Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches  


Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to ...

Kamanda Allan; Embleton Lonnie; Ayuku David; Atwoli Lukoye; Gisore Peter; Ayaya Samuel; Vreeman Rachel; Braitstein Paula



Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan



Empowering immigrant youth in Chicago: utilizing CBPR to document the impact of a Youth Health Service Corps program. (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Youth Health Service Corps as a health promotion program, (2) examine the use of CBPR within the immigrant community, and (3) discuss preliminary findings using a model on critical youth empowerment. PMID:25423240

Ferrera, Maria J; Sacks, Tina K; Perez, Miriam; Nixon, John P; Asis, Dale; Coleman, Walter L



Community-Based Participatory Research and Smoking Cessation Interventions: A Review of the Evidence  


This article presents a review of the evidence on the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and smoking cessation interventions. An overview of CBPR is provided, along with a description of the search methods and quality scoring. Research questions are explored to determine: if CBPR improves the quality of research methods and community involvement in cessation intervention studies; and, cessation outcomes when using CBPR approaches. Results of the review are provided along wit...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Heath, Janie; Williams, Lovoria B.; Tingen, Martha S.



Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach  


This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

Bermu?dez-milla?n, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’angelo, Karen; Segura-pe?rez, Sofia; Hromi-fiedler, Amber; Pe?rez-escamilla, Rafael



CBPR: building partnerships with latinos in a rural area for a wellness approach to mental health. (United States)

Using Community-Based Participatory Research, this study describes the ongoing collaboration between Latino community leaders and academic partners to develop a mental health promotion intervention for rural Latinos in Florida. Two strategies were used: (1) Community Advisory Board (CAB) members completed a Latino Community Partners Survey (LCPS) and (2) scribe notes were taken during CAB meetings. The LCPS demonstrated not only the CAB's knowledge about the community but the readiness of leaders to get involved in the community-academic partnership. Thematic analysis of scribe notes revealed four main categories: caring, knowledges, interpersonal dynamics, and future impact in the community. CAB members greatly enhanced academic partners' understanding of the community's needs as well as of their own culturally-specific knowledge. PMID:21767250

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Wiens, Brenda; Coady, Maria; Schwait, Anna B; Pérez, Awilda; Locke, Barbara; Laflam, Melody; Page, Viodelda; Bernardi, Karla



Review: Community-based participatory research approach to address mental health in minority populations. (United States)

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods in which they were trained. Moreover, researchers continued to view mental health treatment from a health service perspective. PMID:20464489

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Shattell, Mona M; Coady, Maria; Wiens, Brenda



Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin



Towards building consensus: Revisiting key principles of CBPR within the First Nations/Aboriginal context  

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Full Text Available Community based participatory research as a preferred approach to research with First Nations and Aboriginal communities has contributed to new terminologies, new methodologies, and new directions in research relationships. One of the ongoing challenges is to articulate and operationalize the principles for CBPR with these communities. This paper reflects on the nine principles articulated by LaVeaux and Christopher in the context of a long term community-academic research partnership at Standing Buffalo First Nations, Saskatchewan, Canada. Within this application, we begin to critique the various principles and to reframe these principles to increase their utility in informing community based research in the First Nations/Aboriginal context.

Deanna Bickford



Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs (United States)

Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

de la Torre, Adela



Academic Incentives for Faculty Participation in Community-based Participatory Research  


Recognizing the need to overcome the obstacles of traditional university- and discipline-oriented research approaches, a variety of incentives to promote community-based participatory research (CBPR) are presented. Experiences of existing CBPR researchers are used in outlining how this methodological approach can appeal to faculty: the common ground shared by faculty and community leaders in challenging the status quo; opportunities to have an impact on local, regional, and national policy; a...

Nyden, Philip



Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science. (United States)

In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

Silka, Linda



Planning and implementation of a participatory evaluation strategy: A viable approach in the evaluation of community-based participatory programs addressing cancer disparities  


Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been posited as a promising methodology to address health concerns at the community level, including cancer disparities. However, the major criticism to this approach is the lack of scientific grounded evaluation methods to assess development and implementation of this type of research. This paper describes the process of development and implementation of a participatory evaluation framework within a CBPR program to reduce breast, cervical, an...

Scarinci, Isabel C.; Johnson, Rhoda E.; Hardy, Claudia; Marron, John; Partridge, Edward E.



Evaluating international collaboration: differential perceptions of partnership in a CBPR project in Ghana. (United States)

Practitioners of community-based participatory research (CBPR) must overcome numerous barriers in order to include research participants as equal partners in decision-making. The decision-making processes of stakeholders (including research participants) of one international CBPR project based in the middle belt of Ghana were analyzed through qualitative focus group and interview data, as well as direct observation of formal meetings. Using modified grounded theory to interpret our data, we find that despite the intentions of extracommunity stakeholders, ordinary community members do not experience full ownership of the governance of the research enterprise. We conclude that organizational philosophy, cultural expectations, and environmental context can help to explain differential perceptions of stakeholders and function as barriers to full partnership. PMID:19919319

de Schweinitz, Peter; Ansong, Daniel; Manortey, Stephen; Amuasi, John; Boakye, Isaac; Crookston, Benjamin T; Alder, Stephen



Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.  


The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and se...

Arcury, T. A.; Quandt, S. A.; Dearry, A.



A review of community-based participatory research: a promising approach to address depression among Latinos? (United States)

US Latinos are almost twice as likely as Whites to experience depression in a given year, and to date, there is a gap in understanding how to effectively address depression in this population. This study reviews community-based participatory research (CBPR) publications involving Latinos and depression. The specific aims were to: (1) describe studies using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos, and (2) identify challenges and lessons learned when using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos. Electronic databases and the grey literature were reviewed for publications that included CBPR, Latinos, and depression, published between 1990 and 2008. Although few studies were identified, this review provides a baseline synopsis that can serve mental health researchers when developing studies to test/validate CBPR with this underserved population. PMID:19916809

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R



Stakeholders' perspectives on community-based participatory research to enhance mental health services. (United States)

Historically, consumers of mental health services have not been given meaningful roles in research and change efforts related to the services they use. This is quickly changing as scholars and a growing number of funding bodies now call for greater consumer involvement in mental health services research and improvement. Amidst these calls, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach which holds unique promise for capitalizing on consumer involvement in mental health services research and change. Yet, there have been few discussions of the value added by this approach above and beyond that of traditional means of inquiry and enhancement in adult mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to add to this discussion an understanding of potential multilevel and multifaceted benefits associated with consumer-involved CBPR. This is accomplished through presenting the first-person accounts of four stakeholder groups who were part of a consumer-involved CBPR project purposed to improve the services of a local community mental health center. We present these accounts with the hope that by illustrating the unique outcomes associated with CBPR, there will be invigorated interest in CBPR as a vehicle for consumer involvement in adult mental health services research and enhancement. PMID:25245601

Case, Andrew D; Byrd, Ronald; Claggett, Eddrena; DeVeaux, Sandra; Perkins, Reno; Huang, Cindy; Sernyak, Michael J; Steiner, Jeanne L; Cole, Robert; LaPaglia, Donna M; Bailey, Margaret; Buchanan, Candace; Johnson, Avon; Kaufman, Joy S



Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review. (United States)

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry



Using community-based participatory research to advocate for homeless children. (United States)

The social determinants of health represent the societal and economic influences responsible for most health inequities. Advocacy to eliminate health inequities for homeless children oftentimes involves the use of community-based approaches. This article details the Floating Hospital's (TFH) community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that resulted in an advocacy brief. Within the project, the community practice concepts of a strengths perspective, empowerment, capacity building, and advocacy are embedded. The brief enhances TFH's capacity to advocate for the needs of homeless children. This example serves as a guide for social work and public health professionals to use CBPR to address health inequities within their communities. PMID:25317978

Fetherman, Debra L; Burke, Stephen C



Teaching Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Physicians Enrolled in a Health Services Research Fellowship  


To improve health and reduce disparities through health services research, investigators are increasingly turning to techniques that actively involve individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few phy...

Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Lucas, Georgina I.; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A.; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marlene; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W.; Howell, Joel D.; Heisler, Michelle



A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun



A Community-Specific Approach to Cancer Research in Indian Country (United States)

Background Healthcare leaders in a small rural American Indian community and university partners used the community-based participatory research (CBPR) method to survey cancer survivors. Objectives To provide support for the use of CBPR to generate ideas for how to improve the detection and treatment of cancer in American Indian communities. Methods Partners worked together to develop a mail-out survey and send it to the Indian health clinic’s patients who had cancer in the past five years. The survey sought information on their experiences with cancer screenings, cancer diagnoses, and accessing and receiving cancer treatment. Results Community leaders identified three priority areas for intervention: 1) high incidence of breast cancer; 2) lack of culturally appropriate cancer education; and 3) need for a more in-depth assessment. Conclusions CBPR’s partnership principle allowed for results to be viewed within the community’s context, availability of community resources, and relevant cultural beliefs and traditions. PMID:20097993

Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Matloub, Jacqueline; Creswell, Paul; Strickland, Rick; Anderson, Diane M.



Community-based research partnerships: Challenges and opportunities  


The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address urban health problems. Following a br...

Minkler, Meredith



Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research. (United States)

Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa



American Indian cultures: how CBPR illuminated intertribal cultural elements fundamental to an adaptation effort. (United States)

The ever-increasing numbers of ethnic minority populations in the USA seeking social services suggest that a "multicultural paradigm shift" is underway and gaining speed. This shift will increasingly demand that prevention programs and interventions be more culturally responsive. Interventions that are not aligned with prospective participants' world views and experiences are only minimally effective. Existing models for conducting culturally grounded program adaptations emphasize identifying distinct levels of cultural influences while preserving core elements of the original intervention. An effective adaptation requires competent language translation as well as trained translations of program concepts and principles that will be meaningful to the targeted group, without compromising program fidelity. This article describes how a university research team and curriculum developers worked with American Indian youth and adults in a large southwestern city using a CBPR process to identify cultural elements that became foundational to the adaptation of a prevention curriculum that is a national model program, with the objective of increasing its applicability for urban native youth. PMID:23412946

Jumper-Reeves, Leslie; Dustman, Patricia Allen; Harthun, Mary L; Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Eddie F



A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities. (United States)

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita



Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston. (United States)

Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S. PMID:19011964

Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C



Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research. (United States)

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda



Feasibility of adolescents to conduct community-based participatory research on obesity and diabetes in rural Appalachia. (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has been advocated to translate advances in health care sciences to the community. We describe a novel approach applied to obesity management and diabetes prevention. This takes advantage of a network of science clubs organized by the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) for extracurricular activity of disadvantaged high school students in rural Appalachia. Physician scientists and educators provided an intensive summer course on CBPR, ethics, and study design on obesity management and diabetes prevention. Ethical certification for CBPR investigation was obtained for 210 students and 18 mentors for a study on the prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes within their community. Over a 6-month period, 989 had a collection of complete analyzable data, of which 103 had diabetes. The proportion with obesity (BMI > or = 30) was over 50%. The frequency of diabetes was related to increasing BMI. When BMI > or = 40, the frequency approached 50%, and exhibited a clear familial distribution. We conclude that trained adolescents can effectively conduct CBPR, and obesity and diabetes are more prevalent than previously reported in this community. This experience provides encouragement to conduct future studies to infl uence weight management from high-risk populations in this medically disadvantaged community. PMID:20443917

Bardwell, Genevieve; Morton, Cathy; Chester, Ann; Pancoska, Petr; Buch, Shama; Cecchetti, Alfred; Vecchio, Marcella; Paulsen, Stephanie; Groark, Stephen; Branch, Robert A



Addressing Perinatal Disparities in Urban Setting: Using Community Based Participatory Research  


Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs targeting needs of the community. The current paper details use of the Perinatal Period of Risk (PPO...

Masho, Saba W.; Keyser-marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B.; Chapman, Derek; Singleton, Rose; Svikis, Dace



"It takes a village": multilevel approaches to recruit African Americans and their families for genetic research. (United States)

One barrier to searching for novel mutations in African American families with breast cancer is the challenge of effectively recruiting families-affected and non-affected relatives-into genetic research studies. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation, we incorporated several evidence-based approaches through an iterative fashion to recruit for a breast cancer genetic epidemiology study in African Americans. Our combined methods allowed us to successfully recruit 341 African American women (247 with breast cancer and 94 relatives without breast cancer) from 127 families. Twenty-nine percent of participants were recruited through National Witness Project (NWP) sites, 11 % came from in-person encounters by NWP members, 34 % from the Love Army of Women, 24 % from previous epidemiologic studies, and 2 % from a support group. In terms of demographics, our varied recruitment methods/sources yielded samples of African American women that differ in terms of several sociodemographic factors such as education, smoking, and BMI, as well as family size. To successfully recruit African American families into epidemiological research, investigators should include community members in the recruitment processes, be flexible in the adoption of multipronged, iterative methods, and provide clear communication strategies about the underlying benefit to potential participants. Our results enhance our understanding of potential benefits and challenges associated with various recruitment methods. We offer a template for the design of future studies and suggest that generalizability may be better achieved by using multipronged approaches. PMID:25112899

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Jandorf, Lina; Wang, Youjin; Johnson, Detric; Meadows Ray, Veronica; Willis, Mattye J; Erwin, Deborah O



A Comparison of a Centralized Versus De-centralized Recruitment Schema in Two Community-Based Participatory Research Studies for Cancer Prevention. (United States)

Use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches is increasing with the goal of making more meaningful and impactful advances in eliminating cancer-related health disparities. While many reports have espoused its advantages, few investigations have focused on comparing CBPR-oriented recruitment and retention. Consequently, the purpose of this analysis was to report and compare two different CBPR approaches in two cancer prevention studies. We utilized frequencies and Chi-squared tests to compare and contrast subject recruitment and retention for two studies that incorporated a randomized, controlled intervention design of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Americans (AA). One study utilized a de-centralized approach to recruitment in which primary responsibility for recruitment was assigned to the general AA community of various church partners whereas the other incorporated a centralized approach to recruitment in which a single lay community individual was hired as research personnel to lead recruitment and intervention delivery. Both studies performed equally well for both recruitment and retention (75 and 88 % recruitment rates and 71 and 66 % retention rates) far exceeding those rates traditionally cited for cancer clinical trials (~5 %). The de-centralized approach to retention appeared to result in statistically greater retention for the control participants compared to the centralized approach (77 vs. 51 %, p approaches appeared to greatly enhance recruitment and retention rates of AA populations. We further note lessons learned and challenges to consider for future research opportunities. PMID:25086566

Adams, Swann Arp; Heiney, Sue P; Brandt, Heather M; Wirth, Michael D; Khan, Samira; Johnson, Hiluv; Davis, Lisa; Wineglass, Cassandra M; Warren-Jones, Tatiana Y; Felder, Tisha M; Drayton, Ruby F; Davis, Briana; Farr, Deeonna E; Hébert, James R



Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.



Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members (United States)

Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

Amendola, Mary Grace



The Significance of Strategic Community Engagement in Recruiting African American Youth & Families for Clinical Research  


We present baseline data and describe the utility of a community engaged, culturally relevant approach to recruiting African American youth and families for phase I of The AAKOMA Project. The AAKOMA Project is a two phase treatment development study to improve mental health service use among depressed African American youth. We completed capacity building activities using a community engaged framework and Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods. Replicating the (Alvarez et al. i...

Breland-noble, Alfiee M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H. Kathy



Boys must be men, and men must have sex with women: a qualitative CBPR study to explore sexual risk among African American, Latino, and White gay men and MSM. (United States)

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Vissman, Aaron T; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F



Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention. (United States)

Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne



Focus group discussions in community-based participatory research to inform the development of a human papillomavirus (HPV) educational intervention for Latinas in San Diego. (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participants reported that there is limited information and many myths about HPV and the vaccine in the Latino/Latina community, along with many barriers to acceptance of HPV/cervical cancer-related information. Furthermore, participants discussed their recommendations for the development of a culturally appropriate HPV educational program. From these data, we have a better understanding of the HPV/cervical cancer educational approach that will be most accepted in the community and what key information needs to be provided to women who participate in the program, which reinforces the importance of the CBPR approach to the formative phase of cancer education program development. PMID:23857185

Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Garcini, Luz; Sanchez, Olga; Hernandez, Irma; Navarro, Ana M



Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  


Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian communities. This paper draws upon authors’ collaboration with one American Indian tribe to recommend theoretical revision and practical strategies for ...

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Dee Geiger, Sarah; Manson, Spero M.



Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Garcia Piedad



Scientific Approach to Empirical Research  


Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

Vinod Kumar, V.



Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors  


The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Foc...

Parsai, Monica Bermu?dez; Castro, Felipe Gonza?lez; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector



Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

Rudel Ruthann A



Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  


An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha



The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research Into Action  


The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community–academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR ...

Izumi, Betty T.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Reyes, Angela G.; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L.; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L.



Focus Group Discussions in Community-Based Participatory Research to Inform the Development of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Educational Intervention for Latinas in San Diego  


The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participan...

Barnack-tavlaris, Jessica L.; Garcini, Luz; Sanchez, Olga; Hernandez, Irma; Navarro, Ana M.



A lifelogging approach to automated market research  


Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this practice is needed. In this work we present an automated market research system based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms with visual lifelogging data, developed in collaboration wit...

Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O Connor, Noel E.



Systems biology approaches in aging research. (United States)

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger



An action research approach to curriculum development  

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Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding



Bayesian approaches for comparative effectiveness research (United States)

Background A hallmark of comparative effectiveness research is the analysis of all the available evidence from different studies addressing a given question of medical risk versus benefit. The Bayesian statistical approach is ideally suited for such investigations because it is inherently synthetic and because it is philosophically uninhibited regarding the ability to analyze all the available evidence. Purpose To consider a variety of comparative effectiveness research settings and show how the Bayesian approach applies. Methods The Bayesian approach is described as it has been applied to the comparative analysis of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and mammographic screening, in the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network, in comparisons of patient outcomes data from different sources, and in designing adaptive clinical trials to support the development of ‘personalized medicine.’ Results Bayesian methods allow for continued learning as data accrue and for cumulating meta-analyses and the comparison of heterogeneous studies. Bayesian methods enable predictive probability distributions of the results of future studies. Limitations Bayesian posterior distributions are subject to potential bias – in the selection of ‘available’ evidence and in the choice of a likelihood model. Sensitivity analyses help to control this bias. Conclusions The Bayesian approach has much to offer comparative effectiveness research. It provides a mechanism for synthesizing various sources of information and for updating knowledge in an online fashion as evidence accumulates. PMID:21878446

Berry, Donald A



Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity. (United States)

A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina



Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture  

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Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

Jani?ijevi? Nebojša



Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

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Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong



Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong



Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries (United States)

Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. PMID:25400893

Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori



New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

Gaetano Raiola



A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a hispanic population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. Methods/design This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of, primary care and preventative services. Discussion The results of this study will demonstrate the importance of several novel approaches to ameliorating health disparities, including the use of CBPR, the effectiveness of community-based interventions to influence health outcomes by leveraging social networks, and the importance of primary care access in ameliorating health disparities.

Dulin Michael F



Using the Pyramid Approach to Teaching Marketing Research. (United States)

Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)

Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.



Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta



New approaches to researching patient safety. (United States)

This article presents an overview of contemporary research into patient safety. The article suggests that patient safety research to date has tended to privilege the formal and structural dimensions of safety at the expense of the social and affective dimensions of safety. The article previews the research articles brought together in this special issue of Social Science & Medicine, paying particular attention to the impact of these studies on the field of patient safety research generally. The present article summarises this impact in the form of the following three patient safety research principles. First, to account for whether and how safe and improvement-oriented practice is achieved, research must engage with both the predictability and the complexity of the sites and processes it seeks to describe, explain and/or impact on. Second, engaging with complexity implicates researchers in experiencing it, and this implicates the research process and its methodology in a process of sense-making of the practical and affective consequences for and with practitioners inhabiting and enacting that complexity. Third, besides numerically-based descriptions, abstracted explanations and procedural prescriptions, patient safety research evidence must encompass experiential data, collaboratively-produced accounts and/or experience-based designs. PMID:19853984

Iedema, Rick



Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research (United States)

The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

Kammen, Daniel M.



A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa



Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.


Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research  


Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemother...

Nr, Jabir; Tabrez S; Gm, Ashraf; Shakil S; Ga, Damanhouri; Ma, Kamal



Grounded Theory Approach in Social Research  


This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. The paper discusses the principles and processes of the Grounded Theory and then explores the nature of codes, coding process and the concept of saturation. It then goes on to discuss the pros and cons, arguments for and against the use of Grounded Theory methodology in social research and explores the applicability of this methodology i...

Dr Venkat Pulla



Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations (United States)

The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

Eikeland, Olav



Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell



New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities  


Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recogniz...

Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto



Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

Antoni Roig



Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Research Consortium from the Perspective of Academics and Community Service Providers Focused on Child Health and Well-Being (United States)

A process evaluation of a consortium of academic researchers and community-based service providers focused on the health and well-being of children and families provides empirical and practice-based evidence of those factors important for community-based participatory research (CBPR). This study draws on quantitative ratings of 33 factors…

Pivik, Jayne R.; Goelman, Hillel



Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation (United States)

This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida



Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches (United States)

This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

Soiferman, L. Karen



Prove Your Case: A New Approach to Teaching Research Papers (United States)

This article presents a new approach to teaching the process of writing research papers to college freshmen. Instructors explain the analogy that a student writing a research paper is like a lawyer defending a court case: lawyers frame their case (as students define their topic), search out evidence (as students search for sources), present the…

Broskoske, Stephen L.



A systematic approach to instruction in research ethics. (United States)

This article describes a systematic approach for developing instructional programs that emphasizes defining learning needs, planning the learning environment, and evaluating learning to ensure continuous course improvement. This review outlines the nature of these interrelated components of instructional development and draws attention to issues specific to instruction in research ethics. Guiding questions summarize key, practical considerations, and the discussion suggests future steps in the pursuit of effective instruction in research ethics. Overall, the variety of approaches to instruction and mixed findings regarding its effectiveness underscore the need to apply a systematic framework to instruction in research ethics. PMID:24073607

Antes, Alison L



Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.



A pilot study of health priorities of Somalis living in Kansas City: laying the groundwork for CBPR. (United States)

African immigrant and refugee communities remain medically underserved in the United States. Formative efforts are being directed to address the local needs of communities by researchers, community agencies, and local populations. However, there is a paucity of data and sparse documentation regarding these efforts. The objectives for this pilot study were to identify the health priorities of the Kansas City Somali community and to establish a working relationship between an academic medical university and the local Somali community. Our team used community-based participatory research principles and interviewed Somali community members (n = 11). Participants stated that chronic and mental health conditions were of primary concern. Medical system navigation and literacy struggles were identified as barriers. Participants offered possible solutions to some health issues, e.g., using community health workers and Qur'anic readers. Preliminary findings will help guide future research and inform strategies to improve the health and well-being of this community. PMID:23124631

Filippi, Melissa K; Faseru, Babalola; Baird, Martha; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M



Challenges of Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in Boston’s Neighborhoods to Reduce Disparities in Asthma  


Boston is one of the preeminent health care and research centers in the world, but for much of its urban core, these resources are largely out of reach. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides a model with the potential to bridge the gaps between its research prominence and the health of its residents. We report here two case studies of major research projects that were partnerships between universities in Boston and community based organizations and city agencies. The Healthy ...

Freeman, Elmer R.; Brugge, Doug; Bennett-bradley, Willie Mae; Levy, Jonathan I.; Carrasco, Edna Rivera



Changing approaches to methodology of research in special education. (United States)

The author discusses the methodology applied in research in special education in Poland in the past and proposes new approaches in this respect. In the past the researchers concentrated rather on observation of disabled children with the same kind of disability; quantitative measurements were rarely applied. Objective data on personality traits and behaviour of disabled persons can be obtained by comparative studies of disabled with nondisabled people, using scientific methods. Such studies were conducted in 1976-1980 at Warsaw University, covering such problems like life goods, self evaluation, methods of teaching, outside-class activities, upbringing in disabled families, social activity and organization of special education. It appears from this approach that there are far more common than so called "specific" problems between the disabled and nondisabled. The identification of "common denominators" is the basis for decategorization of our perception of the disabled, for the development of adequate services for these people, and for their integration and normalization within society. PMID:6223892

Hulek, A



Capitalising on multiplicity: an transdisciplinary systems approach to landscape research  


Different disciplines have landscape as the focal point of their research. They are successful in presenting new findings about landscapes within their specialization, but collaboration - and thus, transfer of knowledge across disciplinary boundaries - is seldom realized because a common approach that bridges the gaps between disciplines is missing. Instead, different landscape concepts exist side by side. Yet, cooperation is required to tackle the various environmental and social problems re...

