an outer jacket made of aluminium or silver. Seal installation requires a wide range of quality assurance measures, starting with fabrication standards and ending with the installation procedure itself. Within the German licensing procedures the long term suitability of such seals has been investigated and demonstrated taking into consideration the required service conditions. The service conditions are characterized by the absence of water, which has to be removed carefully by suitable drying procedures if the casks are loaded under water. The cask body and the cavity between the lids are filled with inert gas in order to minimize possible corrosion reactions. Finally, protection measures against environmental influences are taken by using a sealed protection plate above the barrier lid system with its metallic seals. The worldwide operation experience of several hundred dry storage casks in service for up to about 20 years (in 2003) shows few problems with the long term stability of this concept. Specifically, no safety relevant material ageing mechanisms have occurred. Problems were minor and included unsuitable operation conditions such as water getting into sealing systems or the reaction of condensed atmospheric humidity with outer cask metal components because of an inadequate quality of epoxy coatings. In connection with the German concept of realizing on-site storage facilities for the interim storage of spent fuel from power reactors, the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK), which advises the Federal Environment Ministry, published Safety Guidelines for Dry Interim Storage of Irradiated Fuel Assemblies in Storage Casks in 2001. These recommendations contain a chapter entitled Long-term and Ageing Effects, Long-term Monitoring, which defines the following requirements: (a) An observation programme on long term and ageing effects during the storage period must be submitted. (b) Special attention must be paid to components developed for the entire period of use, for example the casks, including safety relevant components such as the sealing systems and neutron absorbers, and the storage facility. (c) The safety relevant properties of system and component parts must be guaranteed for the entire service period, and cask handling inside the facility must be possible at any time. (d) The observation programme has to consider the following demands: (i) Inspection of the storage building and all other storage components: status report every 10 years. (ii) Spot check inspection of storage casks. (iii) Assessment of findings of recurrent inspections. Two main conclusions about the German approach to managing ageing in dry spent fuel storage facilities can be made: - Firstly, the design and licensing phase must consider the possibility of ageing effects by referring to the service conditions (radiation, temperature, mechanical stresses and environmental conditions) in combination with the types of material to be used. Metallic sealing systems for the long term safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory should be used under guaranteed dry and inert conditions. - Secondly, the operation phase should be accompanied by an appropriate observation programme in order to ensure the required conditions for a

2006-05-01

264

Partizipative Gesundheitsforschung: Wer partizipiert woran? Participatory Health Research: Who Participates in What? Investigación participativa en salud: ¿Quién participa en qué?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partizipative Forschung zielt darauf ab, soziale Wirklichkeit partnerschaftlich zu erforschen und zu beeinflussen. Das Konzept der Teilhabe (Partizipation spielt dabei eine zentrale Rolle. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet dieses Konzept anhand eines Studiendesigns aus der partizipativen Gesundheitsforschung, das in Anlehnung an den nordamerikanischen Ansatz des Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR entwickelt wurde. Der CBPR-Ansatz sowie die darin enthaltenen Schlüsselbegriffe "Community" und "Partizipation" werden vorgestellt. Die Umsetzung dieser Konzepte wird anschließend an einem Beispiel aus dem Forschungs- und Handlungsfeld der HIV-Prävention bei Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund erläutert. Das PaKoMi-Projekt fördert und untersucht die Partizipation und Kooperation in der HIV-Prävention mit Migrant/inn/en in Deutschland. Es wird geklärt: 1. Welche Akteure und Akteurinnen sind beteiligt (Wer partizipiert?, 2. an welchen Prozessen sind sie beteiligt (Woran wird partizipiert? und 3. in welcher Form findet eine Beteiligung statt (Wie wird partizipiert?? Ein Fokus liegt dabei auf der Beteiligung an den Forschungsprozessen, die u.a. in Form von partizipativen Fallstudien stattfinden. An den Fallstudien sind Community-Partner/innen (Akteure und Akteurinnen aus den Zielgruppen und Communities mit Migrationshintergrund, Praxispartner/innen (professionelle Anbieter/innen, z.B. Mitarbeiter/innen von Aidshilfen und Wissenschaftler/innen gleichberechtigt beteiligt. Entscheidungen über Zielsetzung, Datenerhebung, Auswertung und Verwertung werden gemeinsam getroffen. Darüber hinaus übernehmen Community-Partner/innen als Peer Researcher Aufgaben der Datenerhebung und Auswertung. Die Chancen und Möglichkeiten des gemeinsamen Forschens werden dargelegt, ebenso Herausforderungen und offene Fragen, die beispielsweise im Hinblick auf ungleich verteilte Teilhabechancen, die Bestimmung von Community, mögliche Gefahren von Partizipation sowie die Übertragbarkeit des CBPR-Ansatzes auf den deutschen Kontext bestehen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120176Participatory research aims to study and change social reality in collaborative ways. The concept of participation plays a key role. In this article, I clarify the concept using the example of a participatory health research study. The study design presented here is based on the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR. These principles as well as the key concepts of "community" and "participation" are introduced. Subsequently, the realization of these concepts is illustrated using a specific example: the PaKoMi project is a participatory research project on health promotion and HIV prevention with immigrant communities in Germany. The following questions are discussed: 1. Which actors are involved? (Who participates?; 2. What processes do they participate in?; 3. How is their participation realized? The actors, methods, and forms of participation are analyzed by focusing on research-related participation that takes place in participatory case studies and workshops. Community partners (members of immigrant communities, service providers (staff from AIDS service organizations, and researchers share decision making power to differing degrees in all phases of the research processes—from formulating the aims and research questions, to collecting and analyzing data, to disseminating the study findings. "Peer researchers" were trained to conduct studies in their respective immigrant communities. Reflecting on the study design, I discuss the opportunities of doing research in participatory ways. Also, challenges and open questions are addressed, such as power differences and preconditions for the participation of socially marginalized groups, pitfalls in defining and involving community and the question of transferability of CBPR as a North-American research strategy to the German context.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120176La investigación participativa se enfoca en estudiar y cambiar la realidad social median

Hella von Unger

2011-11-01

265

Local Authority Approaches to the School Admissions Process. LG Group Research Report  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the challenges, barriers and facilitating factors connected to the various school admissions approaches used by local authorities? This report gathers the views of local authority admissions officers on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, as well as the issues and challenges they face in this important area. It covers:…

Rudd, Peter; Gardiner, Clare; Marson-Smith, Helen

2010-01-01

266

Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

2010-05-01

267

Health research priority setting in Iran: Introduction to a bottom up approach  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Priority setting is one of the major issues in the health research system and no health system can afford to pay for every research they want to do, particularly in developing countries, so we decided to set the national main areas of the health research priorities. METHODS: In this study, according to Essential National Health Research (ENHR) strategy and with cooperation of all the Iranian universities of medical sciences and other stakeholders, the national health research priorities were extracted. RESULTS: The number of research priorities collected from the universities of medical sciences was 6723. Seventeen percent of the research priorities were related to basic science, 78 percent applied science, and 5 percent were related to developmental type. According to epidemiological classification, 50% of the research priorities were in descriptive form. In this process, 9 main extracted areas consist of communicable diseases, non-communicable disease, Health System Research, pharmaceutical sciences and Industry, basic science, traditional medicine and herbal medicine, nutrition, environmental health, and dentistry. And then for each area, five main projects were defined. CONCLUSIONS: In the Health Research System, the participatory priority setting is the main function based on needs assessment.

Owlia, Parviz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Bahreini, Farahossadat; Farahani, Mahdi; Ghanei, Mostafa

2011-01-01

268

Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

at will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)

2010-03-21

269

Segment of the action research in the Reggio Emilia educational approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At contemporary educational research the paradigmatic clusters are often intertwined and they overlap. Within the research individual aspects of a particular problem are differently focused. A quality paradigm comprises interpretive as well as action research, whereby the goal of the former is to mainly comprehend and explain developments in the society, whereas the task of the latter is to try and change them, as well. In the article particular segments of the action resear...

Jug, Anita

2010-01-01

270

Research Evaluation as a Policy Design Tool: Mapping Approaches across a Set of Case Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an overview of research evaluation practices across countries. The main aim is to investigate whether research assessment is implemented and to see to what extent its results are used to revise policy strategies, identify new research priorities, allocate financial resources or enhance public understanding of R&D. The paper addresses a set of cases studies, four within Europe (UK, Finland, Italy, and Spain) and two outside (US and Japan). Each case study provides an outlin...

Papponetti, Valeria; Bucchi, Massimiano

2007-01-01

271

Approach to the commercialization of the institutional research: a review of the GRI experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The organizational structure of the Gas Research Institute is discussed as it applies to technology transfer and commercialization. The factors which facilitate commercialization are identified. The coordination that must go on between technical development and commercial development is discussed. Enough commercial success has been generated by the commercialization program to return the gas industry's investment in GRI research. This success is attributed to a system that targets research for results.

Ingle, W.D.; Moran, T.L.

1986-03-01

272

Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge gene...

Pornpit Silkavute; Dinh Xuan Tung; Pongpisut Jongudomsuk

2013-01-01

273

Approaches of national 3D mapping: Research results and standardisation in practice:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper...

Stoter, J. E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J. P.

2013-01-01

274

A Methodological and Scientific Approach to Developing a Research Agenda in Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the development of a National Educational Research Agenda. The study surveys 912 stakeholders regarding their perceptions of pertinent education issues believed to be significant in the context of the current educational reform. Through a modified Delphi Technique (DT, thirteen faculty members in a National Arab-Gulf university reduced the 2332 remarks to nine categories containing 10 Research Statement/Questions (RS/Q. The knowledge based research agenda will produce a research program aimed at improving teacher practices and students’ educational outcomes from which these results and findings will be used to support new educational decisions and policies.

