Rucinski, Dianne; Davis, Rochelle; Gomez, Guillermo; Flores, Jovita; Perez, Idida; Zanoni, Joseph
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches attempt to engage community members in all aspects of research conducted in the community. Proponents of CBPR suggest that among the many advantages to using CBPR is higher acceptance of and cooperation in research endeavors than is usually achieved through more traditional research approaches. Using secondary analysis of sample disposition data from two area probability surveys of the same community areas, one involving community interviewers in a fully collegial CBPR study and the other using professional interviewers, this study finds that data collected using CBPR techniques may lead to higher cooperation and lower refusal rates than data collected by professional interviewers. However, when compared to external population indicators such as census data, the sample produced by CBPR interviewers overrepresents certain population groups whereas the survey data produced by professional interviewers may underrepresent key population groups. PMID:21885704
Burke, Jessica G; Jones, Jennifer; Yonas, Michael; Guizzetti, Lisa; Virata, Maria C; Costlow, Monica; Morton, Sally C; Elizabeth, Miller
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) and community- based participatory research (CBPR) are two fields of research that do not have a history of strong collaboration. However, CER and CBPR researchers could benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration to design and implement relevant, timely, action-oriented research. This commentary explores field-specific definitions of stakeholders and then outlines various roles stakeholders might play within grant-funded research. Questions such as "What stakeholders should be involved?" and "How are stakeholders involved?" are addressed. The goal of this commentary is to highlight how the expertise and experiences of CBPR investigators can enhance the field of CER and to describe strategies for encouraging stakeholder involvement in CER research through the lens of CBPR. It is recommended that a team-based approach to conducting stakeholder-engaged CER encourages multiple stakeholders and "end users" to contribute their diverse expertise to the research process and contributes to the development of research with an increased likelihood of improving patient health and healthcare. PMID:24330697
MERVES, MARNI LOIACONO; Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Silver, Ellen Johnson; SCLAFANE, JAMIE HEATHER; Bauman, Laurie J.
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs in order to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned t...
Ferrera, Maria J; Sacks, Tina K; Perez, Miriam; Nixon, John P; Asis, Dale; Coleman, Walter L
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Youth Health Service Corps as a health promotion program, (2) examine the use of CBPR within the immigrant community, and (3) discuss preliminary findings using a model on critical youth empowerment. PMID:25423240
Lonczak, Heather S. V.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis; Austin, Lisette; Sigo, Robin L. W.; Lawrence, Nigel
Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches stress the importance of building strong, cohesive collaborations between academic researchers and partnering communities; yet there is minimal research examining the actual quality of CBPR partnerships. The objective of the present paper is to describe and explore the quality of collaborative relationships across the first two years of the Healing of the Canoe project teams, comprised of researchers from the University of Washington an...
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara
Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community's concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members' health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to 'cervical health,' a concept that acknowledged the impact on women's bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be considered immutable. They need to be open to negotiation, creativity, and constant reinvention. PMID:15955605
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy
Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully involved African American church leaders in all phases of the research project. Findings from the implementation and evaluation phases indicated that ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 2564 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527
Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Mason, Mondi; Turner, Jerome; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Chow, Marie; Hine, R. Jean; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Greene, Paul
Disparities in breast cancer survival rates suggest that biological processes contribute. Translational research addressing health disparities would benefit from using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) to examine biological processes commonly seen as the proximal causes of illness as well as behavioral and social-ecological causes of the causes within an integrated conceptual framework. This paper describes a CBPR study that explored perceptions regarding breast cancer relevan...
Lonczak, Heather S V; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis; Austin, Lisette; Sigo, Robin L W; Lawrence, Nigel
Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches stress the importance of building strong, cohesive collaborations between academic researchers and partnering communities; yet there is minimal research examining the actual quality of CBPR partnerships. The objective of the present paper is to describe and explore the quality of collaborative relationships across the first two years of the Healing of the Canoe project teams, comprised of researchers from the University of Washington and community partners from the Suquamish Tribe. Three quantitative/qualitative process measures were used to assess perceptions regarding collaborative processes and aspects of meeting effectiveness. Staff meetings were primarily viewed as cohesive, with clear agendas and shared communication. Collaborative processes were perceived as generally positive, with Tribal empowerment rated as especially important. Additionally, effective leadership and flexibility were highly rated while a need for a stronger community voice in decision-making was noted. Steady improvements were found in terms of trust between research teams, and both research teams reported a need for more intra-team project- and social-focused interaction. Overall, this data reveals a solid CBPR collaboration that is making effective strides in fostering a climate of respect, trust, and open communication between research partners. PMID:25356083
Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole
Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the projects community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct schoolcommunity health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786
Increased study participation and adherence to study protocol are cited as two significant research strengths of partnering with the community. Hence, the objective of this study was to test for differences among adherence groups for changes (baseline to 6 months) in clinical and dietary outcomes. ...
Cartwright, Elizabeth; Schow, Diana
In this article, we anthropologically explore one part of the process of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): participation. Participation in CBPR is usually conceptualized as whether, and the degree to which, community members are involved in the research process. Our focus regarding participation is less on quantity and more on quality of the interaction between community members and researchers; within this context, we elaborate the concept of "bridging" as it is understood in CBPR. Using data from our ongoing "Water Project" in the Peruvian Andes, we explore how interaction, as a participative act of the research interview, creates the space for participating and imagining. Out of this interaction come data that are elaborated, contextualized, and, ultimately, from a CBPR perspective, made useful for meaningful engagement and community action. PMID:26613969
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles
Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs
de la Torre, Adela
Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with
Israel, Barbara A.; Schulz, Amy J.; Parker, Edith A.; Becker, Adam B.
Presents key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), discussing the rationale for its use; providing policy recommendations at the organizational, community, and national levels aimed at advancing the application of CBPR; and emphasizing the establishment of policies to enhance equity that would both increase the engagement of
Tisnado, Diana M.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Guevara, Linda; Quitugua, Lourdes; Castro, Keith; Aromin, Jay; Quenga, Joey; Tran, Jacqueline
Objective We describe the development of a community and academic research partnership, share reflections on processes for collaborations, and identify key factors for establishing strong and effective relationships to foster high-quality research. Background A community-based participatory research (CBPR) effort evaluating a community-based patient navigation program assisting Chamorro women to access breast cancer services in Southern California served as the foundation for the development of the community-academic partnership. Methods Using a CBPR approach focusing on active involvement of community members, organizational representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of research process, faculty from a research university and a local community-based organization were brought together to build a partnership. Community and academic partners engaged in a series of meetings where dialogue focused on developing and nurturing trust and shared values, respect for community knowledge, and establishing community-defined and prioritized needs and goals. Partners have also focused on defining and developing explicit structures and policies to implement an equal partnership. Results Experiences and lessons learned are shared, reflecting the processes of relationship building, and planning and implementing preliminary research steps. Lessons Learned Adequate time for relationship-building, open and honest communication, flexibility, and ongoing examination of assumptions are keys to developing successful CBPR partnerships.
In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782
Andrews, Jeannette O; Tingen, Martha S; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Newman, Susan D; Cox, Melissa J; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina
African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional "outsider driven" interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation intervention in public housing neighborhoods. The CBPR framework encompasses problem identification, planning and feasibility/pilot testing, implementation, evaluation, and dissemination. There have been multiple partners in this process including public housing residents, housing authority administrators, community health workers, tenant associations, and academic investigators. The advisory process has evolved from an initial small steering group to our current institutional community advisory boards. Our decade-long CBPR journey produced design innovations, promising preliminary outcomes, and a full-scaled implementation study in two states. Challenges include sustaining engagement with evolving study partners, maintaining equity and power in the partnerships, and long-term sustainability of the intervention. Implications include applicability of the framework with other CBPR partnerships, especially scaling up evolutionary grassroots involvement to multi-regional partnerships. PMID:22124619
Morisky, Donald E.; Malow, Robert M.; Tiglao, Teodora V.; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Vissman, Aaron T.; RHODES, SCOTT D.
The effects of three interventions designed to reduce sexual risk among Filipina female bar workers (FBWs) were compared with each other and with usual care (nonintervention). The interventions were developed iteratively by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership comprising lay community members, organizational representatives (including nongovernmental organizations), and academic researchers from the United States and the Philippines. Peer educators and bar managers from...
Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia
The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted "CyBER/testing", a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing
Bermúdez Parsai, Monica; Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Harthun, Mary L; Valdez, Hector
The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693
Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora
Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307
Fetherman, Debra L; Burke, Stephen C
The social determinants of health represent the societal and economic influences responsible for most health inequities. Advocacy to eliminate health inequities for homeless children oftentimes involves the use of community-based approaches. This article details the Floating Hospital's (TFH) community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that resulted in an advocacy brief. Within the project, the community practice concepts of a strengths perspective, empowerment, capacity building, and advocacy are embedded. The brief enhances TFH's capacity to advocate for the needs of homeless children. This example serves as a guide for social work and public health professionals to use CBPR to address health inequities within their communities. PMID:25317978
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a
Rhodes, Scott D; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia
The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted CyBER/testing, a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing Internet chat rooms. Using a quasi-experimental, single-group study design, cross-sectional data were collected from chat room participants, known as chat...
Tamariz, Leonardo; Medina, Heidy; Taylor, Janielle; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Kobetz, Erin; Palacio, Ana
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is challenging to research ethics committees (RECs). We reviewed the REC preparedness when reviewing CBPR projects. We searched the MEDLINE database and included qualitative studies of CBPR researchers or REC members about their experiences with RECs. The search yielded 107 studies, of which 10 met our criteria. Barriers were that the community is not prepared to conduct research, the reluctance of RECs to work outside the university, the difficulty RECs have understanding CBPR, and that REC forms evaluate individual rather than community risk. Facilitators were having a CBPR expert as an REC member and educating RECs. Therefore, RECs are not prepared to evaluate CBPR projects leading to unnecessary delays in the approval process. PMID:26527370
Israel, Barbara A.; Krieger, James; Vlahov, David; Ciske, Sandra; Foley, Mary; Fortin, Princess; Guzman, J. Ricardo; Lichtenstein, Richard; McGranaghan, Robert; Palermo, Ann-gel; Tang, Gary
In order to address the social, physical and economic determinants of urban health, researchers, public health practitioners, and community members have turned to more comprehensive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received considerable attention over the past decade, and numerous publications have described theoretical underpinnings, values, principles and practice. Issues relate...
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica
This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature. PMID:25070835
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.
Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda
The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389
Thomas, Lisa Rey; Dennis M. Donovan; Sigo, Robin L.W.
Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This best practice approach can set research agendas that are relevant to Native communities and result in interventions and health promotion programs th...
McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim
Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372
Burhansstipanov, Linda; Christopher, Suzanne; Schumacher, Sister Ann
The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned from implementing community-based participatory research (CBPR) in Indian Country that may be generalizable to other medically underserved communities. CBPR is currently included in multiple grant announcements by the National Institute of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but information about this methodology vs traditional research methodology is often misleading. This article addresses some common mistakes made by academic research institutes by sharing what we have learned about how CBPR can be implemented in a respectful manner. The majority of tribal Nations prefer, if not mandate, that CBPR be used in most proposed studies involving their communities today. PMID:16327753
Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane
The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments. PMID:17652187
Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Os professores são considerados um dos grupos profissionais mais vulneráveis ao stress profissional e ao burnout. É reconhecido que estes fenómenos afectam individualmente o professor e também o contexto educativo, pelo que a sua avaliação ganha pertinência. O presente estudo teve como objectivo proceder à adaptação do Cuestionario de Burnout do Profesorado (CBP-R(Moreno-Jiménez, Garrosa-Hernández, & González-Gutiérrez, 2000, através do estudo de uma amostra de professores portugueses do ensino básico e secundário. O interesse neste instrumento prendeu-se com o facto de avaliar especificamente as dimensões do burnout em professores. Método: Após a devida autorização dos autores para utilizar o instrumento foram realizados todos os procedimentos de tradução para Português Europeu do CBP-R, que foi aplicado a uma amostra de 513 professores, com idades entre os 22 e 66 anos (M = 41.88; DP = 9.461. Utilizou-se a versão 19 do software SPSS e do AMOS, respectivamente para inserir os dados, realizar a caracterização da amostra, estudo da fiabilidade e a análise factorial confirmatória do CBP-R. Resultados: O CBP-R nas suas dimensões relativas ao burnout, tendo em conta o modelo tripartido da Maslach (1993, apresentou elevada validade factorial e elevada consistência interna. Conclusão: Considera-se que este instrumento é útil e adequado para avaliação do burnout, nas dimensões da exaustão emocional, despersonalização e realização pessoal, especificamente em professores portugueses.
Farquhar, Stephanie A.; Ryder, Marianne; Henderlong, Derek; Lowe, Robert A.; Amann, Ted
The study, funded by the Northwest Health Foundation of Portland, Oregon and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), was conducted as part of the HEARTH collaborative (Housing, Employment and Recovery Together for Health). HEARTH, established in 2010, is a community-academic partnership involving partners from Portland State University (PSU), Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), and Central City Concern (CCC). Using the approaches of community-based participatory research (CBPR),...
Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen
Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim ...
Cabassa Leopoldo J; Druss Benjamin; Wang Yuanjia; Lewis-Fernández Roberto
Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI) and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The proposed study uses ...
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems
In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptua...
Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.
The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 1860) years. Grounded theory was use...
...scientifically meritorious research projects, including pilot research projects, and will be supported...community based participatory research (T/CBPR) is expected to...to selecting, adapting and testing an existing EBI for...
Full Text Available While hermeneutics is firmly embedded in social science research and has proven merit as a qualitative research philosophy and data analysis technique, the majority of IS researchers continue to be hermeneutic neophytes. This paper seeks to promote and demystify this valuable but challenging tool, exploring the evolution of hermeneutics and its different approaches, presenting a brief overview of previous IS hermeneutic research, as reported in the literature and describing the applicability of hermeneutics to qualitative IS research In illustration, and in an attempt to smooth the way for other novice hermeneuts, it presents the choice and application of one hermeneutic approach based on the work of Ricoeur and Gadamer, in a research in progress. The paper concludes with a reflection on the value of the hermeneutic approach that was adopted in the research process and its contribution to IS research.
Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.
Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy
Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the teacher- researcher movement in t...
Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.
This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.
Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.
The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...
Research using systems analytic approaches to integrate biological and toxicological data across scales of biological organization (e.g. molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, full body, population), with the goal of identifying toxicity pathways, biomarkers, and bioindicators for a...
Drdácký, Milo; Minster, Ji?í
Brusel : ECCREDI, 2003, s. 2-2 ISBN N. [FP6 Construction research in the enlarged European union. Warsaw (PL), 06.11.2003-07.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : cultural heritage * interdisciplinary approach * stone masonry Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering
Lara Dorado, Juan Abel
The contemporary debates of the accountancy discipline can be framed on the normative and positive approaches developed by researchers as: Mattessich, Ijiri, Zirnmerman, etc. This article attemps to organize in a systematic way the trends of the so called new empiric research in the positive accounting theory structure. The newempiric research undertakes a complex theoretical and experimental framework in the trends of the so called accounting aggregate market as well as the trend called acco...
Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN; Jeannette O. Andrews, PhD, APRN-BC, FNP; Gayenell S. Magwood, PhD, RN; Carolyn Jenkins, DrPH, APRN, BC-ADM, RD, LD, FAAN; Melissa J. Cox, MPH; Deborah C. Williamson, DHA, MSN, CNM
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academiccommunity partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community's contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are...
Sardar M Anwaruddin
Full Text Available Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL is one of the largest educational enterprises in the world. Tens of thousands of teachersâboth native and non-native speakers of Englishâare engaged in TESOL across the world. This large population of teachers depends heavily on academic researchers for developing their knowledge base. Although it is evident that teachers who engage in classroom research are more aware of their practices and better able to facilitate student learning, teacher-research is a minority activity in the field of TESOL. In this article, I briefly discuss TESOL practitionersâ conceptions of research. Then, I focus on a dichotomous relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research, and review some contemporary orientations to TESOL research. I conclude the article with a recommendation that TESOL practitioners engage in action research for their professional development as well as their studentsâ increased learning of the target language.
Trevors, J T; Pollack, Gerald H; Saier, Milton H (Jr); Masson, Luke
In this perspective a definition of transformative research (TR) is proposed and discussed. We define TR as that which transforms or causes a major change in thought patterns concerning an area of scientific endeavor. This type of research is often elusive, requires different approaches and sometimes depends on a bit of luck. TR concerns intangibles such as human intuition, serendipity, unpredictable events, implausible hypotheses, a well-prepared mind and often interpersonal communications...
Battchikova, Natalia; Angeleri, Martina; Aro, Eva-Mari
Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is carried out by a fabulous pigment-protein machinery that is amazingly complicated in structure and function. Many different approaches have been undertaken to characterize the most important aspects of photosynthesis, and proteomics has become the essential component in this research. Here we describe various methods which have been used in proteomic research of cyanobacteria, and demonstrate how proteomics is implemented into on-going studies of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial cells. PMID:25359503
Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.
Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs commonly formalize the academiccommunity partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the communitys contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.
Vargas Urpi, Mireia
Community interpreting is a complex activity that has been studied from many different angles. Based on a review of the literature, this paper aims to highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in community interpreting research, as well as the close relationship between the theoretical and methodological frameworks that have been used to date. As a prospective study and by describing theories applied from five different fields (i.e. anthropology, sociology, applied linguistics...
Doran, Kelly M; Greysen, S Ryan; Cunningham, Alison; Tynan-McKiernan, Kathleen; Lucas, Georgina I; Rosenthal, Marjorie S
This article discusses how community-based participatory research (CBPR) on hospital care transitions in New Haven, Connecticut led to the development of a new medical respite program to better serve patients who are homeless. Key insights include. PMID:26699351
Mendenhall, Tai J; Gagner, Noah E; Hunt, Quintin A
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is characterized by its collaborative efforts between professional researchers and lay community members to design, implement, and iteratively evaluate interventions. This approach creates knowledge and improves practice in ways that reflect the collective wisdom and expertise of all involved stakeholders. It represents a significant departure from conventional "top down" methods that define "collaboration" as professionals working with each other-but not with patients and families. It is our position, however, that these exciting developments are only most visible in adult medicine. We believe that it is important to engage youth in health-related CBPR for three primary reasons which are provided in this article. Examples of youth-engagement in health research are also provided. It is important that we do not leave our youth on the sidelines as we advance health care research. During this critical time in health care, we must endeavor to engage our youth as active stakeholders. As we use methods that bridge our professional expertise with teens' lived experience and wisdom, we can create sustainable interventions that are effective in preventing or mitigating the conditions that weigh most heavily on us all. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641865
Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori
The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education
Rudel Ruthann A
Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.
Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, produc...
McMullin, Juliet; Bone, Momi; Pang, Jane Kaala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; McEligot, Archana
Following the goals of Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), this paper describes how Native Hawaiian values emerged as a methodology for the conduct of a study with Native Hawaiians residing in Southern California. The equitable placing of community values side by side with scientific values show that community concepts can parallel and extend CBPR premises and are more than a variable to be added in the analysis. The community partners, whose voices guide this paper, introduced the...
Kiviniemi, Marc T; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Ciupak, Gregory L; Davis, Warren; Moysich, Kirsten; Hargrave, Nikia Clark; Ambrosone, Christine B; Walker, Charles; Erwin, Deborah O
Biospecimen banking programs are critically dependent on participation of diverse population members. The purpose of this study was to test a pilot intervention to enhance recruitment to a biospecimen bank among racially diverse community members. A mixed methods, community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation was used to develop and pilot an intervention to educate and recruit participants to a biospecimen bank. Pre- and post-assessments of knowledge about research, perceived costs and benefits of participation (expected utility), and emotional states associated with research participation (affective associations) as well as post-intervention participation in biobanking were examined to determine intervention effectiveness. The pilot intervention educated 148 community members; 107 (73 %) donated blood and 77 (52 %) completed a 36-page lifestyle questionnaire. Thirty-two percent of participants were African American and 11 % were Native American. Participating in the educational program significantly reduced negative affect associated with research involving collection of genetic material or completion of a survey. Improved knowledge and understanding of biobanking and research through a CBPR approach are likely to increase participation rates in biobanking for diverse community members. Accurate information and improved knowledge can reduce individual anxiety and concerns that serve as barriers to research participation. PMID:23150142
Sudarshan Mishra; B. K. Passi
The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triang...