Tress, B.; Tress, G.



A techno-managerial approach in food quality management research  


In this article it is discussed that food quality management issues are much more complex than often assumed and that it requires a specific research approach. It is argued that food quality management deals with dynamic and complex food systems and people systems involved in realising food quality. A conceptual food quality relationship is developed, assuming that food quality is a function of both food and human behaviour and their interaction. The relationship reflects that food quality is...

Luning, P. A.; Marcelis, W. J.



Biographies in talk: a narrative-discursive research approach  


This paper demonstrates the contribution a synthetic narrative-discursive approach can make to understanding biographical work within a research interview. Our focus is on biographical work as part of the ongoing, interactive process through which identities are taken up. This is of particular interest for people who, for example, are entering a new career and can be seen as 'novices' in the sense that they are constructing and claiming a new identity. Following a discussion of the theoretica...

Taylor, Stephanie; Littleton, Karen



Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)


Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm



Best practice & research in anaesthesiology issue on new approaches in clinical research ethics in clinical research. (United States)

The history of ethics in clinical research parallels the history of abuse of human beings. The Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the Belmont Report laid the foundations for modern research ethics. In the United States, the OHRP and the FDA provide guidelines for the ethical conduct of research. Investigators should be familiar with regulations concerning informed consent, doing research in vulnerable populations, and protection of privacy. PMID:22099922

Schwenzer, Karen J



Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge contribution from evaluation of the utility of an artifact. That is, utility-based evaluation often builds the argument on adoption of the artifact, assuming that adoption and utility in general validates also claims to knowledge contribution. We show that this mode of evaluation has philosophical and practical problems that need addressing in further research.

Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.



Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterizatishow promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders


Faculty perspectives on community-based research: “I see this still as a journey”  


Academic faculty members are increasingly following community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 22 Johns Hopkins faculty members who conduct community-based research to understand their experiences and perspectives. Respondents engaged the community in numerous ways, ranging from working with community advisory boards to hiring community members as project staff to collaborating with community members across all phases of resear...

Kennedy, Caitlin; Vogel, Amanda; Goldberg-freeman, Clara; Kass, Nancy; Farfel, Mark



Urban Indian voices: a community-based participatory research health and needs assessment. (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other community research efforts to inform program development, support proposals for external funding, and develop a comprehensive service system model to be implemented in the community. PMID:20683823

Johnson, Chad V; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A; Hellman, Chad M; Burkhart, Russell



Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers (United States)

TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.



The French approach for the regulation of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several types of research reactor currently in operation in France. Their usage includes neutronic studies, technological irradiations, neutron beam utilisation, safety research and teaching purposes. Most of these were built during the 60s and because they are all different each type presents particular hazards. The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) works to ensure that the regulatory framework maintains a high level of safety for research and experimental activities. After a description of French research reactors and their hazards and operation this paper will summarise the French regulatory framework and its evolutions over the last few years. For instance, the law of June 13th 2006 on Transparency and Security in Nuclear Field is now the most important piece of French legislation in the field of nuclear safety. It builds upon the high requirements of the existing regulatory framework and, sets a new base for the control of nuclear activities and facilities. Also it creates an independent nuclear safety authority (ASN) and includes the principle of periodic (10 yearly) safety reviews for all nuclear facilities. The safety analysis and methods of control of research reactors safety have tended to become more and more similar in France to those of power reactors. For instance, even if a graduated approach has always been used, the safety analysis approach applied to operating conditions on research reactors is the same as that used for power reactors. the same as that used for power reactors. Moreover, design codes used are often the same. The French regulatory framework is applicable to all nuclear facilities, including research reactors. To comply with the law and this regulatory framework, each facility must deliver a safety analysis report (SAR) which determines its particular operating limits. This analysis is assessed by ASN and its technical support organization, IRSN (Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute). o ensure that the licensee assume all its responsibilities and, to allow the necessary flexibility in the ever changing operations of research reactors, ASN has utilised the principle of internal authorizations. Even if the operation is not explicitly described in the SAR, the licensee has the opportunity, under certain conditions, to self authorize the operation provided that it is of minor safety significance and is bounded by another operation in the SAR. This principle has been applied to the use of experimental devices in specific conditions. Since its introduction in 2002 the internal authorization process has generated a significant amount of plant operations information which has been subject to review and feedback by both the licensee and ASN. ASN is about to extend its application to core management the long stop periods, especially for refurbishment in research reactors. This paper then deals with the feedback provided over the last few years from events reported at French nuclear research reactors. There has been a significant increase in reported events between 1999 and 2006. Last year (2006) 29 events were reported on research reactors in France. Most of these were rated at level 0 and are minor events but this relatively high number is probably due to the ageing of many facilities. Nevertheless, it's also the result of the introduction of new criteria for declaration for instance when an automatic shutdown occurs. However this increase in the number of events provides the opportunity for analysis to acquire more knowledge about research reactors operation and also an opportunity to tackle the subject of the ageing of those facilities. Research reactors are essential support tools for the nuclear industry and for the design of the next generations of power reactors. Thus it is important to keep these facilities operational. To conclude, this paper give ASN's perspectives for research reactors for the coming years and also highlight the regulatory challenges associated with keeping those facilities operational with a high level of safety. The regulation of the projects RJH (


An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs


Agricultural risk management : experiences from an action research approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory.

Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne



Listening to Consumer Perspectives to Inform Addictions and Housing-Related Practice and Research (United States)

The study, funded by the Northwest Health Foundation of Portland, Oregon and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), was conducted as part of the HEARTH collaborative (Housing, Employment and Recovery Together for Health). HEARTH, established in 2010, is a community-academic partnership involving partners from Portland State University (PSU), Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), and Central City Concern (CCC). Using the approaches of community-based participatory research (CBPR), these diverse stakeholders collaborated to co-develop research of direct relevance to the local community and to national academic and policy communities. This study employed qualitative methods and community-based participatory research principles to solicit personal experiences with housing, employment, and recovery programs. We recruited interview participants via CCC-operated housing programs, including Alcohol and Drug Free Community Housing (ADFC), family housing, transitional housing, and non-ADFC (low barrier) housing units. The manuscript presents interview themes based on the five broad categories of interview questions: housing, employment programs, recovery programs, definitions of recovery, and definitions of success. Co-authors describe recommendations for practice and research protocol based on our findings. Our results highlight the importance of involving consumers in the development, data collection, and analysis of research, and present the unique perspectives of those who experience homelessness, recovery, and the programs designed to assist them.

Farquhar, Stephanie A.; Ryder, Marianne; Henderlong, Derek; Lowe, Robert A.; Amann, Ted



Research Experience for Undergraduates: A Non-Traditional Approach (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REUs) have been documented to be an effective way to increase student retention in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) by exposing students to research. REUs typically run during the summer months, allowing students to travel to different universities away from their home institutions. We created an REU program, Pathways Research Experience for undergraduates Program (PREP) that ran during the fall and spring academic semesters and focused on the geosciences. These students were provided with a monthly stipend to work with a research mentor, and they were required to attend a weekly professional development meeting led by the Pathways PIs and the program coordinator. The weekly training program focused on research skills, presentation skills, and graduate school preparation. Since a majority of students at University of Texas at El Paso (a Hispanic Serving Institution with 70% Hispanic and 10% Mexican students) must work outside the university while attending college, the stipends enabled students to remain on campus to "work", with the hope that this may contribute to their overall academic success. By spending more time on campus, the participants were able to interact more with faculty and other students, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Participants were chosen on a basis of GPA and the contents of an application that included a statement of purpose, a resume, a transcript, and at least one letter of recommendation. Once the student was selected, they were required to find a mentor and research project. Through an analysis of surveys, we have found that participants enjoy the meetings, which gave them a sense of belonging to a group, and an additional source of academic support. Participants were also expected to take part in outreach activities as part of our goal to create a geosciences network in El Paso. With this REU approach, we believe that our success rate suggests that this approach works well in Hispanic Serving Institutions: 51% of our participants have gone on to graduate school, 22% are still undergraduates, 17% are unknown, 5% are in industry and 5% are teaching.

Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Hagedorn, E.; Velasco, A. A.



Refinement, reduction and replacement approaches to in vivo cardiovascular research. (United States)

In this review, the justification and benefits of refinement, reduction and replacement (3Rs) approaches to cardiovascular research are examined using the field of platelet biology and arterial thrombosis as an example. Arterial thrombosis is a platelet-driven condition and platelets are regulated by autologous signals, but also by external factors such as the vascular endothelium. In vitro assays using isolated platelets therefore poorly reflect in vivo platelet function and human disease. As a consequence, animal models, including mouse models, are frequently used. In particular, models of thromboembolic mortality have been successfully employed to determine the role of the vascular endothelium in regulating platelet function and thrombosis in vivo. Such models raise both scientific and ethical concerns and have recently been refined permitting the use of fewer mice at a lower severity level. These refinements have been scientifically beneficial in permitting analysis of the development and progression of thrombotic diseases and in improving our understanding of the role of the vascular endothelium in regulating platelet function and thrombosis. For many, the ultimate goal in 3Rs-driven science is replacement of animal models with non-animal alternatives; this is exemplified, in the platelet field, by the development of in vitro flow systems. The development of 3Rs approaches to cardiovascular research is shown to have led to improved scientific models. Further characterization and use of these models will likely contribute to increased understanding of thrombotic disease processes and facilitate drug development in the cardiovascular field. PMID:20860657

Emerson, Michael



Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)


Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)

Li, Yufei; Snedeker, Jess G. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)



A 454 sequencing approach to dipteran mitochondrial genome research. (United States)

The availability of complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) data for Diptera, one of the largest metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. The advent of high throughput sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mtgenomes for many species affordably and quickly. However, these technologies need to be validated for dipterans as the members of this clade play important economic and research roles. Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms are widely used in genomic research involving non-model organisms. The Illumina platform has already been utilized for generating mitochondrial genomes without using conventional long range PCR for insects whereas the power of 454 sequencing for generating mitochondrial genome drafts without PCR has not yet been validated for insects. Thus, this study examines the utility of 454 sequencing approach for dipteran mtgenomic research. We generated complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipalpis using a 454 sequencing approach. Comparisons between newly obtained and existing assemblies for C. hominivorax and H. irritans revealed no major discrepancies and verified the utility of 454 sequencing for dipteran mitochondrial genomes. We also report the complete mitochondrial sequences for two forensically important flies, P. regina and S. crassipalpis, which could be used to provide useful information to legal personnel. Comparative analyses revealed that dipterans follow similar codon usage and nucleotide biases that could be due to mutational and selection pressures. This study illustrates the utility of 454 sequencing to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes for dipterans without the aid of conventional molecular techniques such as PCR and cloning and validates this method of mtgenome sequencing in arthropods. PMID:25451744

Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Singh, Baneshwar; Wells, Jeffrey D; Guerrero, Felix; Ray, David A



The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network's organization and approach to observational research and health outcomes research. (United States)

Established in 2003 by the Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR), in collaboration with several National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes/Centers, the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) consists of multiple clinical consortia conducting research in more than 200 rare diseases. The RDCRN supports longitudinal or natural history, pilot, Phase I, II, and III, case-control, cross-sectional, chart review, physician survey, bio-repository, and RDCRN Contact Registry (CR) studies. To date, there have been 24,684 participants enrolled on 120 studies from 446 sites worldwide. An additional 11,533 individuals participate in the CR. Through a central data management and coordinating center (DMCC), the RDCRN's platform for the conduct of observational research encompasses electronic case report forms, federated databases, and an online CR for epidemiological and survey research. An ORDR-governed data repository (through dbGaP, a database for genotype and phenotype information from the National Library of Medicine) has been created. DMCC coordinates with ORDR to register and upload study data to dbGaP for data sharing with the scientific community. The platform provided by the RDCRN DMCC has supported 128 studies, six of which were successfully conducted through the online CR, with 2,352 individuals accrued and a median enrollment time of just 2 months. The RDCRN has built a powerful suite of web-based tools that provide for integration of federated and online database support that can accommodate a large number of rare diseases on a global scale. RDCRN studies have made important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases. PMID:25029976

Krischer, Jeffrey P; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Groft, Stephen C; Eckstein, David J



Tritium research activities under the broader approach program in JAEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The R and D for tritium technologies to a demonstration reactor (DEMO) plant are carried out in the Broader Approach (BA) program in Japan: 1) tritium accountancy technology; 2) basic tritium safety research; and 3) tritium durability test. A multi-purpose facility will be constructed at Rokkasho in Japan to carry out the above R and D. Beta and gamma radioisotopes as well as tritium (370 TBq/year) can be handled in the facility. At TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory) of JAEA, a series of R and D programs for tritium technologies have been carried out. The main R and D activities in this field are: tritium behavior in a confinement; monitoring; detritiation; and decontamination. In this paper, the results of recent activities at TPL of JAEA are also summarized from the viewpoint of the related R and D subjects under the BA program. (authors)


The personnel economics approach to public workforce research. (United States)

This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

Gibbs, Michael



Cultivating Research Skills: An interdisciplinary approach in training and supporting energy research (United States)

Geoscience and energy research has essentially separate and diverse tracks and traditions, making the education process labor-intensive and burdensome. Using a combined forces approach to training, a multidisciplinary workshop on information and data sources and research skills was developed and offered through several departments at Stanford University. The popular workshops taught required skills to scientists - giving training on new technologies, access to restricted energy-related scientific and government databases, search strategies for data-driven resources, and visualization and geospatial analytics. Feedback and data suggest these workshops were fundamental as they set the foundation for subsequent learning opportunities for students and faculty. This session looks at the integration of the information workshops within multiple energy and geoscience programs and the importance of formally cultivating research and information skills.

Winkler, H.; Carbajales-Dale, P.; Alschbach, E.



Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions  

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Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

Ehsan Mostafavi



Action Research: An Approach to Student Work Based Learning. (United States)

Explains the application of action research to work-based learning, describing the action research cycle and meta learning. Outlines key processes for action research projects: keeping journals, managing dual roles of employee and researcher, managing politics and ethics. Offers suggestions for writing an action research dissertation. (SK)

Rowley, Jennifer



System-Based Participatory Research in Health Care: An Approach for Sustainable Translational Research and Quality Improvement  


Translational research seeks to improve health care by promoting action and change in real-world health care settings. Although translational research advocates a break from the traditional researcher-initiated approach to science, strategies to successfully engage clinicians and leaders of health care delivery organizations in research are still under development. We propose that applying the principles of community-based participatory research in a way that considers delivery systems—incl...

Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Grumbach, Kevin; Selby, Joe V.



The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari



Biotechnological Approaches as the New Paradigm for Insect Research  

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Full Text Available To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy effectiveness and in expanding the markets for the bio insecticides. Molecular techniques employed for identifying and monitoring establishment and dispersal of specific biotypes of natural enemies. Production, formulation and storage of entomopathogenic fungi can be dramatically improved through biotechnology and genetic engineering. Proteinaceous insect toxins (scorpion toxin, mite toxin, trypsin inhibitor, hormones (eclosion hormone, diuretic hormone and metabolic enzymes (juvenile hormone esterase introduced into NPV and GV genome virus to increase its efficacy to kill insect. Genetic manipulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes encoding for proteins toxic to insects offers an opportunity to produce genetically modified strains with more potent and transgenic plant expressing Bt toxin. In 2011, planting of Bt cotton in India surpassed the historical milestone of 10 million hectare for the first time and occupied 88% of the recorded 12.1 million hectare cotton crops. However, field resistance of Bt crops to various insects have been noticed and to combat this problem two approaches namely refuge and pyramiding were recently introduced. The development of cryobiological method for preserving embryos of insects can significantly save the rearing costs, and the valuable collection of insect natural enemies could be maintained indefinitely. RNAi technology enables engineering of a new generation of pest-resistant GM crops. Insect control strategies that integrate advance knowledge in biotechnology with traditional wisdom and technology will contribute to the sustainability of agriculture.

Diganggana Talukdar



A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century  

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Full Text Available The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is made on the available printed and online resources. The resources were mainly on the social science and medical education research methodologies. Medical education research steps must follow the various steps of social science research methodology. Due to various reasons case study methodology became popular approach in medical education. The case study comprises of interview survey, questionnaire survey, participant observation and documentary analysis. To overcome the inherent weakness of the non-experimental subjective research, triangulation methodology is being used in recent years. Case study approach is the best way to explore the research issues of the medical education. The triangulation methodology must be applied to overcome the inherent subjectivity of the research approach. This paper may be used as a guide to design the various steps of case study research approach in medical education.

Sukhendu Dutta



Mobile Data Services Usage - a Methodological Research Approach  

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Full Text Available This paper classifies the existing research methods that are used to study mobile services and applications wishing to put things into an order. The paper examines these methods and proposes a combined methodological technique. This technique has been used as a research tool in a research study which explored mobile data services adoption of different features by existing users and usage process. Mobile networked technologies and mobile data services have become inextricable part of people’s daily lives since they are accessible anytime anywhere throughout a day. Conventional research methods that are used to study the use of mobile devices and applications are unable to collect useful fieldwork data in versatile use situations and thus methodological challenges still exist. Researchers have responded to these challenges by developing research methods that enable new ways of collecting data concerning mobile technology use. The research method presented here is based on conventional research methods, on the use of mobile phone camera for capturing video and photographs during the use of mobile data services and on a commercial application to establish communication contact between users and researchers. The paper suggests that simple commercial systems can be used by researchers to conduct field studies.

Papadopoulos Homer



Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh



Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities  


The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj



Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers  


There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. ...

Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Cefalu, William T.; Chilton, Floyd H.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Raskin, Ilya; Breemen, Richard B.; Weaver, Connie M.



Evaluating Mixed Research Studies: A Mixed Methods Approach (United States)

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate application of a new framework, the validation framework (VF), to assist researchers in evaluating mixed research studies. Based on an earlier work by Dellinger and Leech, a description of the VF is delineated. Using the VF, three studies from education, health care, and counseling fields are…

Leech, Nancy L.; Dellinger, Amy B.; Brannagan, Kim B.; Tanaka, Hideyuki



Teaching Historical Research Skills to Generation Y: One Instructor's Approach (United States)

In this article, the author offers a summary of the major research assignment she has developed for HIST 100, as well as the successes and struggles she has had along the way. The project requires students to experience research as a difficult process that demands their patience, perseverance, and assiduousness. Group work in class clearly plays…

Thaler, Valerie S.



Statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...

Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi



Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research: Introduction to special issue  


This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phen...

Holmes, D. J.; Kristan, D. M.



Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers. (United States)

For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686

Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J



A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented research approach: Sounds nice but what do you mean?  


This paper discusses transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approaches to research on urbansustainable development. Phronetic planning research, as described by Bent Flyvberg (2004), is highlighted as one interesting approach which combines many of the general themes here dealt with. A special section is devoted to discuss quality criteria of transdisciplinary research. The paper is written as a background to a thesis in progress on Malmö and urban sustainable development.

Andre?n, Sabina



Quantitative Approach for Research Chairs Evaluation in King Saud University  

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Full Text Available Research activities are considered prominent part of innovation and consequent wealth generation in any advanced country, thus the need for policy makers and wider public to get insight into the quality of research outputs is legitimate. However, qualitative evaluation techniques meet a number of difficulties. This paper addresses a novel quantitative methodology to indicate a measure of the performance of research chairs in King Saud University (KSU. It proposes an Evaluation Criteria (EC assures sustainable competition among different Research Chairs (RCs. The best RC - if compared to the remaining RCs - is the one achieves more considerable scientific events (activates with less cost and within shorter period of time. The study aims to be a further contribution to the assessment of a road map toward an equal internationally shared, quantitative evaluation system.

Ali S. Al-Ghamdi



Building research capacity in the social sciences – alternatives approaches  


In contrast to previous decades, the past decade has seen major investments by the Irish government in the national research capacity. As part of this investment, there has been a significant investment in the social sciences with the creation of major institutes in the universities and the rapid expansion of numbers of students supported in PhD programmes. This paper reviews the recent developments and contrasts them with the only other significant investment in the social sciences research ...

Ruane, Frances; Whelan, Brendan J.



The origin of public research organisation patents: an economic approach  


While some studies on patenting by public research organisations (PROs) and universities altogether tend to be positive and descriptive, normative concerns have risen mainly on the side of university patenting. The specific dynamics of PROs, e.g. on the growth of their personnel and the creation of research units, allow them to make strategic considerations which are less present in universities but which may have an impact on patenting. However, PROs are often subject to similar requirements...

Azagra Caro, Joaqui?n; Plaza Go?mez, Luis Manuel



Charting the Impact of Federal Spending for Education Research: A Bibliometric Approach (United States)

Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Research

Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.



A systems approach to research inquiry in accounting : a research note  


Accounting research is strongly influenced by the research methodology and methods adopted in the natural sciences. As a result many researchers in Accounting have steered away from non-formal or interpretative methods. From a methodological perspective, Accounting research therefore has a narrow base (Tomkins and Groves, 1983). A solution to expanding the research base may be to search for non-formal, naturalistic research methods in disciplines related to Accounting, where they are more est...

Koornhof, Carolina



Instability in a Tree Approach to Regression. Program Statistics Research. (United States)

One of the major problems that a tree-approach to data analysis often encounters is the instability of tree-structures. The instability issue must be dealt with before data can be interpreted by this method. Examining instability at a node of a tree provides insight into the instability of the whole tree, because the same theory of instability…

Kim, Sung-Ho


State of Modern Measurement Approaches in Social Work Research Literature (United States)

The need to develop measures that tap into constructs of interest to social work, refine existing measures, and ensure that measures function adequately across diverse populations of interest is critical. Item response theory (IRT) is a modern measurement approach that is increasingly seen as an essential tool in a number of allied professions.…

Unick, George J.; Stone, Susan



Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach (United States)

This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn



Learning about Urban Congregations and HIV/AIDS: Community-Based Foundations for Developing Congregational Health Interventions  


Religious congregations are important community institutions that could help fight HIV/AIDS; however, barriers exist, particularly in the area of prevention. Formative, participatory research is needed to understand the capacity of congregations to address HIV/AIDS. This article describes a study that used community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches to learn about congregation-sponsored HIV activities. CBPR strategies were used throughout the study, including proposal development...

Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Mendel, Peter J.; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Hawes-dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael; Oden, Clyde W.



Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach  

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Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

Balnaves, Mark



Comparative research on spatial quality in Europe: motivation and approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the structure of the ESF-founded TERM research project 'Environment Quality in European Space', and serves as the introduction to the special issue presenting the results of this project. The aim of the project was to organise existing European research teams in the area of spatial sustainability, focusing on two themes: 'transport and environment', and 'energy efficiency and spatial sustainability'. A number of criteria are identified for the comparison and evaluation of research in these areas for 12 European countries: UK, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Israel and Austria. These criteria involve 'intrinsic characteristics' (problem definition, policy options, theoretical assumptions, method and data) and 'meta characteristics' (scientific innovation and contribution to real policy-making). (Author)

Nijkamp, P.; Bergh, J. van den; Verhoef, E. [Free Univ., Dept. of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)



Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach  

CERN Document Server

For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

O'Shea, Rory P



Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach. (United States)

Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7 databases (2005-2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice-end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n?=?648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and interdisciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D; Reid, M C



Generating and Analysing Data for Applied Research on Emerging Technologies: A Grounded Action Learning Approach  

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Full Text Available One of the difficulties of conducting applied qualitative research on the applications of emerging technologies is finding available sources of relevant data for analysis. Because the adoption of emerging technologies is, by definition, new in many organizations, there is often a lack of experienced practitioners who have relevant background and are willing to provide useful information for the study. Therefore, it is necessary to design research approaches that can generate accessible and relevant data. This paper describes two case studies in which the researchers used a grounded action learning approach to study the nature of e-facilitation for face-to-face and for distributed electronic meetings. The grounded action learning approach combines two research methodologies, grounded theory and action learning, to produce a rigorous and flexible method for studying e-facilitation. The implications of this grounded action learning approach for practice and research will be discussed.

