WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Journal Clubs: An Educational Approach to Advance Understanding among Community Partners and Academic Researchers about CBPR and Cancer Health Disparities  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article: (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants’ needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Methods Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/university and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants’ assessment of the topic relevance. Results Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members’ ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Conclusions Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities. PMID:24078328

Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Simmons, Vani N.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

2014-01-01

2

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan

2013-01-01

3

Taking It to the Pews: A CBPR-Guided HIV Awareness and Screening Project with Black Churches  

Science.gov (United States)

Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully…

Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy

2010-01-01

4

Critical reflections on the role of CBPR within an RCT community health worker prevention intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coalescence of culturally relevant and community-based research with traditional scientific inquiry is necessary for the translation of science into practice. One methodology that has been identified as an important missing link in achieving the goal of combining science and community practice is the community-based participatory research approach, or CBPR. To demonstrate how CBPR has been successfully blended with randomized control trial (RCT) methodology, we showcase a randomized community trial that has shown efficacy in reducing cardiovascular risk factors integrating community health workers. The purpose of this article is 2-fold. First, it describes the process of merging the CBPR approach within an RCT framework and, second, it describes lessons learned in conducting CBPR-RCT research initiatives. PMID:24887525

Rosenthal, E Lee; Balcazar, Hector G; De Heer, Hendrik D; Wise, Sherrie; Flores, Leticia; Aguirre, Melissa

2014-01-01

5

Studying and addressing urban immigrant restaurant worker health and safety in San Francisco's Chinatown district: a CBPR case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

With its emphasis on empowerment, individual and community capacity building, and translating research findings into action, community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be particularly advantageous in work with urban immigrant populations. This paper highlights eight ways in which CBPR has been shown to add value to work with urban underserved communities. It then describes the background, context, and methods of an ecological CBPR project, the Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Study, conducted in San Francisco, California, and draws on study processes and outcomes to illustrate each of the eight areas identified. Challenges of using CBPR, particularly with urban immigrant populations, briefly are described, drawing again on the Chinatown study to provide illustrative examples. We discuss lessons learned, through this and other studies, for the effective use of CBPR with urban immigrant populations. We conclude that despite its challenges, this transdisciplinary, community-partnered and action-oriented approach to inquiry can make substantial contributions to both the processes and the outcomes of the research. PMID:23793556

Chang, Charlotte; Minkler, Meredith; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pamela Tau; Gaydos, Megan; Liu, Shaw San

2013-12-01

6

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

7

Towards building consensus: Revisiting key principles of CBPR within the First Nations/Aboriginal context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community based participatory research as a preferred approach to research with First Nations and Aboriginal communities has contributed to new terminologies, new methodologies, and new directions in research relationships. One of the ongoing challenges is to articulate and operationalize the principles for CBPR with these communities. This paper reflects on the nine principles articulated by LaVeaux and Christopher in the context of a long term community-academic research partnership at Standing Buffalo First Nations, Saskatchewan, Canada. Within this application, we begin to critique the various principles and to reframe these principles to increase their utility in informing community based research in the First Nations/Aboriginal context.

Deanna Bickford

2012-06-01

8

Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

de la Torre, Adela

2014-01-01

9

Ethical community-engaged research: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

2013-12-01

10

A CBPR Partnership Increases HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Outcome Findings from a Pilot Test of the "CyBER/Testing" Internet Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted "CyBER/testing", a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing…

Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia

2011-01-01

11

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307

Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

2013-10-01

12

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

13

Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together atmospheric scientists, epidemiologists, medical doctors, and economists to use improved precipitation forecasts to better manage Meningitis in Ghana.

Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

2009-12-01

14

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

Tara Ford

2012-05-01

15

A framework for building research partnerships with first nations communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional "helicopter" approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years' experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The framework for research partnership is composed of five phases. They are categorized as the pre-research, community consultation, community entry, research and research dissemination phases. These phases are cyclical, non-linear and interconnected. Elements of, and opportunities for, exploration, discussion, engagement, consultation, relationship building, partnership development, community involvement, and information sharing are key components of the five phases within the framework. The phases and elements within this proposed framework have been utilized to build and implement sustainable collaborative environmental health research projects with Saskatchewan First Nations communities. PMID:24855374

Bharadwaj, Lalita

2014-01-01

16

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

2007-07-01

17

Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

18

Who Benefits from Community-Based Participatory Research? A Case Study of the Positive Youth Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as a popular new paradigm in health research. This shift is exciting, yet there is still much to discover about how various stakeholders are affected. This article uses a critical social science perspective to explore who benefits from these changes through an analysis of a CBPR case study…

Flicker, Sarah

2008-01-01

19

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Health Needs among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…

Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl

2006-01-01

20

A pilot test of the HOPE Intervention to explore employment and mental health among African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS: results from a CBPR study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Helping Overcome Problems Effectively (HOPE) intervention was developed by a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership to improve mental health and employment outcomes of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The intervention blended locally collected formative data, social cognitive theory, hope theory, and the lived experiences of African American gay men living with HIV/AIDS. The HOPE intervention included 7 weekly 3-hour group sessions, with participant assessment at baseline and 3-month post-intervention. A total of 7 African American men, who self-identified as gay and unemployed, participated. Mean age was 46.1 (range = 37-57) years. Throughout the intervention, participants developed goal-setting skills, problem-solving skills, health-promoting behaviors, and employment seeking behaviors. The results suggest that the HOPE intervention may be promising in improving mental health and employment outcomes. PMID:24059878

Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Geishecker, Steve; Clark, Glenn; Rhodes, Scott D

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

A avaliação do Burnout em professores. Comparação de instrumentos: CBP-R e MBI-ED Evaluation of Burnout in teachers. Comparison tools: CBP-R and MBI-ED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A categoria de professores vem sendo apontada como uma das mais propensas ao estresse e burnout. O instrumento mais utilizado para a avaliação do burnout em docentes tem sido o MBI-Ed. No entanto, pelas especificidades da própria profissão, tem-se verificado a necessidade da elaboração de um questionário que contemple aspectos característicos da organização escolar e das atividades de ensino, inclusive avaliando os elementos antecedentes e conseqüentes da síndrome. Assim sendo foi desenvolvido o CBP. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os estudos efetuados com o CBP-R (Revisado, sua fiabilidade assim como validades interna e de convergência com o MBI-Ed. Pode-se concluir que o CBP-R e o MBI-Ed medem o mesmo fenômeno e que o primeiro destes, além do mais, permite analisar as diferentes fases do processo e explica melhor a sintomatologia dos profissionais acometidos pelo burnout, confirmando suas qualidades como instrumento.Teachers are being appointed as the ones more prone to stress and burnout. Up to now the most used tool for burnout evaluation on teachers are the MBI-Ed. However, due to the complexity of the profession there is a need of a specific questionnaire that involves school organization and learning activities, evaluating also the preceding and the consequential elements of the syndrome. For that, a CBP was developed. This work presents the studies done with CBP-R (revised, its reliabilities, internal validity and convergence with MBI-Ed. It was possible to conclude that CBP-R and MBI-Ed measure the same phenomenon and that the first allows the analysis of different phases of the emotional wear process and better explains the symptoms of professionals assaulted by burnout, confirming the qualities of alternative tools for the evaluation of professional wear on teachers.

Bernardo Moreno-Jimenez

2002-06-01

22

A avaliação do Burnout em professores. Comparação de instrumentos: CBP-R e MBI-ED / Evaluation of Burnout in teachers. Comparison tools: CBP-R and MBI-ED  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A categoria de professores vem sendo apontada como uma das mais propensas ao estresse e burnout. O instrumento mais utilizado para a avaliação do burnout em docentes tem sido o MBI-Ed. No entanto, pelas especificidades da própria profissão, tem-se verificado a necessidade da elaboração de um questio [...] nário que contemple aspectos característicos da organização escolar e das atividades de ensino, inclusive avaliando os elementos antecedentes e conseqüentes da síndrome. Assim sendo foi desenvolvido o CBP. Neste trabalho apresentam-se os estudos efetuados com o CBP-R (Revisado), sua fiabilidade assim como validades interna e de convergência com o MBI-Ed. Pode-se concluir que o CBP-R e o MBI-Ed medem o mesmo fenômeno e que o primeiro destes, além do mais, permite analisar as diferentes fases do processo e explica melhor a sintomatologia dos profissionais acometidos pelo burnout, confirmando suas qualidades como instrumento. Abstract in english Teachers are being appointed as the ones more prone to stress and burnout. Up to now the most used tool for burnout evaluation on teachers are the MBI-Ed. However, due to the complexity of the profession there is a need of a specific questionnaire that involves school organization and learning activ [...] ities, evaluating also the preceding and the consequential elements of the syndrome. For that, a CBP was developed. This work presents the studies done with CBP-R (revised), its reliabilities, internal validity and convergence with MBI-Ed. It was possible to conclude that CBP-R and MBI-Ed measure the same phenomenon and that the first allows the analysis of different phases of the emotional wear process and better explains the symptoms of professionals assaulted by burnout, confirming the qualities of alternative tools for the evaluation of professional wear on teachers.

Bernardo, Moreno-Jimenez; Eva, Garrosa-Hernandez; Macarena, Gálvez; José Luis, González; Ana Maria T., Benevides-Pereira.

23

Scientific Approach to Empirical Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

V. Vinod Kumar

2013-11-01

24

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

25

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

26

A Black feminist approach to nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women. PMID:7992489

Barbee, E L

1994-10-01

27

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN

2011-05-01

28

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Garcia Piedad

2009-03-01

29

Lessons Learned From Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned from implementing community-based participatory research (CBPR) in Indian Country that may be generalizable to other medically underserved communities. CBPR is currently included in multiple grant announcements by the National Institute of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but information about this methodology vs traditional research methodology is often misleading. This article addresses some common mistakes made b...

Burhansstipanov, Linda; Christopher, Suzanne; Schumacher, Sr Ann

2005-01-01

30

Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

31

Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

Rudel Ruthann A

2010-07-01

32

Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

33

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

34

Community-university Research Liaisons: Translating the Languages of Research and Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the experiences of six individuals employed as community-university research liaisons in a grant-funded centre for health disparities research. The liaisons were located in Native American communities and bridged the communities and the university, providing information between these groups, expanding understanding and knowledge of how research can address health disparities, and assisting in the development and ongoing work of partnerships using CBPR approaches. While tribal communities within the state may face similar health disparities, the approach to solving these disparities must be based on an understanding of the context and environment of the specific tribal community. In this paper, the tribal liaisons share their stories of negotiating and navigating their unique positions. Suggestions for utilizing tribal community-university positions to support community and partnership development are offered.

Bends, Ada; Burns, Charlene; Yellowman-Caye, Pearl; Rider, Tammy; Salois, Emily Matt; Sutherland, Annette; Todd, Mike; LaVeaux, Deb; Christopher, Suzanne

2014-01-01

35

Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict research collaborations in the biomedical field. We explored both the semantic features extracted from author research interest profile and the author network topological features. We found that the most informative semantic features for author collaborations are related to research interest, including similarity of out-citing citations, similarity of abstracts. Of the four supervised machine learning models (naïve Bayes, naïve Bayes multinomial, SVMs, and logistic regression), the best performing model is logistic regression with an ROC ranging from 0.766 to 0.980 on different datasets. To our knowledge we are the first to study in depth how research interest and productivities can be used for collaboration prediction. Our approach is computationally efficient, scalable and yet simple to implement. The datasets of this study are available at https://github.com/qingzhanggithub/medline-collaboration-datasets. PMID:25375164

Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong

2014-01-01

36

Project GRACE: A Staged Approach to Development of a Community-Academic Partnership to address HIV in Rural African American communities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HIV epidemic is a health crisis in rural African American communities in the Southeast US, however to date little attention has been paid to community-academic collaborations to address HIV in these communities. Interventions that use a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to address individual, social and physical environmental factors have great potential for improving community health. Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) uses a CBPR approac...

Corbie-smith, Giselle; Adimora, Adaora A.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin; Blumenthal, Connie; Ellison, Arlinda; Akers, Aletha; Council, Barbara; Thigpen, Yolanda; Wynn, Mysha; Lloyd, Stacey W.

2011-01-01

37

Systems biology approaches in aging research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

38

An action research approach to curriculum development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding

1995-01-01

39

Intracortical visual prosthesis research - approach and progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the early work of Brindley in the late 1960's, the NIH began intramural and extramural funding for stimulation of the primary visual coretex using fine-wire electrodes that are inserted into area VI for the prupose of restoring vision in individuals with blindness. More recently researchers with experience in this projectbecame part of our multi-institutional team with the intention to identify and close technological gaps so that the intracortical approach might be tested in humans on a chronic basis. Our team has formulated an approach for testing a prototype system in a human volunteer. Here, we describe our progress and expectations. PMID:17281985

Troyk, P R; Bradley, D; Bak, M; Cogan, S; Erickson, R; Hu, Z; Kufta, C; McCreery, D; Schmidt, E; Sung, S; Towle, V

2005-01-01

40

“Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects...

Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triang...

Sudarshan Mishra; Passi, B. K.

2004-01-01

42

Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, treatment

Jabir NR

2012-08-01

43

Recent approaches in tooth engineering research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tooth absence and defects caused by various reasons are frequent events in humans. They are not life threatening but may bring about social consequences. Recent dentistry provides solutions in the form of prosthetics or dental implants; however, several complications and distinct limitations favour bioengineering of dental and periodontal structures. At least two types of cells (epithelial and mesenchymal) have to be recombined to produce a new functional tooth. Moreover, the tooth must be vascularized, innervated and properly anchored in the bone. To study these issues, different approaches have been established in both basic and applied research. In this review, recent strategies and techniques of tooth engineering are comprehensively summarized and discussed, particularly regarding manipulation using stem cells. PMID:25369337

Svandová, E; Veselá, B; K?ivánek, J; Hampl, A; Matalová, E

2014-01-01

44

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

45

Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

Sudarshan Mishra

2004-11-01

46

The Research Journey: A "Lonely Planet" Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss the impact of research on a neophyte researcher and the research supervisor. The methodology which is applied throughout this article is autoethnographic narrative. It represents retrospective reflection on the part of the authors and thus to some extent is about retrospective meaning making. It centres upon the…

Mackenzie, Noella M.; Ling, Lorraine M.

2009-01-01

47

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

48

Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.

AliaksandrBirukou

2011-12-01

49

Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research  

Science.gov (United States)

The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

Kammen, Daniel M.

2013-03-01

50

A Hybrid Approach for Translational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Translational research has proven to be a powerful process that bridges the gap between basic science and medical practice. The complexity of translational research is two-fold: integration of vast amount of information in disparate silos, and dissemination of discoveries to stakeholders with different interests. We designed and implemented a…

Webster, Yue Wang

2010-01-01

51

Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

2012-01-01

52

Teaching mathematical modelling: a research based approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A collaborative, research based laboratory experiment in mathematical modelling was included in a bioprocess engineering laboratory module, taught as part of an interdisciplinary program in biotechnology. The class was divided into six groups of three students and given the task of investigating a novel diafiltration process that is currently the focus of international research. Different aspects of the problem were assigned to each group and inter-group communication via email was required t...

Foley, Greg

2009-01-01

53

Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

Eikeland, Olav

2012-01-01

54

Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

Antoni Roig

2009-05-01

55

Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.

Piirainen, Kalle

2013-01-01

56

Future research directions: theoretical approach and perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to provide a comprehensive theoretical explanation for the activity of red dwarf stars. Among particular problems that are ripe for further investigation are: the production of steady, cyclic or irregular patterns of activity by nonlinear dynamo action in stars; the effect of magnetic buoyancy in producing photospheric magnetic fields; the formation of isolated flux tubes and their interaction with convection. These topics are discussed and some future lines of research are suggested. (Auth.)

57

Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

Cabassa Leopoldo J

2011-07-01

58

Action research approach for gaining and providing feedback on ...  

Sep 21, 2011 ... ... and systemic change). EVALOC project and action research approach .... \\technical and occupants' perspective. To map occupants' ... The theoretical \\potential of the base building's fabric and services under standard ...

59

With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

Jan, Bengtsson.

60

With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

Jan, Bengtsson.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

Soiferman, L. Karen

2010-01-01

62

A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR. CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership development, policy making, creating connections and utilizing existing community resources. Evaluating community capacity created as a result of a CBPR project is one way to measure its effectiveness. This paper is a retrospective analysis of the capacity built during a CBPR study of diabetes and obesity in East and South Los Angeles which are two low-income and minority neighborhoods. Four people, who were heavily involved in the project, completed a retrospective analysis of the capacity built utilizing a validated instrument. There was consensus about the capacity built, which included: excellent participation by community members, inclusion of members’ ideas to leverage additional funding, and pride of community members in their participation in the project. One area that could have been strengthened was increased access for leadership and research experience among community members, especially since the project ended prematurely. There were differences among the two community groups with East Los Angeles members focusing more on tangible interventions and grant writing, while South Los Angeles members had a greater policy focus. Communities and researchers who are embarking on a CBPR project can learn from those who have implemented the strategy. Measuring capacity built during and after the project, can be one way to understanding the contributions of a project in a community. CBPR is an empowering research methodology which, done correctly, can build community capacity and have long-term impacts on individuals and communities.

Kathryn Hillstrom

2014-06-01

63

Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors  

Science.gov (United States)

Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

2007-01-01

64

Prove Your Case: A New Approach to Teaching Research Papers  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a new approach to teaching the process of writing research papers to college freshmen. Instructors explain the analogy that a student writing a research paper is like a lawyer defending a court case: lawyers frame their case (as students define their topic), search out evidence (as students search for sources), present the…

Broskoske, Stephen L.

2007-01-01

65

Respectful, Responsible, and Reciprocal Ruralities Research: Approaching and Positioning Educational Research Differently within Australian Rural Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based…

Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.

2012-01-01

66

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

67

A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.

James Gibson

2005-11-01

68

A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to app...

Susila Munisamy

2009-01-01

69

FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

M.O. Izotov

2012-08-01

70

Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

Brand, Manny

2009-01-01

71

Reflections on the ethnographic approach in three research studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing three research studies that focused on the effects of the perception in adults´ attitudes with the purpose to improve the health care provided to children. Although each study had a distinct area of investigation, all of them adopted the ethnographic approach on the interaction between the adults and children. This work aimed at reporting the researchers' reflections with respect to: i the adoption of the ethnographic approach in Nursing studies; ii the theoretical perspectives that are relevant in the production of themes. Authors considered the value of this reflection after the research and its potential in order to understand how it can contribute to consolidate the health care theoretical frameworks in general, and the nursing care models, in particular.