Ramzi Nasser

2014-01-01

275

Approach of Case Base Reasoning in Handling the Unavailable information Based on Real Integrated Price Language in a Marketing Research Tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract:This research effort aims to use a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach for the unavailable information in a marketing research tool language based on real integrated price and attempts to investigate its advantages over traditional expert systems approach. Marketing research tool divided into the different parts language Scripting Editor, language debugger, Web Interface. is an application for writing script for collecting the information for Marketing research tools. The collect the...

2013-01-01

276

Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

Bebout, I. Lee

2005-01-01

277

Mental Health Research in K-12 Schools: Translating a Systems Approach to University-School Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors discuss the challenges that researchers from university and community systems face in gaining access to and partnering with K-12 school systems to conduct research. Borrowing from Szapocznik, Hervis, and Schwartz's (2003) brief strategic family theory and therapy and Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory, the authors…

Hooper, Lisa M.; Britnell, Heather Brandt

2012-01-01

278

Time Is Precious: Variable- and Event-Centred Approaches to Process Analysis in CSCL Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Although temporality is a key characteristic of the core concepts of CSCL--interaction, communication, learning, knowledge building, technology use--and although CSCL researchers have privileged access to process data, the theoretical constructs and methods employed in research practice frequently neglect to make full use of information relating…

Reimann, Peter

2009-01-01

279

Conducting Research with the Disability Community: A Rights-Based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores philosophical and theoretical frameworks that are useful for the conduct of research with people with disabilities. It then uses these frameworks as a basis for discussion of research practices, with a specific focus on differences that occur because of specific impairments and various cultural meanings of disability. The…

Munger, Kelly M.; Mertens, Donna M.

2011-01-01

280

Teaching versus research: A multi-tasking approach to multi-department universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the possible implications of incentive schemes as a tool to promote ef?ciency in the management of universities. In this paper, we show that by designing internal ?nancial rules which create yardstick competition for research funds, a multi-department university may induce better teaching quality and research, as compared to the performance of independent departments.

Gautier, Axel; Wauthy, Xavier

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Researching Early Intervention and Young Children's Perspectives--Developing and Using a "Listening to Children Approach"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article, by Alice Paige-Smith and Jonathan Rix, considers the current context of early intervention in England from the perspective and experiences of two families and in particular focuses on two young children identified as having Down syndrome. This case study research has emerged from previous research conducted by the authors, both of…

Paige-Smith, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

2011-01-01

282

Adding Value by Taking a National and Institutional Approach to Research Data: The ANDS Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Australian National Data Service (ANDS) has been working to add value to Australia’s research data environment since 2009. This paper looks at the changes that have occurred over this time, ANDS’ role in those changes and the current state of the Australian research sector at this time, using case studies of selected institutions.

Groenewegen, David; Treloar, Andrew

2013-01-01

283

A Critical Commentary on Combined Methods Approach to Researching Educational and Social Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

One major issue social science research is faced with concerns the methodological schism and internecine "warfare" that divides the field. This paper examines critically what is referred to as combined methods research, and the claim that this is the best methodology for addressing complex social issues. The paper discredits this claim on the…

Nudzor, Hope Pius

2009-01-01

284

Collaborative research approaches to the role of wildlife in zoonotic disease emergence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to public health and the majority are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Here we discuss new collaborative approaches to understanding the process of zoonotic disease emergence that link veterinary medicine, public health, and ecological approaches: conservation medicine and one health. We demonstrate how studies on the underlying drivers of disease emergence (bushmeat hunting, wildlife trade, and deforestation) can provide ways to model, predict, and ultimately prevent zoonotic disease emergence and spread. PMID:17848075

Daszak, P; Epstein, J H; Kilpatrick, A M; Aguirre, A A; Karesh, W B; Cunningham, A A

2007-01-01

285

A Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Prion Disease Biomarker Research: Delving into the Glycoproteome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mass spectrometry (MS) – based proteomic approaches have evolved as powerful tools for the discovery of biomarkers. However, the identification of potential protein biomarkers from biofluid samples is challenging because of the limited dynamic range of detection. Currently there is a lack of sensitive and reliable pre-mortem diagnostic test for prion diseases. Here, we describe the use of a combined MS-based approach for biomarker discovery in prion diseases from mouse plasma samples. To ov...

Wei, Xin; Herbst, Allen; Ma, Di; Aiken, Judd; Li, Lingjun

2011-01-01

286

Needs Assessment in Health Research Projects: A New Approach to Project Management in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The science and technology health plan has defined the outline of health research to the national vision of Iran by 2025. The aim of this study was to focus on the process of needs assessment of health research projects also health research priority setting in Iran.Methods: The project management life cycle has four phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution and Closure. Based on abovementioned points we conducted the study.Results: Focusing on the needs assessment led to systematic implementation of needs assessment of health project in all of the medical sciences universities. Parallel with this achieved strategies health research priority setting was followed through specific process from empowerment to implementation.Conclusion: We should adopt with more systematic progressive methods of health project managements for both our national convenience as well as our international health research programs.

Niloofar Peykari

2013-02-01

287

Preliminary Characterization and Analysis of the Designs and Research-Manufacturing Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.

Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong

2000-10-30

288

Individual Project-Based Approach to Develop Research Aptitude in Manufacturing Engineering Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper chronicles experiences with individual research-paper projects in teaching a senior level course on Polymer Properties and Processing to manufacturing engineering majors. Polymer Properties and Processing is one of five elective courses in the area of processes. Students complete courses on 'Materials Engineering' and 'Materials Selection and Processes' prior to taking this course. The course exposes students to current trends in plastics and composites industry as a means to prepare them for graduate study. Accordingly, in this course rather than assigning team based projects, research paper topics were assigned on an individual basis. Thirty percent weight was given to this research activity. Students were systematically prepared for taking up the research paper activity. Demonstrations were organized in the research laboratories in the Chemistry department pertaining to basic polymer characterization techniques. These techniques include GPC, TGA, and DMA. Three industrial visits were organized to expose students to injection molding, extrusion, and carboncomposite manufacturing processes. Students also viewed videos prepared by the 'Society of Manufacturing Engineers' in the areas of processing. The instructor suggested a few important research topics. These topics included polymer nanocomposites; bio-based polymers and composites; and polymers in NVH applications. Students were also encouraged to bring their own topic ideas. Students were expected to refer handbooks, magazines, research articles, and web sources. They were encouraged to visit industry and research labs within and outside university. A minimum of 15 core technical references were expected from different sources. Students prepared a 10-12 page research paper and delivered a 10 minute presentation in front of the entire class. Two external evaluators with broad industrial experience were invited to assess the performance. Course evaluations revealed very promising results and provided concrete feedback. In fact, out of ten students, three have decided to pursue careers in composite materials.This paper details the pedagogy and the research paper activity.

Sriraman, Vedraman; Tate, Jitendra

2012-03-15

289

Advances in Nutrigenomics research: novel and future analytical approaches to investigate the biological activity of natural compounds and food functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, nutrition research has moved from classical epidemiology and physiology to molecular biology and genetics. Following this trend, Nutrigenomics has emerged as a novel and multidisciplinary research field in nutritional science that aims to elucidate how diet can influence human health. It is already well known that bioactive food compounds can interact with genes affecting transcription factors, protein expression and metabolite production. The study of these complex interactions requires the development of advanced analytical approaches combined with bioinformatics. Thus, to carry out these studies Transcriptomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics approaches are employed together with an adequate integration of the information that they provide. In this article, an overview of the current methodologies and a thorough revision of the advances in analytical technologies and their possibilities for future developments and applications in the field of Nutrigenomics is provided. PMID:19467817

García-Cañas, V; Simó, C; León, C; Cifuentes, A

2010-01-20

290

Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers. These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA

2013-08-01

291

Paradigmatic approaches used in enterprise resource planning systems research: A systematic literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the range of research paradigms employed in a smaller subset of Information Systems (IS literature, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. A systematic literature review based on papers that mentioned ERPs was drawn from eight of the most highly ranked journals according to their h-index. The findings indicate that the majority (96.6% of the ERP research papers were conducted within a positivist research paradigm, which is a far higher proportion than is suggested by other research in the general IS literature (approximately 81%. This paper suggests that there is a strong case for ERP researchers to look at existing paradigm selection and how effectively their research relates to the ERP body of knowledge, especially in respect to the issues of importance to managers within organizations (notably social and change management issues. This research also identified areas where existing paradigm evaluation methods could be enhanced and refined in respect to non-positivist classifications.

Kevin Burgess

2013-03-01

292

A abordagem sistêmica na pesquisa em Engenharia de Produção / The systems approach to the Production Engineering research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A Engenharia de Produção está afeta a problemas que se caracterizam pela complexidade. Para serem resolvidos, esses problemas demandam conhecimentos que vão além da matemática e da física, como ocorre nas engenharias mais clássicas. Eles necessitam de uma abordagem que permita o acesso ao conhecimen [...] to de várias disciplinas simultaneamente, ou seja, uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Para praticar a interdisciplinaridade e sistematizar o processo de pesquisa na Engenharia de Produção é apresentada a abordagem sistêmica. Ela é capaz de levar em conta o conjunto das variáveis que caracterizam os problemas considerados complexos. A base metodológica escolhida para implementar a abordagem sistêmica é a sistemografia, que permite ampliar o horizonte de pesquisa para aproximar a realidade do fenômeno observado. Finalmente, será mostrada como a abordagem sistêmica permite que o pesquisador trabalhe em um nível maior de subjetividade sem perder a tão necessária "objetividade" científica. Abstract in english Production Engineering is beset by problems that may be characterized by their complexity. To solve these problems demands knowledge that goes beyond mathematics and physics, since they occur within the classical areas of engineering. It requires an approach that allows access to knowledge of severa [...] l disciplines simultaneously, that is, an interdisciplinary approach. To perform the interdisciplinarity and to systemize the research process in Production Engineering, a systemic approach is imparted. This is capable of taking into account the set of variables that characterize the perceived problems as complex. The methodological base chosen to implement the systemic approach is sistemography. This allows the research scope draw closer to the reality of the observed phenomenon. Finally, it will be demonstrated how the systemic approach allows the researcher to work at a higher level of subjectivity without losing the indispensable scientific "objectivity".