Kathryn Hillstrom; Valerie Ruelas; Anne Peters; Turusew Gedebu-Wilson; Ellen Iverson
Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership ...
Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.
Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A.; Bholat, Michelle A.; Dowling, Patrick T.
Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (20002008) process of b...
Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.
In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...
Schei, Tiri Bergesen; Espeland, Magne; Stige, Brynjulf
The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...
Mackenzie, Noella M.; Ling, Lorraine M.
In this article the authors discuss the impact of research on a neophyte researcher and the research supervisor. The methodology which is applied throughout this article is autoethnographic narrative. It represents retrospective reflection on the part of the authors and thus to some extent is about retrospective meaning making. It centres upon the
Kammen, Daniel M.
The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker . Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the wordsshown on the righthave also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutionsinnovationsbetween interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece
Jabir NR; Tabrez S; Ashraf GM; Shakil S; Damanhouri GA; Kamal MA
Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemother...
Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.
Hogue, Ian B; Bosse, Jens B; Engel, Esteban A; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; Del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W
In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544
Ian B. Hogue
Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.
Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto
Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected ...
Walz, Steffen P.
In this contribution, we gather major academic and design approaches for explaining how space in games is constructed and how it constructs games, thereby defining the conceptual dimensions of gamespace. Each conceptâs major inquiry is briefly discussed, iterated if applicable, as well as named. Thus, we conclude with an overview of the locative, the representational, the programmatic, the dramaturgical, the typological, the perspectivistic, the form-functional, and the form-emotive dimension...
Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.
Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)
Scientific research is a conscious and systematic approach to acquire knowledge, based on theories, methods and standards that have been developed through the history of scientific disciplines. The terms research integrity and good research practice refer to ideals for how research ought to be performed. In the 1940s the American sociologist Robert Merton proposed norms for scientific research that have influenced the discussion on research integrity since then. According to Merton good r...
Brno : Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography
Workplace learning is complex in form. It is explorative, social and creative enquiry, and because it is carried out in the socio-political domain of the workplace, it is potentially exploitative of all who contribute. This paper suggests that the workplace researcher might conceptualise the contributions of participants as benefits and/or gifts,â¦
Workplace learning is complex in form. It is explorative, social and creative enquiry, and because it is carried out in the socio-political domain of the workplace, it is potentially exploitative of all who contribute. This paper suggests that the workplace researcher might conceptualise the contributions of participants as benefits and/or gifts,
Full Text Available The goal of nutrition research in an industrial setting is the marketing of products. Since consumers cannot see from the product whether it is healthy, communication to the consumer about the nutritional and health values of the products is essential. Industrial nutrition research therefore has to provide the scientific dossier to underpin the claims and other communication on and around the product as well as the scientific basis for the communication. These two lines are illustrated in figure 1. For scientific audiences the steps to collect the scientific evidence are obvious: first screening for new ideas on the basis of scientific developments and business options, then identifying ingredients that can deliver the health benefit, followed by mechanistic and bioavailability studies and finally human intervention trials. The communication line is less obvious for most scientifically oriented audiences. Experience has shown that an information cascade has to be followed: during the execution of the research work close contact with academic experts (a true dialogue is essential, when the research data are available information of a wide selection of health professionals (e.g. physicians, dieticians, science journalists is taking place and only after this step communication to the consumer starts. The communication with the scientific experts (the first step of the cascade obviously has to be in the hands of the nutrition research group of the industry involved. In Unilever this is the Unilever Nutrition Centre based in Vlaardingen in the Netherlands. Their role in the scientific dialogue is outlined in figure 2. The fact that the âMedaille Chevreulâ has been awarded twice to members of the Unilever Nutrition Centre in the last two decades, illustrates that the UNC is considered to be a group with a truly scientific tradition.
Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.
Rocha, Robson Silva
This paper has two distinct aims. First, I would like to present and discuss the nationalbusiness systems (NBS) framework ( Whitley, 1992,1992a,1996,1997). NBS frameworkconcerns how national variations in economic co-ordination and control systemsfacilitate and constrain organisational change. The...... NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational...
Kahraman, Aysun; Aytekin, P?nar
Marketers generally use classical methods such as survey or observation to research what kind of responses consumers give to products, brands or ads. However, neuromarketing, which utilize neuroscience techniques to understand consumer behavior, has broken a new ground for marketers. In neuromarketing; to determine consumers responses to a product, a brand or an ad, the movements in different parts of their brains are monitored by neuroscience equipments such as fMRI, EEG. Informations gathe...
Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta
The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chaptersÂ highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,Â (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chaptersÂ enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.
Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; DArcy Walsh
We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a
African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA
Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek
African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.
Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina
A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792
Morgan Philip A; McCourt Christine A; Youll Penny
Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme the 'Health of Londoners Programme' in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Me...
Ramaswamy, Arun Kumar; Monsuez, Bruno; Tapus, Adriana
Recently, there is an encouraging trend in adopting model-driven engineering approaches for software development in robotics research. In this paper, currently available model-driven techniques in robotics are analyzed with respect to the domain-specific requirements. A conceptual overview of our software development approach called 'Self Adaptive Framework for Robotic Systems (SafeRobots)' is explained and we also try to position our approach within this model ecosystem.
Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicagos Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing
This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in
Mears, Carolyn Lunsford
This volume introduces a fresh approach to research, using strategies adapted from oral history and educational criticism to traverse the boundaries of human experience, and bring to light matters of concern to education and social science researchers. This narrator-centered method, a by-product of the author's award-winning investigation into the
Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This
Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.
One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-basedâ¦
This paper proposes a generational accounting approach to valuating research. Based on the flow of scientific results, a value-added (VA) index is developed that can, in principle, be used to assign a monetary value to any research result and, by aggregation, on entire academic disciplines or sub-disciplines. The VA-index distributes the value of all applications that embody research to the works of research which the applications directly rely on, and further to the works of research of prev...
Chad, Ken; Enright, Suzanne
This article presents a case study based on experience of delivering a more joined-up approach to supporting institutional research activity and processes, research data management (RDM) and open access (OA). The result of this small study, undertaken at the University of Westminster in 2013, indicates that a more holistic approach should be adopted, embedding RDM more fully into the wider research management landscape and taking researchersâ priorities into consideration. Rapid development o...
Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for system of systems development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.
Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul
As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in âimportantâ research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research.
Full Text Available High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy, directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europes resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers in the real world, requires teamwork, collaboration with communities and other stakeholders. Action Research is especially suitable in projects for reducing anthropic footprint / environmental aggression and in waste management. In essence, Action Research (for the first time systematically applied in Romania is the research approach that lets the problem studied to conduct the analysis and generate appropriate solutions; it constitutes a flexible, versatile technique to generate new knowledge through iterative interaction with the domain studied - namely the environment - researchers and communities.
Tamlin S. Conner; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of peoples experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pers...
Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; DascÄlu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; JÃ³hannesson, Ãmar I; Marcus, Ioan
Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the...... constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge...
Azagra Caro, JoaquÃn; Romero de Pablos, Ana
In this paper, we stress two points. First, analysis of public patenting should expand their focus from universities to Public Research Organisations (PRO). Second, a multidisciplinary approach allows for a richer view and interpretation of results. We adopt historical and economic perspectives to address these issues, with data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. We distinguish three periods in the history of CSIC, according to the political context: ...
Bruce, Elizabeth McIsaac
This article identifies various research characteristics of narrative inquiry including its holistic and creative approach and its emphases on experience, relationships and participation, subjectivity and consciousness-raising, commitment and resistance, ethical action, and claiming voice and power. The author suggests that these characteristics
This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.
Duncan, Susan C.; Duncan, Terry E; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.
Social environment factors are hypothesized to interact with individual-level factors to influence youth physical activity. Multilevel analytic approaches are ideal for examining the influence of the social environment on youth physical activity as they allow examination of research questions across multiple contexts and levels (e.g., individual, family, and neighborhood levels).
Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.
Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad
Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.
Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.
Viding, Essi; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne
This paper discusses the utility of the endophenotype approach in the study of developmental psychopathology. It is argued that endophenotype research holds considerable promise for the study of gene-brain/cognition-behaviour pathways for developmental disorders. This paper outlines the criteria for determining useful endophenotypes. Possible endophenotypes for autism are discussed as an example of an area where endophenotype research on developmental disorders may be fruitful. It is concluded that although the endophenotype approach holds promise for the study of gene-brain/cognition-behaviour pathways, much work remains to be done in order to validate endophenotype measures. It is also noted that the changing nature of any developmental psychopathology poses a particular challenge to this type of research. PMID:16988798
Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and
This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.
Dyas Jane; Nancarrow Susan; Cooke Jo; Williams Martin
Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT) approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB) which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infras...
Khalil ur, Rahman; Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan; Seo, Sang Mun; Kim, Yong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project
Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project
Gray, Garry C
This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153
Cabassa Leopoldo J
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.
Morgan Philip A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme the 'Health of Londoners Programme' in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Methods A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66; structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. Results The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. Conclusion There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within the research commissioning process. This may enhance access, effectiveness and transparency of decision-making but further development is needed for this to be fully realised, including attention to process as well as the computer-mediated medium.
Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex
Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank univer...
Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; OscÃ³s-SÃ¡nchez, Manuel Ã¡ngel; PiÃ±eda, Daniel V.; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan
Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the c...
J. A. del Rio; Kostoff, R. N.; Garcia, E. O.; Ramirez, A.M.; Humenik, J. A.
In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, ins...
Río, J A; García, E O; Ramírez, A M; Humenik, J A
In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, institutions) of the citing papers as well as their thematic characteristics.
Full Text Available Design for civic participation in the smart city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary algorithmic city using Kevin Lynchs prescriptions for livable urban design, and identifies several paths for future research.
Hogan, Lindsay; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Salsberg, Jon; Jacobs, Judi; King, Morrison; Macaulay, Ann C.
Background: This study is part of a larger community-based participatory research (CBPR) project to develop, implement, and evaluate the physical activity component of a school-based wellness policy. The policy intervention is being carried out by community stakeholders and academic researchers within the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.
Noor Suriana Abu Bakar
Full Text Available Mobile government, which is an emergent phenomenon, represents a solution for many countries to reach their citizens and to improve the services of government-to-citizens (G2C. Hence, most researchers have merely focused on the citizens adoption and usage issues, security, implementation and transformation, and the success factors of m-government services. However, in order to proceed with the study on examining the m-government services, it is vital to first analyze the most suitable research method that can be used. Thus, this paper investigated the research approaches used for examining m-government services by reviewing 37 papers that are related to this topic, which were retrieved from four online databases: a IEEE Xplore, b Science Direct, c Emerald, and d ACM Digital Library. Only papers from 2007 to 2014 were selected for further review. The findings suggested that the survey method was mostly used to examine the m-government services.
Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)
Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm
The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.
There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge contribution from evaluation of the utility of an artifact. That is, utility-based evaluation often builds the argument on adoption of the artifact, assuming that adoption and utility in general validates also claims to knowledge contribution. We show that this mode of evaluation has philosophical and practical problems that need addressing in further research.
The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) regulates civil nuclear facilities in France. In addition to the pool of 58 pressurized water reactors ASN also regulates several research reactors which are all unique installations. The regulatory approach for research reactors takes cognisance of the different level of hazard encountered in their operation and hence requires a different approach to the management of safety in comparison with nuclear power reactor operations. For a number of years, ASN has been striving to optimise its regulation of experimental reactors. To ensure the optimum level of safety by focusing on the most important safety issues and allowing the licensee to exercise its full responsibilities through the use of internal authorisations. The internal authorisations system, which has been in operation for several years now with a number of experimental reactors, is designed to achieve this two-fold objective. In addition to the careful use of a new range of tools for its regulatory framework in the research reactors area, ASN has other safety challenges for example the ageing of most of the existing facilities and the licensing of new reactors with a high international profile such as the Jules Horowitz reactor or the ITER fusion reactor. (author)
A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs
Marcelino-Jesus, Elsa; Sarraipa, Joao; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo
In a world increasingly more competitive and in a constantly development and growth it's important that companies have economic tools, like frameworks to help them to evaluate and validate the technology development to better fits in each company particular needs. The paper presents an evaluation approach for research project pilot applications to stimulate its implementation and deployment, increasing its adequacy and acceptance to their stakeholders and consequently providing new business profit and opportunities. Authors used the DECIDE evaluation framework as a major guide to this approach, which was tested in the iSURF project to support the implementation of an interoperability service utility for collaborative supply chain planning across multiple domains supported by RFID devices.
Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.
Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne
A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers dont apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory.
James A. J. Wilson
Full Text Available This article outlines the work that the University of Oxford is undertaking to implement a coordinated data management infrastructure. The rationale for the approach being taken by Oxford is presented, with particular attention paid to the role of each service division. This is followed by a consideration of the relative advantages and disadvantages of institutional data repositories, as opposed to national or international data centres. The article then focuses on two ongoing JISC-funded projects, âEmbedding Institutional Data Curation Services in Researchâ (Eidcsr and âSupporting Data Management Infrastructure for the Humanitiesâ (Sudamih. Both projects are intra-institutional collaborations and involve working with researchers to develop particular aspects of infrastructure, including: University policy, systems for the preservation and documentation of research data, training and support, software tools for the visualisation of large images, and creating and sharing databases via the Web (Database as a Service.
Rolland, Betsy; Reid, Suzanna; Stelling, Deanna; Warnick, Greg; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Potter, John D
Cancer epidemiologists have a long history of combining data sets in pooled analyses, often harmonizing heterogeneous data from multiple studies into 1 large data set. Although there are useful websites on data harmonization with recommendations and support, there is little research on best practices in data harmonization; each project conducts harmonization according to its own internal standards. The field would be greatly served by charting the process of data harmonization to enhance the quality of the harmonized data. Here, we describe the data harmonization process utilized at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington) by the coordinating centers of several research projects. We describe a 6-step harmonization process, including: 1) identification of questions the harmonized data set is required to answer; 2) identification of high-level data concepts to answer those questions; 3) assessment of data availability for data concepts; 4) development of common data elements for each data concept; 5) mapping and transformation of individual data points to common data elements; and 6) quality-control procedures. Our aim here is not to claim a "correct" way of doing data harmonization but to encourage others to describe their processes in order that we can begin to create rigorous approaches. We also propose a research agenda around this issue. PMID:26589709
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainabilitystem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)
Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy; Davies, Judith; Preece, Vicky
Since April 2006, commissioning responsibility for healthcare services in public prisons has been fully devolved to NHS primary care trusts (PCTs), with the expectation that offenders will have access to the same range and quality of health services available to the wider population. In order to support prison nurses in meeting this goal, a PCT and university established a partnership, which used an action research approach to develop, instigate and evaluate a bespoke educational programme for nurses working in two local prisons. This article outlines the processes involved in the design and implementation of the programme. It also reports on findings from pre- and post-intervention questionnaires and focus groups with course participants, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, which suggest that the innovation had a positive impact on the nurses' confidence, assertiveness, clinical expertise and approach to change. The article concludes that the action research project should continue, but its scope should now broaden to address educational support for healthcare assistants, collaborative learning between prison officers and prison nurses, and the implementation of clinical supervision and action learning sets. PMID:20622798
Koh (pp. 91-100) outlines similarities and differences between landscape design and architectural design, as in particular in the modernist period landscape design was influenced a lot by an architectural approach. As landscape design deals with different issues however, it has generated its own strategies and methods. In particular the connection between research and design seems to be underdeveloped and needs more attention. Koh shows how this is done at the Wageningen University and presen...
McElfish, Pearl A; Kohler, Peter; Smith, Chris; Warmack, Scott; Buron, Bill; Hudson, Jonell; Bridges, Melissa; Purvis, Rachel; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen
This paper describes how a new regional campus of an academic health center engaged in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process to set a community-driven research agenda to address health disparities. The campus is situated among growing Marshallese and Hispanic populations that face significant health disparities. In 2013, with support from the Translational Research Institute, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest began building its research capacity in the region with the goal of developing a community-driven research agenda for the campus. While many researchers engage in some form of community-engaged research, using a CBPR process to set the research agenda for an entire campus is unique. Utilizing multiple levels of engagement, three research areas were chosen by the community: (1) chronic disease management and prevention; (2) obesity and physical activity; and (3) access to culturally appropriate healthcare. In only 18 months, the CBPR collaboration had dramatic results. Ten grants and five scholarly articles were collaboratively written and 25 community publications and presentations were disseminated. Nine research projects and health programs were initiated. In addition, many interprofessional educational and service learning objectives were aligned with the community-driven agenda resulting in practical action to address the needs identified. PMID:26573096
Nguyen, Anh B; Belgrave, Faye Z
This paper examines community-based participatory research (CBPR) intervention approaches in promoting cancer-relevant outcomes for 102 Vietnamese women. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in promoting breast and cervical cancer knowledge, positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening, and breast cancer screening. Collectivism moderated the effect of the intervention on attitudes towards breast cancer screening. The intervention led to more favorable attitudes towards breast cancer screening for women with high levels of collectivism but not for women with low levels. Ethnic identity moderated the effect of the intervention on breast cancer screening: the intervention program led to higher probability of getting a clinical breast exam; however, this effect was more pronounced for women with low ethnic identity than for those with high ethnic identity. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of culturally-tailored strategies in developing cancer screening interventions for the Vietnamese American population. PMID:24858871
Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly rare phenomenon in which the subject in contact with certain stimulus in one modality experiences unusual extra sensations in other modalities, such as seeing or feeling colours while listening to music or personifying of letters and numbers. The phenomenon was long perceived to be merely a product of imagination and associations. Latest research, however, is based on a multidisciplinary approach, which includes first-hand synesthetic reports, neuroimaging and behavioural tests used in confirming and explaining the phenomenonâs presence as well as its neurophysiological foundations. This article presents an overview of such investigations through the lens of cognitive and psychophysical paradigms, neural models and genetic studies of synesthesia.
This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236
Motlagh, Farid; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Menke, J Michael; Rashid, Rusdi; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain
Neuroelectrophysiological properties have been used in human heroin addiction studies. These studies vary in their approach, experimental conditions, paradigms, and outcomes. However, it is essential to integrate previous findings and experimental methods for a better demonstration of current issues and challenges in designing such studies. This Review examines methodologies and experimental conditions of neuroelectrophysiological research among heroin addicts during withdrawal, abstinence, and methadone maintenance treatment and presents the findings. The results show decrements in attentional processing and dysfunctions in brain response inhibition as well as brain activity abnormalities induced by chronic heroin abuse. Chronic heroin addiction causes increased ? and ?2 power activity, latency of P300 and P600, and diminished P300 and P600 amplitude. Findings confirm that electroencephalography (EEG) band power and coherence are associated with craving indices and heroin abuse history. First symptoms of withdrawal can be seen in high-frequency EEG bands, and the severity of these symptoms is associated with brain functional connectivity. EEG spectral changes and event-related potential (ERP) properties have been shown to be associated with abstinence length and tend to normalize within 3-6 months of abstinence. From the conflicting criteria and confounding effects in neuroelectrophysiological studies, the authors suggest a comprehensive longitudinal study with a multimethod approach for monitoring EEG and ERP attributes of heroin addicts from early stages of withdrawal until long-term abstinence to control the confounding effects, such as nicotine abuse and other comorbid and premorbid conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26748947
National Aeronautics and Space Administration â This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research...
Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.
The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the pastincluding the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biologyhave not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.
The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and
In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.
Rahman, Sayeeda; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Sami F Shaban; Rahman, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; DSouza, Urban JA
The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system-or organization-rel...
Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility that a slow reactivity insertion would not lead to severe consequences on the core. It also highlighted a lack of knowledge about fast transient physical processes and the need of validated tools if a refined simulation is to be carried out. (author)
The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research
Frost, Nollaig; Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa; Brooks-Gordon, Belinda; Esin, Cigdem; Holt, Amanda; Mehdizadeh, Leila; Shinebourne, Pnina
Qualitative approaches to research in psychology and the social sciences are increasingly used. The variety of approaches incorporates different epistemologies, theoretical traditions and practices with associated analysis techniques spanning a range of theoretical and empirical frameworks. Despite the increase in mixed method approaches it is unusual for qualitative methods to be used in combination with each other. The Pluralism in Qualitative Research project (PQR) was developed in order ...