Vieira Neiva Francenely Cunha

2003-01-01

72

Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project

Khalil ur, Rahman; Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan; Seo, Sang Mun; Kim, Yong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

73

Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

2014-01-01

74

The image of the algorithmic city: a research approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable urban design, and identifies several paths for future research.

Kevin Hamilton

2014-05-01

75

An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.

Dyas Jane

2008-06-01

76

Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

77

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

78

Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge contribution from evaluation of the utility of an artifact. That is, utility-based evaluation often builds the argument on adoption of the artifact, assuming that adoption and utility in general validates also claims to knowledge contribution. We show that this mode of evaluation has philosophical and practical problems that need addressing in further research.

Piirainen, Kalle

2014-01-01

79

Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed gital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project

80

Research approach to teaching groundwater biodegradation in karst aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

TSU in partnership with the USGS has conducted extensive research regarding biode??gradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This research resulted in the development of a numerical approach to modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers that is taught to environmental engineering students in several steps. First, environmental engineering students are taught chemical-reaction engineering principles relating to a wide variety of environmental fate and transport issues. Second, as part of TSU's engineering course curriculum, students use a non-ideal flow laboratory reactor system and run a tracer study to establish residence time distribution (RTD). Next, the students couple that formula to a first-order biodegradation rate and predict the removal of a biodegradable contaminant as a function of residence time. Following this, students are shown data collected from karst bedrock wells that suggest that karst aquifers are analogous to non-ideal flow reactors. The students are challenged to develop rates of biodegradation through lab studies and use their results to predict biodegradaton at an actual contaminated karst site. Field studies are also conducted to determine the accuracy of the students' predictions. This academic approach teaches biodegradation processes, rate-kinetic processes, hydraulic processes and numerical principles. The students are able to experience how chemical engineering principles can be applied to other situations, such as, modeling biodegradation of contaminants in karst aquifers. This paper provides background on the chemical engineering principles and karst issues used in the research-enhanced curriculum. ?? American Society for Engineering Education, 2006.

King, L.; Byl, T.; Painter, R.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs

82

Methodological approach to complex educational and research works  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The important problem of higher professional education is preparation of specialists possessing skills in high technology equipment. Problem realization is directed to interdisciplinary educational research works and complex final qualifying works on for example working out of pharmaceutical preparations, biologically active additives to food and cosmetic means. The given work includes step-by-step decision of the problem put before students and it should be analogical relevant to dissertations on specialty «pharmacy». From the point of view of methodological approach concerning the choice of candidature and work theme the following categories of students according to their progress and type of personality are allocated: «stars», «fellow travelers» and «good students». On this basis various methodological approaches for work with «stars», «fellow travelers» and «good students» are considered in the article

Gorshkova N.V.

2011-03-01

83

Approaches to comparative effectiveness research in multimorbid populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need for an evidence base to guide care for patients with multiple chronic medical conditions (MCC). Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been touted as 1 solution to generating such evidence. However, the majority of CER topics and methods are designed to generate evidence applicable to single diseases. Generating evidence to guide the care of MCC populations requires thoughtful, and often alternative, approaches to using the existing armamentarium of CER methods. To initiate a dialog about appropriate methods for CER in MCC populations, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of experimental and quasi-experimental study designs for CER in MCC populations, estimating heterogeneity of treatment effects, developing meaningful outcome measures, and aligning morbidity measurement with relevant outcomes. Through an engaged dialog with clinicians, methodologists, and patients, evidence about strengths and limitations of alternative approaches, recommendations about preferred methods for CER in MCC can be developed to ensure that knowledge gaps are filled by valid evidence. PMID:24561754

Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bayliss, Elizabeth A

2014-03-01

84

Latent difference score approach to longitudinal trauma research.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the authors introduce a latent difference score (LDS) approach to analyzing longitudinal data in trauma research. The LDS approach accounts for internal sources of change in an outcome variable, including the influence of prior status on subsequent levels of that variable and the tendency for individuals to experience natural change (e.g., a natural decrease in posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms over time). Under traditional model assumptions, the LDSs are maximally reliable and therefore less likely to introduce biases into model testing. The authors illustrate the method using a sample of children who experienced significant burns or other injuries to examine potential influences (i.e., age of child-adolescent at time of trauma and ongoing family strains) on PTSD symptom severity over time. PMID:17195976

King, Lynda A; King, Daniel W; McArdle, John J; Saxe, Glenn N; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Orazem, Robert J

2006-12-01

85

Agricultural risk management : experiences from an action research approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory.

Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne

2005-01-01

86

Investigating the Research Approaches for Examining Technology Adoption Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption of technology, a research topic within the Information Systems area, is usually studied at two levels: organizational level and user level. This paper examines the range of methods used for studying technology adoption issues at both these levels. The approaches were selected after conducting a review of 48 articles on technology adoption and usage, published in peer reviewed journals between 1985 and 2003. The journals reviewed include the MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, European Journal of Information Systems, Information Systems Journal, and other relevant journals in the IS area. The findings suggest that the survey method was used predominantly when investigating the topics of user adoption and the usage of technology. In contrast, the case study method is the most widely used when examining adoption issues at the organizational level.

Jyoti Choudrie

2005-01-01

87

Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying these change processes, and it is particularly the advantages and disadvantages of this - traditionally not very popular - research approach that is in focus in this paper.

Harmsen, Hanne

88

Qualitative research approach in production engineering - an assessment of a research project and a sample of master of science dissertations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating applications of qualitative research approaches in the subject of operations management (OM, more specifically in industrial engineering. It firstly presents a brief review of research methods when using qualitative research approaches. This provides the backdrop for a content analysis of qualitative research in a research project in which a case study approach was employed. In addition, it analyses a sample of dissertations of a post graduate program in industrial engineering with regard to the qualitative research approaches used. These two cases highlighted are then used as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research approach in OM. The paper concludes that critical appraisal of qualitative research approach is needed and offers some recommendations for future work in this direction.

Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel

2011-01-01

89

Research Experience for Undergraduates: A Non-Traditional Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REUs) have been documented to be an effective way to increase student retention in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) by exposing students to research. REUs typically run during the summer months, allowing students to travel to different universities away from their home institutions. We created an REU program, Pathways Research Experience for undergraduates Program (PREP) that ran during the fall and spring academic semesters and focused on the geosciences. These students were provided with a monthly stipend to work with a research mentor, and they were required to attend a weekly professional development meeting led by the Pathways PIs and the program coordinator. The weekly training program focused on research skills, presentation skills, and graduate school preparation. Since a majority of students at University of Texas at El Paso (a Hispanic Serving Institution with 70% Hispanic and 10% Mexican students) must work outside the university while attending college, the stipends enabled students to remain on campus to "work", with the hope that this may contribute to their overall academic success. By spending more time on campus, the participants were able to interact more with faculty and other students, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Participants were chosen on a basis of GPA and the contents of an application that included a statement of purpose, a resume, a transcript, and at least one letter of recommendation. Once the student was selected, they were required to find a mentor and research project. Through an analysis of surveys, we have found that participants enjoy the meetings, which gave them a sense of belonging to a group, and an additional source of academic support. Participants were also expected to take part in outreach activities as part of our goal to create a geosciences network in El Paso. With this REU approach, we believe that our success rate suggests that this approach works well in Hispanic Serving Institutions: 51% of our participants have gone on to graduate school, 22% are still undergraduates, 17% are unknown, 5% are in industry and 5% are teaching.

Carrick, T. L.; Miller, K. C.; Hagedorn, E.; Velasco, A. A.

2012-12-01

90

A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et?al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers. PMID:24283978

Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

2013-11-01

91

Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)

92

Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)

Li, Yufei; Snedeker, Jess G. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)

2011-04-15

93

The Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network's organization and approach to observational research and health outcomes research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Established in 2003 by the Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR), in collaboration with several National Institutes of Health (NIH) Institutes/Centers, the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) consists of multiple clinical consortia conducting research in more than 200 rare diseases. The RDCRN supports longitudinal or natural history, pilot, Phase I, II, and III, case-control, cross-sectional, chart review, physician survey, bio-repository, and RDCRN Contact Registry (CR) studies. To date, there have been 24,684 participants enrolled on 120 studies from 446 sites worldwide. An additional 11,533 individuals participate in the CR. Through a central data management and coordinating center (DMCC), the RDCRN's platform for the conduct of observational research encompasses electronic case report forms, federated databases, and an online CR for epidemiological and survey research. An ORDR-governed data repository (through dbGaP, a database for genotype and phenotype information from the National Library of Medicine) has been created. DMCC coordinates with ORDR to register and upload study data to dbGaP for data sharing with the scientific community. The platform provided by the RDCRN DMCC has supported 128 studies, six of which were successfully conducted through the online CR, with 2,352 individuals accrued and a median enrollment time of just 2 months. The RDCRN has built a powerful suite of web-based tools that provide for integration of federated and online database support that can accommodate a large number of rare diseases on a global scale. RDCRN studies have made important advances in the diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases. PMID:25029976

Krischer, Jeffrey P; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Groft, Stephen C; Eckstein, David J

2014-08-01

94

The Politics of Data:Uncovering Whiteness in Conventional Social Policy and Social Work Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implementation of a robust community based participatory research (CBPR) study in Multnomah County, Oregon, has detailed broad and deep racial disparities across 27 institutions and systems. The process of this research has led to the identification of numerous practices that misrepresent and negate the experiences and very identity of communities of color. The research draws from engagement with numerous databases from the Census Bureau, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Substance Abus...

Ann Curry-Stevens; Amanda Cross-Hemmer; Nichole Maher; Julia Meier

2011-01-01

95

The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

Gibbs, Michael

2009-11-01

96

Dream research in schizophrenia: methodological issues and a dimensional approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the validity of the findings. It is also suggested that the so-called dimensional approach (linking severity of daytime symptoms directly to specific dream characteristics) will be very helpful for identifying which psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely linked to dream content. PMID:20537924

Schredl, Michael

2011-12-01

97

Safety approach for a new French research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a general overview of the technological irradiation reactors existing in Europe, this document details the safety approach adopted for a new research reactor (RJH) to be constructed in France and the main recommendations resulting from IRSN assessment. As a general conclusion, the safety-related provisions taken by the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for the RJH will allow to obtain a safety level consistent with the future power generating reactors safety level, with, as the most significant progress, the consideration, from the design stage, of the severe core meltdown accidents from all points of view (control of the removal risk in containments, post-accidental cooling of relocated materials, etc.). Generally, it was considered that these provisions constitute a satisfactory 'evolutionary' basis for the continuation of the project. However, the assessment conducted by IRSN led to issue a certain number of recommendations, particularly relating to some relatively arbitrary assumptions and approaches (for example: energies considered for BORAX accident). The projects of new facilities implemented by CEA seem to be on the right way: an 'evolutionary' way and not a 'revolutionary' way. (author)

98

The Union and Médecins Sans Frontières approach to operational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Operational research (OR) has become a hot topic at national meetings, international conferences and donor fora. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Operational Centre Brussels strongly promote and implement OR with colleagues in low- and middle-income countries. Here we describe how the two organisations define OR, and explain the guiding principles and methodology that underpin the strategy for developing and expanding OR in those countries. We articulate The Union's and MSF's approach to supporting OR, highlighting the main synergies and differences. Then, using the Malawi National Tuberculosis Control Programme as an example, we show how OR can be embedded within tuberculosis control activities, leading to changes in policy and practice at the national level. We discuss the difficult, yet vitally important, issue of capacity building, and share our vision of a new paradigm of product-related training and performance-based OR fellowships as two ways of developing the necessary skills at country level to ensure research is actually performed. Finally, we highlight the need to consider and incorporate into practice the ethical components of OR. This is a key moment to be involved in OR. We are confident that in partnership with interested stakeholders, including the World Health Organization, we can stimulate the implementation of quality, relevant OR as an integral part of health service delivery that in turn will lead to better health for people, particularly for those living in the poorer parts of the world. PMID:21219672

Harries, A D; Rusen, I D; Reid, T; Detjen, A K; Berger, S D; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Fussell, M; Fujiwara, P I; Zachariah, R

2011-02-01

99

Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper summarizes the main outcomes of the work package on “Interdisciplinary Methodologies” in disaster resilience education and research (WP4) of the EU program “Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize Educational Development” (ANDROID). A survey on interdisciplinary work in the field of disaster resilience has been undertaken within ANDROID network and beyond, with the aim of highlight the status of current research and education programs and identifying and promote best practices and innovative approaches in the field. To this purpose, a questionnaire has been implemented, which collected answers on 57 projects based in more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well. From a review of the answers, useful information on the number and type of disciplines involved has been obtained. Furthermore, it has been possible to identify the major obstacles to interdisciplinary work and get some insights on the causes and possible solutions to the problems. In particular, the lack of a common framework and terminology among the numerous disciplines involved in the projects seems to represent the most difficult obstacle to overcome, when working in projects on disaster resilience. It is argued that a consistent organization of terms and knowledge within the field of disaster resilience is needed, in order to promote innovation and development in the design of urban system against accidental events, and could most effectively achieved by the establishment of more educational programs in the field. This survey constitutes one of the first attempts to gather information on interdisciplinary methodologies in disaster resilience projects and to broadly disseminate it. In particular, the results of the survey will be made available in the Open Educational Resource (OER) platform, a free online archive aimed at offering free online material to students and academics for teaching and research purposes, and serve as basis for understanding the state of art and practice in designing more resilient urban systems towards natural and human induced hazards.

Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa

100

Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

Ehsan Mostafavi

2014-01-01

102

Arts-Based Research: Trojan Horses and Shibboleths. The Liabilities of a Hybrid Research Approach. "What Hath Eisner Wrought?"  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and…

Pariser, David

2009-01-01

103

Different approaches to total knee replacement: a comparative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to compare traditional and miniinvasive approaches to total knee replacement. 145 patients were divided in four groups. In 1 group (50 pts we used medial parapatellar approach, 2 group (30 pts - lateral parapatellar approach, 3 group (34 pts - midvastus approach, 4 group (31 pts - Q-S approach. All replacements were done by one experienced surgeon. Intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, results of KSS and quality of positioning of implants were measured. Mininvasive approaches to knee replacement showed decreased blood loss, improved functional results and positioning was as much perfect, as with traditional approach. Mininvasive knee replacement is very effective, but it should be performed by experienced surgeon

Zelenyak ?.?.

2010-12-01

104

Different approaches to total knee replacement: a comparative research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: to compare traditional and miniinvasive approaches to total knee replacement. 145 patients were divided in four groups. In 1 group (50 pts) we used medial parapatellar approach, 2 group (30 pts) - lateral parapatellar approach, 3 group (34 pts) - midvastus approach, 4 group (31 pts) - Q-S approach. All replacements were done by one experienced surgeon. Intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, results of KSS and quality of positioning of implants were measured. Mininvasive appr...

Zelenyak ?.?.; Serebryakov A.B.

2010-01-01

105

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

M. Poggenpoel

1991-09-01

106

Nursing research education in the United States of America: One approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In addressing nursing research education in the United States of America a short overview of the development of nursing research will be given and then one specific approach to nursing research education will be discussed fully.

Poggenpoel, M.

1991-01-01

107

Research Capacity Building in Teacher Education: Scottish Collaborative Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the context for education research, including teacher education research, in Scotland. Concerns about research capacity are shared with other parts of the UK, but the distinctive context for teacher development and engagement in practitioner research create fertile ground for developments in teacher education research. Schemes…

Christie, Donald; Menter, Ian

2009-01-01

108

A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

2011-02-01

109

A systems biology approach to infectious disease research: innovating the pathogen-host research paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past-including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology-have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm. PMID:21285433

Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J; Law, G Lynn; McDermott, Jason G; Proll, Sean C; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G

2011-01-01

110

Biotechnological Approaches as the New Paradigm for Insect Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy effectiveness and in expanding the markets for the bio insecticides. Molecular techniques employed for identifying and monitoring establishment and dispersal of specific biotypes of natural enemies. Production, formulation and storage of entomopathogenic fungi can be dramatically improved through biotechnology and genetic engineering. Proteinaceous insect toxins (scorpion toxin, mite toxin, trypsin inhibitor, hormones (eclosion hormone, diuretic hormone and metabolic enzymes (juvenile hormone esterase introduced into NPV and GV genome virus to increase its efficacy to kill insect. Genetic manipulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes encoding for proteins toxic to insects offers an opportunity to produce genetically modified strains with more potent and transgenic plant expressing Bt toxin. In 2011, planting of Bt cotton in India surpassed the historical milestone of 10 million hectare for the first time and occupied 88% of the recorded 12.1 million hectare cotton crops. However, field resistance of Bt crops to various insects have been noticed and to combat this problem two approaches namely refuge and pyramiding were recently introduced. The development of cryobiological method for preserving embryos of insects can significantly save the rearing costs, and the valuable collection of insect natural enemies could be maintained indefinitely. RNAi technology enables engineering of a new generation of pest-resistant GM crops. Insect control strategies that integrate advance knowledge in biotechnology with traditional wisdom and technology will contribute to the sustainability of agriculture.

Diganggana Talukdar

2014-02-01

111

A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...

Sukhendu Dutta

2014-01-01

112

The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students' Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…

Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele

2013-01-01

113

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

2013-01-01

114

Mobile Data Services Usage - a Methodological Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper classifies the existing research methods that are used to study mobile services and applications wishing to put things into an order. The paper examines these methods and proposes a combined methodological technique. This technique has been used as a research tool in a research study which explored mobile data services adoption of different features by existing users and usage process. Mobile networked technologies and mobile data services have become inextricable part of people’s daily lives since they are accessible anytime anywhere throughout a day. Conventional research methods that are used to study the use of mobile devices and applications are unable to collect useful fieldwork data in versatile use situations and thus methodological challenges still exist. Researchers have responded to these challenges by developing research methods that enable new ways of collecting data concerning mobile technology use. The research method presented here is based on conventional research methods, on the use of mobile phone camera for capturing video and photographs during the use of mobile data services and on a commercial application to establish communication contact between users and researchers. The paper suggests that simple commercial systems can be used by researchers to conduct field studies.

Papadopoulos Homer

2008-07-01

115

Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

Matzen, Detlef

2009-01-01

116

Technologies and experimental approaches in the NIH Botanical Research Centers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are many similarities between research on combinatorial chemistry and natural products and research on dietary supplements and botanicals in the NIH Botanical Research Centers. The technologies in the centers are similar to those used by other NIH-sponsored investigators. All centers rigorously examine the authenticity of botanical dietary supplements and determine the composition and concentrations of the phytochemicals therein, most often by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. ...

Barnes, Stephen; Birt, Diane F.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Cefalu, William T.; Chilton, Floyd H.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Raskin, Ilya; Breemen, Richard B.; Weaver, Connie M.

2008-01-01

117

Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181

Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

2014-08-01

118

Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. Research Monograph.  