Pak Yoong



The oculometer - A new approach to flight management research. (United States)

For the first time researchers have an operational, nonintrusive instrument for determining a pilot's eye-point-of-regard without encumbering the pilot or introducing other artifacts into the simulation of flight experience. The instrument (the oculometer developed for NASA by Honeywell, Inc.) produces data in a form appropriate for online monitoring and rapid analysis using state-of-the-art display and computer technology. The type and accuracy of data obtained and the potential use of the oculometer as a research and training tool will be discussed.

Spady, A. A., Jr.; Waller, M. C.



Optimization of Transportation System Using OR (Operational Research Approaches  

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Full Text Available This project aims at developing an algorithm to optimize the transportation system of our organization. Vehicle routing problem of the institution is taken as the issue which is to be solved. The data’s are collected from the transportation department. According to the data, Dijkstra’s algorithm is used to find the optimal path initially. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT is used to find the critical patha nad critical events present in the network. Then a heuristic approach i.e., Genetic Algorihm is used to validate the result obtained from the Dijkstra’s algorithm. Path length and cost is taken as the criteria for optimising the vehicle route. Djikstra’s algorithm is used to find the shortest path of the vehicle manually. Then a heuristic approach (Genetic algorithm is undertaken to validate the result obtained.

M. Janani, C. Chinna muthu, A. Arun, P. Gururaj, S. Jenson Thiyagaraj



A Creative Approach to the Research Paper: Combining Creative Writing with Academic Research (United States)

This article describes a combination of a research essay and a creative writing assignment that encourages rigorous academic research while allowing students to get "outside the box" of traditional academic research papers. This assignment has five steps. The first two steps offer the chance to introduce academic research along with summary and…

Blue, Tim



An approach to bridge the pressure gap in catalysis research  


Most experiments on the surface processes in heterogeneous catalysis are conducted in ultra high vacuum (UHV), while catalytic processes in an industrial environment take place at pressures which are typically ten orders of magnitude higher. The use of UHV in the experiments helps to achieve sample cleanliness and is a prerequisite for the application of most surface science methods. This approach has been very successful in clarifying the basic steps of surface reactions, but the d...

Ro?ßler, Mario Waldemar



In Search of Holy Transcripts: Approaches to Researching Religious Schools (United States)

I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…

Hastie, David



Sociolinguistic Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Research: 1997-2007 (United States)

This article discusses sociolinguistically oriented research on second language acquisition (SLA) in the decade since Firth and Wagner (1997). Over the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made in developing a model of the sociolinguistic processes that inform second language acquisition. This model is supported by empirical evidence on…

Tarone, Elaine



Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches (United States)

In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research

Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David



The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach (United States)

The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…

Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel



Career Research--A Multi-Discipline Approach. (United States)

Describes the English composition classes at St. Louis Community College at Meramec, which teach students to research their own career choices and more realistically examine their own interests and abilities through the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, use of the career information center, and interviews with those in specific career fields.…

Dungy, Gwen; And Others



Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach  

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Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

Carmen Piqué-Noguera



Researching Academic Identity: Using Discursive Psychology as an Approach (United States)

Current thinking on academic identities is heavily influenced by developments in other disciplines, notably sociology. This accords with Haggis's (2007) challenge for educational researchers to engage with current theory and methods from across the social sciences. However, the traditional sister discipline to education, psychology, seems…

McLean, Neil



Adaptive E-Learning Environments: Research Dimensions and Technological Approaches (United States)

One of the most closely investigated topics in e-learning research has always been the effectiveness of adaptive learning environments. The technological evolutions that have dramatically changed the educational world in the last six decades have allowed ever more advanced and smarter solutions to be proposed. The focus of this paper is to depict…

Di Bitonto, Pierpaolo; Roselli, Teresa; Rossano, Veronica; Sinatra, Maria



A Multimedia Approach to Teaching Library Research Skills. (United States)

Describes activities and procedures that were developed to teach library research skills to grades five through eight using multimedia instruction, including the use of HyperStudio software. Highlights include library media skills objectives, curriculum objectives, resources, instructional roles, hardware and software requirements, evaluation, and…

Cornelio, Alicia



YouTube as a research tool: three approaches. (United States)

The present paper provides empirical data to support the use of social media as research environment. YouTube was chosen as a most appropriate format to target adolescents in experimental and cross-sectional designs given its popularity as well as its plasticity. We uniquely applied the YouTube format as (a) an environment to present manipulated media materials in controlled experimental designs; (b) an environment to study effects of peer feedback on various media contents; (c) a format to design a media-based questionnaire, specifically, the Media, Morals and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue). Various studies have been conducted that demonstrate the appropriateness of our YouTube transformations for each of these three purposes. The focus in the present paper is on the methodology of these studies to illustrate how we effectively transformed YouTube as a research tool. PMID:23659721

Konijn, Elly A; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Plaisier, Xanthe S



Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

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Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens



Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach  

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Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants? community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka?s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

Ju-Ling Shih



Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation. (United States)

Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities. PMID:25385692

Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R



Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach  


Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS). This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS) to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used t...

Ju-Ling Shih; Jussi Nuutinen; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Nian-Shing Chen



The Vocational Guidance Research Database: a Scientometric Approach  


The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialised journals can- not be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objec- tive of this article is to introduce the Base de Datos de Investigación en Orientación Vocacional [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of scientometric in- dicators. The use of dynamic tables in the technical design of this database results in real-time updates. Moreover, the optio...

Flores Buils, Raquel; Gil Beltra?n, Jose? Manuel; Caballer Miedes, Antonio; Marti?nez Marti?nez, Miguel A?ngel



Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

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Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller



Theoretico-metodological basis of gender researches in modern linguistics. Gender ideal: lingual rhetoric approach  

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Full Text Available This article contains information about theoretical and methodological basis of gender research in modern linguistics. The term and the notion «gender ideal» as linguistic categories are postulated on the basis of lingual rhetoric approach.

Oleg V. Skulkin



Theoretico-metodological basis of gender researches in modern linguistics. Gender ideal: lingual rhetoric approach  


This article contains information about theoretical and methodological basis of gender research in modern linguistics. The term and the notion «gender ideal» as linguistic categories are postulated on the basis of lingual rhetoric approach.

Skulkin, Oleg V.



Pronunciation in EFL instruction a research-based approach  

CERN Document Server

In view of recent debates on the global spread of English and its international lingua franca role, what pronunciation models are appropriate for millions of EFL learners? Which aspects of English phonetics should be taught to foreign students and which can be neglected with little loss to successful communication? How can English pronunciation be taught in an interesting and effective way which is both learner- and teacher-friendly, in accordance with the latest scholarly and technological achievements? This research-based book addresses these and many other fundamental issues that are curren

Szpyra-Kozlowska, Jolanta



E-learning as a Research Area: An Analytical Approach  

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Full Text Available The concept of E-learning is very broad. It was coined in late 90s as the technological enhanced learning mechanism through Internet. Now it captures a broad range of electronic media like Internet, Intranets, Extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV and CD-ROM to make the learning procedure more flexible and user friendly. Because of the flexible nature of E-learning, it has got more demand among the people of our country and the demand is increasing day by day. As the demand is increasing, this is the time to standardize the whole e-learning system in a proper way and the time to increase the quality of existing standards. Though many standards are already there and has accepted by many academia, institutes and organisations, still there are some gaps and works are going on to make them more practicable and more systematic.This paper analyses the current e-learning procedure and showing the new dimension of research work on this area that follows the important and most neglected research areas till today in this domain. It also analyses the importance of e-education system and recent market of e-learning procedure.

Sangeeta Kakoty



Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

Erdebil, I. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Nuclear Laboratories and Research Reactors Div.; Omar, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Assessment Integration Div.



Recommending a Book with a Chapter Reviewing Innovative Approaches of Solar Cell Research  

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Full Text Available This article is a brief description of some innovative approaches presented in Chapter 6 of a book entitled “Solar Cell Research Progress”. One approach is a novel superficial modification technique which offers a new opportunity to fabricate low cost solar cells by using silicon materials with the lowest possible purity. The other approach is a V-shaped module (VSM technique which enables an obvious increase of the efficiencies for silicon solar cells.

Jianming Li



Research of nuclear engineering project management based on split package approach and multiple package approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the exploration of different models of nuclear engineering project management containing the different construction patterns of split package approach and multiple package approach in China, aiming at the construction patterns, this paper introduces a kind of typical construction of project management model by analyzing the relationship of commission and agency between the proprietor of the nuclear plants and the specialized nuclear engineering company. According to the specific characteristics of nuclear engineering, this paper designs the organization system of project management and illustrates the various responsibilities of the proprietors, nuclear engineering companies and other major partners. (authors)


The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach  

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Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

Pantea Carmen



Understanding Visual and Intertextual Approaches in Pedagogical and Curriculum Research: A Pretext (United States)

In our globalised and hypertexual world, representations of curriculum reform are highly visual. The material world of these practices can be analysed through visual research methods. This paper is a pretext developed to explain the elements of the visual and intertextual approaches that can be applied in researching inclusive education through a…

Moss, Julianne



Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition (United States)

This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

Gannon, Theresa A.



Exploring Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Approaches to Business Communication Research (United States)

With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…

Pope-Ruark, Rebecca



Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning (United States)

In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew



Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach (United States)

A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

Philbin, Simon P.



Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.  


Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967) which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst incr...

Graham J J Kenealy, Ph D.



Hypnosis, human nature, and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. (United States)

Hypnosis research has contributed much to the understanding of human behavior and experience, both normal and abnormal. This paper considers ways in which neuroscience approaches may be integrated into hypnosis research to continue and enhance that contribution, as well as further reveal the nature of hypnosis itself. The authors review the influences on and advances in hypnosis research over the last century; illustrate the investigative value of hypnosis to selected phenomena across the areas of doing, feeling, believing, and remembering; and specify elements for the successful integration of neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. The authors believe that hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. Successful integration will be achieved when researchers add levels of explanation, rather than shift the emphasis from one level or feature to another. PMID:12934844

Barnier, Amanda J; McConkey, Kevin M



DNA Microarray Technologies: A Novel Approach to Geonomic Research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cDNA microarray allows biologists to examine the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Researchers may analyze the complete transcriptional program of an organism in response to specific physiological or developmental conditions. By design, a cDNA microarray is an experiment with many variables and few controls. One question that inevitably arises when working with a cDNA microarray is data reproducibility. How easy is it to confirm mRNA expression patterns? In this paper, a case study involving the treatment of a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was used to obtain a rough estimate of data reproducibility. Two trials were examined and a list of genes displaying either a > 2-fold or > 4-fold increase in gene expression was compiled. Variations in signal mean ratios between the two slides were observed. We can assume that erring in reproducibility may be compensated by greater inductive levels of similar genes. Steps taken to obtain results included serum starvation of cells before treatment, tests of mRNA for quality/consistency, and data normalization.

Hinman, R.; Thrall, B.; Wong, K,



Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper is based on the results of a survey on “Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience” conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well, allow for three main considerations: i) projects involved 5 different disciplines as average and geography and sociology were present in the majority of the projects; ii) the level of interconnection between disciplines seems intermediate, meaning that information and methods are exchanged, but a full integration of methods and concepts into a common shared language and system of axioms is missing; iii) the lack of a common framework and common terminology represents a major barrier to good interdisciplinary work. The results highlight the role played in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers to interdisciplinary work and improve the efficacy and quality of resilience design.

Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa



Capacity-building for health research in developing countries: a manager's approach  


Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both con...

White Franklin




Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...


Management Research and Grounded Theory: A review of grounded theorybuilding approach in organisational and management research.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grounded theory is a systematic methodology for the collection and analysis of data which was discovered by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s. The discovery of this method was first presented to the academic community in their book ‘The Discovery of Grounded Theory’ (1967 which still remains a primary point of reference for those undertaking qualitative research and grounded theory in particular. This powerful research method has become very popular in some research domains; whilst increasing in popularity it is still less prevalent in the field of organisational and management research particularly in its original form. This self reflexive paper sets out to explore the possibilities for this imbalance which takes the discussion onto the areas of methodological adaptation and training. It also enters the debate about access to research subjects and provides a succinct argument supporting the notion that grounded theory should simply be viewed as a method that develops empirically grounded conceptual theory.

Graham J.J. Kenealy, Ph.D.



Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

Fersch, Barbara



Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

Fersch, Barbara



How to conduct research on burnout: advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research  


When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is sometimes convenient to regard burnout as a unidimensional construct. This article deals with the question of whether and when it may be appropriate to treat burnout as a unidimensional variable, and pres...

Brenninkmeijer, V.; Vanyperen, N.



Development and Application of an Integrated Approach toward NASA Airspace Systems Research (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Systems Program is contributing air traffic management research in support of the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Contributions support research and development needs provided by the interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). These needs generally call for integrated technical solutions that improve system-level performance and work effectively across multiple domains and planning time horizons. In response, the Airspace Systems Program is pursuing an integrated research approach and has adapted systems engineering best practices for application in a research environment. Systems engineering methods aim to enable researchers to methodically compare different technical approaches, consider system-level performance, and develop compatible solutions. Systems engineering activities are performed iteratively as the research matures. Products of this approach include a demand and needs analysis, system-level descriptions focusing on NASA research contributions, system assessment and design studies, and common systemlevel metrics, scenarios, and assumptions. Results from the first systems engineering iteration include a preliminary demand and needs analysis; a functional modeling tool; and initial system-level metrics, scenario characteristics, and assumptions. Demand and needs analysis results suggest that several advanced concepts can mitigate demand/capacity imbalances for NextGen, but fall short of enabling three-times current-day capacity at the nation s busiest airports and airspace. Current activities are focusing on standardizing metrics, scenarios, and assumptions, conducting system-level performance assessments of integrated research solutions, and exploring key system design interfaces.

Barhydt, Richard; Fong, Robert K.; Abramson, Paul D.; Koenke, Ed



A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

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Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini



A Different Approach to the Evaluation of Research Libraries. Research Brief No. 6. (United States)

In 1996, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) supported a project at Rutgers University that applied new economic theories to measuring how well research libraries fulfill their service roles. This summary draws on the original proposal and the final report from the project's directors. The evaluation of library performance is…

Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.


Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data  


Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate...

Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha



Dadirri: Using a Philosophical Approach to Research to Build Trust between a Non-Indigenous Researcher and Indigenous Participants  

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Full Text Available Abstract: This article focuses on a philosophical approach employed in a PhD research project that set out to investigate sport career transition (SCT experiences of elite Indigenous Australian sportsmen. The research was necessary as little is known about the transition of this cohort to a life after sport, or their experiences of retirement. A key problem within the SCT paradigm is a presumption that an end to elite sport requires a process of adjustment that is common to all sportspeople—a rather narrow perspective that fails to acknowledge the situational complexity and socio-cultural diversity of elite athletes. With such a range of personal circumstances, it is reasonable to suppose that athletes from different cultural groups will have different individual SCT needs. The researcher is non-Indigenous and mature aged: she encountered a number of challenges in her efforts to understand Indigenous culture and its important sensitivities, and to build trust with the Indigenous male participants she interviewed. An Indigenous philosophy known as Dadirri, which emphasises deep and respectful listening, guided the development of the research design and methodology. Consistent with previous studies conducted by non-Indigenous researchers, an open-ended and conversational approach to interviewing Indigenous respondents was developed. The objective was for the voices of the athletes to be heard, allowing the collection of rich data based on the participants’ perspectives about SCT. An overview of the findings is presented, illustrating that Indigenous athletes experience SCT in complex and distinctive ways. The article provides a model for non-Indigenous researchers to conduct qualitative research with Indigenous people.

Megan Marie Stronach



Capacity-building for health research in developing countries: a manager's approach  

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Full Text Available Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both contrasts with and is complementary to that of research managers, who must build capacity "from the ground up" in a variety of health service settings within countries and with differing mandates, resources, and constraints. In health organizations the concept of research is broad, and practices vary widely. However, building research capacity is not altogether different from building other kinds of organizational capacity, and it involves two major dimensions: strategic and operational. In organizations in the health field, if reference to research is not in the mission statement, then developing a relevant research capacity is made vastly more difficult. Research capacities that take years to develop can be easily damaged through inadequate support, poor management, or other negative influences associated with both internal and external environments. This paper draws from key international research policy documents and observations on the behavior of research and donor agencies in relation to developing countries. It examines capacity-building primarily as a challenge for research managers, realities underlying operational effectiveness and efficiency, approaches to resource mobilization, and the need for marketing the research enterprise. Selected examples from South Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are presented.

White Franklin



Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps. (United States)

Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu



A Knowledge Based Approach to Detection of Idea Plagiarism in Online Research Publications  

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Full Text Available Plagiarism is on the rise because of the easy access to information through World Wide Web. Web pages are growing in the internet on daily basis. Researchers want to be well connected globally to popularize their ideas. Therefore, allowing download of research documents are inevitable. However, this falls prey to those who turn the cake and spoil the issue. Even unknowingly, a researcher ends in verbatim copying of other former researchers’ ideologies or conclusions to quote / use in their own research paper. This paper presents an analysis of NLP based plagiarism detection approaches which leads to proposing of an ontology based solution to detect text plagiarism more meaningfully. We address wordword and paraphrasing techniques and investigate the use of ontology in detecting idea plagiarism. The main objective is to investigate the exclusion of ‘Related Work’ section and the use of WordNet for plagiarism detection in research publications.

Deepika J.



Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  


"nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and loc...

Majdzadeh, R.; Setareh Forouzan, A.; Pourmalek, F.; Malekafzali, H.



Diffusion of Latent Semantic Analysis as a Research Tool: A Social Network Analysis Approach  


Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is a relatively new research tool with a wide range of applications in different fields ranging from discourse analysis to cognitive science, from information retrieval to machine learning and so on. In this paper, we chart the development and diffusion of LSA as a research tool using Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach that reveals the social structure of a discipline in terms of collaboration among scientists. Using Thomson Reuters’ Web of Science (WoS), ...

Tonta, Yas?ar; Darvish, Hamid R.



Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data. (United States)

Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha



Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach  

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Full Text Available The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i knowledge generation (i.e., through research; (ii research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach; and (iii policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers. This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR.

Pornpit Silkavute



Commentary: Evaluating faculty productivity in research: an interesting approach, but questions remain. (United States)

Academic institutions must have strategies for evaluating research productivity by faculty. Such strategies are useful in guiding resource allocations for the research enterprise, for decisions on faculty promotions, and for broader institutional planning, including program development. Commonly, decisions about research space utilization, and funding to support the space, are considered within the purview of the institutional administration. Peer review, in manuscript and grant submissions and the promotions process, is more commonly used to evaluate the impact of faculty research. The article by Iyengar et al in this issue of Academic Medicine takes an interesting approach to evaluate research productivity of individual faculty by integrating benchmarks for research funding and publication impact. The strategy of using these benchmarks to partition faculty into quadrants to guide faculty development activities is clever and useful. Less clear are the philosophy and long-term utility of the approach. The applicability to the stated goal of promoting multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary translational research is not obvious, nor is it apparent that faculty will continue to view decisions as transparent and fair over the longer term. Nevertheless, the authors' article is a welcome contribution at a time when many institutions are struggling with issues of evaluating faculty investigators and allocating resources for research. PMID:19858795

Joiner, Keith A



An adaptive approach to facilitating research productivity in a primary care clinical department. (United States)

Efforts to foster the growth of a department's or school's research mission can be informed by known correlates of research productivity, but the specific strategies to be adopted will be highly context-dependent, influenced by local, national, and discipline-specific needs and resources. The authors describe a multifaceted approach-informed by a working model of organizational research productivity-by which the University of Minnesota Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (Twin Cities campus) successfully increased its collective research productivity during a 10-year period (1997-2007) and maintained these increases over time.Facing barriers to recruitment of faculty investigators, the department focused instead on nurturing high-potential investigators among their current faculty via a new, centrally coordinated research program, with provision of training, protected time, technical resources, mentoring, and a scholarly culture to support faculty research productivity. Success of these initiatives is documented by the following: substantial increases in the department's external research funding, rise to a sustained top-five ranking based on National Institutes of Health funding to U.S. family medicine departments, later-stage growth in the faculty's publishing record, increased research capacity among the faculty, and a definitive maturation of the department's research mission. The authors offer their perspectives on three apparent drivers of success with broad applicability-namely, effective leadership, systemic culture change, and the self-awareness to adapt to changes in the local, institutional, and national research environment. PMID:23702527

Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Finstad, Deborah A; Center, Bruce A; Bland, Carole J



Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin



A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles (United States)

There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua



A Plea for a Child-Centered Approach in Research with Street Children. (United States)

Argues that street children's public image does not consider root causes of homelessness or children's perceptions. Notes that the relationship of children to urban life is seldom analyzed, and that references to street girls commonly link them to prostitution. Advocates a more child-centered, participatory approach to research and discusses…

Van Beers, Henk



Peer Observation of Teaching in the Online Environment: An Action Research Approach (United States)

This paper describes a collaborative action research approach used to explore peer observation of teaching (POT) within the online environment. Although POT has become familiar in face-to-face teaching contexts, little is understood of its potential role in online settings. We conducted "virtual" focus groups to explore the experience and views of…

Swinglehurst, D.; Russell, J.; Greenhalgh, T.




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation




Riding tandem: an organic and collaborative approach to research in vocational education and training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study set out to explore the use of the Internet in peer-to-peer learning environments within vocational education and training and to investigate whether this approach could replace traditional teaching and learning. A mixed methods design, including classroom observations, design experiments, interviews and questionnaires was adopted. Although this study represents a mid-term report on work in progress only, a number of observations can nevertheless be made about the process of conducting research within Further Education (FE colleges. Whilst, traditionally, the pursuit of research is not a priority within FE colleges, this study has encouraged lecturers in Highbury College, Portsmouth, United Kingdom to trial a research-based approach to curriculum development. They have worked as co-researchers in the study from the conceptual phase to implementation. This paper outlines the process of conducting research in partnership with Business lecturers at Highbury College. It presents preliminary findings based on the researcher and lecturers’ reflections on the research methodology and process followed over a period of 9 months.

Cathy Ellis



Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy Research and Education (United States)

The growth of data volumes in science is reaching epidemic proportions. Consequently, the status of data-driven science is becoming comparable to that of theory and experimentation. Many scientific disciplines are developing formal subdisciplines that are information-rich and data-based, to such an extent that these are now stand-alone research and academic programs that are recognized on their own merits. These disciplines include bioinformatics and geoinformatics, and will soon include astroinformatics. Informatics is the discipline of organizing, describing, accessing, integrating, mining, classifying, and analyzing diverse data resources for scientific discovery. We will describe Astroinformatics, the new paradigm for astronomy research and education. Petascale sky surveys will soon challenge our traditional research approaches and how we train the next-generation of astronomers. We will describe astroinformatics as a rigorous approach to these challenges. We will also describe initiatives for both graduate and undergraduate astronomy education in which students are trained to access large distributed data repositories, to conduct meaningful scientific inquiries into the data, to mine and analyze the data, and to make data-driven scientific discoveries. These skills are necessary skills as major sky surveys have become a core research tool for a significant fraction of astronomical researchers. We call attention to our two position papers submitted to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey Committee on the State of the Profession: (1) "Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy"; and (2) "The Revolution in Astronomy Education: Data Science for the Masses".

Borne, Kirk



Operations Strategy in practice : Combining an action research and longitudinal case-study approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we describe and illustrate a new, action-based longitudinal case study approach, which aims at helping scholars narrow the gap between the theory and practice of Operations Strategy (OS). First, we elaborate on the need for new research methods for studying OS in practice. Then, we present the two research strategies underpinning the approach proposed here: action research and longitudinal case study. Next, we illustrate the use of the method and exemplify it using a recent study of OS in practice. Then, based on this experience we present and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the method. Finally, we draw conclusions on its potential for operations strategy and operations management studies.

Rytter, Niels Gorm; Koch, Christian



Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach. (United States)

This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. PMID:24418571

Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels



Preparatory and field work phases in the qualitative empirical research process in management: the case studies approach  


Purpose: The aim of this paper is to promote qualitative methodology within the scientific community of management. The specific objective is oriented to propose an empirical research process based on case study method. This is to ensure rigor in the empirical research process, that future research may follow a similar procedure to that is proposed. Design/methodology/approach: Following a qualitative methodological approach, we propose a research process that develops according to four ph...