Iarozinski Neto, Alfredo; Leite, Maria Silene.

293

A abordagem sistêmica na pesquisa em Engenharia de Produção The systems approach to the Production Engineering research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Engenharia de Produção está afeta a problemas que se caracterizam pela complexidade. Para serem resolvidos, esses problemas demandam conhecimentos que vão além da matemática e da física, como ocorre nas engenharias mais clássicas. Eles necessitam de uma abordagem que permita o acesso ao conhecimento de várias disciplinas simultaneamente, ou seja, uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Para praticar a interdisciplinaridade e sistematizar o processo de pesquisa na Engenharia de Produção é apresentada a abordagem sistêmica. Ela é capaz de levar em conta o conjunto das variáveis que caracterizam os problemas considerados complexos. A base metodológica escolhida para implementar a abordagem sistêmica é a sistemografia, que permite ampliar o horizonte de pesquisa para aproximar a realidade do fenômeno observado. Finalmente, será mostrada como a abordagem sistêmica permite que o pesquisador trabalhe em um nível maior de subjetividade sem perder a tão necessária "objetividade" científica.Production Engineering is beset by problems that may be characterized by their complexity. To solve these problems demands knowledge that goes beyond mathematics and physics, since they occur within the classical areas of engineering. It requires an approach that allows access to knowledge of several disciplines simultaneously, that is, an interdisciplinary approach. To perform the interdisciplinarity and to systemize the research process in Production Engineering, a systemic approach is imparted. This is capable of taking into account the set of variables that characterize the perceived problems as complex. The methodological base chosen to implement the systemic approach is sistemography. This allows the research scope draw closer to the reality of the observed phenomenon. Finally, it will be demonstrated how the systemic approach allows the researcher to work at a higher level of subjectivity without losing the indispensable scientific "objectivity".

Alfredo Iarozinski Neto

2010-03-01

294

Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed prope...

Sohyoun Shin

2011-01-01

295

Gathering Evidence of Benefits: A Structured Approach from the Jisc Managing Research Data Programme  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work of the Jisc Managing Research Data programme is – along with the rest of the UK higher education sector – taking place in an environment of increasing pressure on research funding. In order to justify the investment made by Jisc in this activity – and to help make the case more widely for the value of investing time and money in research data management – individual projects and the programme as a whole must be able to clearly express the resultant benefits to the host instit...

Molloy, Laura; Hodson, Simon; Poschen, Meik; Tedds, Jonathan

2013-01-01

296

Through the lens of Merleau-Ponty: advancing the phenomenological approach to nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenomenology has proved to be a popular methodology for nursing research. I argue, however, that phenomenological nursing research could be strengthened by greater attention to its philosophical underpinnings. Many research reports devote more page space to procedure than to the philosophy that purportedly guided it. The philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty is an excellent fit for nursing, although his work has received less attention than that of Husserl and Heidegger. In this paper, I examine the life and thought of Merleau-Ponty, with emphasis on concepts, such as perception, intentionality and embodiment, which have particular relevance to the discipline of nursing. PMID:15659091

Thomas, Sandra P

2005-01-01

297

Integrated approaches in physics education: A graduate level course in physics, pedagogy, and education research  

CERN Multimedia

We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literature. We provide examples of the course content and structure as well as representative examples of student learning in the class.

Wittmann, M C; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.

2006-01-01

298

Supporting knowledge translation through collaborative translational research initiatives: 'Bridging' versus 'blurring' boundary-spanning approaches in the UK CLAHRC initiative  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent policy initiatives in the UK and internationally have sought to promote knowledge translation between the ‘producers’ and ‘users’ of research. Within this paper we explore how boundary-spanning interventions used within such initiatives can support knowledge translation between diverse groups. Using qualitative data from a 3-year research study conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 of two case-sites drawn from the CLAHRC initiative in the UK, we distinguish two different approaches to supporting knowledge translation; a ‘bridging’ approach that involves designated roles, discrete events and activities to span the boundaries between communities, and a ‘blurring’ approach that de-emphasises the boundaries between groups, enabling a more continuous process of knowledge translation as part of day-to-day work-practices. In this paper, we identify and differentiate these boundary-spanning approaches and describe how they emerged from the context defined by the wider CLAHRC networks. This highlights the need to develop a more contextualised analysis of the boundary-spanning that underpins knowledge translation processes, relating this to the distinctive features of a particular case.

Evans, Sarah; Scarbrough, Harry

2014-01-01

299

Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.

Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott

2011-01-01

300

RA research reactor in 'Vinca' Institute-approach to the decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper short overview of decommissioning process of research reactors according to IAEA standards and world practice is given. Basic technical characteristics and details of operational history of the RA research reactor in Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences are present. The main nuclear and radiation safety problems related to the RA reactor facility are defined and the outlines of the future decommissioning project are proposed. (author)

2002-10-04

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the dif...

2013-01-01

302

Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adult Cancer Study—A Methodologic Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and po...

Link, Nancy J.; Maurer, Eva; Largent, Joan; Kent, Erin; Morris, Rebecca A.; Sender, Leonard S.; Anton-culver, Hoda

2009-01-01

303

Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Development in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Early Detection Research Network—A Collaborative Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the large amount of research and reporting on potential biomarkers in cancer, very few markers have been brought to use in the clinic. Disorganization plays a large part in this low yield. The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) of the National Cancer Institute has been initiated to foster collaboration among independent institutions/ laboratories to facilitate, standardize, and centralize discovery and validation of candidate biomarkers. EDRN comprises four components: biomarker ...

Srivastava, Sudhir

2007-01-01

304

A translational research approach to poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia: clozapine–antipsychotic polypharmacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia is an important clinical problem, and one possible strategy is concurrent treatment with more than one antipsychotic (polypharmacy). We analyzed the evidence base for this strategy using a translational research model focused on clozapine–antipsychotic polypharmacy (CAP). We considered 3 aspects of the existing knowledge base and translational research: the link between basic science and clinical studies of efficacy, the evidence for ef...

2009-01-01

305

A translational research approach to poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia: Clozapine-antipsychotic polypharmacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia is an important clinical problem, and one possible strategy is concurrent treatment with more than one antipsychotic (polypharmacy). We analyzed the evidence base for this strategy using a translational research model focused on clozapine-antipsychotic polypharmacy (CAP). We considered 3 aspects of the existing knowledge base and translational research: the link between basic science and clinical studies of efficacy, the evidence for effe...

2009-01-01

306

Subnational governance approaches on the rise : reviewing a decade of Eastern European regionalization research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews the past decade of decentralization and regionalization research on the new Eastern European member states of the EU (EU-10). We classify the existing literature according to focus of analysis, explanatory programme and methodological preferences, and propose a distinction between three different research agendas: system transformation, EU conditionality and subnational governance. We argue that with respect to the EU-10, scholarly interest in the perspectives of state tr...

Pitschel, Diana; Bauer, Michael W.

2009-01-01

307

Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Project VII: systems analysis specifications of computational approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational methodology is presented for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

1979-01-01

308

Specifications of computational approach. Seismic safety margins research program. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a computational methodology for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

1981-01-01

309

An innovative approach to public health research: the case of a new center in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the conceptual and organizational elements that have guided the development of the Center for Public Health Research (CPHR) in Mexico. The CPHR was established in August 1984, in the midst of the most profound health care reform in Mexico in the last 40 years. The reform has included, among other measures, a Constitutional amendment recognizing the social right to health care, an energetic effort to decentralize the system so that each state will run its own services, an ambitious drive to extend primary health care coverage to all the population, and a strong promotion of research as the basis for strategic planning and for the development of standards of care. The creation of the CPHR is a response to the need for a firm base of epidemiologic and health systems research in Mexico. This need arises from the increasing complexity of the country's organizational arrangements for health care. In addition, the patterns of morbidity and mortality are also becoming more intricate, as Mexico is experiencing an epidemiologic transition whereby chronic diseases, mental ailments, and accidents are on the rise even as the incidence of infectious diseases and malnutrition continues to be high. As a unit of the Ministry of Health, the CPHR must strike a balance between relevance to decision making and excellence in the strict adherence to the norms of scientific research. To do so, it has developed a conceptual framework based on a tridimensional matrix. The dimensions of the matrix include substantive areas (i.e., the phenomena to be researched), knowledge areas (i.e., the disciplines pertinent to public health), and methodological areas (i.e., the methods to be applied in each project). The intersection of these dimensions produces different configurations of "research modules" that can be adapted to changing priorities. Current priorities of the CPHR include epidemiologic studies of the emerging conditions in the transition, migration and health, child survival, social organization and primary health care, health systems management, quality of care, and the development of information systems and quantitative models for public health research. Research projects are undertaken in a matrix type of organization in which academic departments are structured according to problems rather than disciplines. The analysis of Mexico's Center for Public Health Research may contribute to similar endeavors in other countries and also to the wider development of comparative studies on research organizations. PMID:10278635

Frenk, J; Bobadilla, J L; Sepúlveda, J; Rosenthal, J; Ruelas, E; González-Block, M A; Urrusti, J

1986-01-01

310

A collaborative Alzheimer disease research exchange using a community-based Helpline as a recruitment tool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although barriers to research participation present challenges for researchers trying to recruit participants, community-based organizations typically have a relationship with and access to potential participants, but often lack information about local studies recruiting participants and/or specifics about studies, how to describe them and how to refer their clients to a study. Therefore, a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR)model of collaboration may be a mutually advantageous option for recruiting participants to Alzheimer disease research. The broad goal of this study was to assess whether this void could be bridged and relationships developed between the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana and researchers at the Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, and improve flow of information to increase research participation to any or all of 4 projects recruiting research participants at the time. Of the 257 Helpline callers who received information about the 4 local studies recruiting participants, 4 family caregivers called the research coordinators and 2 participants were enrolled into 2 separate studies. One person was interested and had completed and returned initial paperwork but had not yet scheduled a screening visit. The National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease received 0 calls (participation in National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease was 1 of the 4 projects offered to potential participants). Active CBPR is a good goal to strive toward. Community partners are critical to gain access to potential participants for our research. Despite the low number of recruits to Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center studies, this CBPR project was considered a success. Distributing information about local studies to family members and persons with dementia using the Alzheimer's Association of Greater Indiana Helpline was seen as important by the family members in this study. The Helpline may prove to be an excellent mechanism to do this once revisions are made to improve the efficiency of the methodology and address several limitations of this study. In particular, the Institutional Review Board had approved only the patient/family caregiver call the clinical trial coordinators. We believe if the clinical trial coordinator could call the caregivers with information about studies and projects, recruitment, and retention through the Helpline would be more successful. PMID:22720321

Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Bachman, Jennifer; Altmeyer, Linda; Gao, Sujuan; Farlow, Martin

2010-01-01

311

Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of neuromarketing research techniques in the evolution of neurosciences and to explain how these techniques are used in market research. One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. This is an obligation they have both towards the beneficiaries – the companies providing products or services – and towards their consumers as well. This challenge has always been a subject of dispute between the advocates and critics of neuromarketing. Thus, this paper deals with this and other controversial topics. It starts with analysing a traditional persuasion model that has inherently been influenced by the neuromarketing research features. Then, it addresses the positive and negative aspects that subjects might have to face throughout neuromarketing studies, always bearing in mind the current Ethical Code of Conduct issued by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association (NMSBA. An exploratory online research helped the authors test several hypotheses on ethical issues that neuromarketing companies have to handle. The research was performed on 67 neuromarketing companies from around the world that are members of the NMSBA. The findings are relevant both to researchers and neuromarketing companies, even the Romanian ones, who can use them used as insights.

Nicolae Al. Pop

2014-02-01

312

Taxometric and Factor Analytic Models of Anxiety Sensitivity: Integrating Approaches to Latent Structural Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study represents an effort to better understand the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity (AS), as indexed by the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; S. Reiss, R. A. Peterson, M. Gursky, & R. J. McNally, 1986), by using taxometric and factor-analytic approaches in an integrative manner. Taxometric analyses indicated that AS has a…

Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Norton, Peter J.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Taylor, Steven; Forsyth, John P.; Lewis, Sarah F.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Cox, Brian

2007-01-01

313

Approach to the Value of Information: Effectiveness and Productivity of Information Use in Research Work.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economics and value of information have been analyzed in the study. Efforts have been made to understand the value of information in information work. A dual approach to the value of information was developed from the theoretical analyses and later te...

A. J. Repo

1989-01-01

314

A Systems Biology Approach to Toxicology Research with Small Fish Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing use of mechanistically-based molecular and biochemical endpoints and in vitro assays is being advocated as a more efficient and cost-effective approach for generating chemical hazard data. However, development of effective assays and application of the resulting data i...

315

Multistrategy Approach to Cross-Cultural Research: The Case of Locus of Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multistrategy approach (involving use of informants to select items, a multidimensional scaling method, factor analysis, and nomological validation) was applied to refine 24 of Collins's locus of control items for use among Hispanic and non-Hispanic subjects. Only the Difficult-Easy World factor was found to be clearly cross-culturally…

Hui, C. Harry; Triandis, Harry C.

1983-01-01

316

Local IT infrastructure assessment methodologies and approach in large enterprises : research project scope - branch office consolidation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis is to develop a model for assessing information technology infrastructure in large enterprises/organisations. The key components of this thesis are: first, to develop a generic assessment process approach that can be applied in IT enterprises, and secondly, to evaluate the practical application of these assessment processes and methods within an infrastructure transformation project in a large enterprise.

Achonu, Davids

2012-01-01

317

Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches. Research in Curriculum and Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

"Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches" focuses on many of the major innovations developed over the past 100 years by noted educators to assist students in the study and analysis of key social issues that impact their lives and society. This book complements earlier books that address other aspects of studying and…

Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

2010-01-01

318

Geospatial Approach to Regional Mapping of Research Library Holdings: Use of Arcinfo at IRANDOC  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a report on the application of a Geographic Information System (GIS), ArcInfo, in the cataloguing of geosciences documents held by IRANDOC. Design/methodology/approach: The steps involved in the application are described: gathering the data and required input including the attribute and spatial…

Sedighi, Mehri-e-

2007-01-01

319

Scientometrical approach of the definition of a research domain using scientific journals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)

1995-01-01

320

Integrating clicker technology at nursing conferences: an innovative approach to research data collection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot demonstration of integrating an audience response system, that is, 'clickers' at a nursing education conference as an engaging tool for using the research process for learning through immediate research results is presented. A convenience sample of nursing conference attendees were surveyed using clicker technology before a panel presentation on the 'Impaired Health Professional'. The 208 subjects who used the clickers were mostly women (93%) and were nurse educators (81%) with at least 20 years of nursing experience (75%). The ease of data collection, real-time analysis, the active engagement of both participant and presenter were all findings of this study. The utility of this tool as a stimulus for discussion and learning was also reported. Pilot testing the clicker at an education conference for data collection and educational purposes was an important goal and positive outcome of this study. Researchers and educators are advised on the planning steps required to make this a successful experience. PMID:20618537

Solecki, Susan; Cornelius, Frances; Draper, Judy; Fisher, Kathleen

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the different affected business areas which discusses the data mining algorithms by higher fraud coverage. It also highlights the important challenges and limitations involved with the data mining techniques for detecting fraudulent activities.

Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.

2013-07-01

322

An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

CERN Document Server

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic

2008-01-01

323

Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss and present results of the research work undertaken as well as further expected, important spin-off applications of DMP devices.

2013-01-01

324

Taxonomy, Definition, Approaches, Benefits, Reusability Levels, Factors and Adaption of Software Reusability: A Review of the Research Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software reusability is an attribute that refers to the expected reuse potential of a software component. Software reuse not only improves productivity but also has a positive impact on the quality and maintainability of software products. The move toward reuse is becoming so widespread that it has even changed software industry ’s vocabulary. This study reviews the research literature on the concept of Software Reusability (SR. This study was conducted to provide a systematic review of the literature identify the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with the content of software reusability, a literature search was conducted on several electronic databases. Studies published from the years 1977-2013 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology intervention to software reusability. In addition to that, a systematic review has been investigated on software reusability approaches and benefits. A deep investigation has been conducted on the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. The concept of software reusability comprised of 11 approaches includes, design patterns, component-based development, application frameworks, legacy system wrapping, service-oriented systems, application product lines, COTS integration, program libraries, program generators, aspect-oriented software development and configurable vertical applications. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communication technology over the last decade, there is a limited evidence suggesting the adaption of software reusability. This study will help the information and communication technology industry to clarify how software reusability can benefit them by adapting the software reusability approaches.

Ibraheem Y.Y. Ahmaro

2014-01-01

325

Organizations in context: proposal for a new theoretical approach in prescriptive accident research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lately, requests have been made for including the contexts of enterprises in models to prevent accidents at work. This paper/article presents different contextual theories in order to prove/analyze whether this type of theories could be a way to introduce the context. A differentiation is made between understanding the processes in the enterprises and understanding the contextual relations. Decision-making theories are used to explain the internal processes. And regulatory approaches are used to describe the role of the state in regard to accident prevention in enterprises. Eventually, contextual theories are presented as theories to perceive the relation between enterprise and context. The conclusion is that there is a basis for using contextual theories in a new approach, but also an investigation of the potentials for making the theories action-orientated is needed.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Jensen, Per Langå

2004-01-01

326

Approaches to Art Therapy for Cancer Inpatients: Research and Practice Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

Common symptoms reported by cancer patients include pain, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, lack of appetite, and anxiety. A study conducted by an interdisciplinary research team (Nainis et al., 2006) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in these cancer symptoms with the use of traditional art therapy methods. The study found a…

Nainis, Nancy A.

2008-01-01

327

Tiered Approach to Thyroid Research Using an Adverse Outcome Pathway Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential for chemicals in the environment to alter the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife is an area of ongoing concern. Whereas significant research has focused on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of a wide range of chemicals, much less is known about chemicals ...

328

Wildfire Research in an Environmental Hazards Course: An Active Learning Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Creating opportunities for students to actively apply hazards theory to real-life situations is often a challenge in hazards geography courses. This article presents a project, the Jocko Lakes Fire Project, that implemented learning strategies to encourage students to be active in wildfire hazards research. Wildfire hazards stand out as an…

Wall, Tamara U.; Halvorson, Sarah J.

2011-01-01

329

Legal and Ethical Issues of Teacher Evaluation: A Research Based Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of issues that include due process, discrimination, validity, reliability, and inference will assist school administrators in reworking evaluation systems to meet legal and ethical requirements. In so doing, systems become more research based, accurate, and of value in improving teacher effectiveness and providing defensible evidence for…

Peterson, Donovan

1983-01-01

330

Strategy and approaches of pathological and pathophysiological research in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathology and pathophysiology are sciences studying the laws and mechanisms of the occurrence and developmont of diseases,linking up the preclinical and clinical medicine.Owing to the different perspectives and ways of thinking,the western medicine and the traditional Chinese medicine developed respectively their independent theoretical,diagnostic and therapeutic systems.Integrative medicine,combining the theories and treatments of both western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine,has become the developing trend of medicine along with the social development.For this reason,pathological and pathophysiological research in integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine is highly significant for revealing the internal relations between the clinical manifestation and the pathological changes,for expounding the causes,conditions.mechanisms and laws of the occurrence and development of diseases.In doing related research,we should combine the disease and the syndrome,combine the macro-level and the micro-level,combine the part and the whole.We should manage to systematize the clinical research,to establish animal models of the syndromes,and to integrate the animal models of syndromes with the clinical characteristics of disesses.We should apply the theories of traditional Chinese medicine to the pathological and pathophysiological research of modern medicine.