Science.gov (United States)

A common thread in contemporary research in student learning refers to the ways in which students go about learning. A theory of learning is presented that accentuates the interaction between the person and the situation. Research evidence implies a form of meta-cognition called meta-learning, the awareness of students of their own learning…

Biggs, John B.

119

Action Research Approach on Mobile Learning Design for the Underserved  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses an action research study focused on developing a mobile learning model of literacy development for underserved migrant indigenous children in Latin America. The research study incorporated a cyclical action model with four distinctive stages (Strategize, Apply, Evaluate, and Reflect) designed to guide constituencies involved…

Kim, Paul H.

2009-01-01

120

Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Fall prevention research and practice: a total worker safety approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a "total worker safety" matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

Hsiao, Hongwei

2014-10-27

122

Process diary as methodological approach in longitudinal phenomenological research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.

Heidi, Woll.

123

Process diary as methodological approach in longitudinal phenomenological research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.

Heidi, Woll.

2013-04-01

124

A research approach to designing chemistry education using authentic practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss how to reduce the incongruence between the outcomes (both cognitive and affective) of the conventional secondary chemistry curriculum and what is to be attained: the meaningful connection of students’ learning to daily life and societal issues. This problem is addressed by a design study with one curriculum unit about “Water Quality”. With several research cycles using developmental research, we developed an emergent understanding about an instructional framework for curricul...

Bulte, A. M. W.; Westbroek, H. B.; Jong, O.; Pilot, A.

2006-01-01

125

Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology  

Science.gov (United States)

The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

Rapoport, Judith L.

2009-01-01

126

Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

127

Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

2013-01-01

128

Approach to regulatory research related to new technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regulatory research can be defined as activities comprising of research, testing and analysis undertaken for obtaining deeper insights into intricate safety issues towards arriving at scientifically sound and better optimized regulatory decisions. Regulatory research may be performed by the regulatory body itself or by the licensee or their technical support organizations. This could be either in fulfillment of regulatory requirements for novel designs or to resolve safety issues in existing facilities. New technologies are often introduced in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for safety enhancement or for improving plant efficiency or economics. The regulators are then faced with the challenging task of reviewing such technologies to assess and confirm their reliability and robustness before consenting for their use in the plant. Regulatory research provides a sound basis to support such regulatory decisions. The Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) makes significant use of regulatory research, both for addressing safety questions in existing facilities as also for assessing the reliability of new designs. Management of safety of coolant channels in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) based NPPs, safety assessment of unbonded prestressing system for primary containment building of an NPP and, analysis for arriving at the cause of a power rise incident in an NPP are some examples where intense played a key role in AERB's decision making process. This paper aims adecision making process. This paper aims at elaborating on the different aspects of regulatory research that help eliminate subjectivity in regulatory decisions and also improve the effectiveness of a regulatory organization through contributing to value addition to safety. Some examples of regulatory research in support of AERB's decisions are also covered in the paper. (author)

129

A systems approach to research inquiry in accounting : a research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accounting research is strongly influenced by the research methodology and methods adopted in the natural sciences. As a result many researchers in Accounting have steered away from non-formal or interpretative methods. From a methodological perspective, Accounting research therefore has a narrow base (Tomkins and Groves, 1983). A solution to expanding the research base may be to search for non-formal, naturalistic research methods in disciplines related to Accounting, where they are more est...

Koornhof, Carolina

2001-01-01

130

Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach  

CERN Document Server

For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

O'Shea, Rory P

2014-01-01

131

Optimization of Transportation System Using OR (Operational Research Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project aims at developing an algorithm to optimize the transportation system of our organization. Vehicle routing problem of the institution is taken as the issue which is to be solved. The data’s are collected from the transportation department. According to the data, Dijkstra’s algorithm is used to find the optimal path initially. Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT is used to find the critical patha nad critical events present in the network. Then a heuristic approach i.e., Genetic Algorihm is used to validate the result obtained from the Dijkstra’s algorithm. Path length and cost is taken as the criteria for optimising the vehicle route. Djikstra’s algorithm is used to find the shortest path of the vehicle manually. Then a heuristic approach (Genetic algorithm is undertaken to validate the result obtained.

M. Janani, C. Chinna muthu, A. Arun, P. Gururaj, S. Jenson Thiyagaraj

2014-05-01

132

Research for an Intelligent Component-Oriented Software Development Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using software agents as next generation flexible components and applying reuse technologies to rapidly construct agents and agent systems have great promise to improve application and system construction. The increasing complexity of software has made it necessary to reuse software. Reuse has increased the reliability of software applications and made it efficient to develop and maintain current software. An Intelligent componentoriented software development approach, which emphasizes the design and construction of software systems by using reusable components, is an effective approach to the software development. Combining the advantages of agentoriented and component-oriented methods, it aims to create more flexible, reusable and customizable agent components in future. An agent component-based architecture is proposed and a concrete application system is described to illustrate the method and process of applying the architecture

Youtian Qu

2009-12-01

133

Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

Carmen Piqué-Noguera

2012-10-01

134

Writing in the Ether: A Collaborative Approach to Academic Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the developmental stages of academic publication collaborations through both research on the collaborative process itself, as well as through analysis of the discovery process. Using the qualitative software package, NUD*IST, the teleconferencing system, FirstClass, and standard e-mail, the study…

Winograd, David; Milton, Katherine

135

The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…

Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel

2012-01-01

136

An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

2014-01-01

137

Approaches to Needed Sociological Research on the Physically Handicapped.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors consider the possibilities for sociological rehabilitation research in three areas: deviance, minority-dominant relations, and law and politics. Among the areas investigated by medical sociologists are the stigma of disability, discrimination against the physically handicapped as compared to discrimination against minority groups, and…

Davis, F. James; Heyl, Barbara Sherman

138

Electronic media: the problem of choosing research approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.

Nurgaleeva L. V.

2012-03-01

139

Evaluating international research ethics capacity development: an empirical approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The US national institutes of health, Fogarty International Center (NIH-FIC) has, for the past 13 years, been a leading funder of international research ethics education for resource-limited settings. Nearly half of the NIH-FIC funding in this area has gone to training programs that train individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the impact of training investments, as well as the potential predictors of post-training success, can support curricular decisionmaking, help establish funding priorities, and recognize the ultimate outcomes of trainees and training programs. Comprehensive evaluation frameworks and targeted evaluation tools for bioethics training programs generally, and for international research ethics programs in particular, are largely absent from published literature. This paper shares an original conceptual framework, data collection tool, and detailed methods for evaluating the inputs, processes, outputs, and outcomes of research ethics training programs serving individuals in resource-limited settings. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program. PMID:24782071

Ali, Joseph; Kass, Nancy E; Sewankambo, Nelson K; White, Tara D; Hyder, Adnan A

2014-04-01

140

Social marketing : a new approach in mental health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifying behaviours such as civil administration, public establishments etc. In health sector social marketing has not found appropriate application whereas it could be utilized in an effective way for creating awareness, formulating health related policies, their implementation and for preventing a variety of illnesses/abnormal behaviours etc.With this background knowledge about social marketing, the author hypothesized that abnormal behaviours could be modified, health education packages could be developed to make more acceptable and effective and desired behaviours could be induced if perceptions and expectations of the community (consumers) are known a prioriori and their expectations are incorporated in programmes and policies. Thus, the author utilizing the concepts of social marketing for understanding community's perceptions and expectations regarding issues of health, and for incorporating the same in health related programmes and policies, introduced this research concept in medical field in this country.The important findings of three research projects based on the concepts of social marketing research and their implications have been discussed. PMID:21494494

Tiwari, S C

1998-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Formulation of Higher Education Institutional Strategy Using Operational Research Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper a framework is proposed for the formulation of a higher education institutional (HEI) strategy. This work provides a practical example, through a case study, to demonstrate how the proposed framework can be applied to the issue of formulation of HEI strategy. The proposed hybrid model is based on two operational research

Labib, Ashraf; Read, Martin; Gladstone-Millar, Charlotte; Tonge, Richard; Smith, David

2014-01-01

142

A Creative Approach to the Research Paper: Combining Creative Writing with Academic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a combination of a research essay and a creative writing assignment that encourages rigorous academic research while allowing students to get "outside the box" of traditional academic research papers. This assignment has five steps. The first two steps offer the chance to introduce academic research along with summary and…

Blue, Tim

2006-01-01

143

The Significance of Strategic Community Engagement in Recruiting African American Youth & Families for Clinical Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present baseline data and describe the utility of a community engaged, culturally relevant approach to recruiting African American youth and families for phase I of The AAKOMA Project. The AAKOMA Project is a two phase treatment development study to improve mental health service use among depressed African American youth. We completed capacity building activities using a community engaged framework and Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methods. Replicating the (Alvarez et al. in West J Nurs Res 28:541-560, 2006) model of systematic community out-reach enhanced our ability to effectively recruit partners and evaluate outreach efforts as demonstrated by our Recruitment Success Factor (RSF-i.e. 'an adjusted ratio of eligible participant yield to contacts made'). Using the chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic; we compared the RSFs of the various modes of participant study entry to determine which was most effective. Our target enrollment was 56 persons. We recruited 130 and enrolled 57. Our baseline data is drawn from a gender balanced and socioeconomically diverse sample who participated in youth focus groups and individual interviews and adult focus groups. We identified 3 study participant referral modes (self-referral, provider referral and participant-to-participant referral) with multiple sources per mode and an overall RSF of 0.41. Study findings support the effectiveness of assiduous and systematic community interaction, reflective review of recruitment efforts and the importance of disseminating information on strategic recruitment processes for engaging diverse populations in clinical research. PMID:22984337

Breland-Noble, Alfiee M; Bell, Carl C; Burriss, Antoinette; Poole, H Kathy

2012-04-01

144

New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face inter...

Carol Vlassoff

1992-01-01

145

Reviewing CSR management and marketing communication research: A discourse approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To judge from the rapidly growing body of research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and marketing communication, there is an increasing interest in exploring the role of communication along with the transmission from implicit towards explicit CSR in the European context (Matten & Moon 2008). Many corporations today are concerned with gaining legitimacy through integrating the expectations of their stakeholders (employees, customers, NGOs, activists, government institutions, institutions of international governance) in the overall company strategy. This also includes stakeholders in or around business units established in developing countries and emerging markets (e.g. Jamali 2010; Reimann 2012). Along with the growing pressure on corporations to engage in CSR a seemingly growing number of these are concerned with disclosure, reporting, reputation, etc. issues, and act on them through different CSR communication initiatives, channels and technology, e.g. mass media and social media. However, in spite of the growing attention on adopting CSR communication strategies and tactics, there does not seem to be a common understanding and consensus of how and to which extent CSR communication may contribute to influence stakeholders’ perception of corporations’ CSR performance. At best, some studies hold that there is a general recognition of CSR communication as a potential reputation enhancer, but also that if addressed inappropriately, CSR communication cause more damage than glory to a company. Other studies focus on CSR communication as inevitable hypocrisy (Christensen et al. 2011) and as an embedded ‘promotional dilemma’ emerging when stakeholders claim CSR information, while rejecting companies who practice it as overly self-promotion (Coombs & Holladay 2012). Consequently, CSR management and marketing communication research contains understandings that point in different directions, calling for more substantial explorations of the underlying discourse arsenal that CSR researchers and practitioners draw on. Institutional theory is one way of investigating how companies deal with social change processes such as the insisting concern with CSR communication. According to institutionalists, corporations are social institutions that require institutional legitimacy in order to survive. Within an institutional framework, organizational change is addressed as a product of institutions’ pressure on companies to adopt similar practices in a given societal context (DiMaggio & Powel 1983). Considering CSR communication under the lens of insitutional theory opens for understanding the diversity and dynamics of CSR (Brammer et al. 2012).Moreover, the institutionalizing processes of CSR and related concepts enables us to explore emerging discourses, institutionalized through research and best practices of CSR. Accordingly, we address how the emergence of discourse from CSR as accountancy and transparency invites and legitimizes a new social order in which CSR is addressed as a forum for mutual understanding, recognition, negotiation and co-creation amongst stakeholders. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the discourse construction of CSR communication on the basis of how researchers frame corporations’ CSR doings and saying within marketing and management streams of CSR research. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze how the role of communication and interaction is conceptualized in specific social contexts such as managing and marketing corporations through CSR. Many researchers argue that CSR communication is likely to increase stakeholder engagement, corporate reputation and value creation (e.g. Porter & Kramer 2006; Du et al. 2010). By looking at the rapidly growing body of research in the field of CSR management and marketing communication, the paper focuses on the positions, arguments, con?icts and actors of CSR communication across specific CSR topics and initiatives e.g. disclosure, reporting, reputation, message, channel, etc. This research is evaluated from an o

Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Thomsen, Christa

146

Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants? community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka?s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

Ju-Ling Shih

2010-09-01

147

Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

Hans Martens

2012-12-01

148

YouTube as a research tool: three approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper provides empirical data to support the use of social media as research environment. YouTube was chosen as a most appropriate format to target adolescents in experimental and cross-sectional designs given its popularity as well as its plasticity. We uniquely applied the YouTube format as (a) an environment to present manipulated media materials in controlled experimental designs; (b) an environment to study effects of peer feedback on various media contents; (c) a format to design a media-based questionnaire, specifically, the Media, Morals and Youth Questionnaire (MMaYQue). Various studies have been conducted that demonstrate the appropriateness of our YouTube transformations for each of these three purposes. The focus in the present paper is on the methodology of these studies to illustrate how we effectively transformed YouTube as a research tool. PMID:23659721

Konijn, Elly A; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Plaisier, Xanthe S

2013-09-01

149

Methodological approach to complex educational and research works  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The important problem of higher professional education is preparation of specialists possessing skills in high technology equipment. Problem realization is directed to interdisciplinary educational research works and complex final qualifying works on for example working out of pharmaceutical preparations, biologically active additives to food and cosmetic means. The given work includes step-by-step decision of the problem put before students and it should be analogical relevant to dissertatio...

Gorshkova N.V.; Golikov A.G.; Averyanov ?.?.; Protopopov ?.?.; Pantyukhin A.M.; Novokreshchenov I.N.

2011-01-01

150

SOCIAL MARKETING : A NEW APPROACH IN MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...

Tiwari, S. C.

1998-01-01

151

Charting the Impact of Federal Spending for Education Research: A Bibliometric Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Research

Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.

2014-01-01

152

The Experience of Learning/Teaching Qualitative Research Approaches: An Ethnographic Autobiography  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to use reflexive methodology to describe the emotions and experiences of doctoral students and a professor who collaboratively conducted a research study using triangulated qualitative research data. The study was the major learning strategy in a doctoral seminar focusing on qualitative research approaches. In using an…

Henderson, Karla; Oakleaf, Linda; James, Penny; Swanson, Jason; Moore, Annette; Edwards, Michael; Hickerson, Benjamin

2008-01-01

153

Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

2014-01-01

154

Generating and Analysing Data for Applied Research on Emerging Technologies: A Grounded Action Learning Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the difficulties of conducting applied qualitative research on the applications of emerging technologies is finding available sources of relevant data for analysis. Because the adoption of emerging technologies is, by definition, new in many organizations, there is often a lack of experienced practitioners who have relevant background and are willing to provide useful information for the study. Therefore, it is necessary to design research approaches that can generate accessible and relevant data. This paper describes two case studies in which the researchers used a grounded action learning approach to study the nature of e-facilitation for face-to-face and for distributed electronic meetings. The grounded action learning approach combines two research methodologies, grounded theory and action learning, to produce a rigorous and flexible method for studying e-facilitation. The implications of this grounded action learning approach for practice and research will be discussed.

Pak Yoong

2004-01-01

155

Design Research: A Socially Responsible Approach to Instructional Technology Research in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Design research has grown in importance since it was first conceptualized in the early 90s, but it has not been adopted for research in instructional technology in higher education to any great extent. Many researchers continue to conduct studies that principally seek to determine the effectiveness of the delivery medium, rather than the…

Reeves, Thomas C.; Herrington, Jan; Oliver, Ron

2005-01-01

156

Doing meta-analysis in research: a systematic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meta-analysis is an objective, systematic review that employs statistical methods to combine and summarize the results of several studies. It is a quantitative synthesis of all the unbiased evidence, meant for summarizing large volume of data, establishing and determining the magnitude of an effect, and to increase power and precision of studies. The steps to performing a meta-analysis include making a hypothesis and defining the domain of research, defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, literature search, selecting the final set of studies, extracting data on variables of interest, coding procedures, calculating effect sizes and interpretations, selecting potential moderators and examine their relationships, report writing, and critical evaluation. Meta-analysis has several strengths as well as weaknesses. PMID:22565423

Jain, Vivek; Sharma, Rinku; Singh, Saudan

2012-01-01

157

Educating Scholars of Practice: An Approach to Preparing Tomorrow's Researchers.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Occupational therapy's scholarship too often fails to result in a cumulative body of knowledge that is directly relevant to practice, and links theory and research to practice. This problem has its basis in how therapists are prepared to make scholarly contributions to the field. This article describes an educational strategy for preparing scholars of practice whose work will contribute to building a knowledge base that examines and enhances practice. The strategy is based upon social learning theory, employs principles of situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship, and involves students as members of an ongoing community of scholars. Steps to and benefits of creating this scholarly community and implementing this educational strategy are discussed. PMID:23944343

Hammel, Joy; Finlayson, Marcia; Kielhofner, Gary; Helfrich, Christine A; Peterson, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

158

The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

Pantea Carmen

2008-04-01

159

Priorities and approach of the Dutch research in organic food and farming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organic research in the Netherlands is strongly tuned to the actual demand from the organic sector or enterprises on one hand and future societal development on the other hand. It comprises research activities at different levels varying from strategic (long term) research to production of applied know¬ledge. A multidisciplinary approach and participation of different stakeholders in all phases, from devise to result, are important characteristics of the research

Blom-zandstra, M.; Wijnands, F. G.