Rua, Orlando



The Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project: A Team Approach for Supporting a Multisite, Multisector Intervention. (United States)

Abstract Background: Comprehensive multisector, multilevel approaches are needed to address childhood obesity. This article introduces the structure of a multidisciplinary team approach used to support and guide the multisite, multisector interventions implemented as part of the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (CORD) project. This article will describe the function, roles, and lessons learned from the CDC-CORD approach to project management. Methods: The CORD project works across multisectors and multilevels in three demonstration communities. Working with principal investigators and their research teams who are engaging multiple stakeholder groups, including community organizations, schools and child care centers, health departments, and healthcare providers, can be a complex endeavor. To best support the community-based research project, scientific and programmatic expertise in a wide range of areas was required. The team was configured based on the skill sets needed to interact with the various levels of staff working with the project. Conclusions: By thoughtful development of the team and processes, an efficient system for supporting the multisite, multisector intervention project sites was developed. The team approach will be formally evaluated at the end of the project period. PMID:25325835

Williams, Nancy; Dooyema, Carrie A; Foltz, Jennifer L; Belay, Brook; Blanck, Heidi M



Processes of international collaboration in management research : A reflexive, autoethnographic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina



Forging New Service Paths: Institutional Approaches to Providing Research Data Management Services  

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Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to bring support for data management and eScience to their communities. The approaches described include two library-based, integrated service models and one collaboratively-staffed, center-based service model.Results: Three institutions describe their experiences in creating the organizational capacity for research data management support services. Although each institutional approach is unique, common challenges include garnering administrative support, managing the integration of services with new or existing staff structures, and continuing to meet researchers needs as they evolve.Conclusions: There is no one way to provide research data management services, but any staff position, committee, or formalized center reflects an overarching organizational commitment to data management support.

Regina Raboin



Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants


A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research. (United States)

We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data. PMID:25417028

Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa



A Structured Approach to Honours Undergraduate Research Course, Evaluation Rubrics and Assessment (United States)

This paper presents a new approach to the Honours Undergraduate Research Course design and implementation. The course design process, assessment and evaluation rubrics are provided. Lessons learned and the experience of the faced challenges and opportunities for two cohort offerings of the course during the winter terms of 2011 and 2012 are highlighted. Assessments show that major benefits include increasing interaction with the faculty and increasing intellectual maturity, skills, knowledge and confidence for the students and for the faculty, the furthering of research projects by the participation of undergraduate students. The course can serve as a model that can be easily adapted for use across the disciplines of science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

Khoukhi, Amar



Canadian Experience in Application of Graded Approach for Safety Assessment of Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile andsafety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in depth, engineering aspects, site characteristics and safety analysis. Examples of application of this approach to safety assessment of the Canadian research reactors, Slowpoke and NRU, are presented. The SLOWPOKE reactor (20 kW) has inherent reactivity control by design, since any increase in core temperature has a negative reactivity effect causing a passive reduction of reactor power to limit any temperature excursion. The NRU reactor (135 MW) operates at low pressure and low temperature (except for the experimental loops) and it is used for material testing and isotope production. For SLOWPOKE reactors, less detailed assessment of radiation risk is needed in comparison to the NRU due to a smaller amount of fission product inventory in the core. Full assessment of defence in depth is required for the high power, complex NRU reactor. However, assessment of means to mitigate severe accidents may not be needed for SLOWPOKE reactors due to their inherent reactivity characteristics. A design of any reactor facility must provide the fundamental safety functions during and following postulated accident events. The extent and rigour for demonstrating that such safety functions are fulfilled can be graded and vary depending on the reactor design. In general, basic safety function related to control reactivity cannot be graded. However, the grading can be applied to SLOWPOKE reactors since they exhibit inherent self-limiting power levels, which physically limit the amount of positive reactivity that can be inserted in the core. Assessments of safety functions relevant to the reactor core cooling and confinement could be less extensive for the SLOWPOKE reactors since their cooling systems are less complex than those of NRU. Very small source terms of the SLOWPOKE reactors do not require a confinement system to be as stringent as those used in large research reactors. If the research reactor is designed without a confinement system (e.g., NRU), it must be justified to show that there is no potential release of radioactive materials


Local IT infrastructure assessment methodologies and approach in large enterprises : research project scope - branch office consolidation  


The objective of this thesis is to develop a model for assessing information technology infrastructure in large enterprises/organisations. The key components of this thesis are: first, to develop a generic assessment process approach that can be applied in IT enterprises, and secondly, to evaluate the practical application of these assessment processes and methods within an infrastructure transformation project in a large enterprise. The study covers theoretical research which gathers info...

Achonu, Davids



Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.  


There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and a...

Mccauley, L. A.; Lasarev, M. R.; Higgins, G.; Rothlein, J.; Muniz, J.; Ebbert, C.; Phillips, J.



A Military-Centered Approach to Neuroprotection Research for Traumatic Brain Injury  


Studies in animals show that many compounds and therapeutics have the potential to greatly reduce the morbidity and post-injury clinical sequela for soldiers experiencing TBI. However, to date there are no FDA approved drugs for the treatment of TBI. In fact, expert opinion suggests that combination therapies will be necessary to treat any stage of TBI recovery. Our approach to this research effort is to conduct comprehensive preclinical neuroprotection studies in military relevant animal mo...




A network approach for distinguishing ethical issues in research and development  


In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room (GDR) session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some releva...

Zwart, Sd; Poel, Ir; Mil, Hgj Harald; Brumsen, M.



A novel approach for long-term oral drug administration in animal research  


In the field of pharmacological research, the oral consumption of anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, when added to an animal’s drinking water is hindered by poor drug palatability and environmental loss of drug solution. To overcome these caveats, we developed a novel approach for the oral delivery of anastrozole mixed in a solid hydration gel matrix that functions as a replacement for water. Heated hydration gel was mixed with anastrozole and distributed into a gel delivery device consis...

Overk, Cassia R.; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Mufson, Elliott J.



Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight iblood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.


Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh



An Activity-based Approach to the Learning and Teaching of Research Methods: Measuring Student Engagement and Learning  


This paper discusses a research project carried out with 82 final and third year undergraduate students, learning Research Methods prior to undertaking an undergraduate thesis during the academic years 2010 and 2011. The research had two separate, linked objectives, (a) to develop a Research Methods module that embraces an activity-based approach to learning in a group environment, (b) to improve engagement by all students. The Research Methods module was previously taught through a tradition...

Fallon, Eimear; Walsh, Stephen; Prendergast, Terry



A generalizable pre-clinical research approach for orphan disease therapy  

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Full Text Available Abstract With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing, the pace of inherited orphan disease gene identification has increased dramatically, a situation that will continue for at least the next several years. At present, the numbers of such identified disease genes significantly outstrips the number of laboratories available to investigate a given disorder, an asymmetry that will only increase over time. The hope for any genetic disorder is, where possible and in addition to accurate diagnostic test formulation, the development of therapeutic approaches. To this end, we propose here the development of a strategic toolbox and preclinical research pathway for inherited orphan disease. Taking much of what has been learned from rare genetic disease research over the past two decades, we propose generalizable methods utilizing transcriptomic, system-wide chemical biology datasets combined with chemical informatics and, where possible, repurposing of FDA approved drugs for pre-clinical orphan disease therapies. It is hoped that this approach may be of utility for the broader orphan disease research community and provide funding organizations and patient advocacy groups with suggestions for the optimal path forward. In addition to enabling academic pre-clinical research, strategies such as this may also aid in seeding startup companies, as well as further engaging the pharmaceutical industry in the treatment of rare genetic disease.

Beaulieu Chandree L



Researching emotional labour among Public Relations consultants in the UK: a social phenomenological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978 and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009 and Svensson (2007 have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR consultants experienced, practised and understood their everyday interactions with clients, colleagues and journalists (Hochschild, 1983. If emotion is understood as a relational practice, the analysis of socially-constructed discourse is essential to access emotional meaning structures within occupational cultures such as public relations. I adopted an iterative analytical process whereby I interviewed, twice, a sample of six participants. From transcript analysis I produced a ‘description of practice’ document for participants to check (Aspers, 2006a; 2009. ‘Bracketing’ (Husserl, 1963/1913 involved writing self-memos throughout the research process, and finally, a self-reflexive account. Thematic analysis of findings resulted in a rich understanding of emotion management and identity work in public relations. This paper demonstrates that an iterative and reflexive analytical process that involves participants in co-creating social reality, is a compelling approach to understand the ‘lifeworld’ of social actors in occupational settings.




An Eco-Behavioral Approach to Research in Special Education. The Juniper Gardens Children's Project. [Volume 2]. (United States)

The papers comprising this volume discuss research based on an ecobehavioral interaction approach to special education. Six papers are included, which range from a highly conceptual discussion of second language instruction/learning to research concerning interventions to reviews of the research literature. The papers have the following titles and…

Arreaga-Mayer, Carmen, Ed.; And Others


The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

Paul D. Juarez



An integrated approach to operations research for strengthening family planning programs: a case example in kenya. (United States)

The Africa Operations Research/Technical Assistance Project developed an integrated approach to introducing and institutionalizing family planning in Kenya. This approach consisted of: 1) the development of the Situation Analysis methodology to diagnose problems; 2) the development of a computer simulation model for choosing operations research (OR) strategies; 3) an OR training workshop; 4) the implementation of three OR field studies testing educational approaches to several program problems; 5) a conference to review the findings and implications from the three studies. Technical assistance was provided in all phases. Results from the field studies indicated that all of the tested educational interventions had at least some short-term impact. Health talks with waiting maternal and child health (MCH) clients doubled the proportion adopting family planning; a simple educational package for clinic supervisors, along with a day of training, raised the proportion of family planning clients receiving education and referral for voluntary surgical sterilization (VSC) and increased the number of tubal ligations at a referral hospital. Waiting time was reduced. The Division of Family Health of the Ministry of Health has submitted plans to introduce these interventions into several districts of the country in the near future. Full institutionalization of OR requires additional cycles of program activities. PMID:20840985

Miller, R A; Frerichs, R R



Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

Stotz Karola



Increasing the ranks of academic researchers in mental health: a multisite approach to postdoctoral fellowship training. (United States)

This report highlights the use of multisite training for psychiatry and psychology postdoctoral fellows developing careers in academic clinical research in the field of mental health. The objective is to describe a model of training for young investigators to establish independent academic clinical research careers, including (1) program structure and eligibility, (2) program goals and development of a multisite curriculum, (3) use of technology for implementing the program across multiple sites, and (4) advantages and challenges of this multisite approach. In 2000, in collaboration with the Veterans Affairs (VA) Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers (MIRECCs), the VA Office of Academic Affiliations launched the Special Fellowship Program in Advanced Psychiatry and Psychology. Each of the 10 currently participating VA sites across the United States is affiliated with a MIRECC and an academic medical institution. In the first five years of this fellowship program, 83 fellows (34 psychiatrists and 49 psychologists) have participated. The success of this multisite approach is evidenced by the 58 fellows who have already graduated from the program: 70% have entered academic clinical research positions, and over 25 have obtained independent extramural grant support from the VA or the National Institutes of Health. Multisite training results in a greater transfer of knowledge and capitalizes on the nationwide availability of experts, creating unique networking and learning opportunities for trainees. The VA's multisite fellowship program plays a valuable role in preparing substantial numbers of psychiatry and psychology trainees for a range of academic clinical research and leadership positions in the field of mental health. PMID:20042819

O'Hara, Ruth; Cassidy-Eagle, Erin L; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Eyler, Lisa T; Gray, Heather L; Giese-Davis, Janine; Hubbard, Jeffrey; Yesavage, Jerome A



Review: Approaches to research on CO2/brine two-phase migration in saline aquifers (United States)

Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.

Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen



Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice (United States)

Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research (CBPR), with the latter being the most commonly used term. While definitions of all terms had common characteristics (e.g. participation of community in research process), they varied with regard to the emphasis placed on these characteristics. The nature of community participation in reviewed studies differed considerably from that described in theoretical models. Conclusions This study indicates the increase of participatory approaches in HIV research and underlines the need for clarification of terms and a framework providing orientation to community-academia partnerships. PMID:25630823

Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin



Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

Hofstra University (Hofstra University)



Robotic collaborative technology alliance: an open architecture approach to integrated research (United States)

The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities [1]. Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.

Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.



An asset-based approach of the Romanian research-development and innovation system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper experiments a new model of analysis for the Research-Development and Innovation (RDI field of research, namely the Asset-Based Development strategy or Appreciative Planning and Action, which unfolds at the community level the same core principle that Appreciative Inquiry Methods at the organizational level: strengths elevating, strengths combining, strengths extending systems. Following the four “D stages” (Discovery, Dream, Design and Destiny/ Deliver pattern, the authors outlined many strengths and achievements of the Romanian RDI system in order to depict the positive trends, structures and mechanism, as well as to map out the main routes towards fulfilling a new vision. Building upon ideas, opinions, studies, interviews of different representatives of the research community (managers, scientists, professors, users etc expressed in specialised literature, newspapers, journals, or in direct contact and dialogue with them, we intended this approach encompass the appreciative contributions of the main stakeholders: universities, public and private research institutes, the business sector, public policy-makers. In this complex and rather rigid RDI system, whose elements are heterogeneous institutions and communities, that interacting each other in a special environment such as a network structure, effective change is still to be brought by individuals who possess the necessary power to continue transform their mind and attitudes and thus to initiate, diffuse change and, influencing the RDI environment. This might be a viable way to improve, in a positive manner, the RDI system’s efficiency.

Steliana SANDU




Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.

Professor William Moerner




Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.




Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. Summary The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants.

Facio Flavia M



Application of EPA wetland research program approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kolka, R.K., C.C. Trettin, E.A. Nelson, C.D. Barton, and D.E. Fletcher. 2002. Application of the EPA Wetland Research Program Approach to a floodplain wetland restoration assessment. J. Env. Monitoring & Restoration 1(1):37-51. Forested wetland restoration assessment is difficult because of the timeframe necessary for the development of a forest ecosystem. The development of a forested wetland ecosystem includes the recovery of hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities. To assess forested wetland restoration projects, measures need to be developed that are sensitive to early changes in community development and are predictive of future conditions. In this study we apply the EPS's Wetland Research Program's (WRP) approach to assess the recovery of two thermally altered riparian wetland systems in South Carolina. In one of the altered wetland systems, approximately 75% of the wetland was planted with bottomland tree seedlings in an effort to hasten recovery. Individual studies addressing hydrology, soils, vegetation, and faunal communities indicate variable recovery responses.

Kolka, R., K.; Trettin, C., C.; Nelson, E., A.; Barton, C., D.; Fletcher, D., E.



Problematics of approaches to research of the use safety of ergatic control systems on railway transport  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of the protective state influence of ergatic control system on a railway transport on their use safety. Making recommendations concerning its accounting for regulations and testing during the development and implementation. Methodology. Research is executed on the base of reliability theory with the use of exponential law of refusals distribution. Findings. It is shown that confirmation of ergatic technical control facilities accordance and trains traffic arrangement to certain functional level of security is not sufficient for guaranteeing of their use safety. It is established that the protective refusal of ergatic control system does not exclude, but only postpones the dangerous condition of the system. Originality. Further development of approach and requirements to research of use safety of ergatic control system on a railway transport are received. Unlike previous they take into account the indexes of not only functional unconcern, but also faultlessness at setting of norms and proof of these systems safety. Practical value. Accounting of protective refusals of technical facilities at tests on their safety application, and also setting of norms of characteristics reliability of control systems by responsible technological processes on a railway transport in accordance with offered approach allows to increase level of their use safety in the exploitation process.

O. Y. Kamenyev



A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.


Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research - introduction to the copula approach (United States)

Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

Schölzel, C.; Friederichs, P.



Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.

Neil H. Carter



Teaching and Learning about Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences: An Experiential Learning Approach Amongst Marketing Students (United States)

There is significant evidence that student-centred approaches to learning using experiential exercises considerably enhance students' understanding of substantive theory and also aid acquisition of transferable skills, such as those pertaining to research management and investigation. We consider an experiential pedagogic approach to be…

Hopkinson, Gillian C.; Hogg, Margaret K.



Taking a Multi-pronged Approach to Expand the Reach of Climate Research Results (United States)

Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying content without compromising scientific integrity.

Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research



Subjective well-being capabilities: Bridging the gap between the capability approach and subjective well-being research  


As a result of the disenchantment with traditional income-based measures of welfare, alternative welfare measures have gained increasing attention in recent years. Two of the most prominent measures of well-being come from subjective well-being research and the (objective) capability approach. Despite their promising features, both approaches have a number of weaknesses when considered on their own. This paper sets out to examine to what extent a fusion between both approaches can overcome th...

Binder, Martin



An e-Research approach to Web-scale music analysis. (United States)

The growing quantity of digital recorded music available in large-scale resources such as the Internet archive provides an important new resource for musical analysis. An e-Research approach has been adopted in order to create a very substantive web-accessible corpus of musical analyses in a common framework for use by music scholars, students and beyond, and to establish a methodology and tooling that will enable others to add to the resource in the future. The enabling infrastructure brings together scientific workflow and Semantic Web technologies with a set of algorithms and tools for extracting features from recorded music. It has been used to deliver a prototype system, described here, that demonstrates the utility of LINKED DATA for enhancing the curation of collections of music signal data for analysis and publishing results that can be simply and readily correlated to these and other sources. This paper describes the motivation, infrastructure design and the proof-of-concept case study and reflects on emerging e-Research practice as researchers embrace the scale of the Web. PMID:21768141

De Roure, David; Page, Kevin R; Fields, Benjamin; Crawford, Tim; Downie, J Stephen; Fujinaga, Ichiro



Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research and development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. (paper)


Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1 addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2 making sure that neurophenomenological experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3 conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.




Recommendations for nanomedicine human subjects research oversight: an evolutionary approach for an emerging field. (United States)

The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, "active," and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and to integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary's Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues, as well as federal and federal-institutional coordination; and (3) gathering and analyzing information on HSR issues as they emerge in nanomedicine. HSR/N and SAC/N will create a home for HSR analysis and coordination in DHHS (the key agency for relevant HSR oversight), optimize federal and institutional approaches, and allow HSR review to evolve with greater knowledge about nanomedicine interventions and greater clarity about attributes of concern. PMID:23289677

Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A; Dresser, Rebecca S; Erdman, Arthur G; Haynes, Christy L; Hoerr, Robert A; Hogle, Linda F; Keane, Moira A; Khushf, George; King, Nancy M P; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Marchant, Gary; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Siegel, Ronald A; Wickline, Samuel



Conceptualizing and Researching the Body: A Comparison Between the Psychological and the Cultural Studies Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the body–related experiences and behaviors – the psychological and the cultural studies approaches – emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholars’ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core conceptual networks of each approach and some of the illustrative investigations carried out so far in the respective areas. Both highlight a set of significant differences on several layers, such as the external / internal localization of relevant factors of body-related experiences, the neutral / pathologically – oriented discourse on these experiences, the degree of exploration of their phenomenological realm, the more or less extended focus on the aesthetic evaluation of one’s body and the prevalent search for causes / purposes of the body experiences and uses.




User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization : A Theoretical Analysis of the Research Literature.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apple’s iPhone, Dialog’s search system and Google’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples. The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than be derived from studies of individuals or from the study of abstract minds.

HjØrland, Birger



Radiation dose optimization research: Exposure technique approaches in CR imaging – A literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on exposure technique approaches in Computed Radiography (CR) imaging as a means of radiation dose optimization in CR imaging. Specifically the review assessed three approaches: optimization of kVp; optimization of mAs; and optimization of the Exposure Indicator (EI) in practice. Only papers dating back to 2005 were described in this review. The major themes, patterns, and common findings from the literature reviewed showed that important features are related to radiation dose management strategies for digital radiography include identification of the EI as a dose control mechanism and as a “surrogate for dose management”. In addition the use of the EI has been viewed as an opportunity for dose optimization. Furthermore optimization research has focussed mainly on optimizing the kVp in CR imaging as a means of implementing the ALARA philosophy, and studies have concentrated on mainly chest imaging using different CR systems such as those commercially available from Fuji, Agfa, Kodak, and Konica-Minolta. These studies have produced “conflicting results”. In addition, a common pattern was the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) and the measurement of constant effective dose, and the use of a dose-area product (DAP) meter


An Affordable, Low-Risk Approach to Launching Research Spacecraft as Tertiary Payloads  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rapid and affordable access to space for university researchers and educators has always been a challenge. Despite the availability of lower-cost (e.g. Russian) launch vehicles, launching payloads 20 kg or less typically involves a certain minimum cost that necessitates a cost sharing arrangement among numerous parties and the handling of complex export control issues. In turn, this complicates mission scheduling and increases the risk of missing launch deadlines. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) has taken a leading role in addressing this challenge, and has successfully led a group of international spacecraft developers in manifesting one 1-kg Canadian spacecraft, two 1-kg Danish spacecraft, and one 3-kg American spacecraft on a 2003 Eurockot launch. This paper outlines the approach taken by UTIAS/SFL in negotiating and securing launches for its own spacecraft in collaboration with other spacecraft developers. A summary of how this approach is applied in planning and coordinating the June 2003 Eurockot launch is also presented.

Pranajaya, F.M.; Zee, R.E.




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is based on the number papers presented at the Conference “MODERN TRENDS IN THE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND PLASTICITY OF THE BRAIN ” (MoscowDecember 2-3, 2010 and is generalization of the of the results of a long period research, conducting by the authors which studied manual , sensory-motor, structural-anatomical and cognitive asymmetries . The article is devoted to the comparative evaluation of methods for testing the asymmetry of the human brain, including and its manual derivative. This article discusses some approaches that used traditional methods of determination of the dominant and subdominant limbs and also domination in activation of the sensory organs as well. It is clear shown that in the existed studies of asymmetry there is still no any standardization of the basic principles of lateralization. The conventional approach to manual and other forms of asymmetry is largely contrary to the basic principles of “physiology of functional systems” and “physiology of activity” which was established by Bernstein. According to abovementioned basic principles the control of motor and sensory systems largely depends upon the physiological states on the «periphery». The authors are not able to give satisfactory answers to the issues put in this article yet. Nevertheless, in their work, they set the foundation for future studies of asymmetry as an integral and multifacet occurrence, which can not be completely divorced from the theory of functional systems. However, even these results may form the starting point for development of more reliable approaches for assessing of functional asymmetry of a human body. The authors hope that their findings and conclusions will be useful for to specialists in the field of physiology, neurology, psychiatry and psychology.

Gutnik B



A GIS approach to urban heat island research: The case of Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.

Lo, Chor Pong



A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

Kercel, S.W.



Introduction of a routine quan/qual approach into research DMPK: experiences and evolving strategies. (United States)

After graduating with an Oceanography degree from Swansea University, Lloyd has spent over 20 years in the field of bioanalysis and metabolite profiling. He started his career in large pharma at Wyeth UK, where he was involved in setting up the first GC and LC-MS/MS systems for both QC and early DMPK assays, employing EI/CI, thermospray, and the then new electrospray ionization techniques. Lloyd then joined Celltech, now UCB, where he is primarily tasked with metabolite profiling by LC-MS and NMR to support both early research projects and late-stage clinical studies. The application of liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative (quan/qual) analysis has gained momentum across a range of different scientific arenas in recent years. The ability to acquire high quality quantitative data, whilst also capturing qualitative data for either parallel or retrospective analysis, is a powerful resource, especially in view of ever-reducing cycle times, laboratory space and budgets. The quan/qual approach employing a Q-Exactive™ Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer has been successfully introduced into UCB's research DMPK department. This article describes our experiences in introducing quan/qual, issues that we discovered in establishing this new working paradigm, the evolution of the strategy and its future potential. PMID:25534790

King, Lloyd; Kotian, Apoorva; Jairaj, Mark



Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

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Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira



Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited.

Nadkarni Prakash M



Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) on River and Coastal Restoration—a Center Approach to Creating a Unique Research Experience for Undergraduates (United States)

At the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED), the NSF-sponsored REU on River and Coastal Restoration provides students an intensive research experience in a center environment that incorporates many aspects of the typical graduate student experience at an NSF-funded Science and Technology Center. These include a team-oriented approach in which students work closely with one another while completing their individual research projects, team-mentoring that brings together NCED faculty, staff, and graduate students to meet students’ advising needs, and an approach to research that incorporates field research, laboratory experiments, and an introduction to computational and quantitative methodologies. In addition, students' individual research projects constitute a contribution to larger ongoing field campaigns, allowing them, often for the first time, to understand the role of their own research in a larger context. Students join one of two teams: Team Marmot participates in an ongoing campaign to document the geomorphic response of the Sandy River to the 2007 removal of the Marmot Dam; Team Delta participates in research on coastal restoration of the Mississippi River Delta. After an orientation period at our headquarters, the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory in Minnesota, each team spends the majority of their summer in the field. The teams are then reunited for poster sessions at the end of the summer at which they share the outcomes of their research with one another and the larger NCED and University of Minnesota communities.