HUANG Qi-Fu

2004-07-01

331

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers identify a novel therapeutic approach for liver cancer:  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a mechanism in mice that triggers inflammation in the liver and transforms normal cells into cancerous ones. In addition, they demonstrated in a mouse model that a particular micro-RNA (miR-124) – a member of a recently discovered class of molecular regulators – could be harnessed to treat or even prevent liver cancer.

332

Review: Jane Elliot (2005). Using Narrative in Social Research. Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jane ELLIOTT hat mit Using Narrative in Social Research einen originären und gut zugänglichen Beitrag zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Methodenliteratur geleistet. Die Originalität ist insbesondere den beiden Zielen geschuldet, die sie mit diesem Buch verfolgt: ELLIOTT beschreibt nicht nur qualitative und quantitative narrationsanalytische Verfahren, sondern sie nutzt das Konzept der "Narration" auch zur Dekonstruktion traditioneller Grenzen zwischen qualitativer und quantitativer Sozialforsch...

Beyers, Leen

2006-01-01

333

A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Exoplanet Detection in STEM Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

JPL’s NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program’s (ExEP) Public Engagement Program, in collaboration with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), is engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the science of exoplanet detection into STEM classrooms. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of astronomers pursuing research related to exoplanets, along with a significant increase in interest amongst students and the general public regarding the topic of exoplanets. CAE has previously developed a curriculum unit (including Think-Pair-Share questions and a Lecture-Tutorial) to help students develop a deeper understanding of the Doppler method for detecting extrasolar planets. To date, there is a nearly nonexistent research base on students’ conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to the science of the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for detecting extrasolar planets. Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills in these areas. In this talk, we will report on our development process for two new Lecture-Tutorials that help students learn about the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for finding exoplanets.

Brissenden, Gina; Wallace, C. S.; Prather, E. E.; Traub, W. A.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, A. A.

2014-01-01

334

Functional Literacy in Older Adults: Proactive Approaches to Research and Teaching.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two separate research projects were undertaken in Georgia and Texas to examine the current and future needs of older adults for functional literacy and to analyze the involvement of adult basic education (ABE) programs to better serve those needs. The projects involved literature reviews; mail-out surveys; and one-on-one interviews with senior…

Kasworm, Carol; Courtenay, Bradley C.

335

BOOK REVIEW: ESTUARINE SCIENCE: A SYNTHETIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND PRACTICE  

Science.gov (United States)

This book is the product of fifty leading estuarine scientists most of whom attended a workshop convened for the purpose of "put[ting] together the case for synthesis of estuarine data and to show the capabilities of synthetic methods of research" (p. 2). The editor, John E. Hob...

336

'Follow the innovation': A joint experimentation and learning approach to transdisciplinary innovation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ZEF-UNESCO project on Sustainable Management of Land and Water Resources in Uzbekistan addresses the environmental, social and economic problems in the Khorezm province, located within the so-called Aral Sea Zone in Uzbekistan. Currently in its seventh year (third phase), the project aims 'to provide sustainable solutions to the Aral Sea region through a holistic approach, combining technology, policy and institutional options developed in cooperation with local and international stakehol...

Hornidge, Anna-katharina; Ul-hassan, Mehmood; Mollinga, Peter P.

2009-01-01

337

'Follow the innovation' - a joint experimentation and learning approach to transdisciplinary innovation research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ZEF-UNESCO project on Sustainable Management of Land and Water Resources in Uzbekistan addresses the environmental, social and economic problems in the Khorezm province, located within the so-called Aral Sea Zone in Uzbekistan. Currently in its seventh year (third phase), the project aims “to provide sustainable solutions to the Aral Sea region through a holistic approach, combining technology, policy and institutional options developed in cooperation with local and international stakeh...

Hornidge, Anna-katharina; Ul Hassan, Mehmood; Mollinga, Peter P.; Universita?t Bonn, Zentrum Fu?r Entwicklungsforschung

2009-01-01

338

Disentangling Scale Approaches in Governance Research: Comparing Monocentric, Multilevel, and Adaptive Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today's network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilev...

Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.; Art Dewulf; Maartje van. Lieshout

2010-01-01

339

Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in ClinicalTrials.gov. The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occ...

2010-01-01

340

Development of a physical activity program for children and youth with autism :an action research approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the implementation of strategies for the development of a physical activity program for children and youth with autism. The aim of the study was the collaborative development of a sustainable physical activity program with families with children with autism. A phenomenological approach was employed in the study, which used participant observation that included conversations to obtain the lived experiences of the participants. Close observations were made of the interaction...

Kleinhans, Karin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Omic techniques in systems biology approaches to traditional Chinese medicine research: present and future  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Omic techniques have become key tools in the development of systems biology. As the holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and new tendencies in Western medicine towards personalised medicine require in-depth knowledge of mechanisms of action and active compounds, the use of omic techniques is crucial for understanding and interpretation of TCM development, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries. In this short review, omic applicati...

2012-01-01

342

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographi...

Raquel Ghini; Emília Hamada; Francislene Angelotti; Costa, Lu?cio B.; Wagner Bettiol

2012-01-01

343

Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast fi...

Scho?lzel, C.; Friederichs, P.

2008-01-01

344

Developing a mediation framework for context-aware applications : an exploratory action research approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis takes an exploratory approach to the study of context-aware applications. Such applications use physical conditions from sensors together with human factors such as social setting as cues for adapting in behavior during use. Given this adapting behavior, context-aware applications take a significantly more active role than traditional applications. Through the active role, context-aware applications have the ability to mediate the creation of additional meaning. It is this mediati...

Olsson, Carl Magnus

2011-01-01

345

Walking the talk : A Micro-Sociological Approach to the Co-production of Knowledge and Power in Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is a contribution to the ongoing discussion in reflexive action research about how the ´co´ in co-production can be understood in the nexus of epistemology and methodology. We apply a micro-sociological approach together with a Foucauldian conception of power/knowledge in the exploration of how knowledge and power relations are negotiated in a workshop which was a part of Action Research project in psychiatric setting. Few action research studies show in detail how power relations between participants affect the knowledge production and we argue that this theoretical and methodological combination has the potential to unpack the local workings of power. The analyses show how knowledge and power are intimately related and intertwined. Our orchestration of the workshop, for instance, bears consequences for the generated context and production of knowledge. It paradoxically becomes an exertion of power by which we in- or exclude certain voices in spite of our good intentions not to do so. In conclusion we assert that any involvement is a powerful act and that we as researchers have an ethical obligation to reflect on the complexity of and tensions involved in the co-production of knowledge in order to â??walk the talkâ? and try to live up to the democratic ideals in Action Research.

Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Ravn Olesen, Birgitte

2013-01-01

346

Three-level approach to quality programs for research, development and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primary mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop nuclear weapons systems for the Department of Defense. The activities included in this effort cover a broad spectrum, ranging from pure research to routine production. In order to provide a workable framework for a comprehensive quality assurance program for these varied activities, we have proposed a three-level structure of quality plans, corresponding to a rough classification of the weapons work into three general categories. These categories are: (1) research into materials and processes, and preliminary development; (2) design, development, and fabrication of prototype components; (3) routine production, analysis, or refinement activities. The first category requires a quality program to assure the validity, reliability, and retrievability of the information developed; this is accomplished by a conscientious application of what is generally recognized as good laboratory practice. The second category requires in addition a strong emphasis on design review and inspection. For the third category, a comprehensive quality program is appropriate

1986-06-22

347

An approach to visualize the course of solving of a research task in humans  

CERN Document Server

A technique to study the dynamics of solving of a research task is suggested. The research task was based on specially developed software Right- Wrong Responder (RWR), with the participants having to reveal the response logic of the program. The participants interacted with the program in the form of a semi-binary dialogue, which implies the feedback responses of only two kinds - "right" or "wrong". The technique has been applied to a small pilot group of volunteer participants. Some of them have successfully solved the task (solvers) and some have not (non-solvers). In the beginning of the work, the solvers did more wrong moves than non-solvers, and they did less wrong moves closer to the finish of the work. A phase portrait of the work both in solvers and non-solvers showed definite cycles that may correspond to sequences of partially true hypotheses that may be formulated by the participants during the solving of the task.

Gavrikov, Vladimir L

2010-01-01

348

ISO-9001: An approach to accreditation for an MTR facility: SAFARI-1 research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SAFARI-1 Research Reactor obtained ISO-9001 accreditation via the South African Bureau of Standards in September 1998. In view of the commercial applications of the reactor, the value of acquisition of the accreditation was considered against the cost of implementation of the Quality System. The criteria identified in the ISO-9001 standard were appraised and a superstructure derived for management of the generation and implementation of a suitable Quality Management System (QMS) for the fairly unique application of a nuclear research reactor. A Quality Policy was established, which formed the basis of the QMS against which the various requirements and/or standards were identified. In addition, since it was considered advantageous to incorporate the management controls of Conventional and Radiological Safety as well as Plant Maintenance and Environmental Management (ISO 14001), these aspects were included in the QMS. (author)

2000-06-01

349

Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

1986-01-01

350

Integration of Research Into Science-outreach (IRIS): A Video and Web-based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of the IRIS (Integration of Research Into Science-outreach) initiative is aimed at using field- and laboratory- based videos and blog entries to enable a sustained outreach relationship between university researchers and local classrooms. IRIS seeks to communicate complex, cutting-edge scientific research in the Earth and Planetary sciences to school-aged children in a simple and interesting manner, in the hope of ameliorating the overall decline of children entering into science and engineering fields in future generations. The primary method of delivery IRIS utilizes is the media of film, ';webinars' and blog entries. Filmed sequences of laboratory work, field work, science demos and mini webinars on current and relevant material in the Earth and Planetary sciences are ';subscribed' to by local schools. Selected sequences are delivered in 20-30 minute film segments with accompanying written material. The level at which the subject matter is currently geared is towards secondary level school-aged children, with the purpose of inspiring and encouraging curiosity, learning and development in scientific research. The video broadcasts are supplemented by a hands-on visit 1-2 times per year by a group of scientists participating in the filmed sequences to the subscribing class, with the objective of engaging and establishing a natural rapport between the class and the scientists that they see in the broadcasts. This transgresses boundaries that traditional 'one off' outreach platforms often aren't able to achieve. The initial results of the IRIS outreach initiative including successes, problems encountered and classroom feedback will be reported.