Smith, Pete; Albanito, Fabrizio; Bell, Madeleine; Bellarby, Jessica; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Flynn, Helen; Hastings, Astley; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Edward O.; Kuhnert, Matthias; Nayak, Dali R.; Pogson, Mark
Systems approaches have great potential for application in predictive ecology. In this paper, we present a range of examples, where systems approaches are being developed and applied at a range of scales in the field of global change and biogeochemical cycling. Systems approaches range from Bayesian calibration techniques at plot scale, through data assimilation methods at regional to continental scales, to multi-disciplinary numerical model applications at country to global scales. We provid...
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research...
Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef
In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as ...
Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef
In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields ...
Saba, Farhad; Twitchell, David
This demonstration of the use of a computer simulation research method based on the System Dynamics modeling technique for studying distance education reviews research methods in distance education, including the broad categories of conceptual and case studies, and presents a rationale for the application of systems research in this area. The
Anderson, Frances E.
The author defines the aims of cross-cultural research in art education and examines the problems inherent in such research, using as an illustration a summary chart of Child's cross-cultural studies of esthetic sensitivity. Emphasis is placed on the need for rigor in research design and execution. (SJL)
Daigle, L. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
A new approach to specifying drainage pipes and embedment (the material surrounding the pipe) is being studied by the Institute for Research in Construction (IRC), jointly with the Ontario government and the municipal government of Ottawa. The end result could be an increased number of options for specifiers, better pipe performance and an improved cost effectiveness. The current specifications covering the design and installation of drainage pipes in Ontario rely solely on the Marston-Spangler theory. This theory bases the design of a pipe on the crushing strength required to withstand soil and traffic loads. A bedding factor, dependent on the type of soil, its density, and the nature of the pipe/soil contact, involves a relationship between the strength of the pipe tested in the laboratory to the strength required in the field. Another method recently developed is the Standard Installations Direct Design (SIDD) where the thickness and amount of reinforcement depends on the stresses and strains in the pipe. It makes for a more precise method requiring less material. It also allows greater choice of backfill materials and reduces the need for compaction. The results of the in situ experimentation in typical climatic conditions in Ottawa will be used to update the Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications. Two different types of SIDD installations (Type 2 and Type 3) were part of a 1370-mm diameter precast concrete culvert. Strain gauges were embedded in two of the pipe sections for the measurement of strains in the pipe wall, and the pipes were placed on either side of the centreline of the road, and separated by a pipe section without instruments. The backfill and bedding material used up to the spring line was the same for the entire culvert, but the degree of compaction varied to respect the specifications. Above the springline, the excavated native soil was used to backfill the trench. The pressure distribution around the pipe is being measured by earth pressure cells installed on the pipe surface and in the backfill soil. Thermocouples at the pipe centreline and the edge of the trench measure the soil temperatures. Four annual surveys are facilitated by a series of survey pins on the road surface. A modem link ensures that the sensors connected to the on-site dataloggers transfers the information to the IRC laboratory. Monitoring will continue for three years.
Rahman, Sayeeda; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Shaban, Sami F; Rahman, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; D'Souza, Urban Ja
The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system-or organization-related as well as research-and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching-learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a 'student-focused teaching-learning and research culture'. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers. PMID:23745079
Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh
In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.
Full Text Available This paper classifies the existing research methods that are used to study mobile services and applications wishing to put things into an order. The paper examines these methods and proposes a combined methodological technique. This technique has been used as a research tool in a research study which explored mobile data services adoption of different features by existing users and usage process. Mobile networked technologies and mobile data services have become inextricable part of peoples daily lives since they are accessible anytime anywhere throughout a day. Conventional research methods that are used to study the use of mobile devices and applications are unable to collect useful fieldwork data in versatile use situations and thus methodological challenges still exist. Researchers have responded to these challenges by developing research methods that enable new ways of collecting data concerning mobile technology use. The research method presented here is based on conventional research methods, on the use of mobile phone camera for capturing video and photographs during the use of mobile data services and on a commercial application to establish communication contact between users and researchers. The paper suggests that simple commercial systems can be used by researchers to conduct field studies.
The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...
A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in todayâs academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communic...
Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje
Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as quality and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?
Laurens De Vocht
Full Text Available The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use all varying types of tools and services. We explain a flexible model that uses state-of-the-art semantic technologies to model both structured and unstructured research data. The research data is extracted from many online resources and Social Media. We implement learning objects as an abstraction of the semantically modeled research data. We propose an environment that improves the scientific research and learning process by allowing researchers to efficiently browse the information and concepts represented as learning objects.
Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele
A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that
Kirkland, Nancy C.
A practicum was developed to restructure 11th and 12th grade research modules, using a team planning approach to design and implement a sequential, developmental research program that would be relevant to the personal and academic goals of the students and produce high quality research products. This approach embedded the process of inquiry intoâ¦
Burian, Philip E.; Rogerson, Lynda; Maffei, Francis R., III.
Performing research can be an overwhelming and challenging endeavor. It's easy to get confused just from collecting, reading and deciphering textbooks and journal articles. Getting organized and mapping out the entire process would be extremely helpful and more importantly provide a path for accomplishing the research project. This paper will
Sakao, Tomohiko; SandstrÃ¶m, Gunilla Ãlundh; Matzen, Detlef
literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and...
Thaler, Valerie S.
In this article, the author offers a summary of the major research assignment she has developed for HIST 100, as well as the successes and struggles she has had along the way. The project requires students to experience research as a difficult process that demands their patience, perseverance, and assiduousness. Group work in class clearly plays
Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.
A three-round Delphi technique elicited responses from 18 vocational special needs personnel regarding research needs and priorities for the next 10 years. A high degree of consensus was achieved on 57 percent of 91 research statements. Critical issues identified were transition and at-risk students. (SK)
Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi
This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...
McWhirter, Rebekah E; Mununggirritj, Djapirri; Marika, Dipililnga; Dickinson, Joanne L; Condon, John R
Indigenous populations, in common with all populations, stand to benefit from the potential of genetic research to lead to improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic tools for a wide range of complex diseases. However, many Indigenous communities, especially ones that are isolated, are not included in genetic research efforts. This situation is largely a consequence of the challenges of ethically conducting genetic research in Indigenous communities and compounded by Indigenous peoples' negative past experiences with genetic issues. To examine ways of addressing these challenges, we review one investigation of a cancer cluster in remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Our experiences demonstrate that genetic research can be both ethically and successfully conducted with Indigenous communities by respecting the authority of the community, involving community members, and including regular community review throughout the research process. PMID:23007173
Minkler, Meredith; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Warner, Joanne Rains; Steussey, Helen; Facente, Shelley
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used in both developed and developing countries to study and address community-identified issues through a collaborative and empowering action-oriented process. In 2003-2005, a study was undertaken to document the impacts of CBPR on healthy public policy in the US. From an initial review of 80 partnership efforts, 10 were selected as best capturing the range and diversity of projects meeting the study criteria, and were the subject of in-depth case study analysis. This article presents and analyzes one of these cases, a collaboration between researchers at the Indiana University School of Nursing and the Healthy Cities Committee of New Castle, IN, USA. With its action component still underway a decade after the formal study's completion, the partnership was selected to enable an examination of sustainable change through CBPR. Beginning with a participatory door-to-door health survey of 1000 households using a non-probability quota sampling strategy, the project involved community members in many stages of the research process. A smoking rate of twice the national average was among the study findings that helped to galvanize the community into action. A variety of health promoting environmental and 'small p policy' changes were undertaken ranging from a bill restricting indoor smoking in public places to an initiative to develop a system of trails throughout the county to promote physical fitness and decreased reliance on automobiles. This article examines the evolution of the original CBPR partnership, its research methods and findings, and the environmental changes it sought to promote healthier lifestyles. Success factors, barriers and sustainability benchmarks are discussed. The case study offers an example of the potential of CBPR for helping to lay the groundwork for long-term sustainable change in support of healthier communities. PMID:16873393
Sami F Shaban
Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA DSouza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teachinglearning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a student-focused teachinglearning and research culture. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers.Keywords: physician, clinical research, clinical trial, medical education
Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainabilitystem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for ...
Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a "total worker safety" matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424
Full Text Available This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.
Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam; Gastl, Angela; Gruttenmeier, Herbert; Heijne, Maria; Heller, Alfred; Piquet, Arlette; Rombouts, Jeroen; Sandfær, Mogens; Sens, Irena
The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature......, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is...... scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited...
Leitner, Michael; Cockton, Gilbert; Yee, Joyce; Greenough, Thomas
Mobile user experience (UX) research can benefit from unexplored opportunities from theory and practice. Contemporary sociology has developed sophisticated understandings of mobilities that can expand the scope of mobile HCI research. At the same time, we need to extend the scope of mobile experience beyond its current main foci on the portable device and moments of experience. We report the interim results of exploratory pilot studies of a fabric based probe that has been developed to extend...
Kruger, Jenni; Fourie, Ina; Dick, Archie L.
Public dialogue can widen the knowledge base for decision making to make public policy and programmes more effective and accountable, in line with citizens priorities. Audience research can enhance the relevance of a communication strategy to its objectives and to participants needs and communication preferences. Audience research designs based on diffusion models of communication are, however, inadequate for the participatory objectives of public dialogue. This article, base...
Van Eeden, Elize S
Although it is true that each local area or region possesses its own historiography and for that matter its own environmental historiography there should not be much difference in the research methodology, sources and pitfalls or drawbacks of doing environmental history research in labelled environmental crisis areas. This article presents a concise historiography on dealing with environmental crisis in literature is provided. This is followed by a proposed transdisciplinar...
Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.
Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented r...
Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam
The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions. Global collaboration and scientific advances could be accelerated through broader access to scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. In this white paper we discuss the possibilities to open this registration to a global consortium of information institutes and libraries.
Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena
Ambiguity surrounding the effect of external engagement on academic research has raised questions about what motivates researchers to collaborate with third parties. We argue that what matters for society is research that can be absorbed by users. We define "openness" as a willingness by researchers to make research more usable by
Murdock, Nancy L.; Duan, Changming; Nilsson, Johanna E.
This article provides an overview of the major contribution that presents three emerging approaches to counseling: narrative therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy. The three theoretical systems were chosen because they are current, for the most part not addressed in the mainstream counseling psychology
Ksenija Dumi?i?; Lidija Zadnik Stirn; Janez erovnik
This Special Issues of the Business Systems Research Journal (SI of BSR), co-published by the Slovenian Society INFORMATIKA Section of Operations Research (SSI-SOR), is focused on approaches which explore novel solutions or novel approaches in operations research, specifically in the area of business and economic systems. Operations research covers a rather broad area of theory and applications and is viewed as the use of quantitative, quantitative and analytical methods to support decision...
Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.
O'Shea, Rory P
For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.
The question of active involvement of nuclear regulatory and supervisory bodies in research and development (R and D) projects has become a topic of increasing interest in recent years. The way in which research is included in regulatory activities varies from country to country, ranging from countries with no regulatory R and D activities to countries with extensive activities which are often carried out by independent research organisations acting on behalf of the regulatory body. The present report outlines (part 1) the potential merits of R and D work carried out by the regulator, and summarizes (part 2) the results of a questionnaire that was circulated among the members of the Regulators' Forum of NEA's Radioactive Waste Management Committee in 2009. Part 3 presents the conclusions of discussions within the RWMC-RF. The detailed answers to the questionnaire are also provided
Ro?. 46, ?. 6 (2010), s. 1011-1033. ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA Mk LA09010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : survey research methods * survey accuracy * total survey error Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2010 http://sreview.soc.cas.cz/uploads/59721bea5c0b259680447db14fee230ccf19f1ce_KREJCI%20SC2010-6-2.pdf
This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be used based on the profile of a participant in the study Aging with Cerebral Palsy. The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and d...
SØrensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina
In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey and compare them based on several criteria, such as coefficients, parsimony, model fit, plausibility, and consistency with the theory. A comparison of the estimates obtained from the two models clearly indicates that it is not at all a trivial matter whether cross-loadings are allowed in a measurement model or not. These results shed serious doubt on the generally accepted rule of thumb according to which (cross) loadings can safely be ignored if they do not have a practically significant loading with an absolute value of at least 0.30 or 0.40.
The big data paradigm has gained a lot of attention recently, in particular in those areas of biomedicine where we face clear unmet medical needs. Coined as a new paradigm for complex problem solving, big data approaches seem to open promising perspectives in particular for a better understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimers disease and other dementias. In this commentary, we will provide a brief overview on big data principles and the potential they may bring to dementia researc...
Kevin Hamilton; Karrie Karahalios; Christian Sandvig; Cedric Langbort
Design for civic participation in the smart city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary algorithmic city using Kevin Lynchs prescriptions for livable urban desi...
Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel
The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of
Fathi, Asghar; Watson, Walter B.
The authors discuss the difficulties in adapting American methods of field work to the cultural conditions in pre-industrial societies, in this case a pilot study on family planning in a Middle Eastern Moslem country. It is demonstrated that if the researcher is native and has kinship ties in a traditional community, he can use these assets: (1)
Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth
In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this
Nurgaleeva L. V.
Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.
Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in todayâs academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.
Bleicher, Robert E.
The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)
Di Bitonto, Pierpaolo; Roselli, Teresa; Rossano, Veronica; Sinatra, Maria
One of the most closely investigated topics in e-learning research has always been the effectiveness of adaptive learning environments. The technological evolutions that have dramatically changed the educational world in the last six decades have allowed ever more advanced and smarter solutions to be proposed. The focus of this paper is to depict
Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifying behaviours such as civil administration, public establishments etc. In health sector social marketing has not found appropriate application whereas it could be utilized in an effective way for creating awareness, formulating health related policies, their implementation and for preventing a variety of illnesses/abnormal behaviours etc. With this background knowledge about social marketing, the author hypothesized that abnormal behaviours could be modified, health education packages could be developed to make more acceptable and effective and desired behaviours could be induced if perceptions and expectations of the community (consumers) are known a prioriori and their expectations are incorporated in programmes and policies. Thus, the author utilizing the concepts of social marketing for understanding community?s perceptions and expectations regarding issues of health, and for incorporating the same in health related programmes and policies, introduced this research concept in medical field in this country. The important findings of three research projects based on the concepts of social marketing research and their implications have been discussed. PMID:21494494
Although research in the field of language teaching and learning has appeared to enhance classroom pedagogy, I argue here that these advances have had a relatively small impact on actual foreign language learning. Unlike in most school subjects, the recipients of language pedagogy, i.e. the students, arrive in the classroom with several
Himmel, W; Hummers-Pradier, E; Kochen, M M
Competence networks in medicine, involving departments of general practice (www.kompetenznetze-medizin.de), as well as a large research support program "General Practice" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (www.gesundheitsforschung-bmbf.de/de/439.php) mirror the increasing importance of academic general practice for health services research. The use and benefit of computerized medical records is exemplified by the classification of therapeutic measures and prevalence estimates of diseases. Computerized medical records from 134 practices could be extracted via the BDT (BehandlungsDatenTräger) interface. Using SQL (structured query language) queries, we identified patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), airway obstruction and chronic heart failure and the therapeutic management for these illnesses. Age and sex of the patients were nearly completely documented in the BDT data. Patients with UTI (6,239 consultations) received most often cotrimoxazole (69%) and fluoroquinolone (15%), less often trimethoprim (9%) and herbal UTI drugs (4%). About half of the 2,714 patients with asthma received inhaled steroids, to a somewhat lesser degree than patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (50 vs 53%). In a subsample of practices (n=44), we identified 4,120 patients with a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. Using refined analysis tools, computerized medical records from general practices may be helpful to answer relevant questions of health services research and contribute to quality assurance in ambulatory patient care. PMID:16429308
Low, Sarah A.
In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.
Klin, Ami; Pauls, David; Schultz, Robert; Volkmar, Fred
Objective: To examine the implications for research of the use of three alternative definitions for Asperger syndrome (AS). Differences across the three nosologic systems were examined in terms of diagnostic assignment, IQ profiles, comorbid symptoms, and familial aggregation of social and other psychiatric symptoms. Method: Standard data onâ¦
I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been
Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Thomsen, Christa
To judge from the rapidly growing body of research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and marketing communication, there is an increasing interest in exploring the role of communication along with the transmission from implicit towards explicit CSR in the European context (Matten & Moon 2008). Many corporations today are concerned with gaining legitimacy through integrating the expectations of their stakeholders (employees, customers, NGOs, activists, government institutions, institutions of international governance) in the overall company strategy. This also includes stakeholders in or around business units established in developing countries and emerging markets (e.g. Jamali 2010; Reimann 2012). Along with the growing pressure on corporations to engage in CSR a seemingly growing number of these are concerned with disclosure, reporting, reputation, etc. issues, and act on them through different CSR communication initiatives, channels and technology, e.g. mass media and social media. However, in spite of the growing attention on adopting CSR communication strategies and tactics, there does not seem to be a common understanding and consensus of how and to which extent CSR communication may contribute to influence stakeholders perception of corporations CSR performance. At best, some studies hold that there is a general recognition of CSR communication as a potential reputation enhancer, but also that if addressed inappropriately, CSR communication cause more damage than glory to a company. Other studies focus on CSR communication as inevitable hypocrisy (Christensen et al. 2011) and as an embedded promotional dilemma emerging when stakeholders claim CSR information, while rejecting companies who practice it as overly self-promotion (Coombs & Holladay 2012). Consequently, CSR management and marketing communication research contains understandings that point in different directions, calling for more substantial explorations of the underlying discourse arsenal that CSR researchers and practitioners draw on. Institutional theory is one way of investigating how companies deal with social change processes such as the insisting concern with CSR communication. According to institutionalists, corporations are social institutions that require institutional legitimacy in order to survive. Within an institutional framework, organizational change is addressed as a product of institutions pressure on companies to adopt similar practices in a given societal context (DiMaggio & Powel 1983). Considering CSR communication under the lens of insitutional theory opens for understanding the diversity and dynamics of CSR (Brammer et al. 2012).Moreover, the institutionalizing processes of CSR and related concepts enables us to explore emerging discourses, institutionalized through research and best practices of CSR. Accordingly, we address how the emergence of discourse from CSR as accountancy and transparency invites and legitimizes a new social order in which CSR is addressed as a forum for mutual understanding, recognition, negotiation and co-creation amongst stakeholders. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the discourse construction of CSR communication on the basis of how researchers frame corporations CSR doings and saying within marketing and management streams of CSR research. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze how the role of communication and interaction is conceptualized in specific social contexts such as managing and marketing corporations through CSR. Many researchers argue that CSR communication is likely to increase stakeholder engagement, corporate reputation and value creation (e.g. Porter & Kramer 2006; Du et al. 2010). By looking at the rapidly growing body of research in the field of CSR management and marketing communication, the paper focuses on the positions, arguments, con?icts and actors of CSR communication across specific CSR topics and initiatives e.g. disclosure, reporting, reputation, message, channel, etc. This research is evaluated from an o
Guest Editorial. Acknowledgements. There is more to discourse than meets the ears: Looking at thinking as communicating to learn more about mathematical learning; A. Sfard. Educational forms of initiation in mathematical culture; B. van Oers. Cultural, discursive psychology: A socio-cultural approach to studying the teaching and learning of mathematics; S. Lerman. The multiple voices of a mathematics classroom community; E. Forman, E. Ansell. 'Can any fraction be turned into a decimal?' A case study of a mathematical group discussion; M.C. O'Connor. The mathematical discourse of 13-ye
In this article, we will provide a description of metabolomics in comparison with other, better known omics disciplines such as genomics and proteomics. In addition, we will review the current rationale for the implementation of metabolomics in cardiology, its basic methodology and the available data from human studies in this discipline. The topics covered will delineate the importance of being able to use the metabolomic information to understand the mechanisms of diseases from the perspective of systems biology, and as a non-invasive approach to the diagnosis, grading and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.