2006-01-01

160

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

Zoellner Jamie

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Research of nuclear engineering project management based on split package approach and multiple package approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the exploration of different models of nuclear engineering project management containing the different construction patterns of split package approach and multiple package approach in China, aiming at the construction patterns, this paper introduces a kind of typical construction of project management model by analyzing the relationship of commission and agency between the proprietor of the nuclear plants and the specialized nuclear engineering company. According to the specific characteristics of nuclear engineering, this paper designs the organization system of project management and illustrates the various responsibilities of the proprietors, nuclear engineering companies and other major partners. (authors)

162

Performative ontologies: Sociomaterial approaches to researching adult education and lifelong learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sociomaterial approaches to researching education, such as those generated by actornetwork theory and complexity theory, have been growing in significance in recent years, both theoretically and methodologically. Such approaches are based upon a performative ontology rather than the more characteristic representational epistemology that informs much research. In this article, we outline certain aspects of sociomaterial sensibilities in researching education, and some of the uptakes on issues related to the education of adults. We further suggest some possibilities emerging for adult education and lifelong learning researchers from taking up such theories and methodologies

Richard Edwards

2013-04-01

163

Phenomenology and neurophysiological correlations: two approaches to perception research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article argues that phenomenological description and neurophysiological correlation complement each other in perception research. Whilst phenomena constitute the material, neuronal mechanisms are indispensable for their explanation. Numerous examples of neurophysiological correlates show that the correlation of phenomenology and neurophysiology is fruitful. Phenomena for which neuronal mechanism have been found include: (in area V1) filling-in of real and artificial scotomata, contour integration, figure-ground segregation by orientation contrast, amodal completion, and motion transparency; (in V2) modal completion, border ownership, surface transparency, and cyclopean perception; (in V3) alignment in dotted contours, and filling-in with dynamic texture; (in V4) colour constancy; (in MT) shape by accretion/deletion, grouping by coherent motion, apparent motion in motion quartets, motion in apertures, and biological motion. Results suggest that in monkey visual cortex, occlusion cues, including stereo depth, are predominantly processed in lower areas, whereas mechanisms for grouping and motion are primarily represented in higher areas. More correlations are likely to emerge as neuroscientists strive for a better understanding of visual perception. The paper concludes with a review of major achievements in visual neuroscience pertinent to the study of the phenomena under consideration. PMID:19303897

Spillmann, Lothar

2009-06-01

164

The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review research aimed at the development of a compelling taxonomy of personality-descriptive terms. We identify five issues central to the construction of personality taxonomies and discuss the advantages and limitations of the lexical approach. Our review of research stimulated by this approach begins with Allport and Odbert’s trait names, retraces the procedures that led to Cattell’s personality factors, and summarizes contemporary work in English and in Dutch. Taxonomers and lay peo...

John, Oliver P.; Angleitner, Alois; Ostendorf, Fritz

1988-01-01

165

Can Approaches to Research in Art and Design Be Beneficially Adapted for Research into Higher Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the research practices in Art and Design that are distinctively different from those common in research into higher education outside those fields. It considers whether and what benefit could be derived from their adaptation by the latter. The paper also examines the factors that are conducive and obstructive to adaptive…

Trowler, Paul

2013-01-01

166

Communities of Practice: A Research Paradigm for the Mixed Methods Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The mixed methods approach has emerged as a "third paradigm" for social research. It has developed a platform of ideas and practices that are credible and distinctive and that mark the approach out as a viable alternative to quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However, there are also a number of variations and inconsistencies within the mixed…

Denscombe, Martyn

2008-01-01

167

Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 79  

Science.gov (United States)

Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as "research based innovation." "Fostering Communities of Learning" is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important…

van den Broek, Gesa Sonja Elsa

2012-01-01

168

Integrating Different Perspectives on Socialization Theory and Research: A Domain-Specific Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several different theoretical and research approaches to the study of socialization, characterized by frequently competing basic tenets and apparently contradictory evidence. As a way of integrating approaches and understanding discrepancies, it is proposed that socialization processes be viewed from a domain perspective, with each…

Grusec, Joan E.; Davidov, Maayan

2010-01-01

169

EFF Research Principle: A Purposeful and Transparent Approach to Teaching and Learning. EFF Research to Practice Note.  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing body of research supports a purposeful and transparent approach to learning. Within the field of cognitive science, learning is defined as a purposeful, goal-directed activity. An ongoing goal-setting process is integral to effective learning. Purposeful and transparent learning builds on learners' prior knowledge and experiences to…

Gillespie, Marilyn K.

170

Recommending a Book with a Chapter Reviewing Innovative Approaches of Solar Cell Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a brief description of some innovative approaches presented in Chapter 6 of a book entitled “Solar Cell Research Progress”. One approach is a novel superficial modification technique which offers a new opportunity to fabricate low cost solar cells by using silicon materials with the lowest possible purity. The other approach is a V-shaped module (VSM technique which enables an obvious increase of the efficiencies for silicon solar cells.

Jianming Li

2013-03-01

171

Researcher-Researched Difference: Adapting an Autoethnographic Approach for Addressing the Racial Matching Issue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This introspective essay was inspired by a desire to reflect on the use of qualitative research methods--where I am a Caucasian woman examining work experiences of women of color. I launched a journey backward to discover respondents' motivation for participating in my focus groups over the years, to closely examine their comfort level with a cross-ethnic dyad. The exercise enabled me to reflect on how I had negotiated power issues inherent in the research process. It contributes to the ongoing dialogue about autoethnography--where understanding of self in socio-cultural context is both the subject and object of the research enterprise. Overall, I interrogate epistemological and methodological practicalities of researching difference.

Donnalyn Pompper

2010-01-01

172

Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

2012-01-01

173

A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

Cilesiz, Sebnem

2011-01-01

174

Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

Philbin, Simon P.

2010-01-01

175

Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

Gannon, Theresa A.

2009-01-01

176

Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

Midgley, Nicholas

2004-01-01

177

Approaching Educational Research from the Tradition of Critical-Constructive Didaktik  

Science.gov (United States)

This article takes as its starting point discussions on the nature of critical educational research. It seeks to highlight some potential pitfalls for the less experienced researcher entering the field for the first time. It also highlights the tension between the more mechanistic approaches involving categorisation and tendencies that are evident…

Hudson, Brian

2003-01-01

178

Exploring Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Approaches to Business Communication Research  

Science.gov (United States)

With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…

Pope-Ruark, Rebecca

2012-01-01

179

Team Approach in the First Research Experience for Undergraduates in Botany/Zoology 152: Evaluation Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document summarizes the findings of the Learning through Evaluation, Adaptation and Dissemination (LEAD) Center's report on the team approach to the first research experience for undergraduates in botany and zoology. Students (N=25) and faculty (N=12) were interviewed and a comparison was made between students who performed the research in…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. LEAD Center.

180

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fragmentation of patient safety research: a critical reflection of current human factors approaches to patient handover.  

Science.gov (United States)

The integration of human factors science in research and interventions aimed at increased patient safety has led to considerable improvements. However, some challenges to patient safety persist and may require human factors experts to critically reflect upon their predominant approaches to research and improvement. This paper is a call to start a discussion of these issues in the area of patient handover. Briefly reviewing recent handover research shows that while these studies have provided valuable insights into the communication practices for a range of handover situations, the predominant research strategy of studying isolated handover episodes replicates the very problem of fragmentation of care that the studies aim to overcome. Thus, there seems to be a need for a patient-centred approach to handover research that aims to investigate the interdependencies of handover episodes during a series of transitions occurring along the care path. Such an approach may contribute to novel insights and help to increase the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve handover. Significance for public healthWhile much of public health research has a preventive focus, health services research is generally concerned with the ways in which care is provided to those requiring treatment. This paper calls for a patient-centred approach to research on patient handover; a significant contributor to adverse events in healthcare. It is argued that this approach has the potential to improve our understanding of handover processes along the continuum of care. Thus, it can provide a scientific foundation for effective improvements in handover that are likely to reduce patient harm and help to maintain patient safety. PMID:25170504

Manser, Tanja

2013-12-01

182

A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

2009-08-01

183

An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and mentor students in research-based courses, 4) multiple levels of research questions in a course, some to be answered by group data and some by class data, 5) intentional explicit development of and support for research skills appropriate for the research question and student level, 6) written and oral presentation of research, 7) willingness of participating faculty to redesign their course structure to meet learning goals so that at least 1/3 of the course time (noncontiguous) is dedicated to the research project versus traditional formats, and 8) a faculty involvement model whereby leading research-based courses also contributes to their research agenda and regional service expectations. We think this model works and is sustainable at Western Carolina University, and is readily transferable to other disciplines and universities.

Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

2013-12-01

184

Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are included from recent research and development programs for both subsonic and supersonic transports.

Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

2005-01-01

185

The vulnerable can't speak. An integrative vulnerability approach to disaster and climate change research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article discusses a vulnerability approach to disaster research and research on climate change adaptation.As an integrated approach, it claims to consider social, economic and ecological factors. A hypothesis is debated in which the vulnerability of a reference unit (humans, community, ecosystem, etc. is highly dependent on the degree of influence the unit can exert on its relevant conditions for subsistence. The ability to influence theses conditions depends, to a large extent, on discursive factors. To emphasise this special determinant of vulnerability, the term “participative capacity” is proposed.

Martin Voss

2008-12-01

186

The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article consists of determination the peculiarities of marketing researches of the regional product market and formation the system approach to marketing research for the regional market of meat and processed meats. The results of the analysis. The author considered theoretical approaches to determination of a sense of marketing research of market and proposed a definition of a concept «marketing research of a regional product market», taking into account its peculiarities. The author proposed the system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats. Especially, an object, a subject, an aim, tasks, directions, procedures, and methodical support are thoroughly considered. Also, the system of principles of marketing research of this market is improved. All this aspects are components of scientific novelty of the done research. Taking into consideration a key role of the market of meat and processed meats and its importance for increase of a food safety level during a current period, research and prognostication of this product market facilitate determination of basic principles on support of an appropriate amount of production of meat and processed meats and saturation of the market with a required amount of products that are of high quality and have an optimal price in attempt to provide all social classes with such products. Since results of such researches are more and more required, development of the system approach to marketing research of the market of meat and processed meats is of great practical importance. Using the methods for rating valuation of regions, each region is given a rank according to a level of an absolute figure. According to results of the research the author determined that only five regions of Ukraine have a considerably higher level of development of the market of meat and processed meats compared to other regions. These regions include AR Crimea, Dnipropetrovska, Donetska, Kyivska, Cherkaska regions. Cherkaska region is an absolute leader for a level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. The researches showed that 44% of Ukrainian regions are characterized by a low level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats is developed and substantiated in the article. All components of the approach are thoroughly characterized. The results of research show that there is significant differentiation of conditions and tendencies of development of Ukrainian market of meat and processed meats through three types of regions. This process causes necessity of studying of regional peculiarities and working up of regional target programs of development of this product market. To form regional target program of development of the market of meat and processed meats the state should create more considerable researches of social and economic conditions and indicators of a potential of development of the market of meat and processed meat. Such researches are the direction of further scientific work. The approach enables to do complex marketing research of a modern state and peculiarities of development the market of meat and processed meats of Kharkiv region.

O.P. Afanasieva

2014-06-01

187

A Proposal for a Framework of Research Approaches on Information Technology Impacts on Corporate Level Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last three decades, much study has been conducted on the impact of Information Technology (IT on productivity at various levels. With a careful scan of the published work at corporate level productivity, we shows that, researchers have developed 3 different approaches in assessing the correlation between IT implementation and productivity measures. Broadly speaking, the first two approaches focus on the effects of IT investment on direct and intermediary, financial and non-financial, measures of productivity. None of these two approaches could positively prove either a direct correlation or lack of such a relation. The third approach, `complementary` approach, considers the IT implementation but emphasizes the role of complementary investments that enhance and complement the IT implementation. In this article, an effort has been made to provide satisfactory evidences to show that IT implementation, when rationally backed up by suitable complementary investment, will lead to a considerable increase in productivity at corporate level.

Abbas Keramati

2006-01-01

188

Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present th...

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Joanita Cechin Donaduzzi; Andressa da Silveira

2010-01-01

189

New approaches to social and economic research on schistosomiasis in TDR  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying [...] high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.

Carol, Vlassoff.

190

Developing Digital Courseware for a Virtual Nano-Biotechnology Laboratory: A Design-Based Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper first reviews applications of multimedia in engineering education, especially in laboratory learning. It then illustrates a model and accreditation criteria adopted for developing a specific set of nanotechnology laboratory courseware and reports the design-based research approach used in designing and developing the e-learning…

Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Chen, Tzy-Ling; Lin, Weijane; Sheen, Horn-Jiunn

2014-01-01

191

Sustainable Participation in Regular Exercise amongst Older People: Developing an Action Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This article describes the Triangle Project's work with a post industrial community, where healthy living activities were developed in response to community members' expressed needs. Method: An action research partnership approach was taken to reduce health inequalities, with local people developing their own activities to address…

Davies, Jeanne; Lester, Carolyn; O'Neill, Martin; Williams, Gareth

2008-01-01

192

The Effects of Restructuring Biology Teaching by a Constructivist Teaching Approach: An Action Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the improvement of a teacher researcher's teaching practice by adopting a constructivist teaching approach. Four biology units on the nervous system, human circulatory system, evolution, and vertebrate classification were selected to illustrate a model of biology teaching. Data were drawn from student responses to…

Lin, Wan-Ju

193

Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

2013-01-01

194

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

195

A Structured Approach to Honours Undergraduate Research Course, Evaluation Rubrics and Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new approach to the Honours Undergraduate Research Course design and implementation. The course design process, assessment and evaluation rubrics are provided. Lessons learned and the experience of the faced challenges and opportunities for two cohort offerings of the course during the winter terms of 2011 and 2012 are…

Khoukhi, Amar

2013-01-01

196

Strategic Management Approaches Preference in Turkish Industry: A Research on ISO 1000 Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Positioning school approach that gives prominence to the effect of positioning and environmental powers in industry and resource-based approach that emphasize the importance of firm’s resource, capabilities and competences are two basic approaches that express firms’ performance differences in strategic management field. Which one of these basic approaches will be chosen occupies an important place in strategic management subjects. Purpose of this study is to reveal preferences of managers and accordingly firms about strategic management approaches in branch of Turkish industry and to determine whether positioning school approach or resource-based approach is efficient and predominant in success of firms from the viewpoints of managers. The research was carried out upon the first 500 big industrial enterprises and second 500 big industrial enterprises carrying on their business in industrial sector in Turkey as published by Istanbul Chamber of Industry (ISO. As a result of the analysis of the acquired data, it has been precipitated that in Turkey, managers of the biggest 1000 industrial enterprises, accordingly firms, adopt positioning school approach.

Yucel Erol

197

Systems biologists seek fuller integration of systems biology approaches in new cancer research programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems biology takes an interdisciplinary approach to the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems. This approach seeks to decipher the emergent behaviors of complex systems rather than focusing only on their constituent properties. As an increasing number of examples illustrate the value of systems biology approaches to understand the initiation, progression, and treatment of cancer, systems biologists from across Europe and the United States hope for changes in the way their field is currently perceived among cancer researchers. In a recent EU-US workshop, supported by the European Commission, the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, and the National Cancer Institute of the NIH, the participants discussed the strengths, weaknesses, hurdles, and opportunities in cancer systems biology. PMID:20028868

Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Auffray, Charles; Baltrusch, Simone; Blüthgen, Nils; Byrne, Helen; Cascante, Marta; Ciliberto, Andrea; Dale, Trevor; Drasdo, Dirk; Fell, David; Ferrell, James E; Gallahan, Daniel; Gatenby, Robert; Günther, Ulrich; Harms, Brian D; Herzel, Hanspeter; Junghanss, Christian; Kunz, Manfred; van Leeuwen, Ingeborg; Lenormand, Philippe; Levi, Francis; Linnebacher, Michael; Lowengrub, John; Maini, Philip K; Malik, Arif; Rateitschak, Katja; Sansom, Owen; Schäfer, Reinhold; Schürrle, Karsten; Sers, Christine; Schnell, Santiago; Shibata, Darryl; Tyson, John; Vera, Julio; White, Michael; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Jaster, Robert

2010-01-01

198

THE TEACHING RESEARCH FOCUSED ON THE MOVEMENT: HEURISTIC APPROACHES AND ELEMENTS OF COMPLEXITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation

AIELLO PAOLA

2010-12-01

199

Review of Family Business Definitions: Cluster Approach and Implications of Heterogeneous Application for Family Business Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a deeper understanding of family firms’ uniqueness, might lead to more reliable comparative studies as well as interdisciplinary work (e.g., finance and family firms and enables a quicker consolidation of family business research, especially in contrast to research on small and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurship. Therefore, the present review contributes to the development of family business research by providing an initial attempt to comprehensively systematized existing family firm definitions which could be used by researchers in family business research.

Henrik Harms

2014-07-01

200

Teaching research and evidence-based practice using a service-learning approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because nurses are expected to engage in evidence-based practice (EBP), nursing students must learn to critically evaluate and apply research findings to prepare for professional practice. To connect research and EBP, the focus of a baccalaureate research course was changed from a traditional format to one of evidence appraisal and synthesis. Using an approach that incorporated service-learning and collaborative learning resulted in a new hybrid course that provided students with an opportunity to apply concepts in the real world. Working with a community partner, students were able to develop PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome) questions and critically appraise the literature to establish the evidence base for three pediatric programs. Students reported that working with a community partner was a meaningful experience because course assignments had a direct impact on current practice. Research courses taught from an EBP perspective can provide motivation for students to incorporate research into their practice as professional nurses. PMID:20795608

Balakas, Karen; Sparks, Laurie

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

A Review of Approaches of Resource-based Empirical Research in Banking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research reviews the approaches employed in banking empirical studies that use the resource-based view as a core theoretical anchor to relate bank resources to performance outcomes. The review dwelt on measurement issues and strategies for controlling confounding factors. Six approaches of measuring bank resources are identified as: indirect assessment through the use of observable attributes, direct assessment through output counts, direct assessment by top managers, direct assessment by customers, direct assessment by experts and indirect assessment through inductive case studies. Three approaches to measuring bank performance are identified as: the use of only financial measures, the use of only nonfinancial measures and the use of a mix of financial and nonfinancial measures. Overall, approaches that relate bank resources, strategy and performance have great potential to advance the resource-based view theory from being a mere theoretical framework to being a practical framework for practicing managers in banking firms.

Y. Gao

2010-01-01

202

Processes of international collaboration in management research : A reflexive, autoethnographic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina

2013-01-01

203

Repair of the injured spinal cord, a joint approach of basic and clinical research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The myelin protein Nogo-A is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in the central nervous system, thus contributing to the incapacity of fiber tracts in the adult spinal cord to regenerate after injury. In this review we report on a joint approach of different research groups to develop a therapy applying anti-Nogo-A antibodies to the injured spinal cord. While basic researchers took the initiative to provide means of neutralizing the inhibitory effect of Nogo-A and demonstrated enhanced fi...

Buchli, Anita D.; Rouiller, Eric M.; Mueller, Roland; Dietz, Volker; Schwab, Martin E.