Clay, P. L.; O'Driscoll, B.

2013-12-01

351

Blogging in the physics classroom: A research-based approach to shaping students' attitudes towards physics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Even though there has been a tremendous amount of research done in how to help students learn physics, students are still coming away missing a crucial piece of the puzzle: why bother with physics? Students learn fundamental laws and how to calculate, but come out of a general physics course without a deep understanding of how physics has transformed the world around them. In other words, they get the "how" but not the "why". Studies have shown that students leave introducto...

Duda, Gintaras; Garrett, Katherine

2007-01-01

352

Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than ...

Nadkarni Prakash M; Kemp Rowena; Parikh Chirag R

2011-01-01

353

'Catching the user' in online research: an innovative approach for respondent recruitment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are used in social science research to retrieve metadata on media objects, harvesting descriptive data (e.g. tags) and user interaction with the object (e.g. number of comments), or on media subjects (e.g. number of posts) as they enable instantaneous, automated and repeatable data collection. This paper elaborates on another use of APIs; namely as a tool for the recruitment of respondents from online platforms. We will present two case studies i...

Mechant, Peter; Verdegem, Pieter

2013-01-01

354

The use of grey literature in historical journals and historical research: A bibliometric and qualitative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Grey literature is generally accepted as an important part of scholarly communication especially in the "hard" sciences. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in the humanities and specifically in the discipline of history, a systematic analysis was done to characterize the bibliographic references appearing in ten core history journals. Methods: references from all research articles published in ten core history journals in 2005 were analyzed – five printed and ...

Blaaij, Cees; Greynet, Grey Literature Network Service

2007-01-01

355

A network approach to studying research programmes : mobilizing and coordinating public responses to HIV/AIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the analysis of the Medical and Public Health Research programme (Commission of the European Communities), the paper shows how new scientific communities are created in response to the HIV/AIDS problem. We analyze how actors are mobilized (three mobilization modes : public impetus, scientists'initiative, scientists' initiative with public networking) and how their work is coordinated. We defend the hypothesis that these new scientific communities are flexible cooperation networks. In...

Vinck, D.; Kahane, B.; Laredo, P.; Meyer, Jean-baptiste

1993-01-01

356

The Six Identities of Marketing: A Vector Quantization of Research Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: This article provides an empirical identification of groups of marketing scholars who share common beliefs about the role of science and the logic of scientific discovery. Design: We use Topology Representing Network quantization to empirically identify classes of marketing researchers within a representative sample of marketing professors. Findings: We find six distinct classes of marketing scholars. They differ with regard to popularity (size) and productivity (level...

Franke, Nikolaus; Mazanec, Josef

2006-01-01

357

One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also kn...

Pérez de León Adalberto A; Strickman Daniel A; Knowles Donald P; Fish Durland; Thacker Eileen; de la Fuente José; Krause Peter J; Wikel Stephen K; Miller Ryan S; Wagner Gale G; Almazán Consuelo; Hillman Robert; Messenger Matthew T; Ugstad Paul O; Duhaime Roberta A

2010-01-01

358

Quantitative approaches to linguistic variation in IRC : implications for qualitative research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Qualitative analysis of code choice, code switching, and language style in Internet Relay Chat (IRC) can shed light on functional-pragmatic aspects of the use of different linguistic varieties. However, in a qualitative analysis, the status of varieties within a channel or for a single chatter can only be guessed at. Moreover, qualitative research on linguistic variation in IRC often fails to generalize its findings due to a restricted database or a restricted view of a database. This article...

Siebenhaar, Beat

2010-01-01

359

Collapsing ROC approach for risk prediction research on both common and rare variants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk prediction that capitalizes on emerging genetic findings holds great promise for improving public health and clinical care. However, recent risk prediction research has shown that predictive tests formed on existing common genetic loci, including those from genome-wide association studies, have lacked sufficient accuracy for clinical use. Because most rare variants on the genome have not yet been studied for their role in risk prediction, future disease prediction discoveries should shif...

Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

2011-01-01

360

A knowledge system approach to the multinational company :conceptual grounding and implications for research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of knowledge, organizational learning, and innovation as levers of competitive advantage is now a commonly acknowledged insight in research in international management. However, while the agglomeration of insights of described as the “knowledge-based view” is a promising theoretical lens, insights are not organized into a unifying framework and there are significant holes in the understanding of how knowledge may be turned into a source of competitive advantage for MNCs. ...

Foss, Nicolai Juul; Santos, Jose?

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between...

Vladu Alina Beattrice; Cuzdriorean Dan Dacian

2011-01-01

362

One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

McElwain Terry F

2010-04-01

363

World Data Center Cluster "Earth System Research" - An Approach for a Common Data Infrastructure in Geosciences  

Science.gov (United States)

The German WDC Cluster Earth System Research has been founded in 2003 and is build from three WDCs and one candidate: WDC-C - World Data Center for Climate (MPI-M, Hamburg) WDC-MARE - World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (AWI, MARUM) WDC-RSAT - World Data Center for Remote Sensing (DFD/DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen) WDC-TERRA - World Data Center of the Lithosphere (candidate) (GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam) The WDC cluster has identified information management challenges in geo-scientific research. There are many problems and issues faced by the geo-scientific research community when it comes to managing data and information: Lack of adequate facilities and resources for long-term archiving: the cost of archiving data, especially large sets, in systems where the data is easily retrieved, is very often prohibitive Data set publication: the science related to the production of basic data is often not easily recognized as publishable work with the same merits as information derived from basic data Interdisciplinary audience for geo-scientific data: Effective understanding of the whole earth relies on better understanding of the interaction of multiple earth systems. In order to do this, wider and more diverse audiences, especially interdisciplinary science teams, should have a facilitated appreciation of the applicable data sets which are available. The partners in the WDC cluster start cooperation within the frame of national research projects but international cooperation with other WDCs and long-term archives for geo-scientific data is required especially with respect to networking, data sharing and data publication.

Lautenschlager, M.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Klump, J.; Paliouras, E.

2005-12-01

364

A promising approach in comparative research on care for the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Long-term care (LTC in the form of care provided in nursing homes, homes for the aged and home care is considered an appropriate answer to the growing needs of the aging populations of the industrialized world. However, the provision of and expenditures on LTC vary considerably between these industrialized countries. Although one would expect LTC to be subject to many internationally comparative studies, including all European countries, this is not the case. A paper presented by Damiani et al. in BMC Health Services Research contains an internationally comparative model regarding the development of LTC in Europe (2003 to 2007. They achieve an intriguing compromise between depth and width in the sparsely populated domain of internationally comparative research on LTC by characterizing countries' LTC and interpreting the large north/south differences found. Their results also show that 'cash for care' schemes form a substantial alternative to traditional LTC provision. An additional time series analysis showed that many countries seem to be engaged in reorganizing the LTC sector. This study widens knowledge in a neglected area of health services research and should serve as a source of inspiration for further studies. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/11/316 1

van der Zee Jouke

2011-11-01

365

Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

2006-03-01

366

An Approach for Comparative Research Between Ontology Building & Learning Tools for Information Extraction & Retrieval  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information available on the web is huge & it covers diversified fields. Nowadays most of search engines use essentially keyword based search techniques. We simply specify a set of keywords or query as a request and a reference we get a list of pages, ranked based on similarity of query. Currently searching web face with one problem that many times outcome is not satisfactory because of irrelevance of the information. Searching the exact information from such a huge repository of unstructured web data is still main area of research interest. One solution to achieve this is Semantic Web. Ontology is an effective concept commonly used for the Semantic Web. Ontology is “an explicit specification of a conceptualization”. There are two main pillars of semantic Web one is Problem Solving Methods & another is Ontology. Ontology building is a tedious job and a time consuming task for user. The quality of ontology plays an important role in information retrieval application .This paper deals with features & familiarity with different Ontology building & learning tools. After all the preliminary knowledge about all tools & software we have made research about specific features & services provided by some tools & identified the optimum tool in all respect for particularly for our further research project.

Dr Suresh Jain C. S. Bhatia Dharmendra Gupta Sumit Jain Bharat Pahadiya

2012-02-01

367

Approaches of National 3d Mapping: Research Results and Standardisation in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper explores the potentials of the OGC 3D standard (i.e. CityGML) for 3D national mapping and what developments are further required to make the standard better fit for this purpose. The main conclusions of the paper are that 3D data is more and more available but still suffers from a low level of usage (mainly visualisation) and standards and formats based on CityGML have been stabilised although software support is still in the early stage. Several recommendations are made to meet these problems, including the definition of European CityGML profiles (as the INSPIRE Building profile) to harmonise 3D needs and standardise 3D implementations at international level.

Stoter, J. E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J. P.

2013-09-01

368

A Survey & Current Research Challenges in Meta Learning Approaches based on Dataset Characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classification is a process that predicts class of objects whose class label is unknown. According to No Free Lunch (NFL) theorem, there is no single classifier that performs better on all datasets. Meta learning is one of the approaches that acquired knowledge based on the past experience. The knowledge in Meta-Learning is acquired from a set of meta-examples which stores the features of the problem and the performance obtained by executing a set of candidate algorithms on Meta Features. Bas...

2012-01-01

369

A Survey & Current Research Challenges in Meta Learning Approaches based on Dataset Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Classification is a process that predicts class of objects whose class label is unknown. According to No Free Lunch (NFL theorem, there is no single classifier that performs better on all datasets. Meta learning is one of the approaches that acquired knowledge based on the past experience. The knowledge in Meta-Learning is acquired from a set of meta-examples which stores the features of the problem and the performance obtained by executing a set of candidate algorithms on Meta Features. Based on the experience acquired by the system during training phase, ranking of the classifiers is provided based on considering various measures of classifiers.