Full Text Available Despite identifying that rheumatic fever (RF is the result of an immunological reaction following group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, the pathogenesis remains elusive. RF has been incorrectly designated as causing pancarditis, since it does not cause myocarditis. Research directed toward myocarditis, targeting myosin to unravel the pathogenesis has not succeeded in more than 60 years. RF causes permanent damage to cardiac valves. The mitral valve (MV, derived from the wall of the left ventricle, is composed of a central core of connective tissue, covered on both sides by endothelium. The left ventricle does not have either myocardial or intermyocardial connective tissue involvement in RF. By exclusion, therefore, the primary site of RF damage appears to be the endothelium. Evaluation of the histopathology and immunopathology indicates that RF is a disease of the valvular and vascular endothelium. It is not a connective tissue disorder. Research to identify pathogenesis needs to be focused toward valvular endothelium.
Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participantsâ community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonakaâs model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.
Dunn, Stuart; Gold, Nicolas; Hughes, Lorna
Archaeological data is available in greater complexity and volume than ever before, which presents significant challenges and opportunities. In this position paper, we describe how a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) could be deployed not only to bring federated resources together with a unified searching capability, but also how those capabilities could themselves be used to create a bottom up domain ontology for the resources subject area or areas. By linking with Virtual Research Envi...
Ju-Ling Shih; Jussi Nuutinen; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Nian-Shing Chen
Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS). This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS) to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used t...
Collaboration and cooperation in the virtual surround is one of the key elements in international cooperation research. This paper is about understanding functions of the virtual tools with the help of the Participation Theory of Communication (PTC). Various forms of the phenomena described as communication can all be characterized as being rooted in the need of the agents to recognize and/or to solve problems. Communication is a way of understanding the agent's behaviour as the potential abi...
To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy effectiveness and in expanding the mar...
Darío Bergel, Salvador
This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205
Tiwari, S. C.
Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...
Liburd, Janne J.; Hjalager, Anne-Mette
support the above-mentioned assumption. Accordingly, the puposes of this article are to, first, discuss the challenges in tourism education and address in brief the declining role of universities as learning monopolies and their emerging role as knowledge mediators. Second, to present open innovation...... paradigms and address issues of knowledge accumulation and dissemination in tourism and the new role of the university. Third, INNOTOUR, an experimental Web 2.0 innovation hub for tourism, is presented. Preliminary learning experiences using the INNOTOUR platform as an advanced tool for collaborative, open...... source education in tourism are outlined. Finally, we point out collaboraborative challenges for international tourism research and teaching....
In view of recent debates on the global spread of English and its international lingua franca role, what pronunciation models are appropriate for millions of EFL learners? Which aspects of English phonetics should be taught to foreign students and which can be neglected with little loss to successful communication? How can English pronunciation be taught in an interesting and effective way which is both learner- and teacher-friendly, in accordance with the latest scholarly and technological achievements? This research-based book addresses these and many other fundamental issues that are curren
Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, A.; Jayasena, S.; Sparf, J.; Mendez, J. M.
-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than...... highlight the role played in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible...
Happiness research is advancing as an academic discipline as well as on the political agenda. An aspect, largely ignored in the field, is what impact an individualâs construction of the good life has on his or her subjective well-being. The purpose of this paper was to investigate how people in different situations in life and with different backgrounds construct the idea of a good life and the importance these constructions may have in explaining subjective well-being. Despite the difference...
In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from the...... studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying these...
Full Text Available The concept of E-learning is very broad. It was coined in late 90s as the technological enhanced learning mechanism through Internet. Now it captures a broad range of electronic media like Internet, Intranets, Extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV and CD-ROM to make the learning procedure more flexible and user friendly. Because of the flexible nature of E-learning, it has got more demand among the people of our country and the demand is increasing day by day. As the demand is increasing, this is the time to standardize the whole e-learning system in a proper way and the time to increase the quality of existing standards. Though many standards are already there and has accepted by many academia, institutes and organisations, still there are some gaps and works are going on to make them more practicable and more systematic.This paper analyses the current e-learning procedure and showing the new dimension of research work on this area that follows the important and most neglected research areas till today in this domain. It also analyses the importance of e-education system and recent market of e-learning procedure.
As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)
Richard Edwards; Tara Fenwick
Sociomaterial approaches to researching education, such as those generated by actornetwork theory and complexity theory, have been growing in significance in recent years, both theoretically and methodologically. Such approaches are based upon a performative ontology rather than the more characteristic representational epistemology that informs much research. In this article, we outline certain aspects of sociomaterial sensibilities in researching education, and some of the uptakes on issues ...
Cooke, Barbara J.
"Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences." Stephen Gorard. SAGE Publications. February 2013. --- Research design is of critical importance in social research, despite its relative neglect in many methods resources. This book discusses the nature of design, offers a flexible approach to new designs, and looks at a range of standard design models. Stephen Gorards book is illustrated with case studies of real work and concludes with suggested readings and topics for ...
Full Text Available Meta-analysis is an objective, systematic review that employs statistical methods to combine and summarize the results of several studies. It is a quantitative synthesis of all the unbiased evidence, meant for summarizing large volume of data, establishing and determining the magnitude of an effect, and to increase power and precision of studies. The steps to performing a meta-analysis include making a hypothesis and defining the domain of research, defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, literature search, selecting the final set of studies, extracting data on variables of interest, coding procedures, calculating effect sizes and interpretations, selecting potential moderators and examine their relationships, report writing, and critical evaluation. Meta-analysis has several strengths as well as weaknesses.
Jain, Vivek; Sharma, Rinku; Singh, Saudan
Meta-analysis is an objective, systematic review that employs statistical methods to combine and summarize the results of several studies. It is a quantitative synthesis of all the unbiased evidence, meant for summarizing large volume of data, establishing and determining the magnitude of an effect, and to increase power and precision of studies. The steps to performing a meta-analysis include making a hypothesis and defining the domain of research, defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, literature search, selecting the final set of studies, extracting data on variables of interest, coding procedures, calculating effect sizes and interpretations, selecting potential moderators and examine their relationships, report writing, and critical evaluation. Meta-analysis has several strengths as well as weaknesses. PMID:22565423
Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo
Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system. PMID:25991244
Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.
Carrazza, Stefano; Salini, Silvia
When a research infrastructure is funded and implemented, new information and new publications are created. This new information is the measurable output of discovery process. In this paper, we describe the impact of infrastructure for physics experiments in terms of publications and citations. In particular, we consider the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb) and compare them to the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) experiments (ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, OPAL) and the Tevatron experiments (CDF, D0). We provide an overview of the scientific output of these projects over time and highlight the role played by remarkable project results in the publication-citation distribution trends. The methodological and technical contribution of this work provides a starting point for the development of a theoretical model of modern scientific knowledge propagation over time.
Albright, Kendra; Petrulis, Robert; Vasconcelos, Ana; Wood, Jamie
This paper presents the results of a project that aimed at restructuring the delivery of research methods training at the Information School at the University of Sheffield, UK, based on an Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) approach. The purpose of this research was to implement inquiry-based learning that would allow customization of research methods
Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven
For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find
Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.
Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Research
Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa
This paper is based on the results of a survey on Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well, allow for three main considerations: i) projects involved 5 different disciplines as average and geography and sociology were present in the majority of the projects; ii) the level of interconnection between disciplines seems intermediate, meaning that information and methods are exchanged, but a full integration of methods and concepts into a common shared language and system of axioms is missing; iii) the lack of a common framework and common terminology represents a major barrier to good interdisciplinary work. The results highlight the role played in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers to interdisciplinary work and improve the efficacy and quality of resilience design.
Hinman, R.; Thrall, B.; Wong, K,
A cDNA microarray allows biologists to examine the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Researchers may analyze the complete transcriptional program of an organism in response to specific physiological or developmental conditions. By design, a cDNA microarray is an experiment with many variables and few controls. One question that inevitably arises when working with a cDNA microarray is data reproducibility. How easy is it to confirm mRNA expression patterns? In this paper, a case study involving the treatment of a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was used to obtain a rough estimate of data reproducibility. Two trials were examined and a list of genes displaying either a > 2-fold or > 4-fold increase in gene expression was compiled. Variations in signal mean ratios between the two slides were observed. We can assume that erring in reproducibility may be compensated by greater inductive levels of similar genes. Steps taken to obtain results included serum starvation of cells before treatment, tests of mRNA for quality/consistency, and data normalization.
Swiatek, Peter R; Chung, Kevin C; Mahmoudi, Elham
Following a practical project management method is essential in completing a research project on time and within budget. Although this concept is well developed in the business world, it has yet to be explored in academic surgical research. Defining and adhering to a suitable workflow would increase portability, reusability, and therefore efficiency of the research process. In this article, the authors briefly review project management techniques. The authors specifically underline four main steps of project management-definition and organization, planning, execution, and evaluation-using practical examples from their own multidisciplinary plastic surgery research team. PMID:26710037
On the basis of the exploration of different models of nuclear engineering project management containing the different construction patterns of split package approach and multiple package approach in China, aiming at the construction patterns, this paper introduces a kind of typical construction of project management model by analyzing the relationship of commission and agency between the proprietor of the nuclear plants and the specialized nuclear engineering company. According to the specific characteristics of nuclear engineering, this paper designs the organization system of project management and illustrates the various responsibilities of the proprietors, nuclear engineering companies and other major partners. (authors)
Full Text Available This article describes the background work undertaken by Oxford Brookes University in assessing how best to position institutional support for Research Data Management. It further discusses the development of our Universityâs research data management policy and its collaborative approach to data management support. Finally, it reflects on the challenges of overseeing policy implementation and providing the required enactment infrastructure. The approach that we take is one that will hopefully be of interest to those institutions who are developing their research base and seeking to offer better data management support to researchers in a time of reduced or declining resource. Overall, we feel that the strategic and institution-wide approach that we have taken has worked well, and may be suited to institutions like ours that are less research-intensive. Finally, we feel that our approach is one that can readily be copied.
Dudley-Marling, Curt; Gurn, Alex
Intervention research in special education tends to rely on comparisons of mean differences to determine instructional strategies that "work" for students with disabilities. This reliance on mean differences obscures individual variation that is always present in educational research. This paper examines the degree to which individual variation is
Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J.; Susan D. Newman; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra
This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campuscommunity training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institutions Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-...
Miller, Pamela K.; Viola Waghiyi; Gretchen Welfinger-Smith; Samuel Carter Byrne; Jane Kava; Jesse Gologergen; Lorraine Eckstein; Ronald Scrudato; Jeff Chiarenzelli; CARPENTER, David O.; Samarys Seguinot-Medina
Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 20002012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (bd) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site...
Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book The Discovery of Grounded Theory (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.
Megan Marie Stronach; Daryl Adair
Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT) experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople...
of research have also been studied by various authors (e.g. Kiley and Mullins 2005), leading to discipline-neutral conceptual frameworks. Supervisors can use these frameworks in their communication about research with students as a common conceptual language to avoid miscommunication. To my knowledge...... 2006). This approach enables a deeper understanding of the actual practices within a discipline. In this pilot study for my doctoral research into doctoral supervision in life sciences I will use the above approach to study supervisors' conceptions of research to see how these relate to their......Supervisors' approaches to supervision have been researched from different perspectives by various researchers, leading to various conceptual frameworks of supervision. These frameworks enable supervisors to reflect on their own practice (e.g. Lee 2008; Wright et al. 2007). Supervisors' conceptions...
Many academics have attempted to resolve the demarcation problem through boundary work. Due to this problem, it is difficult to distinguish between Science and Non-Science. Even some reasoned Science, such as Psychology, are accused of being unscientific. This investigation looks at how the designated Pseudoscience of Psychical research constructs its research as scientific when widely believed to investigate non-science. By analysing this construction through discourse analysis, a better u...
Brenninkmeijer, V; VanYperen, N
When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is sometimes convenient to regard burnout as a unidimensional construct. This article deals with the question of whether and when it may be appropriate to treat burnout as a unidimensional variable, and pres...
Alistair Fitt; Rowena Rouse; Sarah Taylor
This article describes the background work undertaken by Oxford Brookes University in assessing how best to position institutional support for Research Data Management. It further discusses the development of our Universityâs research data management policy and its collaborative approach to data management support. Finally, it reflects on the challenges of overseeing policy implementation and providing the required enactment infrastructure. The approach that we take is one that will hopefully...
Waszak, Martin R.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.
Multidisciplinary analysis and design is inherently a team activity due to the variety of required expertise and knowledge. As a team activity, multidisciplinary research cannot escape the issues that affect all teams. The level of technical diversity required to perform multidisciplinary analysis and design makes the teaming aspects even more important. A study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a model of multidiscipline teams that can be used to help understand their dynamics and identify key factors that influence their effectiveness. The study sought to apply the elements of systems thinking to better understand the factors, both generic and Langley-specific, that influence the effectiveness of multidiscipline teams. The model of multidiscipline research teams developed during this study has been valuable in identifying means to enhance team effectiveness, recognize and avoid problem behaviors, and provide guidance for forming and coordinating multidiscipline teams.
The epidemiology program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses a tiered approach to research. As research progresses from lower through higher tiers, there is a corresponding increase in study complexity, cost, and time commitment. The approach provides a useful strategy for directing research efforts towards those employee subgroups and health endpoints that can benefit most from more in-depth studies. A variety of potential exposures, health endpoints, and employee subgroups have been and continued to be studied by research groups such as Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Centers for Disease Control, SRP's Occupational Health Technology, and the Du Pont Company's corporate Epidemiology Section. These studies are discussed in the context of a tiered approach to research
Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J; Law, G. Lynn; McDermott, Jason G.; Proll, Sean C.; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; KATZE, MICHAEL G.
The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the pastincluding the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biologyhave not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twen...
The purpose of this article is to describe the basic paradigm of the epistemological belief system and to offer new ideas about the conception and study of personal epistemology, namely an embedded systemic model and coordinated teams approach to research. The epistemological belief system approach to personal epistemology is distinguished from
The mixed methods approach has emerged as a "third paradigm" for social research. It has developed a platform of ideas and practices that are credible and distinctive and that mark the approach out as a viable alternative to quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However, there are also a number of variations and inconsistencies within the mixed
This chapter discusses the utility of person-centered approaches to critical quantitative researchers. These techniques, which identify groups of individuals who share similar attributes, experiences, or outcomes, are contrasted with more commonly used variable-centered approaches. An illustrative example of a latent class analysis of the college
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181
Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A
Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936
Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.
Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Researchâ¦
Philbin, Simon P.
A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the
With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A
Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,
Momcheva-Gardeva, G. D.
The article explains some practices of Project-Based Approaches and Research used in Computer Science Department in Varna Free University "Chernorizets Hrabar". The main emphasis is to build up an environment where, once developed, good practices can survive and develop and give students the possibility to choose in what community, project, and research to be involved.
One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods
This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis
Gannon, Theresa A.
This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review
Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; DELVA, Jorge
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service users environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding ne...
Full Text Available Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.
Highlights: An improved assembly homogenization approach is developed for plate-type research reactor. The approach includes direct assembly calculation and SPH equivalence method. The assembly environmental effect is considered with multi-assembly calculations and assembly classification. The control rod worth can be calculated accurately by the improved approach. - Abstract: We have developed an improved assembly homogenization approach for plate-type research reactor. Compared with the conventional cell and assembly homogenization way, three advanced homogenization methods are used in our improved approach, including the direct single and multi-assembly calculations, treatment of the assembly environmental effect by multi-assembly calculations and assembly classification, and the superhomogenization (SPH) method. The approach is carried out with DRAGON v4 code. The neutronic analysis for fresh fueled core of JRR-3M with UAlxAl dispersion type fuel is carried out by diffusion code CITATION with 3-group homogenized cross sections which are generated by the improved approach. Results by Monte Carlo code are taken as references, and results by the conventional three-step method are given for comparison purposes. The calculation results show that the improved assembly homogenization approach is effective to improve the accuracy of keff eigenvalue, control rod worth and neutron flux distributions for whole core calculations. Especially, the control rod worth can be calculated accurately by the improved approach
Megan Marie Stronach
Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeoplea rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.
Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Li, Vincy; Daley, Michelle; Zask, Avigdor; Lloyd, Beverly
We examine the perspectives of health promotion practitioners on their approaches to determining health promotion practice, in particular on the role of research and relationships in this process. Using Grounded Theory methods, we analysed 58 semi-structured interviews with 54 health promotion practitioners in New South Wales, Australia. Practitioners differentiated between relationship-based and research-based approaches as two sources of knowledge to guide health promotion practice. We identify several tensions in seeking to combine these approaches in practice and describe the strategies that participants adopted to manage these tensions. The strategies included working in an evidence-informed rather than evidence-based way, creating new evidence about relationship-based processes and outcomes, adopting 'relationship-based' research and evaluation methods, making research and evaluation useful for communities, building research and evaluation skills and improving collaboration between research and evaluation and programme implementation staff. We conclude by highlighting three systemic factors which could further support the integration of research-based and relationship-based health promotion practices: (i) expanding conceptions of health promotion evidence, (ii) developing 'relationship-based' research methods that enable practitioners to measure complex social processes and outcomes and to facilitate community participation and benefit, and (iii) developing organizational capacity. PMID:24800758
Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini
Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.
Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.
At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and mentor students in research-based courses, 4) multiple levels of research questions in a course, some to be answered by group data and some by class data, 5) intentional explicit development of and support for research skills appropriate for the research question and student level, 6) written and oral presentation of research, 7) willingness of participating faculty to redesign their course structure to meet learning goals so that at least 1/3 of the course time (noncontiguous) is dedicated to the research project versus traditional formats, and 8) a faculty involvement model whereby leading research-based courses also contributes to their research agenda and regional service expectations. We think this model works and is sustainable at Western Carolina University, and is readily transferable to other disciplines and universities.
Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha
Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate...
Despite one-third of the world lacking access to essential medicines, a dearth of pharmaceutical policy research in developing countries has resulted in policy decisions based upon opinion and conventional wisdom rather than evidence. While historical approaches to improve access to medicines focused on public sector interventions, organizations now recognize the role of the private sector, adopting market-based approaches to improve access to medicines. The main goal of this thesis is to fur...
Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen
In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are included from recent research and development programs for both subsonic and supersonic transports.
Racedo Africano, Carlos J; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Smischney, Nathan J
In this paper we present the viewpoints of three members of a research team, on the approach to teamwork in the development of an emergent use clinical trial when dealing with diversity of opinions, in order to facilitate stakeholder buy-in. We also discuss a specific approach to the coordination of the team members, which in our opinion had a positive impact on the implementation of the project. We also comment on the influence of the team organization in the timeline and completion of a clinical trial. We hope to start a conversation on team dynamics in the design of clinical trials, especially in the context of emergent use research. PMID:26386913
Full Text Available Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both contrasts with and is complementary to that of research managers, who must build capacity "from the ground up" in a variety of health service settings within countries and with differing mandates, resources, and constraints. In health organizations the concept of research is broad, and practices vary widely. However, building research capacity is not altogether different from building other kinds of organizational capacity, and it involves two major dimensions: strategic and operational. In organizations in the health field, if reference to research is not in the mission statement, then developing a relevant research capacity is made vastly more difficult. Research capacities that take years to develop can be easily damaged through inadequate support, poor management, or other negative influences associated with both internal and external environments. This paper draws from key international research policy documents and observations on the behavior of research and donor agencies in relation to developing countries. It examines capacity-building primarily as a challenge for research managers, realities underlying operational effectiveness and efficiency, approaches to resource mobilization, and the need for marketing the research enterprise. Selected examples from South Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are presented.
Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu
Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044
Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha
Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087
Corneli, Amy L; Bentley, Margaret E.; Sorenson, James R.; Henderson, Gail E; van der Horst, Charles; Moses, Agnes; Nkhoma, Jacqueline; TENTHANI, Lyson; Ahmed, Yusuf; Heilig, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J.
Participant understanding is of particular concern when obtaining informed consent. Recommendations for improving understanding include disclosing information using culturally appropriate and innovative approaches. To increase the effectiveness of the consent process for a clinical trial in Malawi on interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV during breastfeeding, formative research was conducted to explore the communitys understanding of medical research as well as how to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.