2007-01-01

204

RESEARCHING THE OPINIONS OF PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS ABOUT CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT VARIABLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In constructivist approach, teachers are of great importance in helping students construct their pre-knowledge, finding out and removing students’ misconceptions acquired through their previous experiences, and setting up a learning environment. Therefore, it is thought to be necessary to determine the opinions of the pre-service science teachers, who will apply constructivist approach in their professional life, toward constructivist approach. In this study, “the constructivist approach opinion scale” developed by researchers for pre-service science teachers is applied to pre-service teachers in fourth and third classes in Science Education department in Buca Faculty of Education at Dokuz Eylul University. The data gathered from this study are analyzed according to different variables. The analysis of data has shown that the opinions of pre-service teachers about constructivist approach are positive. In addition, , there is no significant difference in the opinions of pre-service teachers about constructivist approach in terms of independent variables, such as sex, age, class and high school graduation.

Didem ?NEL

2009-05-01

205

Quantum Mechanics Approaches to Drug Research in the Era of Structural Chemogenomics  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid growth of the available crystallographic information about proteins and binding pockets creates remarkable opportunities for enriching the drug research pipelines with computational prediction of novel protein-ligand interactions. While ab initio quantum mechanical approaches are known to provide unprecedented accuracy in structure-based binding energy calculations, they are limited to only small systems of dozens of atoms. In the structural chemogenomics era, it is critical that new approaches are developed that enable application of QM methodologies to non-covalent interactions in systems as large as protein-ligand complexes and conformational ensembles. This perspective highlights recent advances towards bridging the gap between high accuracy and high volume computations in drug research.

Ilatovskiy, Andrey V.; Abagyan, Ruben; Kufareva, Irina

2014-01-01

206

Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

2012-11-01

207

Strategic siRNA screening approaches to target cancer at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RNAi Screening Facility at the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute combines siRNA genome-wide screening with drug screening coupled with High Content Imaging and fluorescence-based phenotypic assays to target multiple types of cancer. Here, we describe the infrastructure of the Facility and the approaches we utilise. We also share our experiences in running such a facility and developing and executing screening campaigns, with particular regard to high content multiparametric analysis, data management and statistical analysis. PMID:24661213

Shanks, Emma J

2014-05-01

208

Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for ...

Facio Flavia M; Sapp Julie C; Linn Amy; Biesecker Leslie G

2012-01-01

209

Canadian Experience in Application of Graded Approach for Safety Assessment of Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile andsafety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in depth, engineering aspects, site characteristics and safety analysis. Examples of application of this approach to safety assessment of the Canadian research reactors, Slowpoke and NRU, are presented. The SLOWPOKE reactor (20 kW) has inherent reactivity control by design, since any increase in core temperature has a negative reactivity effect causing a passive reduction of reactor power to limit any temperature excursion. The NRU reactor (135 MW) operates at low pressure and low temperature (except for the experimental loops) and it is used for material testing and isotope production. For SLOWPOKE reactors, less detailed assessment of radiation risk is needed in comparison to the NRU due to a smaller amount of fission product inventory in the core. Full assessment of defence in depth is required for the high power, complex NRU reactor. However, assessment of means to mitigate severe accidents may not be needed for SLOWPOKE reactors due to their inherent reactivity characteristics. A design of any reactor facility must provide the fundamental safety functions during and following postulated accident events. The extent and rigour for demonstrating that such safety functions are fulfilled can be graded and vary depending on the reactor design. In general, basic safety function related to control reactivity cannot be graded. However, the grading can be applied to SLOWPOKE reactors since they exhibit inherent self-limiting power levels, which physically limit the amount of positive reactivity that can be inserted in the core. Assessments of safety functions relevant to the reactor core cooling and confinement could be less extensive for the SLOWPOKE reactors since their cooling systems are less complex than those of NRU. Very small source terms of the SLOWPOKE reactors do not require a confinement system to be as stringent as those used in large research reactors. If the research reactor is designed without a confinement system (e.g., NRU), it must be justified to show that there is no potential release of radioactive materials

210

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight iblood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

211

Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

2011-09-15

212

Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh

2009-03-01

213

Researching emotional labour among Public Relations consultants in the UK: a social phenomenological approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978 and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009 and Svensson (2007 have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR consultants experienced, practised and understood their everyday interactions with clients, colleagues and journalists (Hochschild, 1983. If emotion is understood as a relational practice, the analysis of socially-constructed discourse is essential to access emotional meaning structures within occupational cultures such as public relations. I adopted an iterative analytical process whereby I interviewed, twice, a sample of six participants. From transcript analysis I produced a ‘description of practice’ document for participants to check (Aspers, 2006a; 2009. ‘Bracketing’ (Husserl, 1963/1913 involved writing self-memos throughout the research process, and finally, a self-reflexive account. Thematic analysis of findings resulted in a rich understanding of emotion management and identity work in public relations. This paper demonstrates that an iterative and reflexive analytical process that involves participants in co-creating social reality, is a compelling approach to understand the ‘lifeworld’ of social actors in occupational settings.

Liz YEOMANS

2013-12-01

214

Teachers as researchers: a narrative pedagogical approach to transforming a graduate family and health promotion course.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scholarship of teaching in nursing is illustrated by describing the development, implementation, evaluation, and revision of a family and health promotion course for graduate family nurse practitioner students. A narrative pedagogical approach that combines conventional pedagogy with action research is used. The work, an example of curriculum as dialogue, illustrates how teachers can incorporate research, evaluation, and reflection into their daily teaching practice. Given adequate support, these evaluation and research activities could constitute part of the scholarship of teaching, and, as such, would warrant allocation of time in faculty workloads and formal acknowledgment in annual performance evaluations and promotion and tenure decisions. The importance of increasing the clinical relevance of the scholarship of teaching in a practice discipline such as nursing is also emphasized. PMID:22916624

Brykczynski, Karen A

2012-01-01

215

Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive. PMID:23419790

Hardeman, Sjoerd

2013-03-01

216

Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability. PMID:25011653

Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

2014-11-01

217

Desarrollo de la investigación contable en el Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable / Development of the accounting research in the Colombian Center for Research on Accounting. Research approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los resultados de la investigación que se ha llevado a cabo en veintitrés años de trabajo en el Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable (Ccinco). Este centro reúne a profesores universitarios (contadores públicos) vinculados con distintas universidades de [...] Colombia que efectúan y promueven la investigación contable. Esta organización surgió en 1987 en un contexto en el cual la investigación contable empezó a ser reconocida en Colombia como una actividad fundamental para el desarrollo de la disciplina y la profesión. Este trabajo utiliza la propuesta taxonómica de Jorge Túa Pereda sobre los enfoques de investigación contable como herramienta para la identificación y clasificación de las hipótesis y problemas escogidos por los investigadores, y sobre éstos sondear el análisis epistemológico de su formulación, así como también las pruebas de contrastación de las hipótesis encontradas. Abstract in english The present work is a synthesis and analysis which reviews the research done by Ccinco (Centro Colombiano de Investigación Contable or the Colombian Center for Research on Accounting) for the last 23 years. This research center brings together Public Accounting professors from various universities i [...] n Colombia with the objective of developing and promoting accounting research. This organization was started in 1987 in a context when accounting research was being recognized in Colombia as a key activity in the development of both the accounting discipline and the accounting profession. Jorge Túa Pereda's taxonomic proposal for an approach to accounting research is used here as a tool for the identification and classifcation of the hypotheses and problems chosen by researchers, and also explored is the epistemological analysis of their formulation which leads to scrutiny and discussion of their associated regulation.

Claudia, Barrios Álvarez; Tatiana, Fúquene Sánchez; Jorge Eduardo, Lemos de la Cruz.

2010-08-01

218

Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

2013-03-01

219

Eight years of building community partnerships and trust: the UCLA family medicine community-based participatory research experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000-2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County.The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data.Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic-community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States.Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic-community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A; Bholat, Michelle A; Dowling, Patrick T

2009-10-01

220

The Impact of Task-based Approach on Iranian EFL Learners’ Motivation in Writing Research Abstracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Writing as a complex activity requires systematic attention to motivational conditions (Bruning and Horn, 2000. This study aimed at examining whether there is a relationship between EFL learners’ motivation and their performance in writing research abstracts as well as the impact of task- based approach on the participants’ motivation. For these aims, sixty-eight EFL university students at intermediate level of proficiency participated in this study. Thirty-two of the participating students were involved in the class based on Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT where three phases of pre-task, task- cycle and post-task as suggested by Swan (2005 were used and students had the opportunity to do tasks in groups. Thirty-six of them participated in Presentation-Practice-Production (PPP approach where the teaching was divided into presentation, practice and production phases and students had to do the activities individually. After receiving treatment for eight sessions, students were asked to write an abstract for a research article. Furthermore, a motivation questionnaire adopted from Lam and Law (2007 was distributed among the participants which included the following motivational constructs: challenge, real life significance, curiosity, autonomy; recognition and evaluation. The findings demonstrated that students’ motivation is positively related to their abstract writing performance. Moreover, results of Independent-Sample T- Test showed that Task-based approach was motivating for the students. Therefore, the data suggested that students with higher motivation can have better performance in writing abstracts and students’ motivation can be enhanced by the teaching approach in use. Finally, several implications that may help guide future research are offered.

Masoud Khalili Sabet

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

A framing approach to cross-disciplinary research collaboration: experiences from a large-scale research project on adaptive water management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants’ evaluations, and our own observations...

Tharsi Taillieu; Claudia Pahl-Wostl; Greet François; Art Dewulf

2007-01-01

222

The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of “otherness.” We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which—by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms—takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients’ first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from “within,” if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

2014-01-01

223

Advanced Pre-clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.

ChengWang

2012-10-01

224

Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining : An Evaluation Approach In Design Science Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures the context and actual use of an artifact. With the holistic approach we encourage evaluation to be inclusive of different aspects and relationships between stakeholder groups in the evaluation activities. Further we think that concurrency is not narrowed to evaluation but also regards theorizing. While it makes sense for planning to distinguish between phases and stages of evaluation and theorizing, in practice they are intrinsically interlinked and concurrent.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

225

Multi-targeted Approach to Cancer Treatment: An International Translational Cancer Research Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether it is chronic myeloid leukemia, ALK-expressing malignancies, or HER2-positive breast cancer, targeted-therapies for treatment of human cancers have shown great promise. However, as they hit a single molecule expressed in neoplastic cells, their use is frequently associated with development of resistance. In cancer cells many signaling pathways operate in parallel, hence the idea of multi-targeted therapy is prevailing. The Society of Translational Cancer Research held its biennial meeting in the capital city of India, Delhi from February 6th through 9th, 2014 to discuss 'Multi-targeted Approach to Treatment of Cancer'. Over 200 scientists, clinicians, trainees, and industry representatives from different countries gathered in Vigyan Bhavan, the hotspot of Delhi for four days to talk and discuss on a variety of topics related to multi-targeted therapeutic approaches. Talks were presented by leaders in the cancer research field from various countries. It became clear from this conference that coupling multiple targeted-agents or using an agent that hits an individual target in several independent locations in the disease-causing pathway(s) may be the best approach to treat different cancers. PMID:25368293

Mehta, Kapil; Gandhi, Varsha; Pathak, Sen; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Grover, Rajesh K

2014-11-01

226

Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

Stotz Karola

2011-01-01

227

A Military-Centered Approach to Neuroprotection Research for Traumatic Brain Injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies in animals show that many compounds and therapeutics have the potential to greatly reduce the morbidity and post-injury clinical sequela for soldiers experiencing TBI. However, to date there are no FDA approved drugs for the treatment of TBI. In fact, expert opinion suggests that combination therapies will be necessary to treat any stage of TBI recovery. Our approach to this research effort is to conduct comprehensive preclinical neuroprotection studies in military relevant animal models of TBI using the most promising neuroprotective agents. In addition, emerging efforts incorporating novel treatment strategies such as stem cell based therapies and alternative drug delivery approaches will be discussed. The development of a non-surgical, non-invasive brain injury therapeutic clearly addresses a major, unresolved medical problem for the Combat Casualty Care Research Program (CCCRP. Since drug discovery is too expensive to be pursued by DOD in the TBI arena, this effort capitalizes on partnerships with the Private Sector (Pharmaceutical Companies and academic collaborations (Operation Brain Trauma Therapy Consortium to study therapies already under advanced development. Candidate therapies selected for research include drugs that are aimed at reducing the acute and delayed effects of the traumatic incident, stem cell therapies aimed at brain repair, and selective brain cooling to stabilize cerebral metabolism. Each of these efforts can also focus on combination therapies targeting multiple mechanisms of neuronal injury.

DeborahShear

2013-06-01

228

Review: Approaches to research on CO2/brine two-phase migration in saline aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.

Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen

2014-08-01

229

How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

2013-04-01

230

The Delphi Technique in nursing research - Part 1. The classical methodological approach and its main modifications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Delphi Technique (DT is a research methodology that uses turns or rounds between the researcher and a group of experts, until a desired level of agreement or consensus between the members of the expert panel has been reached with regards to the question in hand. Despite its popular use in the social sciences' domain and its progressive adoption by nurse-researchers internationally, in Greece, there is a lack of its application; its comprehension, usage, and methodological merits are still in question within the Greek nursing research community. Aim: To provide a detailed presentation of the epistemological and practical value of the DT, through a series of four consecutive papers which expand on the following: i the classical methodological approach and its main modifications, ii the methodological reflections iii analysis and presentation of results, and iv the use and usefulness of the method in application to nursing research. The first of the four papers provides a description and a comparative assessment of the main variations of the DT. Results: A review of the literature elucidated three main sub-types of technique: the Classic or Conventional Delphi, the Policy Delphi and the Decision Delphi Technique. Nevertheless, due to many variations of the basic philosophy of the method and the many differentiations in its application, it is quite difficult to classify each study that used Delphi, with precision. The main methodological differences that can challenge the researcher are discussed and finally, examples that show the advantages and the usefulness of the individual Delphi techniques are given. Conclusions: Use of the DT in research has many advantages and it can become exceptionally useful once the content of the method and its practical applications are fully understood.

Dimitrios Theofanidis

2011-04-01

231

Disentangling Scale Approaches in Governance Research: Comparing Monocentric, Multilevel, and Adaptive Governance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today's network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilevel governance, and adaptive governance. It does so by analyzing the differences in (1 underlying views on governing, (2 assumptions about scales, (3 dominant problem definitions regarding scales, and (4 preferred responses for dealing with multiple scales. Finally, this paper identifies research opportunities within and across these approaches.

Maartje van. Lieshout

2010-12-01

232

The Application of a Multiphase Triangulation Approach to Mixed Methods: The Research of an Aspiring School Principal Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed methods research has emerged as a credible alternative to unitary research approaches. The authors show how a combination of a triangulation convergence model with a triangulation multilevel model was used to research an aspiring school principal development pilot program. The multilevel model is used to show the national and regional levels…

Youngs, Howard; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

2012-01-01

233

An Eco-Behavioral Approach to Research in Special Education. The Juniper Gardens Children's Project. [Volume 2].  

Science.gov (United States)

The papers comprising this volume discuss research based on an ecobehavioral interaction approach to special education. Six papers are included, which range from a highly conceptual discussion of second language instruction/learning to research concerning interventions to reviews of the research literature. The papers have the following titles and…

Arreaga-Mayer, Carmen, Ed.; And Others

234

Community-researcher liaisons: The pathways to Resilience Project advisory panel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Pathways to Resilience Project is an ongoing, community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Its express focus is the exploration of how at-risk youths use formal services and/or informal, naturally occurring resources to beat the odds that have been stacked against them, with the intent [...] of partnering with communities to promote youth resilience. As part of this exploration, project researchers partnered with representatives of participating communities, or advisory panels (AP). However, in literature documenting the worth of participatory methodologies in knowledge generation and social change, there is little mention of how partnerships with AP support communities build on existing knowledge to effect meaningful change. Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the instrumental case study of the AP to the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, in order to foreground the research-informing, knowledge-generating, and practice-shaping value of collaboration with an AP. Simultaneously, this case showcases the complexity of AP-researcher partnerships in order to sensitise CBPR researchers to the need for reflexive, flexible cooperations if communities are to cogenerate and implement local knowledge in enabling ways.

Linda C, Theron.

235

SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.

Professor William Moerner

2010-07-09

236

The Synergetic Approach to Effective Teachers' Research Education: An Innovative Initiative for Building Educational Research Capacity in a Hispanic-Serving Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic approach to research education for graduate students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). A group of cross-disciplinary faculty members developed a series of graduate-level research methods-related workshops for pre- and in-service teachers. The investigators…

Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Ward, Hsuying C.; Overton, Terry; Shin, Yousun

2014-01-01

237

ENFOQUES DE ESTUDIO DE CASOS EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA / CASE STUDY APPROACHES IN NURSING RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.

EUGENIA, URRA MEDINA; ROCÍO, NÚÑEZ CARRASCO; CARMEN, RETAMAL VALENZUELA; LUCY, JURE CARES.

238

ENFOQUES DE ESTUDIO DE CASOS EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA / CASE STUDY APPROACHES IN NURSING RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.

EUGENIA, URRA MEDINA; ROCÍO, NÚÑEZ CARRASCO; CARMEN, RETAMAL VALENZUELA; LUCY, JURE CARES.

2014-04-01

239

Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

1992-01-01

240

Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. Summary The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants.

Facio Flavia M

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.

242

Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

P. Friederichs

2008-10-01

243

Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.

Neil H. Carter

2014-09-01

244

A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

245

A Partnership Approach to Promoting Information Literacy for Higher Education Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The promotion of information literacy in the UK higher education research sector has traditionally been the preserve of academic libraries. However, other professional groups have obvious interests in this area, and there is a strong case for providing a framework which enables different parties with a stake in information literacy to work together in order to reach practical objectives. In the UK, a coalition of partners has been set up to provide this collective framework and to provide synergy. This paper sets out the rationale for this approach, sets out the sort of activities that the coalition has fostered since its inception in late 2009 and reflects on whether it might serve as an example for other parts of Europe or for transnational collaborations.

Stéphane Goldstein

2012-01-01

246

Science and Technology Research and Development in Support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.

Becoulet, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hoang, G T [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Abiteboul, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Achard, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Alarcon, T. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL

2013-01-01

247

Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1 addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2 making sure that neurophenomenological experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3 conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.