Nikita Bhatt

2012-03-01

370

Use of systems engineering approach to prioritize fuel cycle, research and development choices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has issued a road-map (1) for its research, development and demonstration (RDD) activities to ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The road-map defines NE RDD activities according to four research and development (RD) Objectives that address the challenges to expanding the use of nuclear power. The RD Objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the ability of the new reactors to enable nuclear energy help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) Develop sustainable fuel cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program, within the Office of Nuclear Energy supports achievement of the RD Objective 3 and has the mission to research, develop and demonstrate options to the current U.S commercial fuel cycle to enable the safe, secure, economic and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation and terrorism risks. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource availability and utilization, minimize waste generation, and provide adequate capability and capacity to manage all wastes produced by the fuel cycle. The key challenge for the government is to develop a suite of options that will enable future decision-makers to make informed choices about how best to manage the used fuel from reactors. The overall goal is to have demonstrated the technologies necessary to allow commercial deployment of solution(s) for the sustainable management of used nuclear fuel that is safe, economic, secure and widely acceptable to American society by 2050. Since the scope of the program is very broad and the goal is four decades away, the principles of systems engineering are being used to help prioritize the research and development conducted under the program. The presentation will describe progress achieved toward development and implementation of a documented transparent and objective methodology to support decision making. Ref 1: Nuclear Energy Research and Development road-map, Report to Congress, April 2010. (author)

2011-05-02

371

Use of a systems approach and evidence-based One Health for zoonoses research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organization estimates that 25% of the 57 million annual deaths that occur globally are caused by microbes. A study reported 1415 species of infectious organisms are known to be pathogenic to humans. Zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases, with humans serving as the primary reservoir for only 3% of them. Of the 175 infectious species considered to be emerging, 75% are zoonotic. Zoonotic diseases and their impact on human and animal health are not monitored, prevented, and treated in an integrated way, despite the fact that etiologies and treatments are similar across species. The efficacy and resistance of a drug in one species has a bearing on others, in the context of zoonoses. Further, an RCT involving many species is effective in a natural setting, is robust, and may require fewer human volunteers. One Health is based on a systems approach and a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines - working locally, nationally, and globally - to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have so far been independent and discipline oriented. Pooling of results for diagnostic test accuracies and treatment effects of drugs for zoonoses across species has to be done, since the results of preclinical trials emanate from laboratory animals. The Cochrane Collaboration is the platform of choice to initiate a new group on zoonoses to carry out systematic meta-analyses of diagnostic tests and drug efficacies without bias, thus underpinning the systems approach and One Health. PMID:23672696

Asokan, G V; Asokan, Vanitha; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Tharyan, Prathap

2011-05-01

372

A quantitative proteomic approach to prion disease biomarker research: delving into the glycoproteome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass spectrometry (MS) -- based proteomic approaches have evolved as powerful tools for the discovery of biomarkers. However, the identification of potential protein biomarkers from biofluid samples is challenging because of the limited dynamic range of detection. Currently there is a lack of sensitive and reliable premortem diagnostic test for prion diseases. Here, we describe the use of a combined MS-based approach for biomarker discovery in prion diseases from mouse plasma samples. To overcome the limited dynamic range of detection and sample complexity of plasma samples, we used lectin affinity chromatography and multidimensional separations to enrich and isolate glycoproteins at low abundance. Relative quantitation of a panel of proteins was obtained by a combination of isotopic labeling and validated by spectral counting. Overall 708 proteins were identified, 53 of which showed more than 2-fold increase in concentration whereas 58 exhibited more than 2-fold decrease. A few of the potential candidate markers were previously associated with prion or other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21469646

Wei, Xin; Herbst, Allen; Ma, Di; Aiken, Judd; Li, Lingjun

2011-06-01

373

Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

Raudenbush, Stephen

374

Evaluating the effects of acupuncture on knee osteoarthritis: A stepwise approach to research, University of Maryland experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional treatments for osteoarthritis (OA, the most common form of arthritis, are associated with unpleasant adverse effects and often ineffective. Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been used for thousands of years to treat pain and other dysfunctions. However, the scientific evidence on the efficacy of acupuncture and TCM is equivocal, and adapting the Western biomedical model to assess them is a great challenge. By adopting a systematic, step-by-step approach, the research team at the University of Maryland has been carefully evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture on knee OA over the past 10 years. Their successful experience may be a useful model for future acupuncture and TCM research.

Lixing Lao

2005-11-01

375

Integration of nuclear spectrometry methods as a new approach to material research. Final report of a coordinated research project 2006-2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2006, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Unification of Nuclear Spectrometries: Integrated Techniques as a New Tool for Material Research' as one of the elements of a project on 'Improvements in Nuclear Spectrometry Applications'. The major objective was to assist laboratories in Member States in enhancing proper utilization of nuclear analytical methods and to help them develop nuclear instruments for special applications. An overall objective of the CRP was to help Member States to improve characterization of materials by the effective utilization of nuclear spectrometry instruments and techniques as well as by developing integrated/unified instruments and analytical methodologies in support of environmental pollution monitoring, industry, study of cultural heritage, human health, agriculture, etc. These techniques can be used in small laboratories as well as in state of the art synchrotron sources. The specific research objectives of the CRP included development (or upgrading) of integrated multifunctional instruments based on nuclear spectrometries and related techniques as well as development of software for the handling and operation of integrated multifunctional instruments, including data acquisition. The CRP also covered: development (or upgrading) of integrated analytical approaches/methodologies and software for processing and presentation of data collected by multifunctional instruments; extension of the applications of integrated/unified instruments; and synergistic and complementary use of nuclear spectrometries, with the aim of assisting end users of nuclear spectrometries in various fields. The CRP covered a period of four years (2006-2009). Twelve laboratories from both developed and developing Member States and the IAEA's Laboratories participated. The first research coordination meeting (RCM) was held in Vienna, from 16 to 20 April 2007. The participants presented progress reports, reviewed the status of the instrumentation and methodologies available, and agreed on a detailed work plan for the CRP. The second (final) RCM was held in Athens, Greece, from 11 to 15 May 2009. The participants reviewed and summarized the overall research results of the CRP, assessed the impact of the CRP and identified outstanding research related to integration of nuclear spectrometry techniques and analytical methodologies. This publication presents the results of the CRP.

2007-04-20

376

Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The research will be accomplished on lab scale, pilot scale, and production air pollution control systems (APCS). The production system, to be installed at Marine Corps Logistics Base (MCLB) Barstow, CA, will treat the exhaust from three paint booths which will be modified to recirculate a large percentage of their exhaust. These recirculation systems are, themselves, a critical element in the overall R and D effort. The goal of the program is to conduct an R and D effort which will improve and demonstrate a combination of technologies intended to make VOC treatment both effective and affordable. The US Marine Corps, the other services and industry will each benefit.

Watt, L.C.; Cannon, F.S.; Heinsohn, R.J.; Spaeder, T.A.; Darvin, C.H.

1993-12-31

377

Multiplexed Isobaric Tagging Protocols for Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Approaches to Auditory Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modern biologists have at their disposal a large array of techniques used to assess the existence and relative or absolute quantity of any molecule of interest in a sample. However, implementing most of these procedures can be a daunting task for the first time, even in a lab with experienced researchers. Just choosing a protocol to follow can take weeks while all of the nuances are examined and it is determined whether a protocol will (a) give the desired results, (b) result in interpretable...

Vetter, Douglas E.; Basappa, Johnvesly; Turcan, Sevin

2009-01-01

378

Review: Keith F. Punch (2005. Introduction to Social Research – Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction to Social Research enthält insgesamt zwölf sehr detaillierte und gut zugängliche Kapitel über quantitative, qualitative und mixed-method Ansätze und richtet sich an Personen, die gerade beginnen, sich mit den Sozialwissenschaften zu befassen. In die nun vorgelegte 2. Auflage wurden zahlreiche illustrative Anwendungsbeispiele aufgenommen, die es Studierenden ermöglichen, die Grundlagen sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung zu verstehen. Ich selbst werde dieses Buch neuen Studentinnen und Studenten als praktische Hilfe für ihre Forschung unbedingt empfehlen. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060249

Constantinos N. Phellas

2006-03-01

379

Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and nonschizophrenia populations: the International Consortium on Hallucination Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This special theme issue of Schizophrenia Bulletin presents a series of related articles focusing on auditory hallucinations, prepared by members of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research [InCoHR] working groups. The InCoHR is a large collaborative framework that serves as a platform for researchers to meet and collaborate on multidisciplinary projects relating to auditory hallucinations [AH] and discuss methodological issues facing transdiagnostic research. Laroi et al. observe the similarities in characteristic features of AHs in different clinical and nonclinical groups, but they also note that differences exist, reflecting the contribution of disease-related process. Waters et al. use findings of shared cognitive impairments across different diagnostic groups with AHs to propose a novel theoretical cognitive framework. Allen et al. describe that the neurobiological substrates of AHs include neural systems involved in language processing, as well as sensory and nonsensory brain regions and that studies are increasingly using fine-grain analysis of patients' characteristics in analyzing neuroimaging data. Ford et al. discuss different neurophysiological approaches and describes hallucination-related alterations in activity in temporal and frontal regions of the brain and particularly in auditory cortical areas. Finally, Sommer et al. review different treatment options for AHs in schizophrenia and other disorders, including pharmacological treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT] and acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT], transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS], and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]. These related publications describe the current substance and direction of research on AHs across different diagnostic groups. PMID:22837351

Waters, Flavie

2012-06-01

380

High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti-Ta and Ti-Zr-Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti-Zr-Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173K for 1800h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti-Ta and Ti-Zr-Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. PMID:24863225