Joiner, Keith A
Academic institutions must have strategies for evaluating research productivity by faculty. Such strategies are useful in guiding resource allocations for the research enterprise, for decisions on faculty promotions, and for broader institutional planning, including program development. Commonly, decisions about research space utilization, and funding to support the space, are considered within the purview of the institutional administration. Peer review, in manuscript and grant submissions and the promotions process, is more commonly used to evaluate the impact of faculty research. The article by Iyengar et al in this issue of Academic Medicine takes an interesting approach to evaluate research productivity of individual faculty by integrating benchmarks for research funding and publication impact. The strategy of using these benchmarks to partition faculty into quadrants to guide faculty development activities is clever and useful. Less clear are the philosophy and long-term utility of the approach. The applicability to the stated goal of promoting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary translational research is not obvious, nor is it apparent that faculty will continue to view decisions as transparent and fair over the longer term. Nevertheless, the authors' article is a welcome contribution at a time when many institutions are struggling with issues of evaluating faculty investigators and allocating resources for research. PMID:19858795
Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter
This article reports on an exploratory project that employed an action research approach to integrating sustainability into core subjects in the MBA program at an Australian university. It documents the change methodology used, the theoretical basis for this choice, and the project outcomes. It then identifies some key enabling factors and
Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,
Action research and activity theory are considered by a number of followers as socio-critical approaches, whereas others do not relate them to social-criticism and use them merely as methods to improve practice. This article searches for general insights in Kurt Lewin's and Lev S. Vygotsky's work into how one proceeds and acts critically. In their
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been
Wong, Arch Chee Keen
The article reports the final results of a collaborative action research project that devised a reflective approach to theological education. This project lives within the tension between prescribing and implementing a model of theological education and working at the level of applied understanding. Living within this tension are six professors in
Chou, Wen Huei; Wong, Ju-Joan
As the new generation of designers face more complex design issues, the forms of design research start to shift towards a user-centred approach to problem-solving. The cooperation and communication among various fields and specialisations are becoming more complex; in many practical design cases, in particular, technology developers face
Creswell, John W.
This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and
Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua
There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but
Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Lin, Weijane; Sheen, Horn-Jiunn
This paper first reviews applications of multimedia in engineering education, especially in laboratory learning. It then illustrates a model and accreditation criteria adopted for developing a specific set of nanotechnology laboratory courseware and reports the design-based research approach used in designing and developing the e-learning
Schofield, T; Connell, R W; Walker, L; Wood, J F; Butland, D L
Men's health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men's health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men's health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men's and women's interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments. PMID:10863868
Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation
In the methodological discussion of recent years it has become apparent that many research problems, including problems relating to the theory of educational science, cannot be solved by using quantitative methods. The multifaceted aspects of human behaviour and all its environment-bound subtle nuances, especially the process of education or the development of identity, cannot fully be taken into account within a rigid neopositivist approach. In employing the paradigm of symbolic interactionism as a suitable model for the analysis of processes of education and formation, the research has generally to start out from complex reciprocal social interactions instead of unambigious connections of causes. In analysing several particular methodological problems, the article demonstrates some weaknesses of quantitative approaches and then shows the advantages in and the necessity for using qualitative research tools.
Full Text Available This research reviews the approaches employed in banking empirical studies that use the resource-based view as a core theoretical anchor to relate bank resources to performance outcomes. The review dwelt on measurement issues and strategies for controlling confounding factors. Six approaches of measuring bank resources are identified as: indirect assessment through the use of observable attributes, direct assessment through output counts, direct assessment by top managers, direct assessment by customers, direct assessment by experts and indirect assessment through inductive case studies. Three approaches to measuring bank performance are identified as: the use of only financial measures, the use of only nonfinancial measures and the use of a mix of financial and nonfinancial measures. Overall, approaches that relate bank resources, strategy and performance have great potential to advance the resource-based view theory from being a mere theoretical framework to being a practical framework for practicing managers in banking firms.
Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J
For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686
Racedo Africano, Carlos J.; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Smischney, Nathan J
In this paper we present the viewpoints of three members of a research team, on the approach to teamwork in the development of an emergent use clinical trial when dealing with diversity of opinions, in order to facilitate stakeholder buy-in. We also discuss a specific approach to the coordination of the team members, which in our opinion had a positive impact on the implementation of the project. We also comment on the influence of the team organization in the timeline and completion of a cli...
Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina
Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.
King, Amanda; Hopkinson, Jane; Milton, Rebecca
The article reflects on the ways in which a person-centred approach was used to ensure that people with dementia were given an opportunity to participate in research. The authors discuss three key issues-the importance of including people with dementia in research, informed consent and the possibility of accidental disclosure of diagnosis. The study was an in-depth examination of the ways in which the cancer team manages patients with memory problems and patients with dementia, and the experiences of these patients and their families in accessing outpatient cancer treatment and care in Wales. The study findings will be reported elsewhere. This article aims to add to the small body of existing knowledge within the literature that describes the experiences of researchers in actively involving people with dementia in research. PMID:26804953
Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to bring support for data management and eScience to their communities. The approaches described include two library-based, integrated service models and one collaboratively-staffed, center-based service model.Results: Three institutions describe their experiences in creating the organizational capacity for research data management support services. Although each institutional approach is unique, common challenges include garnering administrative support, managing the integration of services with new or existing staff structures, and continuing to meet researchers needs as they evolve.Conclusions: There is no one way to provide research data management services, but any staff position, committee, or formalized center reflects an overarching organizational commitment to data management support.
Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa
We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data. PMID:25417028
Emerson Sebastião; Kelechi Ibe-Lamberts; Julie Bobitt; Andiara Schwingel; Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko
Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women's perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively thro...
Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging tech...
Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging tech...
In an academic world dominated by mechanistic paradigms with positive approaches to the way research has to be conducted, some connections and interactions may seam irrelevant. We intend integration is important and we encourage the investment in systemic thinking, in training design thinking, in developing a sociotechnical mind, and in taking advantage of the actor-network metaphor. These seem to be success factors for today's (pos-industrial) engineering. And are these mainly important to t...
The objective of this thesis is to develop a model for assessing information technology infrastructure in large enterprises/organisations. The key components of this thesis are: first, to develop a generic assessment process approach that can be applied in IT enterprises, and secondly, to evaluate the practical application of these assessment processes and methods within an infrastructure transformation project in a large enterprise. The study covers theoretical research which gathers info...
Barka, Noah; Rakow, Nancy; Lentz, Linnea; Kopcak, Michael; Wika, Kent; Menk, Ana; Green, Mike
Percutaneous vascular access options in preclinical models are often smaller than the relevant structures in humans or undersized for early-prototype research devices. Here we describe the surgical approaches and results for surgical vascular access sites in preclinical swine and sheep models. Fourteen adult miniature swine underwent successful 18-French vascular access by means of thoracotomy to the brachiocephalic artery. In addition, 11 swine and 10 sheep underwent successful 22-French vas...
Butali, Azeez; Mossey, Peter; Tiffin, Nikki; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Eshete, Mekonen; Mumena, Chrispinanus; Audu, Rosemary; Onwuamah, Chika; Agbenorku, Pius; Ogunlewe, Mobolanle; Adebola, Adetokunbo; Olasoji, Hecto; Aregbesola, Babatunde; Braimah, Ramat; Oladugba, Abimibola; Onah, Ifeanyichukwu; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Olaitan, Peter; Abdur-Rahman, Lukman; Adeyemo, Adebowale
This article is an outcome of the African Craniofacial Anomalies Research Network (AfriCRAN) Human Hereditary and Health (H3A) grant planning meeting in 2012 in Lagos, Nigeria. It describes the strengths of a multidisciplinary team approach to solving complex genetic traits in the craniofacial region. It also highlights the different components and argues for the composition of similar teams to fast track the discovery of disease genes, diagnostic tools, improved clinical treatment and ultimately prevention of diseases. PMID:26523171
ALEJANDRO SERANI-MERLO; RODRIGO PAZ; ANDRÃS CASTILLO
Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A `whole-animal approach' is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of this point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-anima...
Boyer, Harry; Garde, Francois; Gatina, Jean-Claude; Brau, Jean
The designers pre-occupation to reduce energy consumption and to achieve better thermal ambience levels, has favoured the setting up of numerous building thermal dynamic simulation programs. The progress in the modelling of phenomenas and its transfer into the professional field has resulted in various numerical approaches ranging from softwares dedicated to architects for design use to tools for laboratory use by the expert thermal researcher. This analysis shows that each ...
Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary
Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062
Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.
Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)
Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to promote qualitative methodology within the scientific community of management. The specific objective is oriented to propose an empirical research process based on case study method. This is to ensure rigor in the empirical research process, that future research may follow a similar procedure to that is proposed. Design/methodology/approach: Following a qualitative methodological approach, we propose a research process that develops according to four ph...
Pamela K. Miller
Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 20002012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (bd 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.
Beaulieu Chandree L
Full Text Available Abstract With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing, the pace of inherited orphan disease gene identification has increased dramatically, a situation that will continue for at least the next several years. At present, the numbers of such identified disease genes significantly outstrips the number of laboratories available to investigate a given disorder, an asymmetry that will only increase over time. The hope for any genetic disorder is, where possible and in addition to accurate diagnostic test formulation, the development of therapeutic approaches. To this end, we propose here the development of a strategic toolbox and preclinical research pathway for inherited orphan disease. Taking much of what has been learned from rare genetic disease research over the past two decades, we propose generalizable methods utilizing transcriptomic, system-wide chemical biology datasets combined with chemical informatics and, where possible, repurposing of FDA approved drugs for pre-clinical orphan disease therapies. It is hoped that this approach may be of utility for the broader orphan disease research community and provide funding organizations and patient advocacy groups with suggestions for the optimal path forward. In addition to enabling academic pre-clinical research, strategies such as this may also aid in seeding startup companies, as well as further engaging the pharmaceutical industry in the treatment of rare genetic disease.
Full Text Available Social phenomenology (Schütz, 1970; 1978 and its concept of the lifeworld has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009 and Svensson (2007 have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR consultants experienced, practised and understood their everyday interactions with clients, colleagues and journalists (Hochschild, 1983. If emotion is understood as a relational practice, the analysis of socially-constructed discourse is essential to access emotional meaning structures within occupational cultures such as public relations. I adopted an iterative analytical process whereby I interviewed, twice, a sample of six participants. From transcript analysis I produced a description of practice document for participants to check (Aspers, 2006a; 2009. Bracketing (Husserl, 1963/1913 involved writing self-memos throughout the research process, and finally, a self-reflexive account. Thematic analysis of findings resulted in a rich understanding of emotion management and identity work in public relations. This paper demonstrates that an iterative and reflexive analytical process that involves participants in co-creating social reality, is a compelling approach to understand the lifeworld of social actors in occupational settings.
Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten
Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as 'electronic noses', may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients. PMID:22345057
Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten
Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as electronic noses, may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients. PMID:22345057
Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich
Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189
Tharsi Taillieu; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Greet François; Art Dewulf
Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants evaluations, and our own observations...
Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.
McGlynn, Thomas A.
We discuss approaches to building archives that support the way most science is done. Today research is done in formal teams and informal groups. However our on-line services are designed to work with a single user. We have begun prototyping a new approach to building archives in which support for collaborative research is built in from the start. We organize the discussion along three elements that we believe to be necessary for effective support: We must enable user presence in the archive environment; users must be able to interact. Users must be able to personalize the environment, adding data and capabilities useful to themselves and their team. These changes must be persistent: subsequent sessions must be able to build upon previous sessions. In building the archive we see the large multi-player interactive games as a paradigm of how this approach can work. These three 'P's are essential in gaming as well and we shall use insights from the gaming world and virtual reality systems like Second Life in our prototype.
Paul D. Juarez
Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures get under the skin. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.
Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L; Zoellner, Jamie M
Background: Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. Objectives: As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable...
Full Text Available Despite the increasing demands on many multilingual scholars outside the centre(s of scientific knowledge production to publish their research in international scholarly journals, the support for such academic writing for publication is uneven at best. Existing English for research publication purposes (ERPP instruction typically aims to aid multilingual scholars in achieving genre-based expectations and/or navigating the submission and review process, but it often does not address the politics of English-language knowledge production. In this paper, informed by an empirical case study and a theory building perspective, we address the need for a sustained program of courses/workshops for multilingual scholars in the (semi- periphery and propose a means of operationalizing a critical-pragmatic approach to such course/workshop content. Our empirically-driven model is informed by the results of a recent case study investigation into an intensive ERPP intervention designed to address multilingual Spanish-speaking L1 scholarsâ challenges with writing research articles for publication in indexed (Web of Science international scientific journals. Our model lays the groundwork for a more critical approach to ERPP pedagogy, one that attempts to attend more fully to the needs of multilingual scholars within an asymmetrical market of global knowledge production.
Full Text Available Software as a Service (SaaS is one of the most interesting applications of a service-oriented architecture. SaaS spares users the cost of acquiring and maintaining hardware and software. The SaaS business model is very widely appreciated in the economy, because it brings not only financial benefits but also process-optimizing benefits. Drug research is a lengthy, complex and costly process that involves a number of disciplines, from medicine through economics to natural science. Until recently, the standard programs and infrastructure used for data analysis were almost exclusively commercial, proprietary, closed source and expensive. One of the major attractions of the open-source model is to customize the platform to suite the requirements and react faster on changes. There are different proprietary approaches. However there is a gap in knowledge regarding using closed and proprietary infrastructure. The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of an open source SaaS approach on the drug research process.
Full Text Available Studies in animals show that many compounds and therapeutics have the potential to greatly reduce the morbidity and post-injury clinical sequela for soldiers experiencing TBI. However, to date there are no FDA approved drugs for the treatment of TBI. In fact, expert opinion suggests that combination therapies will be necessary to treat any stage of TBI recovery. Our approach to this research effort is to conduct comprehensive preclinical neuroprotection studies in military relevant animal models of TBI using the most promising neuroprotective agents. In addition, emerging efforts incorporating novel treatment strategies such as stem cell based therapies and alternative drug delivery approaches will be discussed. The development of a non-surgical, non-invasive brain injury therapeutic clearly addresses a major, unresolved medical problem for the Combat Casualty Care Research Program (CCCRP. Since drug discovery is too expensive to be pursued by DOD in the TBI arena, this effort capitalizes on partnerships with the Private Sector (Pharmaceutical Companies and academic collaborations (Operation Brain Trauma Therapy Consortium to study therapies already under advanced development. Candidate therapies selected for research include drugs that are aimed at reducing the acute and delayed effects of the traumatic incident, stem cell therapies aimed at brain repair, and selective brain cooling to stabilize cerebral metabolism. Each of these efforts can also focus on combination therapies targeting multiple mechanisms of neuronal injury.
Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen
Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.
Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, MarÃa Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass
This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.
Full Text Available Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to i the role played by dopamine neurotransmission and ii the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinsons disease (PD to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it.
Barka, Noah; Rakow, Nancy; Lentz, Linnea; Kopcak, Michael; Wika, Kent; Menk, Ana; Green, Mike
Percutaneous vascular access options in preclinical models are often smaller than the relevant structures in humans or undersized for early-prototype research devices. Here we describe the surgical approaches and results for surgical vascular access sites in preclinical swine and sheep models. Fourteen adult miniature swine underwent successful 18-French vascular access by means of thoracotomy to the brachiocephalic artery. In addition, 11 swine and 10 sheep underwent successful 22-French vascular access by means of retroperitoneal laparotomy to the abdominal aorta. The relevancy of approach angles and vessel tortuosity should be considered when selecting appropriate preclinical models and techniques. The techniques described are effective for delivery of large-caliber devices in preclinical testing. PMID:20819395
Full Text Available The Delphi Technique (DT is a research methodology that uses turns or rounds between the researcher and a group of experts, until a desired level of agreement or consensus between the members of the expert panel has been reached with regards to the question in hand. Despite its popular use in the social sciences' domain and its progressive adoption by nurse-researchers internationally, in Greece, there is a lack of its application; its comprehension, usage, and methodological merits are still in question within the Greek nursing research community. Aim: To provide a detailed presentation of the epistemological and practical value of the DT, through a series of four consecutive papers which expand on the following: i the classical methodological approach and its main modifications, ii the methodological reflections iii analysis and presentation of results, and iv the use and usefulness of the method in application to nursing research. The first of the four papers provides a description and a comparative assessment of the main variations of the DT. Results: A review of the literature elucidated three main sub-types of technique: the Classic or Conventional Delphi, the Policy Delphi and the Decision Delphi Technique. Nevertheless, due to many variations of the basic philosophy of the method and the many differentiations in its application, it is quite difficult to classify each study that used Delphi, with precision. The main methodological differences that can challenge the researcher are discussed and finally, examples that show the advantages and the usefulness of the individual Delphi techniques are given. Conclusions: Use of the DT in research has many advantages and it can become exceptionally useful once the content of the method and its practical applications are fully understood.
Kloek, M.E.; Buijs, A.E.; Boersema, J.J.; Schouten, M.G.C.
Relations between greenspace, immigration and society are emerging issues in policy and science. However, up to now research has been fragmented and no overview of approaches exists. This review describes concepts and approaches in Northwest European research on immigrants recreational use and perceptions of nature, rural landscapes and urban parks and on societal aspects of migration and greenspace. We show that national research traditions vary considerably, reflecting national contexts o...
Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.
NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.
Simon, Judit; Anand, Paul; Gray, Alastair; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Yeeles, Ksenija; Burns, Tom
Amartya Sen's multidimensional capability approach focuses on the importance of freedoms to be or do things people have reason to value. It is an alternative to standard utilitarian welfarism, the theoretical approach to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost-utility analyses. Despite the limitations of the utility approach in capturing non-health benefits and broader welfare inequalities, there have been very limited applications of the capability approach in the mental health context where these issues are imperative. We report the development and application of a multidimensional instrument, the OxCAP-MH, which aims to operationalise the capability approach for outcome measurement in mental health research. The study was carried out as part of an ongoing programme on community coercion experienced by service users with severe and enduring mental illness being treated using Community Treatment Orders. Capabilities data were collected at baseline in the OCTET RCT for 333 'revolving door' mental health service users who were in involuntary hospital treatment at the time of recruitment in England (2008-2011). The research focused on the identification of capabilities domains most affected by mental illness and their association with socio-demographic and clinical factors and other measures of well-being such as the EQ-5D and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scales. The OxCAP-MH item response rate was 90%-68%. There were significant correlations between service users' overall capability scores and the GAF, EQ-5D VAS and EQ-5D-3L utilities (corr = 0.249, 0.514, 0.415, respectively). The most affected capability domains were: 'Daily activities', 'Influencing local decisions', 'Enjoying recreation', 'Planning one's life' and 'Discrimination'. Age had a mixed effect, while female service users and those with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia or longer illness duration reported significantly lower capability scores. The results support the feasibility and validity of directly measuring human capabilities for the mentally ill and the potential for applying the approach to outcome measurement. PMID:24331898
Professor William Moerner
The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.
Ward, William E.
Over the past three years, installation of the suite of instruments planned for investigations of atmospheric phenomena from the ground to the mesopause region at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian Arctic (Eureka, Nunavut, 80N, 86W) has been completed and observations have now started. A subset of this instrumentation is associated with the scientific theme, Waves and Coupling Processes of the Middle Atmosphere. This subset includes E-Region Wind Interferometer, the meteor radar, the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager SATI), the PEARL All-Sky Imager, the ozone and Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidars, the VHF and cloud radar, the Fourier Transform Spectrometer and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. This instrumentation set allows the wave environment above Eureka to be investigated and the coupling of the dynamics between atmospheric layers and geographical locations studied. These studies require contextual information on the large scale state of the atmosphere and collaborations with modelling groups, ground based observatories in the Arctic, and satellite teams have been initiated. This paper will describe the capabilities of the instrumentation involved in these studies, outline the scientific approach and present some initial results. PEARL is supported by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI); Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Science (CFCAS); Canadian Space Agency (CSA); Environment Canada (EC); Government of Canada IPY funding; Ontario Innovation Trust (OIT); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC); Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust (NSRIT); Ontario Research Fund (ORF); and the Polar Continental Shelf Program (PCSP).