PatriciaBockelman

2013-10-01

248

Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

Botte, Alexander

2007-01-01

249

The Care-System for Homeless Youth in the Netherlands: Perceptions of Youngsters through a Peer Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of homeless youth of the care they receive. Since we wanted to involve homeless youth as participants in this project, we adopted the approach of peer-research. This form of collaborative research has a major role for homeless youth in making an inventory of the problems. A parallel is drawn…

Noom, Marc J.; de Winter, Micha; Korf, Dirk

2008-01-01

250

Recommendations for nanomedicine human subjects research oversight: an evolutionary approach for an emerging field.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, "active," and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and to integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary's Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues, as well as federal and federal-institutional coordination; and (3) gathering and analyzing information on HSR issues as they emerge in nanomedicine. HSR/N and SAC/N will create a home for HSR analysis and coordination in DHHS (the key agency for relevant HSR oversight), optimize federal and institutional approaches, and allow HSR review to evolve with greater knowledge about nanomedicine interventions and greater clarity about attributes of concern. PMID:23289677

Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A; Dresser, Rebecca S; Erdman, Arthur G; Haynes, Christy L; Hoerr, Robert A; Hogle, Linda F; Keane, Moira A; Khushf, George; King, Nancy M P; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Marchant, Gary; Maynard, Andrew D; Philbert, Martin; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Siegel, Ronald A; Wickline, Samuel

2012-01-01

251

An Affordable, Low-Risk Approach to Launching Research Spacecraft as Tertiary Payloads  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rapid and affordable access to space for university researchers and educators has always been a challenge. Despite the availability of lower-cost (e.g. Russian) launch vehicles, launching payloads 20 kg or less typically involves a certain minimum cost that necessitates a cost sharing arrangement among numerous parties and the handling of complex export control issues. In turn, this complicates mission scheduling and increases the risk of missing launch deadlines. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Space Flight Laboratory (UTIAS/SFL) has taken a leading role in addressing this challenge, and has successfully led a group of international spacecraft developers in manifesting one 1-kg Canadian spacecraft, two 1-kg Danish spacecraft, and one 3-kg American spacecraft on a 2003 Eurockot launch. This paper outlines the approach taken by UTIAS/SFL in negotiating and securing launches for its own spacecraft in collaboration with other spacecraft developers. A summary of how this approach is applied in planning and coordinating the June 2003 Eurockot launch is also presented.

Thomsen, Per Lundahl; Blanke, Mogens

2003-01-01

252

Conceptualizing and Researching the Body: A Comparison Between the Psychological and the Cultural Studies Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the body–related experiences and behaviors – the psychological and the cultural studies approaches – emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholars’ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core conceptual networks of each approach and some of the illustrative investigations carried out so far in the respective areas. Both highlight a set of significant differences on several layers, such as the external / internal localization of relevant factors of body-related experiences, the neutral / pathologically – oriented discourse on these experiences, the degree of exploration of their phenomenological realm, the more or less extended focus on the aesthetic evaluation of one’s body and the prevalent search for causes / purposes of the body experiences and uses.

Andrei HOLMAN

2012-12-01

253

Radiation dose optimization research: Exposure technique approaches in CR imaging – A literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on exposure technique approaches in Computed Radiography (CR) imaging as a means of radiation dose optimization in CR imaging. Specifically the review assessed three approaches: optimization of kVp; optimization of mAs; and optimization of the Exposure Indicator (EI) in practice. Only papers dating back to 2005 were described in this review. The major themes, patterns, and common findings from the literature reviewed showed that important features are related to radiation dose management strategies for digital radiography include identification of the EI as a dose control mechanism and as a “surrogate for dose management”. In addition the use of the EI has been viewed as an opportunity for dose optimization. Furthermore optimization research has focussed mainly on optimizing the kVp in CR imaging as a means of implementing the ALARA philosophy, and studies have concentrated on mainly chest imaging using different CR systems such as those commercially available from Fuji, Agfa, Kodak, and Konica-Minolta. These studies have produced “conflicting results”. In addition, a common pattern was the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) and the measurement of constant effective dose, and the use of a dose-area product (DAP) meter

254

Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited.

Nadkarni Prakash M

2011-08-01

255

Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira

2010-01-01

256

Enfoque filosófico dialéctico-materialista de la investigación científica / Dialectical - materialistic philosophical approach to scientific research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de contribuir al debate actual sobre la necesidad del esclarecimiento de los fundamentos filosóficos de la investigación científica y su declaración en el discurso que expone sus principales resultados, se valoró la forma en que se asume la perspectiva dialéctico-materialista y se pr [...] ecisó en torno a algunos enfoques polémicos sobre la necesidad de su empleo consecuente como referente cosmovisivo en la construcción de la ciencia y la legitimación de sus resultados. Se enfatizó en la necesidad de su consecuente empleo en el proceso de investigación. Abstract in english In order to contribute to the current debate on the necessity for clarification of the philosophical foundations of scientific research and its interpretation in discourse that exposes its main results, it was assessed how dialectical materialistic perspective is assumed and it was clarified around [...] some controversial approaches about the necessity of its consistent use as a comprehensive reference in building science and the legitimacy of its results. It was emphasized on the need of its consistent use in the research process.

Rafael Claudio, Izaguirre Remón.

2014-04-01

257

A GIS approach to urban heat island research: The case of Huntsville, Alabama  

Science.gov (United States)

The urban heat island represents a case of inadvertent human modification of climate in an urban environment. Urbanization changes the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region. As a result, radiation balance in the urban areas is altered and sensible heat is added to the point that urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. At the boundary between the rural and urban area, a sharp rise in temperature occurs, culminating to a peak temperature at the central business district of the city, hence the name 'urban heat island'. The extent and intensity of the urban heat island are a function of population size, land use, and topography. Because the urban heat island exhibits spatial variations of temperatures, the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) is appropriate. The research on the urban heat island focuses on the acquisition of 15 bands of visible and thermal infrared data (ranging from 0.45 to 12.2 microns) from an aerial platform using NASA's ATLAS (Airborne Thermal/Visible Land Application Sensor) over Huntsville, Alabama. The research reported in this paper is an analysis of the impact of population, land use, and topography on the shape of the urban heat island that could be developed in Huntsville using the GIS approach. The outcome of this analysis can then be verified using the acquired remotely sensed data.

Lo, Chor Pong

1994-01-01

258

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

259

Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than they might have at an individual institution. Description We describe a biospecimen data management system (BDMS) that supports TRIBE-AKI and is intended for multi-center collaborative clinical studies that involve shipment of biospecimens between sites. This system works in conjunction with a clinical research information system (CRIS) that stores the clinical data associated with the biospecimens, along with other patient-related parameters. Inter-operation between the two systems is mediated by an interactively invoked suite of Web Services, as well as by batch code. We discuss various challenges involved in integration. Conclusions Our experience indicates that an approach that emphasizes inter-operability is reasonably optimal in allowing each system to be utilized for the tasks for which it is best suited. PMID:21884570

2011-01-01

260

DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation, getting to know the antecedents, the features, the possible interactions among antecedents and current features. Based on the recommendations found in the literature the eradication of manipulative processes is next to impossible but the limitation can be a reality. In this respect the researchers recommend controlling the conditions and motives that increase the likelihood of its presence and also developing stronger tools to detection.

Vladu Alina Beattrice

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

How desertification research is addressed in Argentina? Land versus Soil approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommendations are not enough to solve problems of desertification. In certain areas, soil degradation and poverty establish a vicious circle that may be broken if political, social, economic and natural visions are considered as a whole. Nevertheless, usually the scientific framework to combat land degradation is only associated with the protection of natural resources - the "soil approach"-, and weak attention is paid on the social sciences - the "land approach". The success in the adoption of mitigation measures to combat dryland degradation depends on the dialogue between research institutes, policy makers, land users and funding agencies. The structure of desertification research and its implementation in Argentina is addressed in this study. It is one part of a wider framework of analysis that is simultaneously carried out in other different regions under the umbrella of a Task Force on Land and Soil promoted by DesertNet International. The ultimate goal of this Task Force is the achievement of an informed analysis to support the need of a scientific panel to answer the needs of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. The features and orientation of such a panel to be truly effective may be established from the results of the analysis of the different ways to meet the challenge of combating desertification in different regions of the world and their success or failure. The method is based on the analysis of scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science using different searching criteria with different groups of keywords. The analysis of papers addresses three main criteria: the disciplines involved, the type of study and finally the range of the study in order to know the level of applicability. In order to compute and visualise clusters of elements bibliometric methods will be used. Positive signs have been recognised in Argentina in recent years trough the increase of governmental and non governmental organisation that are involved in the adoption of measures to solve natural and social issues. This paper seeks to examine the current structure of the research conducted in the area to acknowledge the results of these changes.

Torres, Laura; Abraham, Elena M.; Barbero, Celia; Marques, Maria J.; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams

2013-04-01

262

Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify the requirements for data collection and collect data.

Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

2012-01-01

263

The Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory: A Student Team Approach to the Fourth-Year Research Thesis Project Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

The advanced interdisciplinary research laboratory (AIRLab) represents a novel, effective, and motivational course designed from the interdisciplinary research interests of chemistry, physics, biology, and education development faculty members as an alternative to the independent thesis project experience. Student teams are assembled to work…

Piunno, Paul A. E.; Boyd, Cleo; Barzda, Virginijus; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Stefanovic, Sasa; Stewart, Bryan

2014-01-01

264

Periodic safety review management for French research reactors - technical support organization approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Periodic Safety Review (PSR) is a key issue in the life of a Basic Nuclear Installation (BNI). Indeed, the safety review is an efficient means to improve the safety level of an installation and to take a decision for the continuation of the reactor operation towards the next decade. Based on the French practice and experience, the objective of this paper is to give an overview of the PSR management for Research Reactors (RR) from a Technical Support Organization (TSO) point of view. After a presentation of the new French regulatory context since the law on transparency and security in the nuclear field has been published in the Official Gazette on 13 June 2006, the expectations/requirements of the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) are given. All the organization and contents of PSR, from the submission by the operator of the main options report until the implementation of hardware modifications and the update of reference documents, are described; however, the paper mainly focus on the two basic parts of PSR, which are the conformity check, and the safety reassessment. or the PSR, the safety review shall consider especially: the state of the installation, the operational experience feedback, the improvement of technical knowledge, the applicable rules for similar installations. hen, based on the latest PSR conduct on French research reactors and analyzed by IRSN, the paper emphasizes the main conclusRSN, the paper emphasizes the main conclusions. In this regards, items such as: the seismic resistance, the reliability of the safety systems, the structure ageing, the improvements in the Defence-in-Depth application, are widely concerned. Anyway, if now in France the great safety principles applied for the safety evaluation of any research reactors are very similar to those used for the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP), adaptations and graded approaches are used, due to specific features of research reactors. The full paper presents and discusses all those points; it gives also many examples. (author)

265

Research Data Management at the University of Warwick: recent steps towards a joined-up approach at a UK university  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper charts the steps taken and possible ways forward for the University of Warwick in its approach to research data management, providing a typical example of a UK research university’s approach in two strands: requirements and support. The UK government approach and funding landscape in relation to research data management provided drivers for the University of Warwick to set requirements and provide support, and examples of good practice at other institutions, support from a central national body (the UK Digital Curation Centre and learning from other universities’ experiences all proved valuable to the University of Warwick. Through interviews with researchers at Warwick, various issues and challenges are revealed: perhaps the biggest immediate challenges for Warwick going forward are overcoming scepticism amongst researchers, overcoming costs, and understanding the implications of involving third party companies in research data management. Building technical infrastructure could sit alongside and beyond those immediate steps and beyond the challenges that face one University are those that affect academia as a whole. Researchers and university administrators need to work together to address the broader challenges, such as the accessibility of data for future use and the reward for researchers who practice data management in exemplary ways, and indeed it may be that a wider, national or international but disciplinary technical infrastructure affects what an individual university needs to achieve. As we take these steps, universities and institutions are all learning from each other.

Jenny Delasalle

2013-10-01

266

Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.

Gliddon Terry

2007-09-01

267

LA FORMACIÓN INTEGRAL: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA INVESTIGACIÓN / WHOLE EDUCATION: AN APPROACH FROM RESEARCH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.

Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.

2013-12-01

268

A Framing Approach to Cross-disciplinary Research Collaboration: Experiences from a Large-scale Research Project on Adaptive Water Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although cross-disciplinary research collaboration is necessary to achieve a better understanding of how human and natural systems are dynamically linked, it often turns out to be very difficult in practice. We outline a framing approach to cross-disciplinary research that focuses on the different perspectives that researchers from different backgrounds use to make sense of the issues they want to research jointly. Based on interviews, participants’ evaluations, and our own observations during meetings, we analyze three aspects of frame diversity in a large-scale research project. First, we identify dimensions of difference in the way project members frame the central concept of adaptive water management. Second, we analyze the challenges provoked by the multiple framings of concepts. Third, we analyze how a number of interventions (interactive workshops, facilitation, group model building, and concrete case contexts contribute to the connection and integration of different frames through a process of joint learning and knowledge construction.

Tharsi Taillieu

2007-12-01

269

Abordagens metodológicas na pesquisa biográfica / Methodological approaches to biographical research / Abordajes metodológicos en la investigación biográfica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda a pesquisa biográfica, seus pressupostos epistemológicos, suas práticas metodológicas e alternativas de análise. O texto inicia com uma discussão sobre o que constitui especificamente o projeto epistemológico da pesquisa biográfica, confrontando sua perspectiva teórica com a abordage [...] m sociológica. Nesse sentido, assume a concepção de indivíduo como ser singular, biográfico, que possui sua própria experiência. A seguir, desenvolve os aspectos metodológicos da pesquisa biográfica, considerando o material biográfico propriamente dito, as formas típicas de coleta com a entrevista biográfica, sua condução e suas implicações no trabalho de campo. Finaliza com uma discussão sobre a análise das entrevistas biográficas, por meio das seguintes categorias: "formas do discurso", "esquema de ação", "motivos recorrentes" e "gestão biográfica", presentes no material coletado. Abstract in spanish El artículo aborda la investigación biográfica, sus presupuestos epistemológicos, sus prácticas metodológicas y alternativas de análisis. El texto empieza con una discusión sobre qué constituye específicamente el proyecto epistemológico de la investigación biográfica, confrontando su perspectiva teó [...] rica con el abordaje sociológico. En ese sentido, asume la concepción de individuo como ser singular, biográfico, que posee su propia experiencia. Luego, desarrolla los aspectos metodológicos de la investigación biográfica, considerando el material biográfico propiamente dicho, las formas típicas de recopilación de datos con la entrevista biográfica, su conducción y sus implicaciones en el trabajo de campo. Termina con una discusión sobre el análisis de las entrevistas biográficas por medio de las siguientes categorías: "formas del discurso"; "esquema de acción"; "motivos recurrentes" y "gestión biográfica", presentes en el material recopilado. Abstract in english This article discusses biographical research, its epistemological assumptions, methodological practices and alternatives of analysis. The text begins with a discussion of what specifically constitutes the epistemological project of biographical research, comparing its theoretical perspective to the [...] sociological approach. In this sense, it takes the concept of the individual as a singular, biographical being who has his or her own experience. Next, it develops the methodological aspects of biographical research, considering the biographical material itself, the typical forms of collection with biographical interviews, their conduction and their implications for fieldwork. It ends with a discussion on the analysis of biographical interviews through the following categories: "forms of discourse", "framework for action", "recurring motifs" and "biographical management", present in the material collected.

Christine, Delory-Momberger.

2012-12-01

270

Abordagens metodológicas na pesquisa biográfica / Methodological approaches to biographical research / Abordajes metodológicos en la investigación biográfica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo aborda a pesquisa biográfica, seus pressupostos epistemológicos, suas práticas metodológicas e alternativas de análise. O texto inicia com uma discussão sobre o que constitui especificamente o projeto epistemológico da pesquisa biográfica, confrontando sua perspectiva teórica com a abordage [...] m sociológica. Nesse sentido, assume a concepção de indivíduo como ser singular, biográfico, que possui sua própria experiência. A seguir, desenvolve os aspectos metodológicos da pesquisa biográfica, considerando o material biográfico propriamente dito, as formas típicas de coleta com a entrevista biográfica, sua condução e suas implicações no trabalho de campo. Finaliza com uma discussão sobre a análise das entrevistas biográficas, por meio das seguintes categorias: "formas do discurso", "esquema de ação", "motivos recorrentes" e "gestão biográfica", presentes no material coletado. Abstract in spanish El artículo aborda la investigación biográfica, sus presupuestos epistemológicos, sus prácticas metodológicas y alternativas de análisis. El texto empieza con una discusión sobre qué constituye específicamente el proyecto epistemológico de la investigación biográfica, confrontando su perspectiva teó [...] rica con el abordaje sociológico. En ese sentido, asume la concepción de individuo como ser singular, biográfico, que posee su propia experiencia. Luego, desarrolla los aspectos metodológicos de la investigación biográfica, considerando el material biográfico propiamente dicho, las formas típicas de recopilación de datos con la entrevista biográfica, su conducción y sus implicaciones en el trabajo de campo. Termina con una discusión sobre el análisis de las entrevistas biográficas por medio de las siguientes categorías: "formas del discurso"; "esquema de acción"; "motivos recurrentes" y "gestión biográfica", presentes en el material recopilado. Abstract in english This article discusses biographical research, its epistemological assumptions, methodological practices and alternatives of analysis. The text begins with a discussion of what specifically constitutes the epistemological project of biographical research, comparing its theoretical perspective to the [...] sociological approach. In this sense, it takes the concept of the individual as a singular, biographical being who has his or her own experience. Next, it develops the methodological aspects of biographical research, considering the biographical material itself, the typical forms of collection with biographical interviews, their conduction and their implications for fieldwork. It ends with a discussion on the analysis of biographical interviews through the following categories: "forms of discourse", "framework for action", "recurring motifs" and "biographical management", present in the material collected.

Christine, Delory-Momberger.

271

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.

272

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel Ghini

2012-02-01

273

Health research based on geospatial tools: a timely approach in a changing environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibilities of disease prediction based on the environmental characteristics of geographical areas and specific requirements of the causative infectious agents are reviewed and, in the case of parasites whose life cycles involve more than one host, the needs of the intermediate hosts are also referred to. The geographical information systems framework includes epidemiological data, visualization (in the form of maps), modelling and exploratory analysis using spatial statistics. Examples include climate-based forecast systems, based on the concept of growing degree days, which now exist for several parasitic helminths such as fasciolosis, schistosomiasis, dirofilariasis and also for malaria. The paper discusses the limits of data collection by remote sensing in terms of resolution capabilities (spatial, temporal and spectral) of sensors on-board satellites. Although the data gained from the observation of oceans, land, elevations, land cover, land use, surface temperatures, rainfall, etc. are primarily for weather forecasting, military and commercial use, some of this information, particularly that from the climate research satellites, is of direct epidemiological utility. Disease surveillance systems and early-warning systems (EWS) are prime examples of academic approaches of practical importance. However, even commercial activities such as the construction of virtual globes, i.e. computer-based models of the Earth, have been used in this respect. Compared to conventional world maps, they do not only show geographical and man-made features, but can also be spatially annotated with data on disease distribution, demography, economy and other measures of particular interest. PMID:19728898

Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura

2010-03-01

274

Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1996-01-01

275

Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.