Dalbotten, D. M.; Campbell, K. M.; Hill, K. M.; Podolak, C.; Bevington, A.; Holm, G. O.; Wilcock, P.; Twilley, R.



Facilitating the implementation and efficacy of health-promoting schools via an action-research approach in Taiwan. (United States)

Taiwan launched its evidence-based health-promoting school (HPS) program via an action-research approach in 2010. The program featured a collaborative partnership between schools, local education authorities and university support networks. This study was focused on examining whether an HPS action-research approach was effective in advancing HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy in Taiwan. In 2011, questionnaires were sent to 900 sample schools in Taiwan. A total of 621 schools returned the questionnaire, including 488 primary schools and 133 middle schools. The response rate was 69%. This study compared the difference in HPS implementation status, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy between those schools that had implemented action-research HPS (138 schools) and those that had not (483 schools). The univariate analysis results indicated that the HPS implementation levels for components that included school health policies, physical environment, social environment, teaching activities and school-community relations were significantly higher in action-research schools than in non-action-research schools. Teachers in action-research schools reported significantly higher levels of HPS impact and HPS efficacy than non-action-research schools. The multivariate analysis results indicated that after controlling for school level and HPS funding, the HPS action-research approach was significantly positively related to greater levels of HPS implementation, perceived HPS impact and perceived HPS efficacy. PMID:23110766

Chang, Fong-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Hsing; Liao, Li-Ling; Niu, Yu-Zhen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Chou, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Tzu-Chau



Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

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Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1 The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2 Compartment/network models, (3 Mesocosm experiments and (4 Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE. The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the system’s metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc. and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc. under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1 la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2 modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models, (3 experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y

Matthias Wolff



How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams



A Bayesian approach to unanticipated events frequency estimation in the decision making context of a nuclear research reactor facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The Bayes’ theorem is employed to support the decision making process in a research reactor. • The intention is to calculate parameters related to unanticipated occurrence of events. • Frequency, posterior distribution and confidence limits are calculated. • The approach is demonstrated using two real-world numerical examples. • The approach can be used even if no failures have been observed. - Abstract: Research reactors are considered as multi-tasking environments having the multiple roles of commercial, research and training facilities. Yet, reactor managers have to make decisions, frequently with high economic impact, based on little available knowledge. A systematic approach employing the Bayes’ theorem is proposed to support the decision making process in a research reactor environment. This approach is characterized by low level complexity, appropriate for research reactor facilities. The methodology is demonstrated through the study of two characteristic events that lead to unanticipated system shutdown, namely the de-energization of the control rod magnet and the flapper valve opening. The results obtained demonstrate the suitability of the Bayesian approach in the decision making context when unanticipated events are considered


The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program.

Dimitrov Vihren



Cultural effectiveness in research: a summary report of a panel session entitled "Engaging Populations at Risk". (United States)

This paper summarizes two presentations and a panel discussion engaging health scientists, educators, and community outreach professionals who have drawn upon their experiences as researchers and agricultural workers to describe research challenges related to access, trust, language, culture, and participant benefit. These presentations and discussion took place at the New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008. An overview of changing demographics of the western agricultural workforce was provided followed by a presentation of the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles including cultural considerations. Using an interview format, the panel participants discussed challenges related to involving members of vulnerable agricultural worker populations throughout the research process. Lessons learned and recommendations were explored and successes identified. PMID:19894159

Levin, Jeffrey L; Doyle, Eva I; Gilmore, Karen H; Wickman, Amanda J; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Huff, Sharon D



Improving Maternity Care in the Dominican Republic: A Pilot Study of a Community-Based Participatory Research Action Plan by an International Healthcare Team. (United States)

This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488

Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J



Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.

Gliddon Terry



Science and Technology Research and Development in Support to ITER and the Broader Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Magnetic Fusion Energy has now entered its development era that steers the activities of traditional fusion laboratories. Recent achievements in fusion science and technology in support to both the ITER and the Broader Approach (BA) projects are reported here. On top of the direct contribution to ITER and JT-60SA procurement packages, many scientific activities, aiming at reducing risks in operation of ITER and BA, have been carried out using the CEA dedicated in-house facilities (Tore Supra tokamak, ICRH test facility for ITER, remote operated diagnostics, actively cooled PFC qualification, cryogenics test facilities from strand to sub size superconducting conductors characterization, etc). The paper reviews the research and development actions taken in the past two years by CEA in this context, in order to ensure an ITER safe operation (quench detection, disruption mitigation, surface monitoring of plasma facing components), qualify the long pulse RF Heating and Current Drive systems, and progress in MHD, turbulence and transport first principle simulations. A fully documented project, turning Tore Supra into a long pulse actively cooled diverted plasma test facility, is now being proposed to the ITER partners. This evolution allows the R and D and commissioning tests of actual ITER actively cooled tungsten divertor elements under ITER-relevant edge plasma conditions, during the ITER procurement phase, and targets its risk reduction. In parallel, the cont its risk reduction. In parallel, the contribution to the Broader Approach projects is shown to be complemented by an ambitious programme on integrated modeling of the main scenarios and an assessment of EC power needed for NTM stabilization. (author)



Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.

Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.



The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level. (United States)

Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.



78 FR 35323 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Gender-Informed Research (Women): Enhanced Approaches to... (United States)

...awardee must provide descriptive text interpreting all...your application is for Research and Policy Formulation...gender-responsive research and knowledge and can...and access relevant research resources and organize...solicitation. Project Design and...



Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

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Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel Ghini



A 'bottom-up' approach to aetiological research in autism spectrum disorders  

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Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs – are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this ‘proof of principle’ paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.




Research on Logistics Network Infrastructure Based on HCA and DEA-PCA Approach  

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Full Text Available Logistics Network Infrastructure (LNI is an important area of Logistics Infrastructure Capability (LIC. The connotation of LNI is analyzed in this paper. Compared with the extensive research on LNI in developed world, empirical work is still rare in China. In this paper the theory of LNI is firstly overviewed. Then a new evaluation index system for LNI evaluation is set up which contains factors that reflect economic development level, transportation accessibility and turnover volume of freight traffic. Thirdly, an empirical study is carried out by using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA approach to classify LNI into 4 clusters for 25 cities in Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Fourthly, according to the characteristics of the 4 clusters, suggestions are proposed for improving their LNI. Finally, after comparing different LNI of 25 cities in Yangtze River Delta Region of China, this paper focuses on that different LNI including Hub, Central Distribution Center & Cross Docking Center, Regional Distribution Center or Distribution Center should be build reasonably in order to meet the customer’s requirement in the 4 different cluster cities.

Changbing Jiang



Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.



Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discus

Matthias, Wolff.





In constructivist approach, teachers are of great importance in helping students construct their pre-knowledge, finding out and removing students’ misconceptions acquired through their previous experiences, and setting up a learning environment. Therefore, it is thought to be necessary to determine the opinions of the pre-service science teachers, who will apply constructivist approach in their professional life, toward constructivist approach. In this study, “the constructivist approach...

I?nel, Didem; Evrekli?, Ertug?; Keserci?og?lu, Teoman; Balim, Ali Gu?nay



Daisies on the Road: Tracing the Political Potential of Our Postmodernist, Feminist Approach to Life Story Research (United States)

In this article, the authors trace the possible political potential of their post-modernist, feminist approach to life story research with people with the label of "learning difficulties." As a self-advocate with an ally, they define tagging along with each other as discovery science. The authors reflect on how they openly and critically write…

Roets, Griet; Goedgeluck, Marijke



Applying Research to Teacher Education: The University of Utah's Collaborative Approach. First Year Preliminary Report. (United States)

In 1983, the National Institute of Education funded the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development to conduct a study, Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE). The ARTE:RUETE study's purpose is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current research

Driscoll, Amy


Information Work Analysis: An Approach to Research on Information Interactions and Information Behaviour in Context (United States)

Introduction: A work roles and role theory-based approach to conceptualise human information activity, denoted information work analysis is discussed. The present article explicates the approach and its special characteristics and benefits in comparison to earlier methods of analysing human information work. Method: The approach is discussed in…

Huvila, Isto



Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station (United States)

The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.



Graded Approach and Practices for the Mechanical Components of French Research Reactor Projects. IAEA Sub-Programme on Research Reactor Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The graded approach has been implemented for a long time for research reactor projects in France. The purpose of this paper is to focus on their implementation for mechanical components and the associated lessons learned from research reactor projects and operations. The presentation and the full paper will present the implementation of the graded approach, the main requirements associated with the safety classes, the principles of their implementation into the design and construction codes, the principles of interaction with the nuclear pressure equipment regulations and the provisions taken into account in the design and construction code and the benefits of these practices and the lessons learned in this field on the basis of some examples. (author)


Approach to development of high flux research reactor with pebble-bed core  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The research nuclear reactor of a basin-type IRT with the designed power of 1 MW was put into operation in 'Sosny' settlement not far from Minsk-city in the Republic of Belarus in 1962. In 1971 after its modernization the power was increased up to 4 MW and maximum density of neutron flux in the core was: Thermal 5·1013 neutr./cm2.s Fast (E>0.8 MeV) 2·1013 neutr./cm2.s The reactor has been used for carrying out investigations in the field of solid-state physics, radiation construction materials, radiobiology, gaseous chemically reacting coolants and others. After the Chernobyl NPP accident, in the former USSR the requirements on safety of nuclear reactors have become sufficiently stricter. As to some parameters these requirements became the same as for reactors of nuclear power plants. In this connection the reactor in 'Sosny' settlement did not answer these new requirements by a number of performances such as seismicity of building, efficiency of control and protection system, corrosion in the reactor vessel and others, and it was shutdown in 1987 and its decommissioning was performed during 1988-1999. At the Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research -'SOSNY' have been carried out investigations on feasibility of creation of the research reactor with pebble-bed core. The concept of such reactor supposes using the following technical approaches: - Using as fuel the brought sphere micro fuel elements with the ght sphere micro fuel elements with the diameter of 500-750 mkm to an industrial level; - Organization of reactor operation in the regime with minimum possible fueling with 235U; - Implementation of hydraulic loading - unloading of micro fuel elements with the frequency of one or several days. Physical calculations of the core were carried out with the help of MCU-RFFI program based on the Monte-Carlo method. Two configurations of the pebble-bed core in the high flux reactor have been considered. The first configuration is the core with a neutron trap and an annular fuel layer formed with charging of micro fuel elements, and the second one has the annular fuel layer formed with cylindrical fuel assemblies containing one-section charging of micro fuel elements of rectangular shape inside. The results obtained and available experimental data showed that for reactor configuration with thin (3-5 cm thickness) annular fuel layer under organization of heat removal with radial circulation of the coolant (D2O) the steady heat removal can be provided at energy release in the layer of micro-fuel elements of 10 MW/l. Here, the maximum temperature on the surface of sphere micro-fuel elements is lower by more than 100 deg. C the temperature of boiling coolant. In dependence of combination of internal and external moderators and charging with 235U the flux of thermal neutrons of =2x1016 neutron/(cm2.s) can be reached in the trap. For reaching maximum thermal neutron fluxes the reactor operation in the regime of minimum possible loading with 235U is necessary to be organized and, relatively, with frequent, in one or two days, refueling. Such refueling due to a number of reasons is impossible in reactors with rod or plate fuel elements, but can be reached quickly enough in reactors with sphere micro fuel elements with hydro transportation of micro fuel elements. (author)


Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research (United States)

Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

Roth, Wolff-Michael



Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches (United States)

A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter



Case Study of a Research Intervention: The University of Utah's Collaborative Approach. (United States)

A report is presented on the progress of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study. The purpose of the study is to develop preservice instruction incorporating current research findings on effective instruction and effective schools and to assess the impact of the…

Driscoll, Amy


[Health services research and geriatrics: deficits and research approaches using the example of colorectal carcinoma and anaemia]. (United States)

The number of elderly people with cancer will increase within the next decades. Cancer will surpass cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death. In comparison to younger patients elderly patients with cancer are less often treated within the scope of clinical trials. Data from health care research demonstrate that the treatment of elderly patients is less often guideline-directed than that of younger patients. This will be demonstrated in more detail for patients with colorectal carcinoma and for patients with anaemia. Older people are reluctant to participate in programs for the early detection of colorectal carcinoma and its precursors. They less often receive adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III disease, despite the fact that adjuvant chemotherapy is no more toxic than in younger patients and equally effective and therefore recommended in the guidelines. Compared to younger patients, elderly patients less often receive palliative chemotherapy in stage IV disease. Anaemia has a prevalence of about 10% in people aged 65 and more; the reported values are highly variable. There is a lack of data on the grade of evaluation. Also, there are no diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines in Germany. Health services research will play an important role in assessing deficits in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer diseases in the elderly and in determining the goals for future efforts in health care and research. PMID:18269048

Wedding, Ulrich; Höffken, Klaus; Friedrich, Christoph; Pientka, Ludger



Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' length of stay in emergency department: an action research study. (United States)

Over the past decade, clinical governance approach with aims to improve the quality of health services has been proposed in Iran. Considering the obvious problems especially patients' length of stay (LOS) in the emergency departments (EDs); the present study has been carried out with the purpose of Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' LOS in the one of the largest medical centers in the country. After the problem was specified by the 17 interviews with employees and managers of the ED; the emergency clinical governance committee was formed by two academic researchers and seven ED staff (key participants) that had the most involvement with the subject of study. The activities of the committee, including planning, acting, observing and reflecting, was organized by using participatory action research approach and action research cycle (Kemmis 1995). During this time, three formal meetings with key participants were held in 6-month intervals. Monthly records of patients' average LOS and interview with ED staff were used to analyze the findings. The research was completed with two cycles in one year. Committee members took the following actions. As a result, the patients' LOS reduced from 2.68 days to 1.73 days. Make regular patients visits by medical groups especially orthopedists and neurologists; Decision making about patients situation by emergency physicians and transferring patients to the relevant units by bed managers; Refusing to admit elective patients during overcrowding times; to regulate the list of patients requiring ICU by anesthesiologists. Prolonged LOS can be due to various causes and a team approach, which is one of the requirements of clinical governance approach, is needed to manage it. The results showed that the multidisciplinary team could make positive changes and reduce LOS in emergency setting. PMID:24659072

Salehi, Tahmine; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammadi, Eesa



A new Architectural Approach to Energy Efficient Design for Nuclear and Research Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a building type, nuclear and research laboratories demands our attention because they represent the spirit and culture of our era and attracts some of the greatest intellectual and economic recourses of our society. Unfortunately, nuclear and research laboratories are also a prodigious consumer of natural resources and energy intensive. for example, research laboratories typically consume 5 to 10 times more energy per square meter than the office buildings. so, the challenge for architects, engineers, and other building professionals is to design and construct the next generation of nuclear and research laboratories with energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and sustainable design practices in mind. this parer describes some energy efficient strategies for designing and equipping the new generation of nuclear and research laboratories. it introduces the basic issues associated with energy consumption in the nuclear and research laboratories, summarizes the opportunities to improve and optimize energy performance during each phase of the design, and operation of nuclear and research laboratories


Evolution of an innovative approach to the delivery of in-person training in the responsible conduct of research. (United States)

The responsible conduct of research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case-based discussion and in-person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to National Institutes of Health-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250

Schmidt, Karen L; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher



Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, th identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)


Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.


The Biological Efficiency of the Petten Research Reactor Beam on Human Lymphocytes (Methodological Approach)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present preliminary results of examination of the biological efficiency of the Petten Research Reactor mixed beam with respect to 250 kV X-rays for the induction of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Human blood samples or isolated lymphocytes were irradiated by the beam from Research Reactor in ECN Petten, Netherlands and dose response relationships for the level of damage induced were investigated. In order to check any enhancement effect due to the process of boron neutron capture, chemical pretreatment with boric acid or mercaptoborane (containing boron-10 ions) was done. The estimation of the DNA damage was done with the use of a single cell gel-electrophoresis method (SCGE), to asses the frequency of chromosomal aberrations culturing of lymphocytes for the evaluation of cytogenetic damage was performed. Abnormal behavior of blood samples during a culture procedure and abnormally low metaphases frequency was noticed. During the analysis of DNA damage by SCGE assay we have also found the abnormalities in shapes and brightness of investigated comets. Part of the studied lymphocytes was bigger than others and had much bigger fraction of the DNA in tail. Very poor dose response relationship was observed in those results. From this reason, our paper presents the methodological approach and discussion of the results obtained and also studies on the parameters reflecting the level of the DNA in human lymphocytes. In order to ele DNA in human lymphocytes. In order to eliminate outstanding comets (fluffy) we measured for all our results the relation of the fraction of DNA in tail to the length of the comet tail. The value of this ratio usually fluctuated in range of 0.1 to 0.70. For the fluffy comets mentioned before the tDNA/TL ratio was generally about 0.9, or even more than 1.0 that means that the percentage of fraction of DNA in tail was higher than in usually seen comets with such a tail length. After analysis of distribution of frequency cells with various tDNA/TL ratio, we decided to establish 0.8 as cut off value for the filtration software to eliminate the outstanding results. Elimination of the fluffy comets corrected our results and let observe various dose response relationships for various treatments (X-rays, modified beam of reactor neutrons in normal and boron pretreated cells). Applied correction usually leaded to improvement of statistics. Our additional studies showed that appearance of outstanding comets is also observed as results of disturbance of suspension medium. We have achieved the similar fluffy comets studying with application of the Comet assay the influence of hypotonic solution in cell suspension on comets shape after electrophoresis. (author)


Technologies and experimental approaches at the National Institutes of Health Botanical Research Centers  


Many similarities exist between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Botanical Research Centers. The technologies used at the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chr...

Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Cefalu, William T.; Chilton, Floyd H.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Raskin, Ilya; Breemen, Richard B.; Weaver, Connie M.



Obstacles and approaches to clinical database research: experience at the University of California, San Francisco.  


With increasing availability of clinical data in machine-readable form, and decreasing cost of storing and manipulating that data, retrospective research using clinical databases has become more feasible. Nonetheless, much of the potential for clinical research using these data remains unrealized. Obstacles to clinical database research include difficulty accessing data, difficulty using retrospective data to draw valid inferences about medical tests and treatments, and a shortage of investig...

Newman, T. B.; Brown, A.; Easterling, M. J.



Segment of the action research in the Reggio Emilia educational approach  


At contemporary educational research the paradigmatic clusters are often intertwined and they overlap. Within the research individual aspects of a particular problem are differently focused. A quality paradigm comprises interpretive as well as action research, whereby the goal of the former is to mainly comprehend and explain developments in the society, whereas the task of the latter is to try and change them, as well. In the article particular segments of the action resear...

Jug, Anita



Enhancing Interdisciplinary Human System Risk Research Through Modeling and Network Approaches (United States)

NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) supports research to reduce human health and performance risks inherent in future human space exploration missions. Understanding risk outcomes and contributing factors in an integrated manner allows HRP research to support development of efficient and effective mitigations from cross-disciplinary perspectives, and to enable resilient human and engineered systems for spaceflight. The purpose of this work is to support scientific collaborations and research portfolio management by utilizing modeling for analysis and visualization of current and potential future interdisciplinary efforts.

Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark



Transdisciplinarity among tobacco harm-reduction researchers: a network analytic approach. (United States)

Progress in tobacco control and other areas of health research is thought to be heavily influenced by the extent to which researchers are able to work with each other not only within, but also across disciplines. This study provides an examination of the extent to which researchers in the area of tobacco harm reduction work together. Specifically, data were collected in 2005 from a national group of 67 top tobacco-control researchers from eight broadly defined disciplines representing 17 areas of expertise. Network analysis was utilized to examine the extent to which these researchers were engaged in research that was interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary, based on the outcome or product attained. Findings revealed that interdisciplinary network ties were much denser than transdisciplinary ties, but researchers in some disciplines were more likely to work across disciplines than others, especially when synergistic outcomes resulted. The study demonstrates for the first time how tobacco-control researchers work together, providing direction for policy officials seeking to encourage greater transdisciplinarity. The study also demonstrates the value of network-analysis methods for understanding research relationships in one important area of health care. PMID:18619397

Provan, Keith G; Clark, Pamela I; Huerta, Timothy



Trends in the theoretical and research methodological approaches applied in doctoral studies in information and knowledge management: an exploration of ten years of research in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past ten years have seen the field of information and knowledge management develop and implement new and improved technologies. Because of the ease with which information is exchanged the contribution to information overload has increased exponentially and the need for information and knowledge management is more real than ever before. Research in itself is a science of knowledge creation that continuously evolves in line with newly developed theories and research methodologies. An investigation of the theories and research methodologies that doctoral theses, completed in South Africa, ascribed to over the past ten years were conducted. Search strings containing 'information management', 'knowledge management' and 'information and knowledge management' were searched within citation, abstract and subject fields. A sample of 30 theses from a possible 47 in the relevant population was identified. Qualitative and mixed methods research design was favoured, making use of case studies and surveys, but paying little attention to theoretical approaches or paradigms. The boundaries between disciplines are continuously re-defined, new disciplines evolve and traditional disciplines suffer under the pressures of changing problems of the world. The importance of research in the field of information and knowledge management being grounded in the most recent scientific thought is emphasized.

M. A. Mearns



Negotiation on the assessment of research articles with academic reviewers: Application of peer-review approach of teaching  


This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor revisions, major revisions and reject) were collected. A commonly practised peer-review approach in teaching was applied to analyse the data and to ident...

Kumar, P.; Rafiq, Mi; Imam, B.



Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009 and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies. The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a advancing knowledge, b capacity building, c informing decision-making, d health benefits, e broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social are often valued differently in different models.

Pistotti Vanna



Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended.

Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L., E-mail: [American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009–10 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)



Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended


Transforming Supervisors? A Critique of Post-Liberal Approaches to Research Supervision (United States)

Preparation for research supervision has assumed greater importance in academic departments of universities with the increase in the number and diversity of both research candidates and supervisors and the financial incentives for on-time completions. Over the past decade a body of literature by both academics and academic developers has emerged…

Firth, Ann; Martens, Erika




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the time passes by, people are seeing more and more research activities in various fields including medicine, pure science, and technology and so on. The research works are published by the researchers in various journals and conferences, which are made publically available by the publishers. Though such research is spread all over the world, there should be a distinct pattern for this, which suggest that different geographical areas observes distinct trend towards particular direction of research. Government and the other state organizations periodically need adaptation of certain new technology or process for improving or implementing certain policies. Such new requirements are generally met by calling for researchers to join in hand with the organization with their proposal. Filtering such proposals also takes a hectic schedule and thorough understanding of the researchers profile and to gauge his ability to complete the work. In order to solve this problem we emphasize on extracting meaningful information from the web through web mining techniques that helps understanding the region wise trends in research domain activities and further extract more meaningful information like patterns that suggest the progress in a particular area and prominent contributors in the area.

Dr vijay Singh Rathore



Conducting Research with the Disability Community: A Rights-Based Approach (United States)

This article explores philosophical and theoretical frameworks that are useful for the conduct of research with people with disabilities. It then uses these frameworks as a basis for discussion of research practices, with a specific focus on differences that occur because of specific impairments and various cultural meanings of disability. The…

Munger, Kelly M.; Mertens, Donna M.



HIV/AIDS and Employment Research: A Need for an Integrative Approach (United States)

This article provides a reflection on the three articles that compose the Major Contribution on HIV/AIDS and employment research. It highlights the merits of the contribution in the broader context of HIV/AIDS employment research and recommends future directions for this area of inquiry, including theory integration, an investigation of HIV health…

Conyers, Liza Marie



Time Is Precious: Variable- and Event-Centred Approaches to Process Analysis in CSCL Research (United States)

Although temporality is a key characteristic of the core concepts of CSCL--interaction, communication, learning, knowledge building, technology use--and although CSCL researchers have privileged access to process data, the theoretical constructs and methods employed in research practice frequently neglect to make full use of information relating…

Reimann, Peter



Preliminary Characterization and Analysis of the Designs and Research-Manufacturing Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.

Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong



[Resources and their meaning for caregivers--a gap in research? Health sociological and empirical approach to a hitherto neglected field of research]. (United States)

Family caregiving changes everyday life. Caregivers deal with the new situation in different ways and they feel more or less stressful. Actually there is little knowledge about possible causes of this situation. But there is an assumption that using varied resources and coping strategies lead to differences in health outcomes and well-being. As caregiving is a phase of life with special stressors, the caregiver needs specific resources to cope with these requirements. According to Antonovsky (1997) and Hobfoll (1989), this research asks which resources caregivers poses and use to deal with the unusual situation. On the basis of a salutogenetic and resource-orientated theoretical approach and additional qualitative analysis of interviews important resources for caregivers will be identified. The results lead on the one hand to the construction of an assessment instrument and on the other hand facilitate nurses to get to know more about the individual approach of resources and their specific meaning for caregivers. PMID:22661063

Mischke, Claudia



Individual Project-Based Approach to Develop Research Aptitude in Manufacturing Engineering Students (United States)

This paper chronicles experiences with individual research-paper projects in teaching a senior level course on Polymer Properties and Processing to manufacturing engineering majors. Polymer Properties and Processing is one of five elective courses in the area of processes. Students complete courses on 'Materials Engineering' and 'Materials Selection and Processes' prior to taking this course. The course exposes students to current trends in plastics and composites industry as a means to prepare them for graduate study. Accordingly, in this course rather than assigning team based projects, research paper topics were assigned on an individual basis. Thirty percent weight was given to this research activity. Students were systematically prepared for taking up the research paper activity. Demonstrations were organized in the research laboratories in the Chemistry department pertaining to basic polymer characterization techniques. These techniques include GPC, TGA, and DMA. Three industrial visits were organized to expose students to injection molding, extrusion, and carboncomposite manufacturing processes. Students also viewed videos prepared by the 'Society of Manufacturing Engineers' in the areas of processing. The instructor suggested a few important research topics. These topics included polymer nanocomposites; bio-based polymers and composites; and polymers in NVH applications. Students were also encouraged to bring their own topic ideas. Students were expected to refer handbooks, magazines, research articles, and web sources. They were encouraged to visit industry and research labs within and outside university. A minimum of 15 core technical references were expected from different sources. Students prepared a 10-12 page research paper and delivered a 10 minute presentation in front of the entire class. Two external evaluators with broad industrial experience were invited to assess the performance. Course evaluations revealed very promising results and provided concrete feedback. In fact, out of ten students, three have decided to pursue careers in composite materials.This paper details the pedagogy and the research paper activity.

Sriraman, Vedraman


Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and inter-generational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively, knowingly, or reflexively; and their activities cannot be understood through the use of a single method, but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone



A demulsifier alliance : Syncrude - Champion alliance, joint research and development approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlined the joint research and development initiative between an oil producer, a service company, and academia to develop better demulsifiers for the oil sands industry. The alliance was formed to address the challenge of rising chloride levels resulting from mined bitumens. The presentation outlined the research and development efforts regarding froth treatment product water. An unbundled model for financial gains was presented with reference to variable raw material costs (aromatic naphtha, methanol and active demulsifier) and controllable costs such as manufacturing, labour, transportation, and research and development costs. 5 figs.

Anstruther, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Khouri, R. [Champion Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)



Through the lens of Merleau-Ponty: advancing the phenomenological approach to nursing research. (United States)

Phenomenology has proved to be a popular methodology for nursing research. I argue, however, that phenomenological nursing research could be strengthened by greater attention to its philosophical underpinnings. Many research reports devote more page space to procedure than to the philosophy that purportedly guided it. The philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty is an excellent fit for nursing, although his work has received less attention than that of Husserl and Heidegger. In this paper, I examine the life and thought of Merleau-Ponty, with emphasis on concepts, such as perception, intentionality and embodiment, which have particular relevance to the discipline of nursing. PMID:15659091

Thomas, Sandra P



An eight component decision-making model for problem gambling: a systems approach to stimulate integrative research. (United States)

Problem Gambling (PG) represents a serious problem for affected individuals, their families and society in general. Previous approaches to understanding PG have been confined to only a subset of the psychobiological factors influencing PG. We present a model that attempts to integrate potential causal factors across levels of organization, providing empirical evidence from the vast literature on PG and complimentary literatures in decision-making and addiction. The model posits that components are arranged systematically to bias decisions in favor of either immediately approaching or avoiding targets affording the opportunity for immediate reward. Dopamine, Testosterone and Endogenous Opioids favor immediate approach, while Serotonin and Cortisol favor inhibition. Glutamate is involved in associative learning between stimuli and promotes the approach response through its link to the DA reward system. GABA functions to monitor performance and curb impulsive decision-making. Finally, while very high levels of Norepinephrine can induce arousal to an extent that is detrimental to sound decision-making, the reactivity of the Norepinephrine system and its effects of Cortisol levels can shift the focus towards long-term consequences, thereby inhibiting impulsive decisions. Empirical evidence is provided showing the effects of each component on PG and decision-making across behavioural, neuropsychological, functional neuroimaging and genetic levels. Last, an effect size analysis of the growing pharmacotherapy literature is presented. It is hoped that this model will stimulate multi-level research to solidify our comprehension of biased decision-making in PG and suggest pharmacological and psychological approaches to treatment. PMID:21191637

Nussbaum, David; Honarmand, Kimia; Govoni, Richard; Kalahani-Bargis, Martina; Bass, Stephanie; Ni, Xinqun; Laforge, Kaitlyn; Burden, Andrea; Romero, Kristoffer; Basarke, Sonya; Courbasson, Christine; Deamond, Wade



Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.

Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott



The geosystem approach in complex researches 30-kilometer zone of the projected power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the conducted scientific research works the electronic map of geosystems of 30 kilometre zones of the atomic power station (M 1:50000) to be used in design workings-out is made. (authors)


RA research reactor in 'Vinca' Institute-approach to the decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper short overview of decommissioning process of research reactors according to IAEA standards and world practice is given. Basic technical characteristics and details of operational history of the RA research reactor in Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences are present. The main nuclear and radiation safety problems related to the RA reactor facility are defined and the outlines of the future decommissioning project are proposed. (author)


Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  


In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the dif...

Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Jebamalar Tamilselvi, Dr J.



Connecting Generations. A Research and Learning Approach for Media Education and Audience Studies  


Based on theoretical and methodological orientations from authors’ previous research on media and generations, this article presents a research and learning process involving supervised field work conducted by graduate students from a Master Seminar on Media Studies at FCSH, New University of Lisbon. Acting as facilitators of focus groups composed of older participants, exploring intergenerational and intragenerational differences and similarities that emerge from different age cohorts, and...

Ponte, Cristina; Aroldi, Piermarco



Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Project VII: systems analysis specifications of computational approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational methodology is presented for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design


Some research results by risk-inform approaches for NPP safety and operational efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Article is the presentation of the same name monograph, which is planned to be issued. In the article the perspective problems of further development risk-oriented approach (ROA) for the grounding and realization of measures on increase of safety and operational efficiency of NPP are considered. Unlike the traditional approach for the ROA, mean due the definition of probabilistic and/or deterministic methods of risk parameters, as criterion functions essence and the measure of the estimation are defined by the solution of specific problem in nuclear field. The ROA application allows essentially expanding opportunities of the substantiations and realizations of measures on safety and operational efficiency increase of NPP


Taxonomy, Definition, Approaches, Benefits, Reusability Levels, Factors and Adaption of Software Reusability: A Review of the Research Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software reusability is an attribute that refers to the expected reuse potential of a software component. Software reuse not only improves productivity but also has a positive impact on the quality and maintainability of software products. The move toward reuse is becoming so widespread that it has even changed software industry ’s vocabulary. This study reviews the research literature on the concept of Software Reusability (SR. This study was conducted to provide a systematic review of the literature identify the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with the content of software reusability, a literature search was conducted on several electronic databases. Studies published from the years 1977-2013 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology intervention to software reusability. In addition to that, a systematic review has been investigated on software reusability approaches and benefits. A deep investigation has been conducted on the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. The concept of software reusability comprised of 11 approaches includes, design patterns, component-based development, application frameworks, legacy system wrapping, service-oriented systems, application product lines, COTS integration, program libraries, program generators, aspect-oriented software development and configurable vertical applications. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communication technology over the last decade, there is a limited evidence suggesting the adaption of software reusability. This study will help the information and communication technology industry to clarify how software reusability can benefit them by adapting the software reusability approaches.

Ibraheem Y.Y. Ahmaro



Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss and present results of the research work undertaken as well as further expected, important spin-off applications of DMP devices.


Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework. These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE and NewGeneris (IP.

Casteleyn Ludwine



Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework. These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE and NewGeneris (IP.

Dumez Birgit



Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of neuromarketing research techniques in the evolution of neurosciences and to explain how these techniques are used in market research. One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. This is an obligation they have both towards the beneficiaries – the companies providing products or services – and towards their consumers as well. This challenge has always been a subject of dispute between the advocates and critics of neuromarketing. Thus, this paper deals with this and other controversial topics. It starts with analysing a traditional persuasion model that has inherently been influenced by the neuromarketing research features. Then, it addresses the positive and negative aspects that subjects might have to face throughout neuromarketing studies, always bearing in mind the current Ethical Code of Conduct issued by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association (NMSBA. An exploratory online research helped the authors test several hypotheses on ethical issues that neuromarketing companies have to handle. The research was performed on 67 neuromarketing companies from around the world that are members of the NMSBA. The findings are relevant both to researchers and neuromarketing companies, even the Romanian ones, who can use them used as insights.

Nicolae Al. Pop



Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study (United States)

Adopting a new teaching approach is often a daunting task especially if one is an early adopter in a limited-resource environment. This article describes the challenges encountered and the strategies used in pilot testing a blended instructional method in a large size class within the college of education at a medium-sized university. The main…

Kenney, Jane; Newcombe, Ellen



Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches. Research in Curriculum and Instruction (United States)

"Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches" focuses on many of the major innovations developed over the past 100 years by noted educators to assist students in the study and analysis of key social issues that impact their lives and society. This book complements earlier books that address other aspects of studying and…

Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.



A Functional Approach to Research on Content-Based Language Learning: Recasts in Casual Explanations. (United States)

Analyzes the grammatical scaffolding by teacher and second language learner of causal explanations that form part of work by a group of second language students in a project on the human brain. Shows how a systemic functional linguistics analysis reveals different aspects of recast data sequences than does a focus on form approach. (Author/VWL)

Mohan, Bernard; Beckett, Gulbahar H.



Geospatial Approach to Regional Mapping of Research Library Holdings: Use of Arcinfo at IRANDOC (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a report on the application of a Geographic Information System (GIS), ArcInfo, in the cataloguing of geosciences documents held by IRANDOC. Design/methodology/approach: The steps involved in the application are described: gathering the data and required input including the attribute and spatial…

Sedighi, Mehri-e-



A Systems Biology Approach to Toxicology Research with Small Fish Models (United States)

Increasing use of mechanistically-based molecular and biochemical endpoints and in vitro assays is being advocated as a more efficient and cost-effective approach for generating chemical hazard data. However, development of effective assays and application of the resulting data i...


Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)


A Collaborative Web-Based Approach to Planning Research, Integration, and Testing Using a Wiki (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Vehicle Health Management program touches on many different research areas while striving to enable the automated detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation of adverse events at the aircraft and system level. At the system level, the research focus is on the evaluation of multidisciplinary integrated methods, tools, and technologies for achieving the program goal. The participating program members form a diverse group of government, industry, and academic researchers. The program team developed the Research and Test Integration Plan in order to track significant test and evaluation activities, which are important for understanding, demonstrating, and communicating the overall project state and project direction. The Plan is a living document, which allows the project team the flexibility to construct conceptual test scenarios and to track project resources. The Plan also incorporates several desirable feature requirements for Plan users and maintainers. A wiki has proven to be the most efficient and effective means of implementing the feature requirements for the Plan. The wiki has proven very valuable as a research project management tool, and there are plans to expand its scope.

Delaney, Michael M.; Koshimoto, Edwin T.; Noble, Deleena; Duggan, Christopher



Scientometrical approach of the definition of a research domain using scientific journals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)


Approaches to natural resource inventory and analysis on the Oak Ridge Environmental Research Park  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal effort of the Department of Energy's Environmental Research Park program on the Oak Ridge Reservation is directed at identification and preservation of a diverse assortment of natural communities representative of the Appalachian region of East Tennessee. Designation of natural areas provides a degree of protection for unique plant and animal species. Concommitantly, establishment of research reference areas provides sites which will be used to evaluate changes brought about in similar natural communities as a result of activities related to energy-producing technologies. Agglomerative cluster analysis of 184 continuous forest inventory (CFI) plots on the Reservation initially was used to objectively define forest types. Thus, types identified by cluster analysis formed a basis for determining what forest elements were present and which were representative of the Appalachian region. Subsequently, cluster analysis similarly was used within these research areas to define the overstory, understory, and shrub structure of the particular forest community.

Kitchings, J. T.; Mann, L. K.; Joslin, D. J.; Bunnell, R. C.



An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

CERN Document Server

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic



Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform (United States)

This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

Teodorescu, Raluca Elena


Organizations in context: proposal for a new theoretical approach in prescriptive accident research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lately, requests have been made for including the contexts of enterprises in models to prevent accidents at work. This paper/article presents different contextual theories in order to prove/analyze whether this type of theories could be a way to introduce the context. A differentiation is made between understanding the processes in the enterprises and understanding the contextual relations. Decision-making theories are used to explain the internal processes. And regulatory approaches are used to describe the role of the state in regard to accident prevention in enterprises. Eventually, contextual theories are presented as theories to perceive the relation between enterprise and context. The conclusion is that there is a basis for using contextual theories in a new approach, but also an investigation of the potentials for making the theories action-orientated is needed.

Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Jensen, Per Langå



Development of an Integrated Metabolomic Profiling Approach for Infectious Diseases Research (United States)

Metabolomic profiling offers direct insights into the chemical environment and metabolic pathway activities at sites of human disease. During infection, this environment may receive important contributions from both host and pathogen. Here we apply untargeted metabolomics approach to identify compounds associated with an E. coli urinary tract infection population. Correlative and structural data from minimally processed samples were obtained using an optimized LC-MS platform capable of resolving ?2300 molecular features. Principal components analysis readily distinguished patient groups and multiple supervised chemometric analyses resolved robust metabolomic shifts between groups. These analyses revealed nine compounds whose provisional structures suggest candidate infection-associated endocrine, catabolic, and lipid pathways. Several of these metabolite signatures may derive from microbial processing of host metabolites. Overall, this study highlights the ability of metabolomic approaches to directly identify compounds encountered by, and produced from, bacterial pathogens within human hosts. PMID:21922104

Lv, Haitao; Hung, Chia S.; Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Hooton, Thomas M.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.



Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  


This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographi...

Raquel Ghini; Emília Hamada; Francislene Angelotti; Costa, Lu?cio B.; Wagner Bettiol



Disentangling scale approaches in governance research: comparing monocentric, multilevel, and adaptive governance  


The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today's network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilev...

Maartje van. Lieshout; Art Dewulf; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.



'Follow the innovation': A joint experimentation and learning approach to transdisciplinary innovation research  


The ZEF-UNESCO project on Sustainable Management of Land and Water Resources in Uzbekistan addresses the environmental, social and economic problems in the Khorezm province, located within the so-called Aral Sea Zone in Uzbekistan. Currently in its seventh year (third phase), the project aims 'to provide sustainable solutions to the Aral Sea region through a holistic approach, combining technology, policy and institutional options developed in cooperation with local and international stakehol...

Hornidge, Anna-katharina; Ul-hassan, Mehmood; Mollinga, Peter P.



Riding tandem: an organic and collaborative approach to research in vocational education and training  


This study set out to explore the use of the Internet in peer-to-peer learning environments within vocational education and training and to investigate whether this approach could replace traditional teaching and learning. A mixed methods design, including classroom observations, design experiments, interviews and questionnaires was adopted. Although this study represents a mid-term report on work in progress only, a number of observations can nevertheless be made about the process of conduct...

Cathy Ellis; Alec Dyer; Dominic Thompson



New Pharmaceutical Approaches to the Treatment of IBS:Future Development & Research  


SUMMARY Current approaches to treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) aim to normalise disturbed intestinal physiology. The most effective centrally acting drugs are tricyclic antidepressants. Alosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist is effective in women with diarrhea-predominant IBS whilst tegaserod and prucalopride are 5-HT4 agonists enhancing bowel motility in constipation-predominant IBS. Serotonergic receptor modulation has been the first targeted pharmacological intervention. The dev...

N Coleman, R. Spiller



Research on Causal Attribution of Wildfire: An Exploratory Multiple-Methods Approach  


Although studies show that actions by property owners, such as maintaining a defensible space, are generally the best means of protecting property from wildfire, victims often blame government agencies and others for property damage, injury, and death. This article describes a multiple-methods approach for investigating factors that influence how people who experience wildfire perceive the cause of wildfire damage. Phase I and II mail surveys and real-time field interviews were conducted in c...

Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Bliss, John C.; Daniels, Steven E.



School Ethos and the Spatial Turn: "Capacious" Approaches to Research and Practice (United States)

This article argues that specific spatial imaginaries are embedded in current debates about school ethos and research methods. It takes the reader on a journey around an English multicultural primary school supported by the creative learning program Creative Partnerships, exploring how creative arts practices (re)configured sociospatial relations…

Manchester, Helen; Bragg, Sara



Dana-Farber Cancer Institute researchers identify a novel therapeutic approach for liver cancer: (United States)

Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a mechanism in mice that triggers inflammation in the liver and transforms normal cells into cancerous ones. In addition, they demonstrated in a mouse model that a particular micro-RNA (miR-124) – a member of a recently discovered class of molecular regulators – could be harnessed to treat or even prevent liver cancer.


A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course (United States)

This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

White, Scott R.


A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Exoplanet Detection in STEM Classrooms (United States)

JPL’s NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program’s (ExEP) Public Engagement Program, in collaboration with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), is engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the science of exoplanet detection into STEM classrooms. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of astronomers pursuing research related to exoplanets, along with a significant increase in interest amongst students and the general public regarding the topic of exoplanets. CAE has previously developed a curriculum unit (including Think-Pair-Share questions and a Lecture-Tutorial) to help students develop a deeper understanding of the Doppler method for detecting extrasolar planets. To date, there is a nearly nonexistent research base on students’ conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to the science of the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for detecting extrasolar planets. Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills in these areas. In this talk, we will report on our development process for two new Lecture-Tutorials that help students learn about the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for finding exoplanets.

Brissenden, Gina; Wallace, C. S.; Prather, E. E.; Traub, W. A.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, A. A.



From Archive to Awards Ceremony: An Approach for Engaging Students in Historical Research (United States)

Recent literature on history teaching has emphasized "doing history"--whether as "active learning", cognitive science, or with simple photocopies of primary sources. This article extends the discussion of a "signature pedagogy" of history to include all aspects of the work of historians, from archival research through public presentation. It…

Erekson, Keith A.



MIRACLE Approaches to Multilingual Information Retrieval: A Baseline for Future Research  


This paper describes the first set of experiments defined by the MIRACLE (Multilingual Information RetrievAl for the CLEf campaign) research group for some of the cross language tasks defined by CLEF. These experiments combine different basic techniques, linguistic-oriented and statistic-oriented, to be applied to the indexing and retrieval processes.

Marti?nez Ferna?ndez, Jose? Luis; Villena Roma?n, Julio; Fombella Mourelle, Jorge; Garci?a Serrano, Ana; Marti?nez Ferna?ndez, Paloma; Gon?i Menoyo, Jose? Miguel; Gonza?lez Cristo?bal, Jose? Carlos



Application of Content-Based Approach in Research Paper Recommendation System for a Digital Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems are software applications that provide or suggest items to intended users. These systems use filtering techniques to provide recommendations. The major ones of these techniques are collaborative-based filtering technique, content-based technique, and hybrid algorithm. The motivation came as a result of the need to integrate recommendation feature in digital libraries in order to reduce information overload. Content-based technique is adopted because of its suitability in domains or situations where items are more than the users. TF-IDF (Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency and cosine similarity were used to determine how relevant or similar a research paper is to a user's query or profile of interest. Research papers and user's query were represented as vectors of weights using Keyword-based Vector Space model. The weights indicate the degree of association between a research paper and a user's query. This paper also presents an algorithm to provide or suggest recommendations based on users' query. The algorithm employs both TF-IDF weighing scheme and cosine similarity measure. Based on the result or output of the system, integrating recommendation feature in digital libraries will help library users to find most relevant research papers to their needs.

Simon Philip



On Ethnography: Approaches to Language and Literacy Research. Language & Literacy (NCRLL) (United States)

Two experienced and esteemed ethnographers examine how to use ethnographic methods to conduct research in language and literacy. The authors begin by mapping some of the developments in ethnography across the last century, from colonial interests to contemporary studies of migration, multiculturalism, and global citizenship. The authors then draw…

Heath, Shirley Brice; Street, Brian V.



Nigeria research reactor (NIRR-1) conversion programme implementation - A regulatory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nigeria is embarking on a fuel conversion programme in view of her being a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by extension, acceptance of the non-proliferation programme which encompasses a global effort to convert her type of research reactor to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) is a 31kW miniature neutron source reactor situated at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The reactor was acquired through the tripartite project and supply agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria, International Atomic Energy Agency and China Institute of Atomic Energy. The reactor attained criticality on the 3rd February 2004 and has since been used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Experiments and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology. NIRR-1 uses U-235 fuel enriched to about 90.2%. This paper analyzes the status of NIRR-1 conversion programme from a regulatory perspective, especially the major milestones fulfilled towards the submission/review of the feasibility/LEU conversion report. The paper considers the legal framework including the Act, Regulations and guidance documents developed or in the process of development for effective regulation of the conversion from project schedule to shipping requirements. The various international instruments endorsed by Nigeria as a demonstration of her commitment to conversion programme in form of Treaties, Conventions and Agreements are highlighted. The status of the draft Regulations on Research Reactors and the key elements of the Regulations are discussed.


Strategy and approaches of pathological and pathophysiological research in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pathology and pathophysiology are sciences studying the laws and mechanisms of the occurrence and developmont of diseases,linking up the preclinical and clinical medicine.Owing to the different perspectives and ways of thinking,the western medicine and the traditional Chinese medicine developed respectively their independent theoretical,diagnostic and therapeutic systems.Integrative medicine,combining the theories and treatments of both western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine,has become the developing trend of medicine along with the social development.For this reason,pathological and pathophysiological research in integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine is highly significant for revealing the internal relations between the clinical manifestation and the pathological changes,for expounding the causes,conditions.mechanisms and laws of the occurrence and development of diseases.In doing related research,we should combine the disease and the syndrome,combine the macro-level and the micro-level,combine the part and the whole.We should manage to systematize the clinical research,to establish animal models of the syndromes,and to integrate the animal models of syndromes with the clinical characteristics of disesses.We should apply the theories of traditional Chinese medicine to the pathological and pathophysiological research of modern medicine.




Wildfire Research in an Environmental Hazards Course: An Active Learning Approach (United States)

Creating opportunities for students to actively apply hazards theory to real-life situations is often a challenge in hazards geography courses. This article presents a project, the Jocko Lakes Fire Project, that implemented learning strategies to encourage students to be active in wildfire hazards research. Wildfire hazards stand out as an…

Wall, Tamara U.; Halvorson, Sarah J.



Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods (United States)

Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph



As pesquisas sobre professores iniciantes: algumas aproximações / Researches about inexperienced teachers: some approaches  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto tem como foco as investigações sobre professores iniciantes e faz um balanço do tema a partir de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, tendo em vista a atual tendência dos estudos sobre essa etapa do desenvolvimento profissional do professor. Para tanto, são analisados os trabalhos aprese [...] ntados nas reuniões da ANPEd, nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2007, e as pesquisas disponíveis no banco de teses da CAPES - 2000 a 2007 (mestrado e doutorado). Também é analisada a pesquisa de Brzezinski (2006), em que foi apresentado o estado do conhecimento sobre a formação de profissionais da educação. O estudo evidencia que a maioria das pesquisas analisa o professor, focando sua prática pedagógica, a construção de sua identidade, a socialização profissional e as dificuldades encontradas. Demonstra também a quase inexistência de ações de formação para esses professores e a necessidade das pesquisas brasileiras se dedicarem mais ao tema, que é pouco explorado, se considerada a relevância dessa etapa profissional. Abstract in english The following text focuses on the investigation into "Inexperienced Teachers" and ponders on the theme based on researches conducted in Brazil, regarding current trends about this stage of the teacher's professional development. In order to accomplish this objective, we analyzed the work presented a [...] t the ANPEd meetings in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007 and the researches available at the CAPES Thesis Bank from 2000 to 2007 (for mastering and doctorate degrees). The research carried out by Brzezinski (2006) was also taken as an object of analysis In this research, the state of knowledge on the development of professionals working with education was presented. The study reveals that most of the researchers analyzed the teachers, focusing on their pedagogic practice, identity construction, and professional socialization, as well as on the difficulties found. It also demonstrates the nearly inexistence of development actions for those teachers and the need for further research by Brazilian specialists, since this issue has been poorly explored considering its relevance.

Silmara de Oliveira Gomes, Papi; Pura Lúcia Oliver, Martins.



Approach to the research and the situation of Public Relations in Europe. Comparative study between German and Spanish cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the aim of bring near to the spanish academic field the european approaches of Public Relations, this article makes a compared revision of the situation of this subject and profession in Germany and Spain. This revision shows important resemblances on the use of the term “public relations”, the confusion of this subject with other communicative activities, the professional development and the problems of the field in both countries. However, it also shows that Germany has more tradition on public relations research than Spain and, therefore, it has a more extensive corpus of theories about this subject. For this reason, since important resemblances exist in other aspects, german research on public relations could be interesting for the spanish academic field both to explain the situation of public relations in Spain and to motivate theoretical development in our country.

Dra. María Isabel Míguez González



Ethics of clear health communication: applying the CLEAN Look approach to communicate biobanking information for cancer research. (United States)

Cancer innovations, such as biobanking technologies, are continuously evolving to improve our understanding and knowledge about cancer prevention and treatment modalities. However, the public receives little communication about biobanking and is often unaware about this innovation until asked to donate biospecimens. It is the researchers' ethical duty to provide clear communications about biobanking and biospecimen research. Such information allows the public to understand biobanking processes and facilitates informed decision making about biospecimen donation. The aims of this paper are 1) to examine the importance of clear communication as an ethical imperative when conveying information about cancer innovations and 2) to illustrate the use of an organizing framework, the CLEAN ( C ulture, L iteracy, E ducation, A ssessment, and N etworking) Look approach for creating educational priming materials about the topic of biobanking. PMID:23124500

Koskan, Alexis; Arevalo, Mariana; Gwede, Clement K; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa A; Luque, John S; Wells, Kristen J; Meade, Cathy D



Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adult Cancer Study—A Methodologic Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0–39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

Nancy J. Link



An approach to visualize the course of solving of a research task in humans  

CERN Document Server

A technique to study the dynamics of solving of a research task is suggested. The research task was based on specially developed software Right- Wrong Responder (RWR), with the participants having to reveal the response logic of the program. The participants interacted with the program in the form of a semi-binary dialogue, which implies the feedback responses of only two kinds - "right" or "wrong". The technique has been applied to a small pilot group of volunteer participants. Some of them have successfully solved the task (solvers) and some have not (non-solvers). In the beginning of the work, the solvers did more wrong moves than non-solvers, and they did less wrong moves closer to the finish of the work. A phase portrait of the work both in solvers and non-solvers showed definite cycles that may correspond to sequences of partially true hypotheses that may be formulated by the participants during the solving of the task.

Gavrikov, Vladimir L



A Research-Based Approach to Transforming Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism (United States)

We present research on transforming an upper-division undergraduate electricity and magnetism course using principles of active engagement and learning theory. We build on a systematic investigation of student learning difficulties, with the goal of developing useful curricular materials and suggestions for effective teaching practices. We observe students in classroom, help-session, and interview settings, and analyze their written work. To assess student learning, we have developed and validated a conceptual instrument, the CUE (Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics) diagnostic. We collaborate with faculty to establish learning goals, and have constructed a bank of clicker questions, tutorials, homeworks, and classroom activities. We find that students in the transformed courses exhibit improved performance over the traditional course, as assessed by common exam questions and the CUE, but there is still much work to be done. Our work underlines the need for further research on the nature of student learning and appropriate instructional interventions at the upper division.

Pollock, Steven



Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)


World Data Center Cluster "Earth System Research" - An Approach for a Common Data Infrastructure in Geosciences (United States)

The German WDC Cluster Earth System Research has been founded in 2003 and is build from three WDCs and one candidate: WDC-C - World Data Center for Climate (MPI-M, Hamburg) WDC-MARE - World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (AWI, MARUM) WDC-RSAT - World Data Center for Remote Sensing (DFD/DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen) WDC-TERRA - World Data Center of the Lithosphere (candidate) (GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam) The WDC cluster has identified information management challenges in geo-scientific research. There are many problems and issues faced by the geo-scientific research community when it comes to managing data and information: Lack of adequate facilities and resources for long-term archiving: the cost of archiving data, especially large sets, in systems where the data is easily retrieved, is very often prohibitive Data set publication: the science related to the production of basic data is often not easily recognized as publishable work with the same merits as information derived from basic data Interdisciplinary audience for geo-scientific data: Effective understanding of the whole earth relies on better understanding of the interaction of multiple earth systems. In order to do this, wider and more diverse audiences, especially interdisciplinary science teams, should have a facilitated appreciation of the applicable data sets which are available. The partners in the WDC cluster start cooperation within the frame of national research projects but international cooperation with other WDCs and long-term archives for geo-scientific data is required especially with respect to networking, data sharing and data publication.

Lautenschlager, M.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Klump, J.; Paliouras, E.



Mountaineering – A Combinatory Approach for Identifying Lead Users and Other Rare Research Subjects  


User innovation is common in many domains, and has been found concentrated in few individuals, lead users. Particularly with regard to a given product or service development project, such rare research subjects can be difficult and resource intensive to identify. Several alternative methods are common in the lead-user identification process, but according to dominant practitioner experience, the searches tend not to follow just one of them, but rather are inclined to involve the integration o...

Ma?kinen, Samuli; Helminen, Pia; Johnson, Mikael; Hyysalo, Sampsa; Juntunen, Jouni K.; Freeman, Stephanie



Approaches for expanding participation of developing countries in research reactor spent nuclear fuel return programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy, with the support of the State Department, has changed policies in certain situations, which have resulted in enhanced participation by developing countries in the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRRSNF) program. This paper describes these changes, and offers suggestions for additional policy changes, which could further expand developing country participation in the program, with significant benefits for overall U.S. nuclear nonproliferation policy objectives. (author)


Videoethnographic approaches to audience research : questions of exploration, authorship and multimodal presentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations.                       Hypermediated forms of presentation afford not just a capability for accommodating non-sequentiality,polyphony and multi-perspectivalism, I will argue, but acknowledge and foreground the inevitable processes of selection and interpretation which lies at the heart of each and every practice of  ‘authoring'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can be accommodated with a continued commitment to the production of a form of authoring which maintains intellectual coherence, is thereby at the focus of the preliminary assessment of the potential of hypermediated forms of academic authoring that this paper seeks to contribute to.

Wildermuth, Norbert


Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach  


A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main ai...

Nicolae Al. Pop; Dan-Cristian Dabija; Ana Maria Iorga



North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: A Collaborative Multisite Approach to Prodromal Schizophrenia Research  


This article presents the rationale, design, and preliminary findings of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), a collaborative, multisite investigation into the earliest phase of psychotic illness. We describe how 8 independently conceived research projects were integrated methodologically, how diagnostic reliability was achieved across sites on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, and how baseline and follow-up data were aggregated for 888 at risk and compariso...

Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara; Mcglashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Heinssen, Robert



Problematics of approaches to research of the use safety of ergatic control systems on railway transport  


Purpose. Determination of the protective state influence of ergatic control system on a railway transport on their use safety. Making recommendations concerning its accounting for regulations and testing during the development and implementation. Methodology. Research is executed on the base of reliability theory with the use of exponential law of refusals distribution. Findings. It is shown that confirmation of ergatic technical control facilities accordance and trains traffic arrangement to...

Kamenyev, O. Y.



An introduction to a postmodern approach to nursing research: discourse analysis - Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article serves as an introduction to discourse analysis. It therefore does not give an account for the whole research process.

Hierdie artikel dien as 'n inleiding tot diskoers-analise. Dit beoog dus nie om die hole navorsingsproses breedvoerig te bespreek nie aangesien diskoers-analise 'n relatiefnuwe en multifasettige benadering in navorsing is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Marie Poggenpoel



An introduction to a postmodern approach to nursing research: discourse analysis - Part 1  


This article serves as an introduction to discourse analysis. It therefore does not give an account for the whole research process.

Hierdie artikel dien as 'n inleiding tot diskoers-analise. Dit beoog dus nie om die hole navorsingsproses breedvoerig te bespreek nie aangesien diskoers-analise 'n relatiefnuwe en multifasettige benadering in navorsing is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for ful...

Marie Poggenpoel; Chris Myburgh; Laetitia Zeeman



Book review: sampling and choosing cases in qualitative research: a realist approach by Nick Emmel  


In Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research, Nick Emmel evaluates widely used sampling strategies, identifying key theoretical assumptions and considering how empirical and theoretical claims are made from these diverse methods. Drawing on case studies from across the social sciences Emmel shows how ideas drive choices, how cases are used to work out the relation between ideas and evidence, and why it is not the size of a sample that matters, it is how cases are used to interpret a...

St Denny, Emily



Moffitt Cancer Center researchers study ‘ACT TIL’ approach to treating metastatic melanoma (United States)

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have carried out a clinical trial in which patients with metastatic melanoma were given chemotherapy and an immunotherapy of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Tumor tissues were surgically removed from patients, minced and grown in culture. The treatment, using techniques developed at the National Cancer Institute, combined chemotherapy, then ACT with TIL, followed by interleukin-2 (IL-2). The combination therapy drew a high response rate from some patients.


Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia  


Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS a...

Chanda-Kapata Pascalina; Campbell Sandy; Zarowsky Christina



Exploring HE retention and drop-out - a European biographical research approach  


This symposium is based on the developing work of the research project ‘Access and Retention: Experiences of Non-Traditional Learners in HE’, funded by the European Commission Lifelong Learning Programme under Key Activity 1 “Policy Co-operation and Innovation” of the Transversal programme. (Project number: 135230-LLP-1-2007-1-UK-KA1-KA1SCR). The project has eight partners from seven different countries: England, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Scotland, Spain and Sweden and runs from 2008 ...

Johnston, Rennie; Merrill, Barbara; Holliday, Mehri; West, Linden; Finnegan, Fergal; Fleming, Ted



An engineering approach to business model experimentation – an online investment research startup case study  


Every organization needs a viable business model. Strikingly, most of current literature is focused on business model design, whereas there is almost no attention for business model validation and implementation and related business model experimentation. The goal of the research as described in this paper is to develop a business model engineering tool for supporting business model management as a continuous design, validation and implementation cycle. The tool is applied to an online invest...

Kijl, Bjo?rn; Boersma, Durk



Sustainable Land-use Practices in European Mountain Regions under Global Change: an Integrated Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Special Feature on sustainable land-use practices in European mountain regions presents results from the inter- and transdisciplinary research project MOUNTLAND. The goal was to investigate the sensitivity of the provision of ecosystem services to both climatic and land-use changes and to suggest alternative policies and governance structures for mitigating the impact of such changes and enhancing sustainable management practices in mountain regions. The individual articles provide: (1 new scientific findings regarding the impacts of climate and land-use changes on ecosystem processes in three sensitive mountain regions of Switzerland; (2 an assessment of the feedback effects arising from changing socioeconomic and political conditions, land use, and adaptation to climate change, using modeling techniques and transdisciplinary stakeholder interactions; and (3 suggestions for alternative policy solutions to ensure sustainable land use in mountain regions. In our synthesis of the project, we provide insights from the ecological, socioeconomic, and political sciences in the context of human-environment interactions in mountain regions. The innovation of this Special Feature lies in the fact that all articles present truly inter- or transdisciplinary research, ranging from natural sciences to economics and political sciences, based on an overarching set of unifying research questions.

Robert Huber



Gender, Narratives and Intersectionality: can Personal Experience Approaches to Research Contribute to "Undoing Gender"? (United States)

This paper examines narrative methodologies as one approach to exploring issues of gender, education and social justice and, particularly, insights into "undoing gender". It furthermore examines the possibilities of exploring gender and its multiple intersections in a range of global and policy contexts through the use of personal experience approaches. The "storying" of lived experience is examined as a means of challenging dominant discourses which can construct and other individuals and groups in relation to many aspects of gender and education. Drawing on intersectionality, as a complex and developing feminist theory, the paper considers ways in which narrative can illuminate often hidden complexities while seeking to avoid generalisations and essentialisms. The difficulties of using narrative in relation to these aims are explored in the light of the warnings of feminist writers such as Michele Fine and bell hooks. The paper briefly considers narrative as both methodology and phenomenon, and finally, drawing on critical discourse analysis, discusses the potential of intersectionality and narrative in relation to undoing gender.

Cole, Barbara Ann



Research and development of safety approach and safety assessment for the next generation SFR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preliminary safety assessments have been conducted on the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor during 2005-2010 as a part of the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project. The main conclusions and achievements related to safety were that 1) the safety analyses results that the key safety-related parameters satisfy the design limits for the anticipated operational occurrences and design accidents; 2) passive reactor shutdown mechanism [i.e. Self-Actuated Shutdown System] for the prevention of severe accidents and an in-vessel retention concept for reactor core material retention for the mitigation of severe accidents were built-in the JSFR design, 3) the core damage frequency was assessed to be less than 10-5/site-year, and risk target for earthquakes was assessed to meet the design conditions as of 2007. In the light of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accidents, the next target safety-related R and D will be focused on acquiring safer and more robust SFR system: 1) In-detail Level-1 PRA on loss of heat sink type severe accidents, 2) Unreliability factor evaluations on passive safety mechanism/system, 3) Accident scenario initiated by external events, with due consideration on SFR system pro/con features, 4) Risk-informed approach to extreme external hazards by utilizing hazard curves for clarifying reasonable design margins and 5) Establishment of harmonized safety design approach/criteria based on fundamental SFR characteristics. (author)


Ecology and biology of paddlefish in North America: historical perspectives, management approaches, and research priorities (United States)

Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula, Polyodontidae) are large, mostly-riverine fish that once were abundant in medium- to large-sized river systems throughout much of the central United States. Concern for paddlefish populations has grown from a regional fisheries issue to one of national importance for the United States. In 1989, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) was petitioned to list paddlefish as a federally threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The petition was not granted, primarily because of a lack of empirical data on paddlefish population size, age structure, growth, or harvest rates across the present 22-state range. Nonetheless, concern for paddlefish populations prompted the USFWS to recommend that paddlefish be protected through the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The addition of paddlefish to Appendix II of CITES, which was approved in March 1992, provides a mechanism to curtail illegal trade in paddlefish and their parts and supports a variety of conservation plans. Paddlefish populations have been negatively affected by overharvest, river modifications, and pollution, but the paddlefish still occupies much of its historic range and most extant populations seem to be stable. Although many facets of paddlefish biology and ecology are well understood, the lack of information on larval and juvenile ecology, mechanisms that determine recruitment, population size and vital rates, interjurisdictional movements, and the effects of anthropogenic activities present significant obstacles for managing paddlefish populations. Questions about the size and structure of local populations, and how such populations are affected by navigation traffic, dams, and pollution are regarded as medium priority areas for future research. The availability of suitable spawning habitat and overall reproductive success in impounded rivers are unknown and represent critical areas for future research. Research on reproductive and recruitment success in impounded rivers have significant implications for managing paddlefish, as rivers are modified further for human use.

Jennings, Cecil A.; Zigler, Stephen J.



Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS. (United States)

We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occurrence ambiguity of 1.96 (=total type occurrences / total word occurrences). A set of semantic preference rules was developed and applied to completely eliminate ambiguity in semantic type assignment. The lexicon covered 95.95% UMLS-recognizable terms in our corpus. A total of 20 UMLS semantic types, representing about 17% of all the distinct semantic types assigned to corpus lexemes, covered about 80% of the vocabulary of our corpus. PMID:21347142

Luo, Zhihui; Duffy, Robert; Johnson, Stephen; Weng, Chunhua



High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery. (United States)

A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti-Ta and Ti-Zr-Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti-Zr-Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173K for 1800h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti-Ta and Ti-Zr-Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. PMID:24863225

Zhang, X D; Liu, L B; Zhao, J-C; Wang, J L; Zheng, F; Jin, Z P



An Adoption of Semantic Web from the Perspective of Technology Innovation: A Qualitative Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What factors affect the adoption and diffusion of Semantic Web innovation? This paper answers this question using multiple case studies. The case study as a qualitative approach is appropriate to achieve this, because the Semantic Web is at the early introduction stage. Data was gathered from seven out of nine organizations adopting the Semantic Web in Korea. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Three factors affecting adoption of the Semantic Web were identified. The first factor is demand pull including requirements for solving search and integration problems of the existing systems and for creating new services. Second, environmental conduciveness, potential business value, government sponsorship programs, and active roles of suppliers affect the adoption of the Semantic Web from the perspective of technology push. Finally, absorptive capacity is an important role of the adoption. Four propositions are derived from this case study.

Joo, Jaehun



Grants4Targets - an innovative approach to translate ideas from basic research into novel drugs. (United States)

Collaborations between industry and academia are steadily gaining importance. To combine expertises Bayer Healthcare has set up a novel open innovation approach called Grants4Targets. Ideas on novel drug targets can easily be submitted to After a review process, grants are provided to perform focused experiments to further validate the proposed targets. In addition to financial support specific know-how on target validation and drug discovery is provided. Experienced scientists are nominated as project partners and, depending on the project, tools or specific models are provided. Around 280 applications have been received and 41 projects granted. According to our experience, this type of bridging fund combined with joint efforts provides a valuable tool to foster drug discovery collaborations. PMID:21129498

Lessl, Monika; Schoepe, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Schneider, Martin; Asadullah, Khusru



New network and synchronization approaches in focal epilepsy research and treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional approaches to focal epileptic surgery rely in the identification and resection of the epileptic zone. However, a significant minority of epileptic patients continue to experience seizures after surgery, a fact that shows how difficult it is to define this concept. In this work we will review some of the recent advances in the use of complex network theory and synchronization analysis in the study of neurophysiological epileptic records which shed new light on fragmented understanding of the epilepsy dynamic we have today. More important would be the potential treatments which could be implemented from the new information and change of perspective gathered by using this methodology, particularly the substitution of the traditional resective surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy patients.

Oscar Garnés



Analytical Approach for the Systematic Research of the Periodic Ferroresonant Solutions in the Power Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ferroresonance is a complex and little known electrotechnical phenomenon. This lack of knowledge means that it is voluntarily considered responsible for a number of unexplained destructions or malfunctioning of equipment. The mathematical framework most suited to the general study of this phenomenon is the bifurcation theory, the main tool of which is the continuation method. Nevertheless, the use of a continuation process is not devoid of difficulties. In fact, to continue the solutions isolats which are closed curves, it is necessary to know a solution belonging to this isolated curve (isolat to initialise the continuation method. The principal contribution of this article is to develop an analytical method allowing systematic calculation of this initial solution for various periodic ferroresonant modes (fundamental, harmonic and subharmonic appearing on nonlinear electric system. The approach proposed uses a problem formulation in the frequency domain. This method enables to directly determine the solution in steady state without computing of the transient state. When we apply this method to the single-phase ferroresonant circuits (series and parallels configurations, we could easily calculate an initial solution for each ferroresonant mode that can be established. Knowing this first solution, we show how to use this analytical approach in a continuation technique to find the other solutions. The totality of the obtained solutions is represented in a plane where the abscissa is the amplitude of the supply voltage and the ordinate the amplitude of the system’s state variable (flux or voltage. The curve thus obtained is called “bifurcation diagram”. We will be able to then obtain a synthetic knowledge of the possible behaviors of the two circuits and particularly the limits of the dangerous zones of the various periodic ferroresonant modes that may appear. General results related to the series ferroresonance and parallel ferroresonance, obtained numerically starting from the theoretical and real cases, are illustrated and discussed.

Fathi Ben Amar




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.

Dejan Ulcej



A multifaceted approach to radionuclide radiotherapy: The MURR [Missouri University Research Reactor] radioisotope program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internal radionuclide radiotherapy of malignancies began with various forms of radium injections, solutions, and implants early in this century and achieved its most wide-spread success in the application of 131I iodide for the treatment of thyroid metastases. Implants such as 198Au and 192Ir, and colloids such as 32P chromic phosphate, have also proved useful, but the greatest utility would be found for radiotherapeutic drugs possessing the selectivity for other forms of cancer that radioiodine shows for thyroid carcinoma. The objective of tumor radiotherapy is the selective destruction of malignant cells by radiation while sparing normal tissue. Recent improvements in the guidance mechanisms of radiopharmaceuticals have made possible a third wave of radiotherapeutics that may revolutionize the treatment of malignancies. The basic guidance methods include direct placement (implants), anatomical-physiological deposition, chemical-physiological concentration, and immunochemical uptake. These new drugs are primarily based on reactor-produced beta emitters, because typical beta ranges of 1 to 10 mm are the most appropriate for radiotherapy. The Missouri University research reactor (MURR) Radioisotope Applications Group has been involved for 10 yr in collaborative research to bring about this new generation of cancer-fighting drugs and is currently producing isotopes for clinical trials of all these types of treatmentof all these types of treatment


A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Light & Matter in STEM Classrooms (United States)

In collaboration with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), we have engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the detailed science of light and matter into STEM classrooms. Typical Astro 101 classes often discuss emission/absorption spectra with reference to the Bohr model only and teach radiation as produced/absorbed only by electron transitions. We present here curricula developed to highlight other emission/absorption phenomena (specifically those produced by rotational/vibrational molecular transitions as well as synchrotron radiation.) Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills. In this talk, we will report on our development process for a suite of activities, including lecture slides, Think-Pair-Share questions, assessment questions and a new Lecture-Tutorial that help students learn about these other important emission models.

Hornstein, Seth D.; Wallace, C. S.; Schlingman, W. M.; Prather, E. E.



Public opinion research in France: A new approach through people's values understanding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy perception by the public has not only technical aspects but is also relevant to public debate and related to people's values. The developed countries and affluent societies, have been showing, in particular, a shift towards post-materialist values. Some of these values and needs environment protection, quality of life, involvement in decision-making process (government, corporates) must be taken into account when analysing public opinion towards nuclear energy. That is the reason why since 1992 a yearly nuclear barometer survey has been run, jointly, by the main corporations involved in nuclear research and industry CEA, the French Atomic Energy Commission, COGEMA, EDF and FRAMATOME. This barometer includes not only quantitative indicators but also, several series of questions on public attitude towards risk perception, controversial issues discussed in the media, potential energy sources for the future, politicians credibility etc. In addition, a very detailed public segmentation allows researchers to analyse similarities and differences related to age, gender, level of education of the population. This paper intends to give some concrete examples and current results on French public attitude towards nuclear energy and on the relation between social values and support for nuclear power


Socio-Cultural Approaches to Tourism: A Research on the “Tourist” Notion of Young Turkish People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significance of tourism sector in Turkey is constantly expanding. Correspondingly the importance of the economic and socio-cultural impact of tourism also continues to develop. Because tourism draws tourists get into closer contact with the locals it has positive and negative effects on the destination. In general the aim of tourists is satisfying their expectations at the maximum degree during their stay. On the other side locals who live and work in the destination region have a primary role in welcoming them and satisfying the tourists’ needs and expectation. Turkish society is particularly well known for many generations as being very hospitable. Current research aims to reveal whether the young Turkish people sustain traditional “Turkish Hospitality” and to see their thoughts about tourists. The field research has been conducted on students of a foundation university located in Izmir and these young people’s point of view on tourists has been investigated by face to face interviews. It has been concluded that there is a weakening trend, nevertheless the notion of hospitality remains.