Full Text Available The present paper experiments a new model of analysis for the Research-Development and Innovation (RDI field of research, namely the Asset-Based Development strategy or Appreciative Planning and Action, which unfolds at the community level the same core principle that Appreciative Inquiry Methods at the organizational level: strengths elevating, strengths combining, strengths extending systems. Following the four D stages (Discovery, Dream, Design and Destiny/ Deliver pattern, the authors outlined many strengths and achievements of the Romanian RDI system in order to depict the positive trends, structures and mechanism, as well as to map out the main routes towards fulfilling a new vision. Building upon ideas, opinions, studies, interviews of different representatives of the research community (managers, scientists, professors, users etc expressed in specialised literature, newspapers, journals, or in direct contact and dialogue with them, we intended this approach encompass the appreciative contributions of the main stakeholders: universities, public and private research institutes, the business sector, public policy-makers. In this complex and rather rigid RDI system, whose elements are heterogeneous institutions and communities, that interacting each other in a special environment such as a network structure, effective change is still to be brought by individuals who possess the necessary power to continue transform their mind and attitudes and thus to initiate, diffuse change and, influencing the RDI environment. This might be a viable way to improve, in a positive manner, the RDI systems efficiency.
Golden, John M
While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks. PMID:20579254
Tatiana, Marañon Cardonne; Rosario, León Robaina.
Full Text Available La investigación clínica es la actividad encaminada a conocer el resultado de una intervención o un producto para el diagnóstico o la terapéutica en los seres humanos. El ensayo clínico es el principal exponente de la investigación clínica y toda evaluación experimental de una sustancia o medicament [...] o en seres humanos. En Cuba, existe un desarrollo importante de la biotecnología y de los centros de investigación que necesitan de ensayos clínicos según estándares nacionales e internacionales. En el presente trabajo se exponen aspectos relacionados con la evolución histórica de la Investigación Clínica, el Ensayo Clínico y su contexto en el país como un primer acercamiento al tema. Abstract in english Clinical research is just that activity to know the potential diagnostic or therapeutic nature of an intervention or a product in humans. The clinical trial is the leading exponent of clinical research and the whole experimental evaluation of a substance or drug in humans and has revolutionized medi [...] cal practice around the mundo.Sus precursors date back to the XVII and XVIII centuries and evolved since this methodology until the randomized controlled clinical trial. From the fifties significant regulatory and ethical changes appear. In Cuba, there is a significant development of biotechnology and research institutions that require clinical trials to national and international standards. This paper aims to clarify aspects of the historical development of Clinical Research, Clinical Trial in Cuba and its context as a first approach to the subject.
Full Text Available The work of the Jisc Managing Research Data programme is â along with the rest of the UK higher education sector â taking place in an environment of increasing pressure on research funding. In order to justify the investment made by Jisc in this activity â and to help make the case more widely for the value of investing time and money in research data management â individual projects and the programme as a whole must be able to clearly express the resultant benefits to the host institutions and to the broader sector. This paper describes a structured approach to the measurement and description of benefits provided by the work of these projects for the benefit of funders, institutions and researchers. We outline the context of the programme and its work; discuss the drivers and challenges of gathering evidence of benefits; specify benefits as distinct from aims and outputs; present emerging findings and the types of metrics and other evidence which projects have provided; explain the value of gathering evidence in a structured way to demonstrate benefits generated by work in this field; and share lessons learned from progress to date.
Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.
The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities . Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.
Youngs, Howard; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen
Mixed methods research has emerged as a credible alternative to unitary research approaches. The authors show how a combination of a triangulation convergence model with a triangulation multilevel model was used to research an aspiring school principal development pilot program. The multilevel model is used to show the national and regional levels
Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Ward, Hsuying C.; Overton, Terry; Shin, Yousun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic approach to research education for graduate students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). A group of cross-disciplinary faculty members developed a series of graduate-level research methods-related workshops for pre- and in-service teachers. The investigators
Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.
Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.
Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.
Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.
Kim A. Kayunze
Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc. and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.
Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.
The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.
Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.
Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research
Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying content without compromising scientific integrity.
Mankins, John C.
Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunitiesâand the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address themâis vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.
Majovski, L V; Jacques, S
A current review of selected clinical neuropsychological approaches in the assessment, rehabilitation, and clinical research of central nervous system (CNS) disorders is presented. Clinical neuropsychology occupies a unique place among the sciences of the human nervous system. Over the past 50 years it has been concerned mainly with brain systems involving human psychological activity and its organization and how these systems are altered upon disturbances in brain-behavior functions. The field of clinical neuropsychology differs from other groups of neurological disciplines in that its major goal to introduce selected neuropsychological functions involving the higher cortex, to discriminate between functional and structural disorders, to standardize the collection of base line information needed in assessment of the efficacy of rehabilitation techniques, and to define the role of neuropsychology in building conceptual models of the brain's functional organizaton from research. The topics covered are neuropsychological test batteries, the systems of Luria and Halstead-Reitan, implications for rehabilitation planning, and current research and its application for the future use of neuropsychoclogical test batteries. PMID:7422114
In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)
The eleven studies reported in this thesis outline the development of a novel implicit test for assessing verbal and social histories. This measure was named the Function Acquisition Speed Test (FAST). The current research utilizes a functional research approach drawing upon the seminal research by Watt, Keenan, Barnes and Cairns (1991) and upon more recent research by Gavin, Roche and Ruiz (2008) to inform the bottom-up development of the FAST. Chapter 1 presents a review th...
This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research
Ondrusek, Anita L.; Thiele, Harold E.; Yang, Changwoo
The authors examined abstracts written by graduate students for their research proposals as a requirement for a course in research methods in a distance learning MLIS program. The students learned under three instructional conditions that involved varying levels of access to worked examples created from abstracts representing research in the LIS
Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone; Gilje, Øystein; Laursen, Ditte; Murru, Maria Francesca; Schrøder, Kim Christian
One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in......: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic....
Full Text Available The promotion of information literacy in the UK higher education research sector has traditionally been the preserve of academic libraries. However, other professional groups have obvious interests in this area, and there is a strong case for providing a framework which enables different parties with a stake in information literacy to work together in order to reach practical objectives. In the UK, a coalition of partners has been set up to provide this collective framework and to provide synergy. This paper sets out the rationale for this approach, sets out the sort of activities that the coalition has fostered since its inception in late 2009 and reflects on whether it might serve as an example for other parts of Europe or for transnational collaborations.
Full Text Available Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for âlessons learnedâ, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1 addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2 making sure that neurophenomenological experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3 conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.
Bockelman, Patricia; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Gallagher, Shaun
Neurophenomenological (NP) methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science) while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for "lessons learned," that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1) addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2) making sure that NP experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3) conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject. PMID:24133430
The review of the experience gained in Russia in the field of fast reactors with sodium coolant is given in the report. The information on fast reactors operating in the Russian Federation (BR-10, BOR-60, BN-600) is presented: their current status, further prospects, and basic indices achieved by the facilities. The principal results of operation of test facilities and power plants with fast reactors in Russia are summarized. Necessity in implementation of special work on preservation and generalization of experience gained in the field of fast reactors have been analyzed, as well as possibility of organizing a coordinated research project in this area. In particular, possible approaches to the organization of activities on systematization of published information on fast reactors. (author)
Klionsky, Daniel J
Since 2008, the autophagy community has periodically published a set of guidelines, currently titled "Guidelines for the Use and Interpretation of Assays for Monitoring Autophagy." The newest version of the guidelines was published in 2016. There are many reasons for establishing a set of guidelines in a given research field. This Perspective explores some of these reasons, including standardizing nomenclature for better communication, improving reproducibility, and making it easier for newcomers to enter the field. It also includes the approach I have used to generate and update the guidelines that are now widely used in the autophagy field. The suggestions are not meant to be formulaic, and the method is certainly not perfect. Instead, this should be viewed as a starting set of, well, guidelines. PMID:26915690
Mullins, Chris; Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W
Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Traditionally, there has been a lack of sufficiently diverse expertise and application of novel, integrated methods to study this syndrome. However, some important insights have been gained. For example, epidemiological studies have revealed that IC/BPS is commonly associated with other chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. These observations suggest that IC/BPS may involve systemic pathophysiology, including alterations of the central nervous system in some patients. Furthermore, there may be multiple causes and contributing factors that manifest in the symptoms of IC/BPS leading to multiple patient sub-groups or phenotypes. Innovative research is necessary to allow for a more complete description of the relationship between this syndrome and other disorders with overlapping symptoms. This report provides examples of such innovative research studies and their findings which have the potential to provide fresh insights into IC/BPS and disorders associated with chronic pain through characterization of broad physiologic systems, as well as assessment of the contribution of the bladder and lower urinary tract. They may also serve as models for future investigation of symptom-based urologic and non-urologic disorders that may remain incompletely characterized by previous, more traditional research approaches. Furthermore, it is anticipated a more holistic understanding of chronic urologic pain and dysfunction will ensue from productive interactions between IC/BPS studies like those described here and broader cutting-edge research endeavors focused on potentially related chronic pain disorders. A more comprehensive vision for IC/BPS inquiry is anticipated to yield new insights into basic disease mechanisms and clinical characteristics that will inform future research studies that will lead to more effective therapies and improved clinical care for these patients. PMID:26813921
Al-Ubaidi, T.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Kallio, E. J.; Harry, A.; Alexeev, I. I.; VÃ¡zquez-Poletti, J. L.; Enke, H.; Magin, T.; Mair, M.; Scherf, M.; Poedts, S.; De Causmaecker, P.; Heynderickx, D.; Congedo, P.; Manolescu, I.; Esser, B.; Webb, S.; Ruja, C.
The project iSPHERE (integrated Scientific Platform for HEterogeneous Research and Engineering) that has been proposed for Horizon 2020 (EINFRA-9- 2015, ) aims at creating a next generation Virtual Research Environment (VRE) that embraces existing and emerging technologies and standards in order to provide a versatile platform for scientific investigations and collaboration. The presentation will introduce the large project consortium, provide a comprehensive overview of iSPHERE's basic concepts and approaches and outline general user requirements that the VRE will strive to satisfy. An overview of the envisioned architecture will be given, focusing on the adapted Service Bus concept, i.e. the "Scientific Service Bus" as it is called in iSPHERE. The bus will act as a central hub for all communication and user access, and will be implemented in the course of the project. The agile approach  that has been chosen for detailed elaboration and documentation of user requirements, as well as for the actual implementation of the system, will be outlined and its motivation and basic structure will be discussed. The presentation will show which user communities will benefit and which concrete problems, scientific investigations are facing today, will be tackled by the system. Another focus of the presentation is iSPHERE's seamless integration of cloud computing resources and how these will benefit scientific modeling teams by providing a reliable and web based environment for cloud based model execution, storage of results, and comparison with measurements, including fully web based tools for data mining, analysis and visualization. Also the envisioned creation of a dedicated data model for experimental plasma physics will be discussed. It will be shown why the Scientific Service Bus provides an ideal basis to integrate a number of data models and communication protocols and to provide mechanisms for data exchange across multiple and even multidisciplinary platforms.
Overk, Cassia R; Borgia, Jeffrey A; Mufson, Elliott J
In the field of pharmacological research, the oral consumption of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, when added to an animal's drinking water is hindered by poor drug palatability and environmental loss of drug solution. To overcome these caveats, we developed a novel approach for the oral delivery of anastrozole mixed in a solid hydration gel matrix that functions as a replacement for water. Heated hydration gel was mixed with anastrozole and distributed into a gel delivery device consisting of a 50 mL plastic conical tube containing four stacked 200 ?L pipette tips to allow for air pressure induced gel disbursement. Transgenic female 3xTgAD mice were randomized to receive either anastrozole-treated or untreated hydration gel at 3 months of age. Body weights were recorded weekly, and gel consumption was measured every 1-3 days. Six months post treatment mice were killed and serum anastrozole levels were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Anastrozole-treated mice gained significantly more weight despite consuming significantly less hydration gel compared to vehicle treated mice. LC-MS analysis, using a low serum volume (10 ?L), revealed average anastrozole serum levels of 2.91 ng/mL. Anastrozole-treated ovarian tissue displayed ovarian cysts, massive edema-like stroma, and also lacked corp lutea compared to control mice. These findings demonstrate that hydration gel delivered using the newly developed oral delivery method is a viable approach for pharmacological research involving compounds with poor palatability, low water solubility, and cost prohibitive compounds where environmental loss needs to be minimized. PMID:21163304
Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.
The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.
Montgomery, Marilyn J.; Kurtines, William M.; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Berman, Steven L.; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Briones, Ervin; Silverman, Wendy; Ritchie, Rachel; Eichas, Kyle
This paper describes work directed toward creating community-supported positive youth development interventions that draw on a developmental intervention science outreach research approach. With respect to developmental interventions, this approach focuses on creating evidence-based longitudinal change intervention strategies for promoting
Barrington, Linda; Bruyère, M.; Waelder, Margaret
Objective: Share new knowledge about workplace practices related to employer success in hiring, retaining, and promoting people with disabilities, and promote use of findings to employers and service providers. Design: A transdisciplinary and multifaceted data gathering approach. Results: Provides an overview of the research approach taken and the
As a result of the disenchantment with traditional income-based measures of welfare, alternative welfare measures have gained increasing attention in recent years. Two of the most prominent measures of well-being come from subjective well-being research and the (objective) capability approach. Despite their promising features, both approaches have a number of weaknesses when considered on their own. This paper sets out to examine to what extent a fusion between both approaches can overcome th...
Fisk, W.J.; Modera, M.P.; Sextro, R.G.; Garbesi, K.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Nuzum, T.; Tsang, Y.W.
We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to monitor radon concentrations and other relevant parameters over a period of one year or more. Two nearly air-tight structures have been constructed at the first site. The floor of each structure contains adjustable-width slots that serve as the only significant pathway for advective entry of radon. A layer of gravel underlays the floor of one structure; otherwise they are identical. The structures are instrumented for continuous or periodic monitoring of soil, structural, and meteorological parameters that affect radon entry. The pressure difference that drives advective radon entry can be maintained constant or varied over time. Soil gas and radon entry rates and associated parameters, such as soil gas pressures and radon concentrations, have been monitored for a range of steady-state and time-varying pressure differences between the interior of the structure and the soil. Examples of the experimentally-measured pressure and permeability fields in the soil around a structure are presented and discussed.
Hsu, William; Gonzalez, Nestor R; Chien, Aichi; Pablo Villablanca, J; Pajukanta, Päivi; Viñuela, Fernando; Bui, Alex A T
The electronic health record (EHR) contains a diverse set of clinical observations that are captured as part of routine care, but the incomplete, inconsistent, and sometimes incorrect nature of clinical data poses significant impediments for its secondary use in retrospective studies or comparative effectiveness research. In this work, we describe an ontology-driven approach for extracting and analyzing data from the patient record in a longitudinal and continuous manner. We demonstrate how the ontology helps enforce consistent data representation, integrates phenotypes generated through analyses of available clinical data sources, and facilitates subsequent studies to identify clinical predictors for an outcome of interest. Development and evaluation of our approach are described in the context of studying factors that influence intracranial aneurysm (ICA) growth and rupture. We report our experiences in capturing information on 78 individuals with a total of 120 aneurysms. Two example applications related to assessing the relationship between aneurysm size, growth, gene expression modules, and rupture are described. Our work highlights the challenges with respect to data quality, workflow, and analysis of data and its implications toward a learning health system paradigm. PMID:25817919
Full Text Available Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the bodyârelated experiences and behaviors â the psychological and the cultural studies approaches â emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholarsâ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core conceptual networks of each approach and some of the illustrative investigations carried out so far in the respective areas. Both highlight a set of significant differences on several layers, such as the external / internal localization of relevant factors of body-related experiences, the neutral / pathologically â oriented discourse on these experiences, the degree of exploration of their phenomenological realm, the more or less extended focus on the aesthetic evaluation of oneâs body and the prevalent search for causes / purposes of the body experiences and uses.
In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apples iPhone, Dialogs search system and Googles PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples. The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than be derived from studies of individuals or from the study of abstract minds.
Full Text Available This article is based on the number papers presented at the Conference âMODERN TRENDS IN THE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND PLASTICITY OF THE BRAIN â (MoscowDecember 2-3, 2010 and is generalization of the of the results of a long period research, conducting by the authors which studied manual , sensory-motor, structural-anatomical and cognitive asymmetries . The article is devoted to the comparative evaluation of methods for testing the asymmetry of the human brain, including and its manual derivative. This article discusses some approaches that used traditional methods of determination of the dominant and subdominant limbs and also domination in activation of the sensory organs as well. It is clear shown that in the existed studies of asymmetry there is still no any standardization of the basic principles of lateralization. The conventional approach to manual and other forms of asymmetry is largely contrary to the basic principles of âphysiology of functional systemsâ and âphysiology of activityâ which was established by Bernstein. According to abovementioned basic principles the control of motor and sensory systems largely depends upon the physiological states on the Â«peripheryÂ». The authors are not able to give satisfactory answers to the issues put in this article yet. Nevertheless, in their work, they set the foundation for future studies of asymmetry as an integral and multifacet occurrence, which can not be completely divorced from the theory of functional systems. However, even these results may form the starting point for development of more reliable approaches for assessing of functional asymmetry of a human body. The authors hope that their findings and conclusions will be useful for to specialists in the field of physiology, neurology, psychiatry and psychology.
James D. Ivory
Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about gamesâ social function that are often difficult to reconcileâ or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video gamesâ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: âvideo games as stimulus,â âvideo games as avocation,â âvideo games as skill,â and âvideo games as social environment.â This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video gamesâ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approachesâ strengths and limitations with novel methods.
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported
Briggle, Adam; Holbrook, J Britt; Oppong, Joseph; Hoffmann, Joesph; Larsen, Elizabeth K; Pluscht, Patrick
While education in ethics and the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is widely acknowledged as an essential component of graduate education, particularly in the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math), little consensus exists on how best to accomplish this goal. Recent years have witnessed a turn toward the use of games in this context. Drawing from two NSF-funded grants (one completed and one on-going), this paper takes a critical look at the use of games in ethics and RCR education. It does so by: (a) setting the development of research and engineering ethics games in wider historical and theoretical contexts, which highlights their promise to solve important pedagogical problems; (b) reporting on some initial results from our own efforts to develop a game; and (c) reflecting on the challenges that arise in using games for ethics education. In our discussion of the challenges, we draw out lessons to improve this nascent approach to ethics education in the STEM disciplines . PMID:25694205
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported
Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K
To estimate the effects of a policy change, analysts must often rely on available data as time and resource constraints limit their ability to commission new primary research. Research synthesis methods-including systematic review, meta-analysis, and expert elicitation-play an important role in ensuring that this evidence is appropriately weighed and considered. We present the conclusions of a multidisciplinary Harvard Center for Risk Analysis project that evaluated and applied these methods, and introduce the resulting series of articles. The first step in any analysis is to clearly define the problem to be addressed; the second is a systematic review of the literature. Whether additional analysis is needed depends on the quality and relevance of the available data to the policy question, and the likely effect of uncertainty on the policy decision. Meta-analysis promotes understanding the variation between studies and may be used to combine the estimates to develop values for application in policy analysis. Formal, structured expert elicitation promotes careful consideration of the evidence when data are limited or inconsistent, and aids in extrapolating to the policy context. Regardless of the methods used, clear communication of the approach, assumptions, and uncertainty is essential. PMID:26081936
Lo, Chor Pong
The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.
Kercel, S.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.
Adriana DallAsta Pereira
Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.
Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS) that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS) that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited. PMID:21884570
The Keeping the Nuclear Option Open (KNOO) research consortium is a four-year research council funded initiative addressing the challenges related to increasing the safety, reliability and sustainability of nuclear power in the UK. Through collaboration between key industrial and governmental stakeholders, and with international partners, KNOO was established to maintain and develop skills relevant to nuclear power generation. Funded by a research grant of Pounds 6.1 M from the 'Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy Programme' of the UK Research Councils, it represents the single largest university-based nuclear research programme in the UK for more than 30 years. The programme is led by Imperial College London, in collaboration with the universities of Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Cardiff and the Open University. These universities are working with the UK nuclear industry, who contributed a further Pounds 0.4 M in funding. The industry/government stakeholders include AWE, British Energy, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Environment Agency, the Health and Safety Executive, Doosan Babcock, the Ministry of Defence, Nirex, AMEC NNC, Rolls-Royce PLC and the UK Atomic Energy Authority. Work Package 3 of this consortium, led by the University of Leeds, concerns 'An Integrated Approach to Waste Immobilisation and Management', and involves Imperial College London, and the Universities of Manchester and Sheffield. The aims of this work package are: to study the re-mobilisation, transport, solid-liquid separation and immobilisation of particulate wastes; to develop predictive models for particle behaviour based on atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale simulations; to develop a fundamental understanding of selective adsorption of nuclides onto filter systems and their immobilisation; and to consider mechanisms of nuclide leaving and transport. The paper describes highlights from this work in the key areas of multi-scale modeling (using atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale models), the engineering properties of waste (linking microscopic and macroscopic behaviour, and transport and rheology), and waste reactivity (considering waste hosts and wasteforms, generation IV wastes, and waste interactions). (authors)
Vladu Alina Beattrice
Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation, getting to know the antecedents, the features, the possible interactions among antecedents and current features. Based on the recommendations found in the literature the eradication of manipulative processes is next to impossible but the limitation can be a reality. In this respect the researchers recommend controlling the conditions and motives that increase the likelihood of its presence and also developing stronger tools to detection.
Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams
Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.
Full Text Available Background: It seems we are now experiencing responsibility problems among medical trainees (MTs and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on responsibility especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: Try to find acceptance toward expectations, try to be committed to meet the expectations and try to cope with unacceptable expectations were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was to preserve the integrity of student identity which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, responsibility is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: Acceptance was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs responsibility. Therefore, investigating the process of acceptance regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.
Piunno, Paul A. E.; Boyd, Cleo; Barzda, Virginijus; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Stefanovic, Sasa; Stewart, Bryan
The advanced interdisciplinary research laboratory (AIRLab) represents a novel, effective, and motivational course designed from the interdisciplinary research interests of chemistry, physics, biology, and education development faculty members as an alternative to the independent thesis project experience. Student teams are assembled to work
Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Gylling, Morten
structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and...... Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify the......Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches...
There is myriad research that explores the nature of marketing generally, and more specifically within SME (small to medium sized enterprise) contexts. Most of this research, however, focuses upon orthodox and relational marketing. Recently, it has also been argued that the literature fails to pay adequate attention to the role that critical studies might take in helping to understand marketing. Moreover, qualitative approaches to researching SME marketing have recently gained favour. This th...
Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu
This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...
Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette M; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; Aspy, Cheryl B; Dolor, Rowena J; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey T; Palac, Hannah L; Michaels, LeAnn; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Smith, Paul D; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Sterling, Pamela; O'Beirne, Maeve; Neale, Anne Victoria
Using peer learning strategies, seven experienced PBRNs working in collaborative teams articulated procedures for PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs). The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. This paper describes the team science processes which culminated in the PRGPs. Skilled facilitators used team science strategies and methods from the Technology of Participation (ToP®), and the Consensus Workshop Method to support teams to codify diverse research expertise in practice-based research. The participatory nature of "sense-making" moved through identifiable stages. Lessons learned include (1) team input into the scope of the final outcome proved vital to project relevance; (2) PBRNs with diverse domains of research expertise contributed broad knowledge on each topic; and (3) ToP® structured facilitation techniques were critical for establishing trust and clarifying the "sense-making" process. PMID:26602516
Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.
Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.
Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.
Linda C, Theron.
Full Text Available The Pathways to Resilience Project is an ongoing, community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Its express focus is the exploration of how at-risk youths use formal services and/or informal, naturally occurring resources to beat the odds that have been stacked against them, with the intent [...] of partnering with communities to promote youth resilience. As part of this exploration, project researchers partnered with representatives of participating communities, or advisory panels (AP). However, in literature documenting the worth of participatory methodologies in knowledge generation and social change, there is little mention of how partnerships with AP support communities build on existing knowledge to effect meaningful change. Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the instrumental case study of the AP to the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, in order to foreground the research-informing, knowledge-generating, and practice-shaping value of collaboration with an AP. Simultaneously, this case showcases the complexity of AP-researcher partnerships in order to sensitise CBPR researchers to the need for reflexive, flexible cooperations if communities are to cogenerate and implement local knowledge in enabling ways.
Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.
The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.
Highlights: The Bayes theorem is employed to support the decision making process in a research reactor. The intention is to calculate parameters related to unanticipated occurrence of events. Frequency, posterior distribution and confidence limits are calculated. The approach is demonstrated using two real-world numerical examples. The approach can be used even if no failures have been observed. - Abstract: Research reactors are considered as multi-tasking environments having the multiple roles of commercial, research and training facilities. Yet, reactor managers have to make decisions, frequently with high economic impact, based on little available knowledge. A systematic approach employing the Bayes theorem is proposed to support the decision making process in a research reactor environment. This approach is characterized by low level complexity, appropriate for research reactor facilities. The methodology is demonstrated through the study of two characteristic events that lead to unanticipated system shutdown, namely the de-energization of the control rod magnet and the flapper valve opening. The results obtained demonstrate the suitability of the Bayesian approach in the decision making context when unanticipated events are considered
Full Text Available This paper charts the steps taken and possible ways forward for the University of Warwick in its approach to research data management, providing a typical example of a UK research universityâs approach in two strands: requirements and support. The UK government approach and funding landscape in relation to research data management provided drivers for the University of Warwick to set requirements and provide support, and examples of good practice at other institutions, support from a central national body (the UK Digital Curation Centre and learning from other universitiesâ experiences all proved valuable to the University of Warwick. Through interviews with researchers at Warwick, various issues and challenges are revealed: perhaps the biggest immediate challenges for Warwick going forward are overcoming scepticism amongst researchers, overcoming costs, and understanding the implications of involving third party companies in research data management. Building technical infrastructure could sit alongside and beyond those immediate steps and beyond the challenges that face one University are those that affect academia as a whole. Researchers and university administrators need to work together to address the broader challenges, such as the accessibility of data for future use and the reward for researchers who practice data management in exemplary ways, and indeed it may be that a wider, national or international but disciplinary technical infrastructure affects what an individual university needs to achieve. As we take these steps, universities and institutions are all learning from each other.
Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.
Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.
Full Text Available Traditionally, the formal scientific output in most fields of natural science has been limited to peer-reviewed academic journal publications, with less attention paid to the chain of intermediate data results and their associated metadata, including provenance. In effect, this has constrained the representation and verification of the data provenance to the confines of the related publications. Detailed knowledge of a datasets provenance is essential to establish the pedigree of the data for its effective re-use, and to avoid redundant re-enactment of the experiment or computation involved. It is increasingly important for open-access data to determine their authenticity and quality, especially considering the growing volumes of datasets appearing in the public domain. To address these issues, we present an approach that combines the Digital Object Identifier (DOI a widely adopted citation technique with existing, widely adopted climate science data standards to formally publish detailed provenance of a climate research dataset as an associated scientific workflow. This is integrated with linked-data compliant data re-use standards (e.g. OAI-ORE to enable a seamless link between a publication and the complete trail of lineage of the corresponding dataset, including the dataset itself.
Pieragostino, Damiana; D'Alessandro, Michele; di Ioia, Maria; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Urbani, Andrea; Di Ilio, Carmine; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Sacchetta, Paolo; Del Boccio, Piero
Multiple Sclerosis (MuS) is a disease caused due to an autoimmune attack against myelin components in which non proteic mediators may play a role. Recent research in metabolomics and lipidomics has been driven by rapid advances in technologies such as mass spectrometry and computational methods. They can be used to study multifactorial disorders like MuS, highlighting the effects of disease on metabolic profiling, regardless of the multiple trigger factors. We coupled MALDI-TOF-MS untargeted lipidomics and targeted LC-MS/MS analysis of acylcarnitines and aminoacids to compare cerebrospinal fluid metabolites in 13 MuS subjects and in 12 patients with Other Neurological Diseases (OND). After data processing and statistical evaluation, we found 10 metabolites that significantly (p mass spectrometry approach showed high potentiality to find metabolic alteration in cerebrospinal fluid. These data, if confirmed in a wider clinical study, could open the door for the discovery of novel candidate biomarkers of MuS. PMID:25690641
Lisa Marie Unwin
Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this proof of principle paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.
Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L
Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487
Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard
Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. PMID:26179557
Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.
Full Text Available Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants evaluations, and our own observations during meetings, we analyze three aspects of frame diversity in a large-scale research project. First, we identify dimensions of difference in the way project members frame the central concept of adaptive water management. Second, we analyze the challenges provoked by the multiple framings of concepts. Third, we analyze how a number of interventions (interactive workshops, facilitation, group model building, and concrete case contexts contribute to the connection and integration of different frames through a process of joint learning and knowledge construction.
Full Text Available Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has chang
This report provides practical information, experience and assistance to practitioners who are faced with decommissioning of a small nuclear facility, yet have limited or no previous experience. In such circumstances, it is also conceivable that newcomers to decommissioning may be faced with inadequate financial and scientific resources to complete the task; making it all the more important to avoid costly errors. Furthermore, it is also possible that a worker may need some guidance in starting the process of obtaining finance and resources to progress with the task of decommissioning. The aim of this report is to provide useful practical advice to newcomers to decommissioning to aid them in the planning and management of hands-on decommissioning technologies for small nuclear facilities, using a step wise approach, through to facility and site release. This report breaks down the process of decommissioning into a number of manageable stages, such that the inexperienced practitioner has the opportunity to build confidence as they progress with each stage. Whilst acknowledging that there may be a wide diversity of regulatory licence termination conditions throughout the world, the generic stages of decommissioning will broadly be the same, such that this report should be a basic handbook of use in all instances of small facility decommissioning. This text emphasizes, at each stage, the importance of appropriate interface and dialogue with the Regulatory Body and other stakeholders, not only as a means of advancing any regulatory permission required for decommissioning and licence termination, but also for the many benefits gained by early and ongoing dialogue. This report covers the practical aspects of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities typically found in medical, research and industrial applications. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large chemical facilities, and all forms of waste disposal are outside the scope of this report and have been covered adequately elsewhere. Typical facilities covered by this report include: - Medical facilities with radiography and radiotherapy units and those using radioisotopes; - Industrial facilities, such as those producing radioisotopes, using irradiation and radiography devices, and manufacturing products incorporating radioactive materials; - Research facilities such as particle accelerators, and those associated with the nuclear industry (e.g. critical assemblies or zero-power reactors), pharmaceuticals and medicine; - Laboratories in universities and hospitals. This publication has been structured as a series of sequential actions, and is supported by tables identifying lessons learned during decommissioning of small facilities. This should assist the inexperienced worker in following a logical stepwise approach to decommissioning. Whereas it is not possible to include all the specific detail of every aspect of decommissioning in this report, a number of useful references are included at each stage, thereby directing the reader to further information. This report is structured as a number of practical stages, some of which can be initiated in parallel rather than sequentially, taking note that many factors under consideration may change throughout the decommissioning process up to achievement of release conditions. An accompanying CD includes a range of practical examples of decommissioning projects from around the world in the annexes, specifically providing details of project planning and implementation, along with lessons learned. (author)
Simon, J.; Anand, P; Gray, A.; Rugkåsa, J; Yeeles, K; Burns, T.
Amartya Sen's multidimensional capability approach focuses on the importance of freedoms to be or do things people have reason to value. It is an alternative to standard utilitarian welfarism, the theoretical approach to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost-utility analyses. Despite the limitations of the utility approach in capturing non-health benefits and broader welfare inequalities, there have been very limited applications of the capability approach in the mental health context ...
Fernando Marinho Mezzadri
Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.
Ross, John A.; Bruce, Catherine D.
The authors extend findings from qualitative research on the effects of action research by reporting two linked quantitative studies (N = 80 and 105). They found that teachers who participated in collaborative action research experienced statistically significant improvements in attitudes to educational research and teacher efficacy. The pre-post
Dimitrov Vihren; Valerio Jose A; Erickson Savil N; Deng Changchun; Kanna Balavenkatesh; Soni Anita
Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-t...
Hannes, Karin; Heyvaert, Mieke; Emmers, Elke; Van den Brande, Stef; Van Houdt, Sabine; Slegers, Karin; Van Nuland, Marc
1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Reporting guidelines have successfully been developed and disseminated for quantitative research designs such as experimental research, longitudinal research, cross-sectional research and meta-analyses. These guidelines include criteria outlining how to report the research procedure, the methods and results section in a manuscript to achieve consistency between reports and to increase the quality of reporting (Tate & Douglas, 2011). For an overview of reporting guid...
In Introduction to Social Research, Keith F. Punch wants to demystify and simplify the research process, in an attempt to show that quality research can always be achieved. With its straightforward language, an intuitive structure, and well-defined learning objectives, this book does just that, finds Sophie Lecheler. This third edition features a number of interesting updates, such as chapters on research ethics and conducting research online.
In this paper we present preliminary results of examination of the biological efficiency of the Petten Research Reactor mixed beam with respect to 250 kV X-rays for the induction of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated by the beam from Research Reactor in ECN Petten, Netherlands and dose response relationships for the level of damage induced were investigated. In order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture, chemical pretreatment with boric acid or mercaptoborane (containing boron-10 ions) was done. The estimation of the DNA damage was done with the use of a single cell gel-electrophoresis method (SCGE), to asses the frequency of chromosomal aberrations culturing of lymphocytes for the evaluation of cytogenetic damage was performed. Abnormal behavior of blood samples during a culture procedure and abnormally low metaphases frequency was noticed. During the analysis of DNA damage by SCGE assay we have also found the abnormalities in shapes and brightness of investigated comets. Part of the studied lymphocytes was bigger than others and had much bigger fraction of the DNA in tail. Very poor dose response relationship was observed in those results. From this reason, our paper presents the methodological approach and discussion of the results obtained and also studies on the parameters reflecting the level of the DNA in human lymphocytes. In order to eliminate outstanding comets (fluffy) we measured for all our results the relation of the fraction of DNA in tail to the length of the comet tail. The value of this ratio usually fluctuated in range of 0.1 to 0.70. For the fluffy comets mentioned before the tDNA/TL ratio was generally about 0.9, or even more than 1.0 that means that the percentage of fraction of DNA in tail was higher than in usually seen comets with such a tail length. After analysis of distribution of frequency cells with various tDNA/TL ratio, we decided to establish 0.8 as cut off value for the filtration software to eliminate the outstanding results. Elimination of the fluffy comets corrected our results and let observe various dose response relationships for various treatments (X-rays, modified beam of reactor neutrons in normal and boron pretreated cells). Applied correction usually leaded to improvement of statistics. Our additional studies showed that appearance of outstanding comets is also observed as results of disturbance of suspension medium. We have achieved the similar fluffy comets studying with application of the Comet assay the influence of hypotonic solution in cell suspension on comets shape after electrophoresis. (author)
Schmidt, Karen L; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher
The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case based discussion and in person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program ...
Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone; Gilje, Ãystein; Laursen, Ditte; Murru, Maria Francesca; SchrÃ¸der, Kim Christian
three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research......One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in...... school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and intergenerational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues...
El-Assady, Mennatallah; Jentner, Wolfgang; Stein, Manuel; Fischer, Fabian; Schreck, Tobias; Keim, Daniel
We present two original approaches for visual-interactive prediction of user movie ratings and box office gross after the opening weekend, as designed and awarded during VAST Challenge 2013. Our approaches are driven by machine learning models and interactive data exploration, respectively. They consider an array of different training data types, including categorical/discrete data, time series data, and sentiment data from social media. The two approaches are only first steps towards visual-...
Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystemsâ research including (1 The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2 Compartment/network models, (3 Mesocosm experiments and (4 Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE. The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the systemâs metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc. and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc. under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artÃculo es una revisiÃ³n de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelaciÃ³n e investigaciÃ³n de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1 la TeorÃa TrofodinÃ¡mica de ecosistemas pelÃ¡gicos, (2 modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models, (3 experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigaciÃ³n asÃ como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a travÃ©s del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuÃ¡tica (obtenido de la teorÃa de ecosistemas pelÃ¡gicos puede revelar la estructura trÃ³fica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaÃ±o de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaÃ±o, participan en el metabolismo y producciÃ³n del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir mÃ¡s detalladamente la estructura trÃ³fica y el flujo de energÃa-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explÃcito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. AdemÃ¡s, se pueden obtener Ãndices para la caracterizaciÃ³n y comparaciÃ³n entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trÃ³fica promedio, el rendimiento energÃ©tico, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinÃ¡micas de los modelos trÃ³ficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerÃas y de las perturbaciones ambientales, asÃ como sondear polÃticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las Ã¡reas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuÃ¡ticos (i.e. producciÃ³n primaria, pastoreo, depredaciÃ³n, paso de energÃa entre niveles trÃ³ficos, etc. y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migraciÃ³n, reacciÃ³n a los contaminantes, etc. bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, Ã©stos deberÃ¡n ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseÃ±ados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar mÃºltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento y del papel de la variaciÃ³n intraespecÃfica de los procesos interespecÃficos, de la sucesiÃ³n y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales estÃ¡n siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigaciÃ³n interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografÃa biolÃ³gica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinÃ¡micas de la circulaciÃ³n oceÃ¡nica, la fÃsica de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y Ã³ptica, biogeoquÃmica, y en la fisiologÃa y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el anÃ¡lisis de ecosistemas acuÃ¡ticos deberÃ¡n ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripciÃ³n y comprensiÃ³n de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del anÃ¡lisis de ecosistemas durante las Ãºltimas dÃ©cadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinÃ¡micas desincronizadas que mantienen la funciÃ³n y estructura fundamental del todo a travÃ©s de la acciÃ³n combinada
The graded approach has been implemented for a long time for research reactor projects in France. The purpose of this paper is to focus on their implementation for mechanical components and the associated lessons learned from research reactor projects and operations. The presentation and the full paper will present the implementation of the graded approach, the main requirements associated with the safety classes, the principles of their implementation into the design and construction codes, the principles of interaction with the nuclear pressure equipment regulations and the provisions taken into account in the design and construction code and the benefits of these practices and the lessons learned in this field on the basis of some examples. (author)
CAMINO, Elena; PERAZZONE, Anna; COLUCCI GRAY, LAURA
In 2003, researchers from various disciplines (biology, physics, geology, economics, sociology, linguistics, psychology and science education) founded the Centre IRIS Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Sustainability (www.iris.unito.it) based at the University of Torino (Italy). IRIS links research in science with educational practice: as new conceptual tools are produced and research findings are published, they are discussed within the group and metabolised, turned into literacy an...
Cooper, Beth A.
Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.
Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa
Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of otherness. We critically review different ...
A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR, the proper design level should be determin
In 1983, the National Institute of Education funded the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development to conduct a study, Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE). The ARTE:RUETE study's purpose is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current researchâ¦
A report is presented on the progress of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study. The purpose of the study is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current research findings on effective instruction and effective schools and to assess the impact of theâ¦
The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series of...
Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter
A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively
Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter
A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relativelyâ¦
Helskog, Guro Hansen
This paper presents an account of how I developed the Dialogos approach to practical philosophy through action inquiry research. The process of development is understood as a contribution to the reconstruction of the notion "Bildung zur Humanität" as an ideal in education. Core perspectives, traditions and purposes involved in the action
Research on entrepreneurship in rural areas has increasingly stressed the importance of a supportive environment and social networks in enhancing innovation. This report examines a novel approach to promoting entrepreneurship using regional Inventor & Entrepreneur (I&E) Clubs. A telephone survey of 21 I&E Clubs was completed to collect information
... program, established in 1978 (43 FR 53060) and headquartered at the NIEHS, whose mission is to evaluate... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research Needs for... Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of Folic Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document...