2012-02-01

276

Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discus

Matthias, Wolff.

2002-06-01

277

Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discus

Matthias, Wolff.

278

Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities: A Simplified Stepwise Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides practical information, experience and assistance to practitioners who are faced with decommissioning of a small nuclear facility, yet have limited or no previous experience. In such circumstances, it is also conceivable that newcomers to decommissioning may be faced with inadequate financial and scientific resources to complete the task; making it all the more important to avoid costly errors. Furthermore, it is also possible that a worker may need some guidance in starting the process of obtaining finance and resources to progress with the task of decommissioning. The aim of this report is to provide useful practical advice to newcomers to decommissioning to aid them in the planning and management of hands-on decommissioning technologies for small nuclear facilities, using a step wise approach, through to facility and site release. This report breaks down the process of decommissioning into a number of manageable stages, such that the inexperienced practitioner has the opportunity to build confidence as they progress with each stage. Whilst acknowledging that there may be a wide diversity of regulatory licence termination conditions throughout the world, the generic stages of decommissioning will broadly be the same, such that this report should be a basic handbook of use in all instances of small facility decommissioning. This text emphasizes, at each stage, the importance of appropriate interface and dialogue with the Regulatory Body and other stakeholders, not only as a means of advancing any regulatory permission required for decommissioning and licence termination, but also for the many benefits gained by early and ongoing dialogue. This report covers the practical aspects of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities typically found in medical, research and industrial applications. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large chemical facilities, and all forms of waste disposal are outside the scope of this report and have been covered adequately elsewhere. Typical facilities covered by this report include: - Medical facilities with radiography and radiotherapy units and those using radioisotopes; - Industrial facilities, such as those producing radioisotopes, using irradiation and radiography devices, and manufacturing products incorporating radioactive materials; - Research facilities such as particle accelerators, and those associated with the nuclear industry (e.g. critical assemblies or zero-power reactors), pharmaceuticals and medicine; - Laboratories in universities and hospitals. This publication has been structured as a series of sequential actions, and is supported by tables identifying lessons learned during decommissioning of small facilities. This should assist the inexperienced worker in following a logical stepwise approach to decommissioning. Whereas it is not possible to include all the specific detail of every aspect of decommissioning in this report, a number of useful references are included at each stage, thereby directing the reader to further information. This report is structured as a number of practical stages, some of which can be initiated in parallel rather than sequentially, taking note that many factors under consideration may change throughout the decommissioning process up to achievement of release conditions. An accompanying CD includes a range of practical examples of decommissioning projects from around the world in the annexes, specifically providing details of project planning and implementation, along with lessons learned. (author)

279

Wellbeing in healthcare environments : a human-centered design research approach to improving the cancer patient experience during radiation therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare and medical products are often designed with the singular focus of providing the best treatment available to patients. However, research has shown that this treatment-based approach does not result in quality care. There are many factors that play into making a healthcare experience patient-centered, and this paper explores the use of human-centered design research to understand this experience. This paper presents a case-study of a Radiotherapy Department at a University Hospital,...

Mullaney, Tara; Nyholm, Tufve; Edvardsson, David

2011-01-01

280

Information Work Analysis: An Approach to Research on Information Interactions and Information Behaviour in Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: A work roles and role theory-based approach to conceptualise human information activity, denoted information work analysis is discussed. The present article explicates the approach and its special characteristics and benefits in comparison to earlier methods of analysing human information work. Method: The approach is discussed in…

Huvila, Isto

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Wisconsin Inventor & Entrepreneur Clubs: Investment in an Innovative Approach to Entrepreneurship. Rural Research Report. Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on entrepreneurship in rural areas has increasingly stressed the importance of a supportive environment and social networks in enhancing innovation. This report examines a novel approach to promoting entrepreneurship using regional Inventor & Entrepreneur (I&E) Clubs. A telephone survey of 21 I&E Clubs was completed to collect information…

Wise, Greg

2009-01-01

282

Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

283

A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

Green, Laurena E.

2009-01-01

284

Graded Approach and Practices for the Mechanical Components of French Research Reactor Projects. IAEA Sub-Programme on Research Reactor Safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The graded approach has been implemented for a long time for research reactor projects in France. The purpose of this paper is to focus on their implementation for mechanical components and the associated lessons learned from research reactor projects and operations. The presentation and the full paper will present the implementation of the graded approach, the main requirements associated with the safety classes, the principles of their implementation into the design and construction codes, the principles of interaction with the nuclear pressure equipment regulations and the provisions taken into account in the design and construction code and the benefits of these practices and the lessons learned in this field on the basis of some examples. (author)

285

Analyzing the limitations and possibilities of education policy research under the positivist, phenomenological and dialectical materialistic approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to instigate discussions about the construction of educational research for policy and practices. This will be done considering three different categories: epistemological perspective, epistemological positioning and epistemethodological approach by Tello (2012. Moreover, this article will consider the contributions of Mainardes and Ball (2011, Lima (2010, Alves-Mazzotti (2003, Masson (2013, among others, in order to analyze the context of dialectical materialism, the impact of positivist approaches, phenomenological and materialist dialectics. The latter especially analyzed with regard to qualitative research. In addition, we seek to understand the epistemological nature of such approaches, considering their possibilities and limitations to the process of scientific knowledge production, as well as to contribute to the field of studies on educational policies consolidation.

Giselle Abreu de Oliveira

2014-07-01

286

Linking research and education to promote an integrated approach to sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2003, researchers from various disciplines (biology, physics, geology, economics, sociology, linguistics, psychology and science education) founded the Centre IRIS – Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Sustainability (www.iris.unito.it) based at the University of Torino (Italy). IRIS links research in science with educational practice: as new conceptual tools are produced and research findings are published, they are discussed within the group and ‘metabolised’, turned into liter...

Camino, Elena; Perazzone, Anna; Colucci Gray, Laura

2005-01-01

287

Approach and research models of quality and business performance: a critical review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper synthesizes the research based on the relationship between quality and performance. This review is carried out from different research design types: measures of quality management and business performance, and different research models. We focus our review on research studies written to analyze the relationship between TQM and business performance suggesting that some models that simultaneously use subjective and objective business performance measures could contribute to understan...

LUZ MARÍA MARÍN VINUESA

2009-01-01

288

Approach and research models of quality and business performance: a critical review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper synthesizes the research based on the relationship between quality and performance. This review is carried out from different research design types: measures of quality management and business performance, and different research models. We focus our review on research studies written to analyze the relationship between TQM and business performance suggesting that some models that simultaneously use subjective and objective business performance measures could contribute to understand conclusion diversity on this field.

LUZ MARÍA MARÍN VINUESA

2009-12-01

289

Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

2014-01-01

290

A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR, the proper design level should be determin

Suh, Yong Suk; Park, Jae Kwan; Kim, Taek Kyu; Bae, Sang Hoon; Baang, Dane; Kim, Young Ki [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

291

A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR, the proper design level should be determin

292

A new Architectural Approach to Energy Efficient Design for Nuclear and Research Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a building type, nuclear and research laboratories demands our attention because they represent the spirit and culture of our era and attracts some of the greatest intellectual and economic recourses of our society. Unfortunately, nuclear and research laboratories are also a prodigious consumer of natural resources and energy intensive. for example, research laboratories typically consume 5 to 10 times more energy per square meter than the office buildings. so, the challenge for architects, engineers, and other building professionals is to design and construct the next generation of nuclear and research laboratories with energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and sustainable design practices in mind. this parer describes some energy efficient strategies for designing and equipping the new generation of nuclear and research laboratories. it introduces the basic issues associated with energy consumption in the nuclear and research laboratories, summarizes the opportunities to improve and optimize energy performance during each phase of the design, and operation of nuclear and research laboratories

293

Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a continuing need for research capacity building initiatives for primary health care professionals. Historically strategies have focused on interventions aimed at individuals but more recently theoretical frameworks have proposed team-based approaches. Few studies have evaluated these new approaches. This study aims to evaluate a team-based approach to research capacity building (RCB in primary health using a validated quantitative measure of research capacity in individual, team and organisation domains. Methods A non-randomised matched-pairs trial design was used to evaluate the impact of a multi-strategy research capacity building intervention. Four intervention teams recruited from one health service district were compared with four control teams from outside the district, matched on service role and approximate size. All were multi-disciplinary allied health teams with a primary health care role. Random-effects mixed models, adjusting for the potential clustering effect of teams, were used to determine the significance of changes in mean scores from pre- to post-intervention. Comparisons of intervention versus control groups were made for each of the three domains: individual, team and organisation. The Individual Domain measures the research skills of the individual, whereas Team and Organisation Domains measure the team/organisation's capacity to support and foster research, including research culture. Results In all three domains (individual, team and organisation there were no occasions where improvements were significantly greater for the control group (comprising the four control teams, n = 32 compared to the intervention group (comprising the four intervention teams, n = 37 either in total domain score or domain item scores. However, the intervention group had a significantly greater improvement in adjusted scores for the Individual Domain total score and for six of the fifteen Individual Domain items, and to a lesser extent with Team and Organisation Domains (two items in the Team and one in the Organisation domains. Conclusions A team-based approach to RCB resulted in considerable improvements in research skills held by individuals for the intervention group compared to controls; and some improvements in the team and organisation's capacity to support research. More strategies targeted at team and organisation research-related policies and procedures may have resulted in increased improvements in these domains.

Holden Libby

2012-03-01

294

Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge gene...

Pornpit Silkavute; Dinh Xuan Tung; Pongpisut Jongudomsuk

2013-01-01

295

Integrated approaches in physics education: A graduate level course in physics, pedagogy, and education research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a course designed to help future educators build an integrated understanding of the different elements of physics education research (PER), including: research into student learning, content knowledge from the perspective of how it is learned, and reform-based curricula together with evidence of their effectiveness. Course elements include equal parts of studying physics through proven curricula and discussion of research results in the context of the PER literat...

Wittmann, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.

2006-01-01

296

A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory -based chemical engineering course  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long pro...

White, Scott R.

2004-01-01

297

Using GIS-based approaches to support research on neurotoxicants and other children's environmental health threats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental threats to children's health are complex and multifaceted; consequently, children's environmental health research strives to identify areas of elevated exposure, determine whether particular demographic groups are inequitably exposed, and link exposures to incidence of disease. Many environmental health researchers use geographic information systems (GIS) to ex post display the results of their data collection and analysis. This methodological paper shows some ways by which the ex ante integration of GIS into environmental exposure and epidemiological research can significantly enhance: research design; sampling, recruitment, and retention strategies; data management and analysis; and community translation. PMID:15713343

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Dolinoy, Dana C

2005-03-01

298

Air pollution control system research: An iterative approach to developing affordable systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) funded project led jointly by the Marine Corps Multi-Commodity Maintenance Centers, and the Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) of the USEPA. The research focuses on paint booth exhaust minimization using recirculation, and on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation by the modules of a hybrid air pollution control system. The research team is applying bench, pilot and full scale systems to accomplish the goals of reduced cost and improved effectiveness of air treatment systems for paint booth exhaust.

Watt, Lewis C.; Cannon, Fred S.; Heinsohn, Robert J.; Spaeder, Timothy A.

1995-01-01

299

A Methodological and Scientific Approach to Developing a Research Agenda in Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the development of a National Educational Research Agenda. The study surveys 912 stakeholders regarding their perceptions of pertinent education issues believed to be significant in the context of the current educational reform. Through a modified Delphi Technique (DT, thirteen faculty members in a National Arab-Gulf university reduced the 2332 remarks to nine categories containing 10 Research Statement/Questions (RS/Q. The knowledge based research agenda will produce a research program aimed at improving teacher practices and students’ educational outcomes from which these results and findings will be used to support new educational decisions and policies.

Ramzi Nasser

2014-01-01

300

Manipulative Experimental Approaches to Addressing Geobiological Questions in Microbial Mat and Stromatolite Research  

Science.gov (United States)

We will present a short synopsis of experimental approaches using greenhouse flume systems to address questions of biogeochemical cycling, mineral formation and 3-d structure for Guerrero Negro microbial mats and Highborne Cay Stromatolites.

Bebout, I. Lee

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Preliminary Characterization and Analysis of the Designs and Research-Manufacturing Approaches  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the results of Phase I of a study entitled, Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells. The work was carried out by a group called the Multilayer Fuel Cell Alliance (MLFCA) led by NexTech Materials and including Adaptive Materials, Advanced Materials Technologies (AMT), Cobb & Co., Edison Materials Technology Center, Iowa State University, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Northwestern University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Ohio State University, University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The objective of the program is to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. In the Phase I effort, five approaches were considered: two based on NexTech's planar approach using anode and cathode supported variations, one based on UMR's ultra-thin electrolyte approach, and two based on AMI's co-extrusion technology. Based on a detailed manufacturing cost analysis, all of the approaches are projected to result in a significantly reduced production cost. Projected costs range from $139/kW to $179/kW for planar designs. Development risks were assessed for each approach and it was determined that the NexTech and UMR approaches carried the least risk for successful development. Using advanced manufacturing methods and a proprietary high power density design, the team estimated that production costs could be reduced to $94/kW.

Scott Swartz; Gwendolyn Cheney; Williams Dawson; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Bob Remick; Harlan Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Aaron Crumm; John Holloran; Tim Armstrong

2000-10-30

302

Summary of Research on the Effectiveness of Math Professional Development Approaches. REL 2014-010  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used a systematic process modeled after the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) study review process to answer the question: What does the causal research say are effective math professional development interventions for K-12 teachers aimed at improving student achievement? The study identified and screened 910 research studies in a…

Gersten, Russell; Taylor, Mary Jo; Keys, Tran D.; Rolfhus, Eric; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca

2014-01-01

303

Mental Health Research in K-12 Schools: Translating a Systems Approach to University-School Partnerships  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors discuss the challenges that researchers from university and community systems face in gaining access to and partnering with K-12 school systems to conduct research. Borrowing from Szapocznik, Hervis, and Schwartz's (2003) brief strategic family theory and therapy and Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory, the authors…

Hooper, Lisa M.; Britnell, Heather Brandt

2012-01-01

304

New approaches to researching the pedagogical benefit of representations and interactivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent developments in digital data capture technologies are opening up new possibilities for researching the alleged pedagogical benefits of computer-based representations. This research suggests how integrated analysis of learners' gazes, actions, writing, sketches and utterances can better illuminate subtle cognitive strategies. In particular, the findings challenge the commonplace that it is always beneficial for learners to see and manipulate dynamic multiple representations.

San Diego, Jonathan; Aczel, James

2007-01-01

305

A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. Confirmatory research is needed to validate that safety-related issues concerning the installation of instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in the electromagnetic environment of commercial nuclear power plants are being addressed adequately

306

Trends in the theoretical and research methodological approaches applied in doctoral studies in information and knowledge management: an exploration of ten years of research in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The past ten years have seen the field of information and knowledge management develop and implement new and improved technologies. Because of the ease with which information is exchanged the contribution to information overload has increased exponentially and the need for information and knowledge management is more real than ever before. Research in itself is a science of knowledge creation that continuously evolves in line with newly developed theories and research methodologies. An investigation of the theories and research methodologies that doctoral theses, completed in South Africa, ascribed to over the past ten years were conducted. Search strings containing 'information management', 'knowledge management' and 'information and knowledge management' were searched within citation, abstract and subject fields. A sample of 30 theses from a possible 47 in the relevant population was identified. Qualitative and mixed methods research design was favoured, making use of case studies and surveys, but paying little attention to theoretical approaches or paradigms. The boundaries between disciplines are continuously re-defined, new disciplines evolve and traditional disciplines suffer under the pressures of changing problems of the world. The importance of research in the field of information and knowledge management being grounded in the most recent scientific thought is emphasized.

M. A. Mearns

2010-01-01

307

Individual Project-Based Approach to Develop Research Aptitude in Manufacturing Engineering Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper chronicles experiences with individual research-paper projects in teaching a senior level course on Polymer Properties and Processing to manufacturing engineering majors. Polymer Properties and Processing is one of five elective courses in the area of processes. Students complete courses on 'Materials Engineering' and 'Materials Selection and Processes' prior to taking this course. The course exposes students to current trends in plastics and composites industry as a means to prepare them for graduate study. Accordingly, in this course rather than assigning team based projects, research paper topics were assigned on an individual basis. Thirty percent weight was given to this research activity. Students were systematically prepared for taking up the research paper activity. Demonstrations were organized in the research laboratories in the Chemistry department pertaining to basic polymer characterization techniques. These techniques include GPC, TGA, and DMA. Three industrial visits were organized to expose students to injection molding, extrusion, and carboncomposite manufacturing processes. Students also viewed videos prepared by the 'Society of Manufacturing Engineers' in the areas of processing. The instructor suggested a few important research topics. These topics included polymer nanocomposites; bio-based polymers and composites; and polymers in NVH applications. Students were also encouraged to bring their own topic ideas. Students were expected to refer handbooks, magazines, research articles, and web sources. They were encouraged to visit industry and research labs within and outside university. A minimum of 15 core technical references were expected from different sources. Students prepared a 10-12 page research paper and delivered a 10 minute presentation in front of the entire class. Two external evaluators with broad industrial experience were invited to assess the performance. Course evaluations revealed very promising results and provided concrete feedback. In fact, out of ten students, three have decided to pursue careers in composite materials.This paper details the pedagogy and the research paper activity.

Sriraman, Vedraman; Tate, Jitendra

2012-03-15

308

Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties ...

Sohyoun Shin

2011-01-01

309

Negotiation on the assessment of research articles with academic reviewers: Application of peer-review approach of teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor revisions, major revisions and reject) were collected. A commonly practised peer-review approach in teaching was applied to analyse the data and to ident...

Kumar, P.; Rafiq, Mi; Imam, B.

2011-01-01

310

Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers. These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA

2013-08-01

311

Conceptual frameworks and empirical approaches used to assess the impact of health research: an overview of reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background How to assess the impact of research is of growing interest to funders, policy makers and researchers mainly to understand the value of investments and to increase accountability. Broadly speaking the term "research impact" refers to the contribution of research activities to achieve desired societal outcomes. The aim of this overview is to identify the most common approaches to research impact assessment, categories of impact and their respective indicators. Methods We systematically searched the relevant literature (PubMed, The Cochrane Library (1990-2009 and funding agency websites. We included systematic reviews, theoretical and methodological papers, and empirical case-studies on how to evaluate research impact. We qualitatively summarised the included reports, as well the conceptual frameworks. Results We identified twenty-two reports belonging to four systematic reviews and 14 primary studies. These publications reported several theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches (bibliometrics, econometrics, ad hoc case studies. The "payback model" emerged as the most frequently used. Five broad categories of impact were identified: a advancing knowledge, b capacity building, c informing decision-making, d health benefits, e broad socio-economic benefits. For each proposed category of impact we summarized a set of indicators whose pros and cons are presented and briefly discussed. Conclusions This overview is a comprehensive, yet descriptive, contribution to summarize the conceptual framework and taxonomy of an heterogeneous and evolving area of research. A shared and comprehensive conceptual framework does not seem to be available yet and its single components (epidemiologic, economic, and social are often valued differently in different models.