Zhang, X D; Liu, L B; Zhao, J-C; Wang, J L; Zheng, F; Jin, Z P

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Improved survival modeling in cancer research using a reduced piecewise exponential approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical models for survival data are typically nonparametric, for example, the Kaplan-Meier curve. Parametric survival modeling, such as exponential modeling, however, can reveal additional insights and be more efficient than nonparametric alternatives. A major constraint of the existing exponential models is the lack of flexibility due to distribution assumptions. A flexible and parsimonious piecewise exponential model is presented to best use the exponential models for arbitrary survival data. This model identifies shifts in the failure rate over time based on an exact likelihood ratio test, a backward elimination procedure, and an optional presumed order restriction on the hazard rate. Such modeling provides a descriptive tool in understanding the patient survival in addition to the Kaplan-Meier curve. This approach is compared with alternative survival models in simulation examples and illustrated in clinical studies. PMID:23900779

Han, Gang; Schell, Michael J; Kim, Jongphil

2014-01-15

382

A pragmatist approach to the hope discourse in health care research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hope is a central concept in nursing and other fields of health care. However, there is no consensus about the concept of hope. We argue that seeking consensus is futile given the multifaceted and multidimensional nature of the concept, but instead we encourage in-depth studies of the assumptions behind talk about hope in specific contexts. Our approach to the 'science of hope' is inspired by philosophical pragmatism. We argue that hope is a concept that opens different rooms for action in different contexts and that accordingly, all hope interventions are contextually sensitive. Careful attention to how the relative positions and power of nurses and patients influence what can be inferred from their different ways of talking about hope may make hopeful conversations more meaningful in health care relationships. PMID:24548689

Herrestad, Henning; Biong, Stian; McCormack, Brendan; Borg, Marit; Karlsson, Bengt

2014-07-01

383

A three-level approach to quality programs for research, development, and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primary mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop nuclear weapons systems for the Department of Defense. The activities included in this effort cover a broad spectrum ranging from pure research to routine production. In order to provide a workable framework for a comprehensive quality assurance program for these varied activities, the authors have proposed a three-level structure of quality plans, corresponding to a rough classification of the weapons work into three general categories. These categories are: 1) research into materials and processes, and preliminary development; 2) design, development, and fabrication of prototype components; 3) routine production, analysis, or refinement activities. The first category requires a quality program to assure the validity, reliability, and retrievability of the information developed; this is accomplished by a conscientious application of what is generally recognized as good laboratory practice. The second category requires in addition a strong emphasis on design review and inspection. For the third category, a comprehensive quality program is appropriate, following the general guidelines of NQA-1

1986-06-22

384

Using an Ethnographic Approach to Collect Emotional Data in Affective Learning Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective computing is an interdisciplinary research field that has made plentiful and substantial achievements in this decade. In previous Artificial Intelligence research, computers are expected to be endowed with intelligence analogous to human intelligence. In affective computing, computers are expected to be endowed with Emotional Intelligence, which means that the computer can recognize and interpret the emotional states of humans and adapt its behavior to give an appropriate response to those emotions. This paper describes the design of an experiment that is used to collect the emotional data for a cognition & emotion support e-learning project. The goal of this experiment is to explore the interrelationship between the teacher and the student from both emotional and cognitive aspects in a teaching situation, and then construct the interaction models of the emotional and cognitive levels. These models will be integrated in an affective learning system which supports the learner both from cognitive and emotional aspects. The paper addresses issues in experimental design including ethnography, ethical and practical problems related to this form of experimental work.

Xiaomei Tao

2013-03-01

385

Spanish approach to research and development applied to steam generator tubes structural integrity and life management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operating experience acquired from certain Spanish Nuclear Power Plant steam generators shows that the tubes, which constitute the second barrier to release of fission products, are susceptible to mechanical damage and corrosion as a result of a variety of mechanisms, among them wastage, pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue-induced cracking, fretting, erosion/corrosion, support plate denting, etc. These problems, which are common in many plants throughout the world, have required numerous investments by the plants (water treatment plants, replacement of secondary side materials such as condensers and heaters, etc.), have meant costs (operation, inspection and maintenance) and have led to the unavailability of the affected units. In identifying and implementing all these preventive and corrective measures, the Spanish utilities have moved through three successive stages: in the initial stage, the main source of information and of proposals for solutions was the Plant Vendor, whose participation in this respect was based on his own Research and Development programs; subsequently, the Spanish utilities participated jointly in the EPRI Steam Generator Owners Group, collaborating in financing; finally, the Spanish utilities set up their own Steam Generator Research and Development program, while maintaining relations with EPRI programs and those of other countries through information interchange.

Lozano, J. [Associacion Nuclear Asco AIE, Barcelona (Spain); Bollini, G.J.

1997-02-01

386

Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system’s boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community.

Chanda-Kapata Pascalina

2012-06-01

387

Socio-Cultural Approaches to Tourism: A Research on the “Tourist” Notion of Young Turkish People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significance of tourism sector in Turkey is constantly expanding. Correspondingly the importance of the economic and socio-cultural impact of tourism also continues to develop. Because tourism draws tourists get into closer contact with the locals it has positive and negative effects on the destination. In general the aim of tourists is satisfying their expectations at the maximum degree during their stay. On the other side locals who live and work in the destination region have a primary role in welcoming them and satisfying the tourists’ needs and expectation. Turkish society is particularly well known for many generations as being very hospitable. Current research aims to reveal whether the young Turkish people sustain traditional “Turkish Hospitality” and to see their thoughts about tourists. The field research has been conducted on students of a foundation university located in Izmir and these young people’s point of view on tourists has been investigated by face to face interviews. It has been concluded that there is a weakening trend, nevertheless the notion of hospitality remains.

Ferika Özer Sari

2012-04-01

388

Spanish approach to research and development applied to steam generator tubes structural integrity and life management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The operating experience acquired from certain Spanish Nuclear Power Plant steam generators shows that the tubes, which constitute the second barrier to release of fission products, are susceptible to mechanical damage and corrosion as a result of a variety of mechanisms, among them wastage, pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue-induced cracking, fretting, erosion/corrosion, support plate denting, etc. These problems, which are common in many plants throughout the world, have required numerous investments by the plants (water treatment plants, replacement of secondary side materials such as condensers and heaters, etc.), have meant costs (operation, inspection and maintenance) and have led to the unavailability of the affected units. In identifying and implementing all these preventive and corrective measures, the Spanish utilities have moved through three successive stages: in the initial stage, the main source of information and of proposals for solutions was the Plant Vendor, whose participation in this respect was based on his own Research and Development programs; subsequently, the Spanish utilities participated jointly in the EPRI Steam Generator Owners Group, collaborating in financing; finally, the Spanish utilities set up their own Steam Generator Research and Development program, while maintaining relations with EPRI programs and those of other countries through information interchange

1997-02-01

389

A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Light & Matter in STEM Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

In collaboration with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), we have engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the detailed science of light and matter into STEM classrooms. Typical Astro 101 classes often discuss emission/absorption spectra with reference to the Bohr model only and teach radiation as produced/absorbed only by electron transitions. We present here curricula developed to highlight other emission/absorption phenomena (specifically those produced by rotational/vibrational molecular transitions as well as synchrotron radiation.) Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills. In this talk, we will report on our development process for a suite of activities, including lecture slides, Think-Pair-Share questions, assessment questions and a new Lecture-Tutorial that help students learn about these other important emission models.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Wallace, C. S.; Schlingman, W. M.; Prather, E. E.

2014-01-01

390

Neural network approaches to tracer identification as related to PIV research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neural networks have become very powerful tools in many fields of interest. This thesis examines the application of neural networks to another rapidly growing field flow visualization. Flow visualization research is used to experimentally determine how fluids behave and to verify computational results obtained analytically. A form of flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV). determines the flow movement by tracking neutrally buoyant particles suspended in the fluid. PIV research has begun to improve rapidly with the advent of digital imagers, which can quickly digitize an image into arrays of grey levels. These grey level arrays are analyzed to determine the location of the tracer particles. Once the particles positions have been determined across multiple image frames, it is possible to track their movements, and hence, the flow of the fluid. This thesis explores the potential of several different neural networks to identify the positions of the tracer particles. Among these networks are Backpropagation, Kohonen (counter-propagation), and Cellular. Each of these algorithms were employed in their basic form, and training and testing were performed on a synthetic grey level array. Modifications were then made to them in attempts to improve the results

1992-01-01

391

A Grounded Theory Approach in a Branding Context: Challenges and lessons learnt during the research process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss challenges and lessons learnt when conducting a classic grounded theory study in a marketing context. The paper focuses on two specific challenges that were met during a specific research process. The first challenge related to positioning the study, namely, specifying“what the study is a study of”. The second challenge concerned the choice between formal or substantive theory. Both challenges were accentuated as the emerged core category concerned a phenomenon that has caught less attention in marketing, that is, the temporal dimension in corporate images. By the temporal dimension in corporate images we mean that corporate images often have roots in earlier times through consumer memories. In other words, consumers are not tabula rasa, that is, blank sheets of paper on which communication messages can be printed. Rather, consumers have a pre-understanding of the company that works as an interpretation framework for company actions in the present. The lessons learnt from this research process can be summarized as “stay faithful to the data”, “write memos on issues you reflect upon although they might be in another substantial field” as they might become useful later, and, “look into thinking in other disciplines” as disciplines do not develop equally.

Anne Rindell, PhD.

2009-06-01

392

L'approache ethnographique comme Methodologie de recherche dans l'examen du processus de construction identitaire (The Ethnographic Approach as Research Methodology in the Investigation of the Process of Identity Construction).  

Science.gov (United States)

Demonstrates how qualitative research, specifically ethnograhy, constitutes an effective means of investigating identity construction, particularly as identity is manifested through language practices. This approach illuminates the complexity of the interaction between language practices and identity. (Author/VWL)

Gerin-Lajoie, Diane

2002-01-01

393

A Closed Mars Analog Simulation: The Approach of Crew 5 At the Mars Desert Research Station  

Science.gov (United States)

For twelve days in April 2002 we performed a closed simulation in the Mars Desert Research