Full text: The German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) is involved in dry cask storage site operation surveillance performed by the competent State authorities. The institute also investigates the long term behaviour of storage casks under service conditions. Based on this experience, the following approaches to managing ageing have been developed. Material ageing effects, if they occur, do not lead to a safety relevant reduction of the properties of the cask, owing to their thick walls. The most sensitive components of casks for dry storage of spent fuel are the metallic seals used with the lid system responsible for the safe enclosure of the nuclear inventory. These metallic seals consist of an inner helical spring made of a nickel based alloy, an inner metallic jacket made of stainless steel and an outer jacket made of aluminium or silver. Seal installation requires a wide range of quality assurance measures, starting with fabrication standards and ending with the installation procedure itself. Within the German licensing procedures the long term suitability of such seals has been investigated and demonstrated taking into consideration the required service conditions. The service conditions are characterized by the absence of water, which has to be removed carefully by suitable drying procedures if the casks are loaded under water. The cask body and the cavity between the lids are filled with inert gas in order to minimize possible corrosion reactions. Finally, protection measures against environmental influences are taken by using a sealed protection plate above the barrier lid system with its metallic seals. The worldwide operation experience of several hundred dry storage casks in service for up to about 20 years (in 2003) shows few problems with the long term stability of this concept. Specifically, no safety relevant material ageing mechanisms have occurred. Problems were minor and included unsuitable operation conditions such as water getting into sealing systems or the reaction of condensed atmospheric humidity with outer cask metal components because of an inadequate quality of epoxy coatings. In connection with the German concept of realizing on-site storage facilities for the interim storage of spent fuel from power reactors, the German Reactor Safety Commission (RSK), which advises the Federal Environment Ministry, published Safety Guidelines for Dry Interim Storage of Irradiated Fuel Assemblies in Storage Casks in 2001. These recommendations contain a chapter entitled Long-term and Ageing Effects, Long-term Monitoring, which defines the following requirements: (a) An observation programme on long term and ageing effects during the storage period must be submitted. (b) Special attention must be paid to components developed for the entire period of use, for example the casks, including safety relevant components such as the sealing systems and neutron absorbers, and the storage facility. (c) The safety relevant properties of system and component parts must be guaranteed for the entire service period, and cask handling inside the facility must be possible at any time. (d) The observation programme has to consider the following demands: (i) Inspection of the storage building and all other storage components: status report every 10 years. (ii) Spot check inspection of storage casks. (iii) Assessment of findings of recurrent inspections. Two main conclusions about the German approach to managing ageing in dry spent fuel storage facilities can be made: - Firstly, the design and licensing phase must consider the possibility of ageing effects by referring to the service conditions (radiation, temperature, mechanical stresses and environmental conditions) in combination with the types of material to be used. Metallic sealing systems for the long term safe enclosure of the radioactive inventory should be used under guaranteed dry and inert conditions. - Secondly, the operation phase should be accompanied by an appropriate observation programme in order to ensure the required conditions for a
Giselle Abreu de Oliveira
Full Text Available This article aims to instigate discussions about the construction of educational research for policy and practices. This will be done considering three different categories: epistemological perspective, epistemological positioning and epistemethodological approach by Tello (2012. Moreover, this article will consider the contributions of Mainardes and Ball (2011, Lima (2010, Alves-Mazzotti (2003, Masson (2013, among others, in order to analyze the context of dialectical materialism, the impact of positivist approaches, phenomenological and materialist dialectics. The latter especially analyzed with regard to qualitative research. In addition, we seek to understand the epistemological nature of such approaches, considering their possibilities and limitations to the process of scientific knowledge production, as well as to contribute to the field of studies on educational policies consolidation.
Soong, Cissy SS; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia SC
Background A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. Objective The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, Happy Family Kitchen, under the project, FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. Methods This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). Results In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, Pwell-being. Furthermore, this study has generated an effective practice model for the improvement of family communication and well-being. Challenges in maintaining research rigor during data collection and program implementation were observed, and should be considered during future program planning. PMID:26510960
As a building type, nuclear and research laboratories demands our attention because they represent the spirit and culture of our era and attracts some of the greatest intellectual and economic recourses of our society. Unfortunately, nuclear and research laboratories are also a prodigious consumer of natural resources and energy intensive. for example, research laboratories typically consume 5 to 10 times more energy per square meter than the office buildings. so, the challenge for architects, engineers, and other building professionals is to design and construct the next generation of nuclear and research laboratories with energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and sustainable design practices in mind. this parer describes some energy efficient strategies for designing and equipping the new generation of nuclear and research laboratories. it introduces the basic issues associated with energy consumption in the nuclear and research laboratories, summarizes the opportunities to improve and optimize energy performance during each phase of the design, and operation of nuclear and research laboratories
Demuth, N.; Walker, C. E.; Isbell, D. M.; Pompea, S. M.
Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is a multi-year teacher professional development program sponsored by NSF and administered through the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). The program reaches the formal education community through a national audience of well-trained and supported middle- and high-school teachers. Every year, a new cohort of teachers prepare for research through an on-line course in the spring. In the summer they conduct astronomy research at NOAO, working with astronomer-mentors to gather and analyze their data. They then return to their classrooms and engage their students in inquiry-based astronomy research using this authentic data. TLRBSE has much to offer teachers both inside and outside the program who wish to initiate research in the classroom. However, the activation energy to conduct authentic research is high. To address the needs of a wider audience of teachers and students, steps have been taken to supply web-based foundational resources for the solar research program. Teachers can use this "solar scaffolding" to support the implementation of authentic solar research in the classroom. The scaffolding files on the webpage will serve as a template for other TLRBSE research strands, as well as enable non-TLRBSE middle and high school teachers to download and use TLRBSE data in their own classrooms. The resultant webpage has links to high quality, vetted resources (webpages, interactives, movies, etc.) that provide content background and lesson plans relevant to solar research. Tools on presenting research, print resources, sample articles on research, videos, DVDs, and posters are included. Powerpoint presentations have been provided with lecture notes on themes ranging from "Why Study the Sun" to "The Nature of Light." Sample teaching materials give examples for a calendar to implement the research project, a daily point sheet, a rubric for a student poster evaluation, a student research project description and a student self evaluation. Various background activities help to pave the way to more challenging solar research projects. As a culminating feature, the website includes several downloadable support files from the TLRBSE solar research project, as well as the solar data files and software programs. These scaffolding resources and future directions will be described in detail. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. For further information on the TLRBSE.
Vinstrup, Anya BjØrn
Denmark has experienced a development of the profession of research management and fundraising in the last few years. The development from one-man-armies to large units within research management has been fast and the building of a professional identity is dashing along. The globalized environment for research is becoming increasingly competitive and there is significant political influence on the scope and scale of funding programmes. This along with the ever more complicated and varied administrative procedures and demands for compliance both with pre-award and postaward activities has led to a growing demand for a professional approach in those areas. How is the professionalisation coming along, and what are the focus areas in the building of a new profession? The focal points in the development of a professional research support are pointed out and an overview and extrapolation of tendencies are sought. Where is the profession heading in Denmark? Five key trends and challenges are elaborated on; The fact that the research management profession is in a state of GROWTH, at both the CENTRAL and decentralised level. Employees that are working across many professional boundaries bridging the gap between different researchers and professions and INTEGRATING disciplines throughout the entire value chain. A profession that is only incipient regarding a formalised TRAINING but where there still are very high demands and expectations to their professional act. IT is playing an increasing role in communication, in knowledge-sharing and in different software applications to which critical decision-making is vital
McDougall, Gerry; Rohrbach, Rick; Katz, Paul; Anderson, John; Ramsay, Michael A E
Medical research programs are under significant pressure both from declines in the growth rates of government funding as well as from increases in government oversight of the privacy and safety of human research subjects. To cope, forward-thinking healthcare institutions are applying the same no-nonsense business rules to their research programs that they apply to other programs and departments. Modern Healthcare and PricewaterhouseCoopers present Straight Talk. In the session on medical research, we discuss how and why the world of medical research is changing, and what health systems should do to manage research programs successfully. The session was held on March 4, 2003 at Modern Healthcare's Chicago headquarters. Charles S. Lauer, publisher of Modern Healthcare, was the moderator. PMID:12698723
Pennings, J.M.E.; Egelkraut, T.M.
In a brief literature review, we discuss how our insight into the grounds of existence of futures markets has changed from the initial insurance perspective, to the arbitrage perspective, to the portfolio perspective, and to the current institutional perspective. We discuss futures market research within agricultural marketing, on the one hand, and within finance, on the other hand. The research within these two disciplines may be considered complementary. Subsequently, a new research model i...
Brogan, P.; Bose, A; Burgner, D; Shingadia, D; Tulloh, R; MICHIE, C.; Klein, N.; Booy, R.; Levin, M; Dillon, M.
This article proposes a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease in the UK based on the best available evidence to date, and highlights areas of practice where evidence is anecdotal or based on retrospective data. Future research as proposed by the London Kawasaki Disease Research Group is outlined, and clinicians are invited to prospectively enrol their suspected cases into this collaborative research project.
Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper
The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device se...
Whitmire, Amanda L
INTRODUCTION As data-driven research becomes the norm, practical knowledge in data stewardship is critical for researchers. Despite its growing importance, formal education in research data management (RDM) is rare at the university level. Academic librarians are now playing a leadership role in developing and providing RDM training and support to faculty and graduate students. This case study describes the development and implementation of a new, credit-bearing course in RDM for graduate stu...
Stoter, J.E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J.P.
Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper...
Michael C. Wittmann; Thompson, John R
We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literat...
Niloofar Peykari; Parviz Owlia; Hossein Malekafzali; Mostafa Ghanei; Abdolreza Babamahmoodi; Shirin Djalalinia
Background: The science and technology health plan has defined the outline of health research to the national vision of Iran by 2025. The aim of this study was to focus on the process of needs assessment of health research projects also health research priority setting in Iran.Methods: The project management life cycle has four phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution and Closure. Based on abovementioned points we conducted the study.Results: Focusing on the needs assessment led to systematic ...
Guetterman, Timothy C.
Although recommendations exist for determining qualitative sample sizes, the literature appears to contain few instances of research on the topic. Practical guidance is needed for determining sample sizes to conduct rigorous qualitative research, to develop proposals, and to budget resources. The purpose of this article is to describe qualitative sample size and sampling practices within published studies in education and the health sciences by research design: case study, ethnography, ground...
Lim Choi Keung, Sarah N.; ZHAO, LEI; Rossiter, James; McGilchrist, Mark; Culross, Frank; Ethier, Jean-François; BURGUN, Anita; Verheij, Robert A.; Khan, Nasra; Taweel, Adel; Curcin, Vasa; Delaney, Brendan C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N.
The reuse of routinely collected clinical data for clinical research is being explored as part of the drive to reduce duplicate data entry and to start making full use of the big data potential in the healthcare domain. Clinical researchers often need to extract data from patient registries and other patient record datasets for data analysis as part of clinical studies. In the TRANSFoRm project, researchers define their study requirements via a Query Formulation Workbench. We use a standardis...
Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut
The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge gene...
Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) supports research to reduce human health and performance risks inherent in future human space exploration missions. Understanding risk outcomes and contributing factors in an integrated manner allows HRP research to support development of efficient and effective mitigations from cross-disciplinary perspectives, and to enable resilient human and engineered systems for spaceflight. The purpose of this work is to support scientific collaborations and research portfolio management by utilizing modeling for analysis and visualization of current and potential future interdisciplinary efforts.
Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.
This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.
Bebout, I. Lee
We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.
Full Text Available Introduction: Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives: The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results: In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR to participatory action research (PAR, community-based research (CBR and community-based participatory research (CBPR, with the latter being the most commonly used term. While definitions of all terms had common characteristics (e.g. participation of community in research process, they varied with regard to the emphasis placed on these characteristics. The nature of community participation in reviewed studies differed considerably from that described in theoretical models. Conclusions: This study indicates the increase of participatory approaches in HIV research and underlines the need for clarification of terms and a framework providing orientation to community-academia partnerships.
Kim A. Kayunze; Kiwara, Angwara D; Eligius Lyamuya; Dominic M. Kambarage; Jonathan Rushton; Richard Coker; Richard Kock; Rweyemamu, Mark M.
One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveill...
Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William; Anderson, Michelle; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield
Understanding personality structure and processes is one of the most fundamental goals in personality psychology. The network approach presented by Cramer et al. represents a useful path toward this goal, and we address two facets of their approach. First, we examine the possibility that it solves the problem of breadth, which has inhibited the integration of trait theory with social cognitive theory. Second, we evaluate the value and usability of their proposed method (qgraph), doing so by c...
Blind, Georg; Pyka, Andreas
Dopfer and Potts (2008) have proposed a new analytic foundation to evolutionary economics based on the unified rule approach. While they contend that their approach is ontologically and analytically coherent and useful, scholars sympathetic with it, e.g., Ostrom and Basurto (2011), have called for further methodological and empirical specification. In the same vein, this paper seeks to develop the Dopfer-Potts framework by proposing an analytic methodology to translate their rule-based approa...
England Lucinda J; Moysich Kirsten B; Schisterman Enrique F; Rao Malla
Abstract Background The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the Bayesian approach for estimating correlations using prior knowledge. Methods The use of the hyperbolic tangent transformation (? = tanh ? and r = tanh z) enables the investigator to take advantage of the conjugate properties of the normal distribution, w...
Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong
This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.
Ecophilosophers suggest that the achievement of environmental sustainability requires a transformation in worldview, from a modern to an ecological worldview. This suggestion poses a very interesting challenge for researchers in environmental disciplines. What would research look like that is grounded in an ecological worldview? What would it meanâ¦
In contrast to the traditional cognitive view of writing strategies, this study explores English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' writing strategy use within the Activity Theory framework, adding to the growing body of writing strategy research and sociocultural research on writing and second language acquisition (SLA). Drawing on data
Dr vijay Singh Rathore
Full Text Available As the time passes by, people are seeing more and more research activities in various fields including medicine, pure science, and technology and so on. The research works are published by the researchers in various journals and conferences, which are made publically available by the publishers. Though such research is spread all over the world, there should be a distinct pattern for this, which suggest that different geographical areas observes distinct trend towards particular direction of research. Government and the other state organizations periodically need adaptation of certain new technology or process for improving or implementing certain policies. Such new requirements are generally met by calling for researchers to join in hand with the organization with their proposal. Filtering such proposals also takes a hectic schedule and thorough understanding of the researchers profile and to gauge his ability to complete the work. In order to solve this problem we emphasize on extracting meaningful information from the web through web mining techniques that helps understanding the region wise trends in research domain activities and further extract more meaningful information like patterns that suggest the progress in a particular area and prominent contributors in the area.
Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H
Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse, and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure widespread availability of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy.
Gautier, Axel; Wauthy, Xavier
We study the possible implications of incentive schemes as a tool to promote ef?ciency in the management of universities. In this paper, we show that by designing internal ?nancial rules which create yardstick competition for research funds, a multi-department university may induce better teaching quality and research, as compared to the performance of independent departments.
Martinková, Ji?ina; Gadher, S. J.; Hajduch, M.; Ková?ová, Hana
Ro?. 583, - (2009), s. 1772-1784. ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA Mk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cancer research * proteomics * genomics Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009
Paige-Smith, Alice; Rix, Jonathan
This article, by Alice Paige-Smith and Jonathan Rix, considers the current context of early intervention in England from the perspective and experiences of two families and in particular focuses on two young children identified as having Down syndrome. This case study research has emerged from previous research conducted by the authors, both of
Hooper, Lisa M.; Britnell, Heather Brandt
The authors discuss the challenges that researchers from university and community systems face in gaining access to and partnering with K-12 school systems to conduct research. Borrowing from Szapocznik, Hervis, and Schwartz's (2003) brief strategic family theory and therapy and Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory, the authors
Full Text Available Over the past decade, clinical governance approach with aims to improve the quality of health services has been proposed in Iran. Considering the obvious problems especially patients' length of stay (LOS in the emergency departments (EDs; the present study has been carried out with the purpose of Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' LOS in the one of the largest medical centers in the country. After the problem was specified by the 17 interviews with employees and managers of the ED; the emergency clinical governance committee was formed by two academic researchers and seven ED staff (key participants that had the most involvement with the subject of study. The activities of the committee, including planning, acting, observing and reflecting, was organized by using participatory action research approach and action research cycle (Kemmis 1995. During this time, three formal meetings with key participants were held in 6-month intervals. Monthly records of patients' average LOS and interview with ED staff were used to analyze the findings. The research was completed with two cycles in one year. Committee members took the following actions. As a result, the patients' LOS reduced from 2.68 days to 1.73 days. Make regular patients visits by medical groups especially orthopedists and neurologists; Decision making about patients situation by emergency physicians and transferring patients to the relevant units by bed managers; Refusing to admit elective patients during overcrowding times; to regulate the list of patients requiring ICU by anesthesiologists. Prolonged LOS can be due to various causes and a team approach, which is one of the requirements of clinical governance approach, is needed to manage it. The results showed that the multidisciplinary team could make positive changes and reduce LOS in emergency setting.
Noe, Egon; AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted
This article discusses the problem of implementing scientific knowledge in practice. The discussion is based on a case study of barriers to implementing research-based principles of sustainable organic arable farming. The current literature tends to see this problem either as a dissemination issue (the linear approach) or as a failure of science to address real-world problems (the co-constructive approach). We argue that Luhmann's theory of social systems offers a way to understand the shortcomings of existing approaches and enables us to identify knowledge gaps that have often been overlooked so far. This theoretical claim is substantiated by an empirical analysis based on 10 in-depth interviews with owners of organic arable farms. The farmers were interviewed about barriers to the implementation of research-based knowledge in practice. The analysis points to the operational closure and the observational blindness of both research systems and farming systems as the keys to understanding knowledge gaps and suggests new ways of dealing with the problems of implementing research knowledge in practice.
Schmidt, Karen L; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher
The responsible conduct of research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case-based discussion and in-person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to National Institutes of Health-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250
Schmidt, Karen L.; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher
The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case based discussion and in person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to NIH-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250
Molloy, Laura; Hodson, Simon; Poschen, Meik; Tedds, Jonathan
The work of the Jisc Managing Research Data programme is along with the rest of the UK higher education sector taking place in an environment of increasing pressure on research funding. In order to justify the investment made by Jisc in this activity and to help make the case more widely for the value of investing time and money in research data management individual projects and the programme as a whole must be able to clearly express the resultant benefits to the host institutions a...
Wittmann, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.
We describe a course designed to help future educators develop an integrated understanding of different elements of physics education research (PER), including research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula, together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of physics study through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literature. We provide examples of the course content and structure and representative examples of student learning in the class.
Wittmann, M C; Thompson, John R.; Wittmann, Michael C.
We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literature. We provide examples of the course content and structure as well as representative examples of student learning in the class.
In 2001, the Royal Military College of Canada replaced its aging analogue SLOWPOKE-2 reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. An upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system has been completed and will be installed in October 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a simulation and training system that will enhance training, education and research by licensed operators, students and researchers.
The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.
Article is the presentation of the same name monograph, which is planned to be issued. In the article the perspective problems of further development risk-oriented approach (ROA) for the grounding and realization of measures on increase of safety and operational efficiency of NPP are considered. Unlike the traditional approach for the ROA, mean due the definition of probabilistic and/or deterministic methods of risk parameters, as criterion functions essence and the measure of the estimation are defined by the solution of specific problem in nuclear field. The ROA application allows essentially expanding opportunities of the substantiations and realizations of measures on safety and operational efficiency increase of NPP
Furr, R Michael; Fleeson, William; Anderson, Michelle; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield
Understanding personality structure and processes is one of the most fundamental goals in personality psychology. The network approach presented by Cramer et al. represents a useful path toward this goal, and we address two facets of their approach. First, we examine the possibility that it solves the problem of breadth, which has inhibited the integration of trait theory with social cognitive theory. Second, we evaluate the value and usability of their proposed method (qgraph), doing so by conducting idiographic analyses of the symptom structure of Borderline Personality Disorder. PMID:24707074
Mills, Jane; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen
Grounded theory is a popular research methodology that is evolving to account for a range of ontological and epistemological underpinnings. Constructivist grounded theory has its foundations in relativism and an appreciation of the multiple truths and realities of subjectivism. Undertaking a constructivist enquiry requires the adoption of a position of mutuality between researcher and participant in the research process, which necessitates a rethinking of the grounded theorist's traditional role of objective observer. Key issues for constructivist grounded theorists to consider in designing their research studies are discussed in relation to developing a partnership with participants that enables a mutual construction of meaning during interviews and a meaningful reconstruction of their stories into a grounded theory model. PMID:16403191
Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott
The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.
For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.
Pfund, Christine; Spencer, Kimberly C.; Asquith, Pamela; House, Stephanie C.; MILLER, SARAH; Sorkness, Christine A.
This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation, and impact of a train-the-trainer workshop designed to promote widespread dissemination of an evidence-based research mentor training curriculum.