Ferika Özer Sari



Neural network approaches to tracer identification as related to PIV research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neural networks have become very powerful tools in many fields of interest. This thesis examines the application of neural networks to another rapidly growing field flow visualization. Flow visualization research is used to experimentally determine how fluids behave and to verify computational results obtained analytically. A form of flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV). determines the flow movement by tracking neutrally buoyant particles suspended in the fluid. PIV research has begun to improve rapidly with the advent of digital imagers, which can quickly digitize an image into arrays of grey levels. These grey level arrays are analyzed to determine the location of the tracer particles. Once the particles positions have been determined across multiple image frames, it is possible to track their movements, and hence, the flow of the fluid. This thesis explores the potential of several different neural networks to identify the positions of the tracer particles. Among these networks are Backpropagation, Kohonen (counter-propagation), and Cellular. Each of these algorithms were employed in their basic form, and training and testing were performed on a synthetic grey level array. Modifications were then made to them in attempts to improve the results


Spanish approach to research and development applied to steam generator tubes structural integrity and life management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operating experience acquired from certain Spanish Nuclear Power Plant steam generators shows that the tubes, which constitute the second barrier to release of fission products, are susceptible to mechanical damage and corrosion as a result of a variety of mechanisms, among them wastage, pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue-induced cracking, fretting, erosion/corrosion, support plate denting, etc. These problems, which are common in many plants throughout the world, have required numerous investments by the plants (water treatment plants, replacement of secondary side materials such as condensers and heaters, etc.), have meant costs (operation, inspection and maintenance) and have led to the unavailability of the affected units. In identifying and implementing all these preventive and corrective measures, the Spanish utilities have moved through three successive stages: in the initial stage, the main source of information and of proposals for solutions was the Plant Vendor, whose participation in this respect was based on his own Research and Development programs; subsequently, the Spanish utilities participated jointly in the EPRI Steam Generator Owners Group, collaborating in financing; finally, the Spanish utilities set up their own Steam Generator Research and Development program, while maintaining relations with EPRI programs and those of other countries through information interchange.

Lozano, J. [Associacion Nuclear Asco AIE, Barcelona (Spain); Bollini, G.J.



Neural network approaches to tracer identification as related to PIV research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neural networks have become very powerful tools in many fields of interest. This thesis examines the application of neural networks to another rapidly growing field flow visualization. Flow visualization research is used to experimentally determine how fluids behave and to verify computational results obtained analytically. A form of flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV). determines the flow movement by tracking neutrally buoyant particles suspended in the fluid. PIV research has begun to improve rapidly with the advent of digital imagers, which can quickly digitize an image into arrays of grey levels. These grey level arrays are analyzed to determine the location of the tracer particles. Once the particles positions have been determined across multiple image frames, it is possible to track their movements, and hence, the flow of the fluid. This thesis explores the potential of several different neural networks to identify the positions of the tracer particles. Among these networks are Backpropagation, Kohonen (counter-propagation), and Cellular. Each of these algorithms were employed in their basic form, and training and testing were performed on a synthetic grey level array. Modifications were then made to them in attempts to improve the results.

Seeley, C.H. Jr.



Regulatory Approach to Safety of Long Time Operating Research Reactors in Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Russian Federation more than 60% of operating Nuclear Research Facilities (NRFs) are of age over 30 years old or their usage exceeds originally conceived continuous operation. In this regard, important areas of regulatory body activity are: 1) a systematic assessment of the actual state of structures, systems and components (SSCs) important to safety, 2) control of implementation of organizational and technical measures to mitigate ageing impact on the basis of programmes to manage reliability (service life) of SSCs, and 3) issues of facility modification/reconstruction in line with up-to-day safety requirements. The practice of licensing NRFs with long operating times shows that the national regulations are generally in compliance with IAEA recommendations for ageing management of research reactors. In operating organizations, the ageing management is being effectively provided as a part of the integrated management system for NRFs, including the monitoring of the reliability of SSCs, a methodology to detect their ageing, reporting and investigation of events, analysis of their root causes, and measures to prevent and mitigate ageing effects to safety. The report outlines a good practice of safety regulation of NRFs with long operating times and based on lessons learned from experience, including challenges for future improvement of ageing management.

Sapozhnikov, Alexander [Industrial and Nuclear Supervision Service, Moscow (Russian Federation)



Using an Ethnographic Approach to Collect Emotional Data in Affective Learning Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective computing is an interdisciplinary research field that has made plentiful and substantial achievements in this decade. In previous Artificial Intelligence research, computers are expected to be endowed with intelligence analogous to human intelligence. In affective computing, computers are expected to be endowed with Emotional Intelligence, which means that the computer can recognize and interpret the emotional states of humans and adapt its behavior to give an appropriate response to those emotions. This paper describes the design of an experiment that is used to collect the emotional data for a cognition & emotion support e-learning project. The goal of this experiment is to explore the interrelationship between the teacher and the student from both emotional and cognitive aspects in a teaching situation, and then construct the interaction models of the emotional and cognitive levels. These models will be integrated in an affective learning system which supports the learner both from cognitive and emotional aspects. The paper addresses issues in experimental design including ethnography, ethical and practical problems related to this form of experimental work.

Xiaomei Tao



Concepción pedagógica del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas / Pedagogical approach of the formation of research skills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación está dirigida al perfeccionamiento del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas relacionadas con los modos de actuación profesional en estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina, de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. La lógica de la investigación transitó, med [...] iante diversos métodos de investigación, por el diagnóstico inicial del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas y la elaboración del marco teórico. Como aporte teórico, se fundamentó una concepción pedagógica de dicho proceso, sustentada en los métodos clínico y epidemiológicos como agente dinamizador de un cambio en el proceso formativo, lo que permitió identificar tres etapas por las que transcurre este proceso en sus dimensiones curricular y extracurricular, así como los principios que regulan su funcionamiento. Se diseñó una estrategia para su implementación a través de cuatro acciones estratégicas específicas, de las cuales resultaron como productos: programa de la asignatura Metodología de la Investigación; los programas del tiempo electivo La Investigación, como herramienta en la solución de problemas de salud, en la dimensión curricular y el programa del Curso "La Investigación, como herramienta en la solución de problemas de salud", en la dimensión extracurricular y Programa de capacitación para los docentes. Para evaluar la factibilidad y validez de la concepción pedagógica y de la estrategia diseñada, se utilizó el método de criterio de expertos, que junto al desarrollo de una experiencia, aportaron resultados devenidos en importante contribución al perfeccionamiento de estas. Abstract in english The research is aimed at improving the process of research skills training related to modes of performance in students from the School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Pinar del RC-o. The logic of the research presented by various research methods for the initial diagnosis of the formati [...] on of research skills and the development of the theoretical framework. As a theoretical contribution, a pedagogical conception of the process, based on the clinical and epidemiological methods as a catalyst for change in the training process was based, which identified three stages through which this process takes place in their curricular and extracurricular dimensions and the principles governing its operation. A strategy for implementation was designed through four specific strategic actions, which resulted as products: program subject Research Methodology; elective time programs Research as a tool in solving health problems in curriculum and program dimension Course "Research as a tool in solving health problems" on extracurricular dimension and Training Program for teachers. To evaluate the feasibility and validity of the pedagogical approach and strategy designed, the method of expert judgment, which together with the development of an experience, provided results turned-important contribution to the improvement of these was used.

Guillermo Luis, Herrera Miranda.



Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health. (United States)

Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual's environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. "When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct - whichever emphasis you prefer - only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level."Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141)."…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size."Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18)"A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not look in the right places. Equally, the analyst of data needs both tools and understanding."John Tukey (1977, p.1)"When we observe the environment, we necessarily do so on only a limited number of scales."Simon Levin (1992, p. 1945)There is a desperate need to develop methods with the same precision for an individual's environmental exposure as we have for an individual's genome … even a partial, targeted understanding of exposure can provide substantial advantages."Christopher Wild (2005, p.1848). PMID:24707055

Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan



A Quantitative Visual Mapping and Visualization Approach for Deep Ocean Floor Research (United States)

Geological fieldwork on the sea floor is still impaired by our inability to resolve features on a sub-meter scale resolution in a quantifiable reference frame and over an area large enough to reveal the context of local observations. In order to overcome these issues, we have developed an integrated workflow of visual mapping techniques leading to georeferenced data sets which we examine using state-of-the-art visualization technology to recreate an effective working style of field geology. We demonstrate a microbathymetrical workflow, which is based on photogrammetric reconstruction of ROV imagery referenced to the acoustic vehicle track. The advantage over established acoustical systems lies in the true three-dimensionality of the data as opposed to the perspective projection from above produced by downward looking mapping methods. A full color texture mosaic derived from the imagery allows studies at resolutions beyond the resolved geometry (usually one order of magnitude below the image resolution) while color gives additional clues, which can only be partly resolved in acoustic backscatter. The creation of a three-dimensional model changes the working style from the temporal domain of a video recording back to the spatial domain of a map. We examine these datasets using a custom developed immersive virtual visualization environment. The ARENA (Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis) features a (lower) hemispherical screen at a diameter of six meters, accommodating up to four scientists at once thus providing the ability to browse data interactively among a group of researchers. This environment facilitates (1) the development of spatial understanding analogue to on-land outcrop studies, (2) quantitative observations of seafloor morphology and physical parameters of its deposits, (3) more effective formulation and communication of working hypotheses.

Hansteen, T. H.; Kwasnitschka, T.



Oral and General Health Promotion for Children: A Holistic Approach : Basics, Concepts, Behavioral Aspects, A Research-based Evidence  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept of Oral and General Health Promotion, Health Behavior Theories and Children'.This book provides further evidence that children's general and oral health are interrelated by common lifestyle and family factors, and both should be supported by holistic health promotion strategies and empowerment of families to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community.

Cinar, Ayse Basak



Children of parent(s) who have a gambling problem: a review of the literature and commentary on research approaches. (United States)

Problem gambling is becoming an increasingly widespread and damaging social and health problem. As opportunities for gambling become more accessible, especially through lotteries and electronic gaming machines, it is likely that more people will develop serious gambling problems. Given the worldwide increasing spending on gambling activities and the increasing number of problem gamblers, it is unfortunate but likely that the children who grow up in problem gambling families will become an important area of concern for child health and social workers. Considerable research has been undertaken into problem gambling and the adult problem gambler, but within the gambling and child health literature there is almost no recognition of the experiences of children who live in problem-gambling families. Drawing on the findings of the landmark Productivity Commission Report, this review explores the marked increase in gambling and its social effects, especially from the Australian perspective. The damaging social effects of problem gambling on families and children are reviewed and the comparative invisibility of children and young people in such research is discussed. The pervasive influence of developmentalism is critiqued and highlighted in relation to the exclusion of children's perspectives from our research understandings. The review concludes by proposing that adoption of some of the emerging 'new paradigm' approaches to childhood and children's experiences could markedly enhance our understandings of the lives and experiences of this significant group of children and young people. PMID:11560734

Darbyshire, P; Oster, C; Carrig, H



New Pharmaceutical Approaches to the Treatment of IBS:Future Development & Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SUMMARY Current approaches to treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS aim to normalise disturbed intestinal physiology. The most effective centrally acting drugs are tricyclic antidepressants. Alosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist is effective in women with diarrhea-predominant IBS whilst tegaserod and prucalopride are 5-HT4 agonists enhancing bowel motility in constipation-predominant IBS. Serotonergic receptor modulation has been the first targeted pharmacological intervention. The development of new drugs constitutes a major challenge as there are many targets along the brain-gut axis and the enteric nervous system (ENS. Newer tricyclic antidepressants with fewer side effects and corticotrophin releasing factor-1 (CRF-1 antagonists are examples of future centrally acting drugs. Agents that alter visceral sensitivity include kappa-opioid agonists (fedotozine, trimebutine, asimadoline, alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists (clonidine, lidamidine, tachykinin receptor antagonists (neurokinin A, substance P and other experimental anti-nociceptive drugs (GABA-B receptor agonists. COX-2 inhibitors may be effective for postinfectious IBS. Drugs potentially useful in controlling intestinal motility and secretion other than serotonergic receptors modulators, include muscarinic receptors antagonists (derifenacin, zamenifenacin, octreotide and CCK-1 receptor antagonists (dexloglumide. Neurotrophins (NT- 3 and brain derived neurotrophic factor are promising factors for the treatment of IBS patients with constipation. The development of new and effective drugs for IBS requires a more detailed understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms, a fact that will allow us a more targeted intervention. Key words: Irritable bavel syndrome, visceral sensitivity tricyclic antidepressants, muscarinic receptors

N. Coleman, R. Spiller



A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. Seven strategic thrusts were developed [1]. One of which was to dramatically increase capacity for acquisition and application of science and technology in all sectors. Knowledge-based economy strengthen Malaysia capability to innovate; adapt and create indigenous technology; and design, develop and market new products, thereby providing foundation for endogenously driven growth. By 2020, Malaysia expects to become a contributor, rather than a consumer of knowledge and technology. In June 2003, the 2nd National S and T policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position including the quality of life of the people [2]. Seven strategic thrusts and several specific initiatives for each strategic thrust were developed. Many of the initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national research institutions (NRI) in the knowledge-based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. MINT is established in 1972 and its main responsibility is to promote the application of nuclear technology in various socio-economic sectors including industry, agriculture, manufact including industry, agriculture, manufacturing, health, radiation safety and the environment. Its core competency is R and D in nuclear science and technology. Malaysia has always considers the international and regional technical cooperation programs such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) as one of the important mechanisms for Malaysia to acquire knowledge and technology from more advanced countries. Some specialised technologies are acquired through other mechanism such as bilateral cooperation. Over the years, MINT has been consciously and unconsciously implementing the knowledge management (KM) initiatives. MINT to a certain extent has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. Nevertheless, for MINT to sustain the image, the trusts, the credibility and the professionalism that the institution holds, as the promoter of the application of nuclear and related technologies for economic development, MINT recognizes the need to implement knowledge management (KM) practices in a more structured manner [3]. Recently KM practice was initiated in the Planning and External Relation Division in view of its responsibility for the management of technical cooperation program, which involves management of large volume of information both from external and internal sources. The information is of various natures, namely, technology, policy, financial, resolutions, strategies and action plans, projects proposals, meeting reports. There is always a challenge for the division to get the right information to the right people at the right time. The division has embarked on piloting a project to introduce KM practice within the division. The objective of this project is to implement KM practices as a process for the division to develop right culture to manage information for increased responsiveness or adaptability, innovation, competency and efficiency through collaborative problem solving and participative decision making. The project is to be conducted over 12 months period in 5 phases, namely, preparation, official launching, implementation, sustainability and maturity (a progressive journey). Phase I: Preparation: involves KM familiarisation program. It includes the implementation of activities such as the formation of KM team, formulation of K-policy, identification of issues/problems and key performance indicators


Concise review: a high-content screening approach to stem cell research and drug discovery. (United States)

High-throughput screening (HTS) is a technology widely used for early stages of drug discovery in pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Recent hardware and software improvements have enabled HTS to be used in combination with subcellular resolution microscopy, resulting in cell image-based HTS, called high-content screening (HCS). HCS allows the acquisition of deeper knowledge at a single-cell level such that more complex biological systems can be studied in a high-throughput manner. The technique is particularly well-suited for stem cell research and drug discovery, which almost inevitably require single-cell resolutions for the detection of rare phenotypes in heterogeneous cultures. With growing availability of facilities, instruments, and reagent libraries, small-to-moderate scale HCS can now be carried out in regular academic labs. We envision that the HCS technique will play an increasing role in both basic mechanism study and early-stage drug discovery on stem cells. Here, we review the development of HCS technique and its past application on stem cells and discuss possible future developments. PMID:22821636

Xia, Xiaofeng; Wong, Stephen T



Is competition the best approach to quality assurance for long?term institutional research capacity strengthening?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recently, Universities Denmark has introduced a new mechanism for university collaboration under the title “Building Stronger Universities in Developing Countries” (BSU). This initiative, financed by Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Danida), focuses primarily on institutional capacity building, especially in connection with PhD training. BSU represents an innovation in its bringing together all relevant Danish universities in a single collaborative structure. BSU is organized in four platforms that represent broad focus areas. The platforms have identified separate countries/universities as core partners, with three platforms present in Ghana and Tanzania, and one platform being present in Nepal, Kenya and Uganda. The platforms have been competing for resources for the initial two-year phase. This paper compares BSU with existing Danish mechanisms for support to research for development and discusses the role of competition in a project that focuses on long-term institutional capacity strengthening and identifiesearly lessons learnt. It concludes that quality assurance in this area must be established through other means than competition in order to avoid counterproductive discontinuities in long-term university development at the partner universities.

Seeberg, Jens


Visual Research Methods: A Novel Approach To Understanding The Experiences of Compulsive Hoarders: A Preliminary Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: Compulsive hoarding is a syndrome characterised by excessive collecting and saving behaviour that results in cluttered living space and significant distress or impairment. This study set out to gain a greater understanding of the personal experiences of compulsive hoarders in addition to attaining their evaluations of attending a therapy group. Method: Using a participatory photography methodology, a purposive sample of 12 members of a hoarding therapy group were recruited. Participants were asked to take photographs which best captured their hoarding problems. The photographs were then used to encourage narrative dialogue in a subsequent semi structured interview. Results: Seven key themes emerged from the data including: Feelings of isolation and vulnerability, lifestyle disruption, losing and misplacing, clutter and metaphor, rationalisation of the acquisition of hoarded items, failed previous support and the benefits of a therapy support group. Conclusion: The study concluded that the experience of hoarding is both psychologically and physically distressing with numerous impacts upon everyday living and relationships. The study also concluded that visual research methods may be particularly helpful when generating qualitative evidence within this specialist field.

Satwant Singh



Space research and the new approach to the mechanics of fluid media in cosmos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space research has increased knowledge of fluid media in space in two ways. 1. It has made it possible to 'see' the cosmic environment not only in visual light and radio waves but also in infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. The picture obtained is drastically different from the pre-space-age view. One of the results is that (at least by volume) the cosmic environment consists to more than 99% of magnetized, often dusty, plasma. 2. In situ measurements in the magnetospheres - including heliosphere - combined with laboratory experiments have given new information about the properties of cosmic plasmas. This makes it possible to understand what we see. It turns out that a drastic revision of the classical theory of plasma is necessary. 3. The new results are applied to cosmogony (origin and evolutionary history of the solar system). Magnetospheric physics has matured to such an extent that it is possible to treat certain aspects of cosmogony as an extrapolation of magnetospheric physics. It is shown that certain events 4-5 billion years ago can be reconstructed with an accuracy of a few percent. (Auth.)


Generalization in Qualitative IS Research - Approaches and their Application to a Case Study on SOA Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In qualitative information systems research little methodological support has been provided so far for the generalization of data. Generalizability, however, is a major concern in this field. It has been subject to a number of publications in recent years but commonly accepted frameworks of generalizability and methodological guidance are still missing. In order to address these problems, this paper investigates if and how abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used to generalize empirical data. An explorative single case study on the development of service-oriented architectures provides the raw data for an exemplary application. Abstraction mechanisms are used to generalize observations from the case study and to transform them into hypotheses. Finally, another abstraction leads to three models illustrating relationships of certain concepts and abstract categories as a major result of this case study. The paper shows that abstraction mechanisms from the field of conceptual modeling can be used for the generalization of case study data and provides guidance on how to use these mechanisms.

Matthias Goeken



Research approaches to address uncertainties in the risk assessment of arsenic in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs), an environmental drinking water contaminant, is a human toxicant and carcinogen. The public health community has developed recommendations and regulations that limit human exposure to iAs in drinking water. Although there is a vast amount of information available to regulators on the exposure, disposition and the health-related effects of iAs, there is still critical information about the toxicology of this metalloid that is needed. This necessary information includes identification of the chemical species of arsenic that is (are) the active toxicant(s), the mode(s) of action for its various toxicities and information on potentially susceptible populations. Because of these unknown factors, the risk assessment of iAs still incorporates default assumptions, leading to uncertainties in the overall assessment. The characteristics of a scientifically defensible risk assessment for iAs are that it must: (1) quantitatively link exposure and target tissue dose of active metabolites to key events in the mode of action for major health effects and (2) identify sources of variation in susceptibility to arsenic-induced health effects and quantitatively evaluate their impact wherever possible. Integration of research to address these goals will better protect the health of iAs-exposed populations


Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge ahodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions


Multiplexed isobaric tagging protocols for quantitative mass spectrometry approaches to auditory research. (United States)

Modern biologists have at their disposal a large array of techniques used to assess the existence and relative or absolute quantity of any molecule of interest in a sample. However, implementing most of these procedures can be a daunting task for the first time, even in a lab with experienced researchers. Just choosing a protocol to follow can take weeks while all of the nuances are examined and it is determined whether a protocol will (a) give the desired results, (b) result in interpretable and unbiased data, and (c) be amenable to the sample of interest. We detail here a robust procedure for labeling proteins in a complex lysate for the ultimate differential quantification of protein abundance following experimental manipulations. Following a successful outcome of the labeling procedure, the sample is submitted for mass spectrometric analysis, resulting in peptide quantification and protein identification. While we will concentrate on cells in culture, we will point out procedures that can be used for labeling lysates generated from other tissues, along with any minor modifications required for such samples. We will also outline, but not fully document, other strategies used in our lab to label proteins prior to mass spectrometric analysis, and describe under which conditions each procedure may be desirable. What is not covered in this chapter is anything but the most brief introduction to mass spectrometry (instrumentation, theory, etc.), nor do we attempt to cover much in the way of software used for post hoc analysis. These two topics are dependant upon one's resources, and where applicable, one's collaborators. We strongly encourage the reader to seek out expert advice on topics not covered here. PMID:18839358

Vetter, Douglas E; Basappa, Johnvesly; Turcan, Sevin



A Comprehensive Approach to Dark Skies Research and Education at NOAO (United States)

NOAO and its Education and Public Outreach group play an important role locally, nationally, and internationally in raising dark skies awareness. For the past 3 years NOAO has co-hosted the international “Earth and Sky” photo contest. In 2012 there were over 600 entries contributed within 3 weeks. NOAO also created a series of audio podcasts based on serial-type skits featuring a caped dark-skies hero who typically “saves the night” by mitigating upward directed lights with shields, thereby saving sea turtles, minimizing health effects, conserving energy, or keeping the public safe. To help understand the effects of light pollution, a citizen-science campaign called GLOBE at Night was started seven years ago. The worldwide campaign involves the public in recording night sky brightness data by matching the view of a constellation like Orion with maps of progressively fainter stars. Every year, NOAO adds more opportunities for participation: more campaigns during the year, Web applications for smart phones, objective measurements with sky brightness meters, and a GLOBE at Night Facebook page. Campaigns will run roughly the first 10 days of January through May in 2013. The EPO group created “Dark Skies Rangers”, a suite of well-tested and evaluated hands-on, minds-on activities that have children building star-brightness “readers,” creating glow-in-the-dark tracings to visualize constellations, and role-playing confused sea turtles. They also created a model city with shielded lights to stop upward light, examine different kinds of bulbs for energy efficiency, and perform an outdoor lighting audit of their school or neighborhood to determine ways to save energy. In the REU program at NOAO North, the undergraduate students have been doing research over the last 3 summers on effect of light pollution on endangered bats and characterizing the behavior of sky brightness over time across Tucson and on nearby astronomical mountaintops. For more information, come to our talk.

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.



Strategic Environment Analysis Using DEMATEL Method Through Systematic Approach:Case Study of an Energy Research Institute in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A combined model for Environmental Analysis (EA in strategy formulation process is presented in this paper. EA is the critical element in strategic planning. Because of direct effect on quality of results, different quantitative or qualitative approaches have been developed. In this paper, steps of EA using values tools such as System Dynamics, expert panels, DEMATEL method, designed and explained in the integrated model. In first step, all different factors are identified and classified, and then using a questionnaire, related factors are listed. The causal model identifies the main causes and effects. DEMATEL method specifies priorities of each factor. By using the influenced-influencing matrix, key factors will be determined. In all stages, panel of experts plays complementary and approval role. Finally we applied this model in strategic planning processes of an energy research institute in Iran as a case study.

Naser Bagheri Moghaddam



Review of fast reactor operation experience gained in the Russian Federation. Approaches to the co-ordinated research project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review of the experience gained in Russia in the field of fast reactors with sodium coolant is given in the report. The information on fast reactors operating in the Russian Federation (BR-10, BOR-60, BN-600) is presented: their current status, further prospects, and basic indices achieved by the facilities. The principal results of operation of test facilities and power plants with fast reactors in Russia are summarized. Necessity in implementation of special work o