Pistotti Vanna

2011-06-01

312

Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended

313

Commentary on Joffe (1996) AIDS research and prevention: a social representation approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hélène Joffe's (1996) article provides us with a well-presented argument detailing the failings of Knowledge, Attitude, Belief and Practice (KABP) approaches in the domain of AIDS/HIV prevention behaviours and argues that the Theory of Social Representations (Moscovici, 1984) offers a useful alternative perspective. In this commentary I would like to expand on some of the issues she raises and to counter-argue that the case for adopting social representations theory as an alternative to KABP approaches has yet to be made convincingly. To do this I will first consider the problems surrounding traditional KABP approaches, then discuss social representations theory as an alternative and consider alternatives on the way. PMID:9093751

Fife-Schaw, C

1997-03-01

314

Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Project VII: systems analysis specifications of computational approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational methodology is presented for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

315

Specifications of computational approach. Seismic safety margins research program. Technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents a computational methodology for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

316

Some research results by risk-inform approaches for NPP safety and operational efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Article is the presentation of the same name monograph, which is planned to be issued. In the article the perspective problems of further development risk-oriented approach (ROA) for the grounding and realization of measures on increase of safety and operational efficiency of NPP are considered. Unlike the traditional approach for the ROA, mean due the definition of probabilistic and/or deterministic methods of risk parameters, as criterion functions essence and the measure of the estimation are defined by the solution of specific problem in nuclear field. The ROA application allows essentially expanding opportunities of the substantiations and realizations of measures on safety and operational efficiency increase of NPP

317

Using global positioning systems in health research: a practical approach to data collection and processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011. PMID:22011426

Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper; Schipperjin, Jasper

2011-11-01

318

Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.

Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott

2011-01-01

319

RA research reactor in 'Vinca' Institute-approach to the decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper short overview of decommissioning process of research reactors according to IAEA standards and world practice is given. Basic technical characteristics and details of operational history of the RA research reactor in Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences are present. The main nuclear and radiation safety problems related to the RA reactor facility are defined and the outlines of the future decommissioning project are proposed. (author)

320

Cancer Biomarker Discovery and Development in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Early Detection Research Network—A Collaborative Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the large amount of research and reporting on potential biomarkers in cancer, very few markers have been brought to use in the clinic. Disorganization plays a large part in this low yield. The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) of the National Cancer Institute has been initiated to foster collaboration among independent institutions/ laboratories to facilitate, standardize, and centralize discovery and validation of candidate biomarkers. EDRN comprises four components: biomarker ...

Srivastava, Sudhir

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of signifi...

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic; Wen, Yean-fu

2008-01-01

322

A translational research approach to poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia: Clozapine-antipsychotic polypharmacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia is an important clinical problem, and one possible strategy is concurrent treatment with more than one antipsychotic (polypharmacy). We analyzed the evidence base for this strategy using a translational research model focused on clozapine-antipsychotic polypharmacy (CAP). We considered 3 aspects of the existing knowledge base and translational research: the link between basic science and clinical studies of efficacy, the evidence for effe...

Honer, William G.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Macewan, G. William; Barr, Alasdair M.

2009-01-01

323

Teaching versus research: a multitasking approach to multi-department universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The budget of a university essentially depends on the number of students it enrols. In multidepartment universities resources created in one department may be redistributed to other departments. This redistribution affects the way academics share their working time between research and teaching activities. Redistribution creates free-riding on teaching efforts. In this paper, we show that by designing internal financial rules which create yardstick competition for research funds, a multi-depa...

Gautier, Axel; Wauthy, Xavier

2003-01-01

324

A research approach to designing chemistry education using authentic practices as contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We discuss how to reduce the incongruence between outcomes (both cognitive and affective) of conventional secondary chemistry curriculum and what is to be attained: the meaningful connection of students’ learning to daily life and societal issues. This problem is addressed by a design study with one curriculum unit about ‘Water Quality’. With several research cycles using developmental research, we developed an emergent understanding about an instructional framework ...

Pilot, Albert; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Westbroek, Hanna B.; Jong, Onno

2007-01-01

325

Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research; Nuklearmedizinische Ansaetze in der klinischen Forschung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.

Otte, Andreas; Nguyen, Tristan (eds.)

2009-11-15

326

Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

Scott, Jeffrey Lance

327

A Systems Biology Approach to Toxicology Research with Small Fish Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing use of mechanistically-based molecular and biochemical endpoints and in vitro assays is being advocated as a more efficient and cost-effective approach for generating chemical hazard data. However, development of effective assays and application of the resulting data i...

328

Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

2013-01-01

329

Exploring Gender and Self-Confidence in Engineering Students: A Multi-Method Approach. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite generally higher academic achievement, female students display lower academic self-confidence than males. Of particular interest to engineering educators is the difference in confidence in mathematical, scientific and problem-solving skills. Using a multi-method approach that utilizes the rich dataset of the Academic Pathways Study, the…

Chachra, Debbie; Kilgore, Deborah

2009-01-01

330

Examining a Transformative Approach to Communication Education: A Teacher-Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical task for communication educators is preparing students with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes for active and responsible participation within a rapidly changing global community. Given the complex nature of the challenges citizens will tackle in this century, there is a pressing need for educational approaches that will cultivate…

Walton, Justin D.

2010-01-01

331

Security technology: the shaping of research strategy--a holistic approach (Invited Paper)  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the terrible events of 11 Sep 2001 the response to security vulnerabilities has been to throw "Guns, Gates and Guards" at the problem. Three years later and it is clear that, although this may have had a short-term effect, it is unsustainable and unaffordable in the long term. The war on terrorism is going to be fought for a very long time. Defending against terrorism and enhancing the resilience and robustness of society and its processes now requires constant vigilance. Only technology can provide that vigilance at an efficiency that can provide certainty of detection and fast response. A technology led approach, integrating with people and their processes calls for innovation and a new generation of technology that fuses the physical world with the logical world. This approach is measurable in terms of capability and investment, in the way that the previous Newtonian security approach of cause and effect is not. This paper will address this new security environment and the different approach that R&D has to take to ensure that life and Democracy thrive and terrorism is defeated.

Fisher, Neil

2005-05-01

332

Taxometric and Factor Analytic Models of Anxiety Sensitivity: Integrating Approaches to Latent Structural Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study represents an effort to better understand the latent structure of anxiety sensitivity (AS), as indexed by the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; S. Reiss, R. A. Peterson, M. Gursky, & R. J. McNally, 1986), by using taxometric and factor-analytic approaches in an integrative manner. Taxometric analyses indicated that AS has a…

Bernstein, Amit; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Norton, Peter J.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Taylor, Steven; Forsyth, John P.; Lewis, Sarah F.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Cox, Brian

2007-01-01

333

Assessment of Reading and Learning Disabilities: A Research-Based Intervention-Oriented Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews implications of the three primary components of the federal definition of learning disabilities (discrepancy, heterogeneity, and exclusion) for the assessment of children with learning disabilities (LD). Also proposes a rationale and procedures for more efficient approaches to the identification of children as learning disabled that are…

Fletcher, Jack M.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Boudousquie, Amy

2002-01-01

334

Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of neuromarketing research techniques in the evolution of neurosciences and to explain how these techniques are used in market research. One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. This is an obligation they have both towards the beneficiaries – the companies providing products or services – and towards their consumers as well. This challenge has always been a subject of dispute between the advocates and critics of neuromarketing. Thus, this paper deals with this and other controversial topics. It starts with analysing a traditional persuasion model that has inherently been influenced by the neuromarketing research features. Then, it addresses the positive and negative aspects that subjects might have to face throughout neuromarketing studies, always bearing in mind the current Ethical Code of Conduct issued by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association (NMSBA. An exploratory online research helped the authors test several hypotheses on ethical issues that neuromarketing companies have to handle. The research was performed on 67 neuromarketing companies from around the world that are members of the NMSBA. The findings are relevant both to researchers and neuromarketing companies, even the Romanian ones, who can use them used as insights.

Nicolae Al. Pop

2014-02-01

335

Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and intergenerational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively; young people act knowingly or reflexively; and the activities of young people cannot be understood through the use of a single method but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevanceof participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

2012-01-01

336

Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)

337

Scientometrical approach of the definition of a research domain using scientific journals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)

338

Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and…

Kim, Kyung Hi

2014-01-01

339

Integrating clicker technology at nursing conferences: an innovative approach to research data collection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot demonstration of integrating an audience response system, that is, 'clickers' at a nursing education conference as an engaging tool for using the research process for learning through immediate research results is presented. A convenience sample of nursing conference attendees were surveyed using clicker technology before a panel presentation on the 'Impaired Health Professional'. The 208 subjects who used the clickers were mostly women (93%) and were nurse educators (81%) with at least 20 years of nursing experience (75%). The ease of data collection, real-time analysis, the active engagement of both participant and presenter were all findings of this study. The utility of this tool as a stimulus for discussion and learning was also reported. Pilot testing the clicker at an education conference for data collection and educational purposes was an important goal and positive outcome of this study. Researchers and educators are advised on the planning steps required to make this a successful experience. PMID:20618537

Solecki, Susan; Cornelius, Frances; Draper, Judy; Fisher, Kathleen

2010-06-01

340

An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting  

CERN Document Server

Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Taxonomy, Definition, Approaches, Benefits, Reusability Levels, Factors and Adaption of Software Reusability: A Review of the Research Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software reusability is an attribute that refers to the expected reuse potential of a software component. Software reuse not only improves productivity but also has a positive impact on the quality and maintainability of software products. The move toward reuse is becoming so widespread that it has even changed software industry ’s vocabulary. This study reviews the research literature on the concept of Software Reusability (SR. This study was conducted to provide a systematic review of the literature identify the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. A systematic review was carried out of the research dealing with the content of software reusability, a literature search was conducted on several electronic databases. Studies published from the years 1977-2013 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology intervention to software reusability. In addition to that, a systematic review has been investigated on software reusability approaches and benefits. A deep investigation has been conducted on the definition, approaches, benefits, reusability levels, factors and adaption of software reusability. The concept of software reusability comprised of 11 approaches includes, design patterns, component-based development, application frameworks, legacy system wrapping, service-oriented systems, application product lines, COTS integration, program libraries, program generators, aspect-oriented software development and configurable vertical applications. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communication technology over the last decade, there is a limited evidence suggesting the adaption of software reusability. This study will help the information and communication technology industry to clarify how software reusability can benefit them by adapting the software reusability approaches.

Ibraheem Y.Y. Ahmaro

2014-01-01

342

Research on Mobile E-commerce Information Search Approach Based on Mashup Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile e-commerce information search will become popular with the mobile devices being widely used. Thus,how to provide content-rich and precise commerce information to mobile end-users becomes a challenge. Therise of mashup technology provides a promising solution for this challenge. In this paper the platformarchitecture of mobile e-commerce information search based on mashup technology is presented, and then themain components are described and discussed to illustrate how the platform facilitates mobile e-commerceinformation search. In section 4 a new approach of web search results processing adapted to mobile devices isproposed. An experiment is carried out to show the flow of web search results processing based on the presentedapproach. Mobile operators and internet operators can realize mutual benefits with the presented approach.

Ziming Zeng

2010-04-01

343

Towards self-determination in quality of life research: a dialogic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health-related quality of life measures aim to assess patients' subjective experience in order to gauge an increasingly wide variety of health care issues such as patient needs; satisfaction; side effects; quality of care; disease progression and cost effectiveness. Their popularity is undoubtedly due to a larger initiative to provide patient-centered care. The use of patient perspectives to guide health care improvements and spending is rooted in the idea that we must respect patients as self-determining agents. In this paper I look at the two main orientations to quality of life measurement: standardized and individualized measures. I argue that while these measures are attempts to provide for patient self-determination, they both fail to do so. In their place I suggest a new approach which overcomes their respective difficulties: a dialogic approach. PMID:19277897

McClimans, Leah

2010-02-01

344

Estimation of the correlation coefficient using the Bayesian Approach and its applications for epidemiologic research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the Bayesian approach for estimating correlations using prior knowledge. Methods The use of the hyperbolic tangent transformation (? = tanh ? and r = tanh z enables the investigator to take advantage of the conjugate properties of the normal distribution, which are expressed by combining correlation coefficients from different studies. Conclusions One of the strengths of the proposed method is that the calculations are simple but the accuracy is maintained. Like meta-analysis, it can be seen as a method to combine different correlations from different studies.

England Lucinda J

2003-03-01

345

TNFRSF13B Genetic variability an anthropological - evolutionary approach to Biomedical Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the recent years TNFRSF13B coding variants have been implicated by clinical genetics studies in Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common clinically relevant primary immunodeficiency in individuals of European ancestry, but their functional effects in relation to the development of the disease have not been entirely established. To examine the potential contribution of such variants to CVID, the more comprehensive perspective of an evolutionary approach was applied in this s...

Sazzini, Marco

2009-01-01

346

Disentangling Scale Approaches in Governance Research: Comparing Monocentric, Multilevel, and Adaptive Governance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The question of how to govern the multiscale problems in today's network society is an important topic in the fields of public administration, political sciences, and environmental sciences. How scales are defined, studied, and dealt with varies substantially within and across these fields. This paper aims to reduce the existing conceptual confusion regarding scales by disentangling three representative approaches that address both governance and scaling: monocentric governance, multilev...

Maartje van. Lieshout; Art Dewulf; Termeer, Catrien J. A. M.

2010-01-01

347

Leonardo on hydrostatic force: a research engineering approach towards the idea of hydrostatic pressure?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As evidenced by many scholars, hydraulics was one of the main interests of Leonardo da Vinci; his manuscripts are full of drawings and projects on water, accompanied by a variety of notes, subtle meditations, and some remarkable considerations. Leonardo's expertise in this field surely comes, first of all, from the well-established technical tradition of his time. But the particular approach that he often adopts to study and solve the problems encountered in his activity as an engineer someti...

Cavagnero, Paolo

2014-01-01

348

Research on the Acquirement Approach of Enterprise Competitiveness Based on the Network View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the market situation of economic globalization, the premise of enterprise existence and development is to foster the competitiveness of enterprise. Starting from the network view, this article will confirm the interest relatives of enterprise and systematically discuss the approach of enterprise competitiveness through such aspects as the formation of enterprise competitive potential, the increase of enterprise competitiveness and the continual renovation of competitiveness.

Shuzhen Chu

2009-02-01

349

Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss and present results of the research work undertaken as well as further expected, important spin-off applications of DMP devices.

350

Barriers and Facilitators to Research Use Among Allied Health Practitioners: A Mixed-Method Approach to Assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale (Funk et al. 1991, which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%. All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also raised in focus groups, where language, presentation, and time to engage with research were considered significant influences. Qualitative aspects of the study also revealed scepticism about research application and relevance.All proposed LIS were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents who expressed an opinion (those who choose “no opinion” or did not respond, 6–8%, were excluded.Conclusions – The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed about proposed library services and training reveals the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicates that a holistic, collaborative approach to promoting the effective use of research collections and resources is required. Mixed-method data collection (focus group and survey provided a rich source of information, and may offer a useful approach for future study.

Mary Dunne

2011-01-01

351

Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework. These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE and NewGeneris (IP.

Casteleyn Ludwine

2008-01-01

352

Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework. These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE and NewGeneris (IP.

Dumez Birgit

2008-06-01

353

Research for the Classroom: To Read or Not to Read--Five Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare  

Science.gov (United States)

How teachers can use such materials as parallel-text editions, graphic novels, and film adaptations to increase students' understanding of and interest in Shakespeare was the impetus for a classroom action research project that examined the effects of teaching methods on student comprehension and engagement. The author of this article…

Shoemaker, Brandon

2013-01-01

354

Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

2012-01-01

355

Undertaking HRD Research in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Approach to Evaluating Undergraduate "Enterprise Education" Modules  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Educational programmes that are concerned with the learning and teaching of enterprise education, such as enterprise focused degrees and/or modules, could be argued to be of particular interest to human resource development (HRD) research since they commonly have an overt focus on influencing and shaping the career choices of students.…

Harte, Victoria; Stewart, Jim

2010-01-01

356

Women in Science and Technology: The Institutional Ecology Approach. Volume I: Final Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is the final research report of the University of Queensland Women in Science and Technology in Australia (WISTA) project. The report is a policy review study conducted from 1985 to 1990, of the factors that act as critical filters or positive factors that hinder or help women's access to and progression in certain scientific and…

Byrne, Eileen M.

357

Approaches to integrating germline and tumor genomic data in cancer research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer is characterized by a diversity of genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring in both the germline and somatic (tumor) genomes. Hundreds of germline variants associated with cancer risk have been identified, and large amounts of data identifying mutations in the tumor genome that participate in tumorigenesis have been generated. Increasingly, these two genomes are being explored jointly to better understand how cancer risk alleles contribute to carcinogenesis and whether they influence development of specific tumor types or mutation profiles. To understand how data from germline risk studies and tumor genome profiling is being integrated, we reviewed 160 articles describing research that incorporated data from both genomes, published between January 2009 and December 2012, and summarized the current state of the field. We identified three principle types of research questions being addressed using these data: (i) use of tumor data to determine the putative function of germline risk variants; (ii) identification and analysis of relationships between host genetic background and particular tumor mutations or types; and (iii) use of tumor molecular profiling data to reduce genetic heterogeneity or refine phenotypes for germline association studies. We also found descriptive studies that compared germline and tumor genomic variation in a gene or gene family, and papers describing research methods, data sources, or analytical tools. We identified a large set of tools and data resources that can be used to analyze and integrate data from both genomes. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges for cancer research that integrates germline and tumor genomics data. PMID:25115441

Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Goddard, Katrina A B; Hollombe, Celine; Tingle, Sharna R; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Mechanic, Leah E; Nelson, Stefanie A

2014-10-01

358

Approaches to Art Therapy for Cancer Inpatients: Research and Practice Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

Common symptoms reported by cancer patients include pain, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, lack of appetite, and anxiety. A study conducted by an interdisciplinary research team (Nainis et al., 2006) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in these cancer symptoms with the use of traditional art therapy methods. The study found a…

Nainis, Nancy A.

2008-01-01

359

Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

Young, Mitchell

2012-01-01

360

A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Exoplanet Detection in STEM Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

JPL’s NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program’s (ExEP) Public Engagement Program, in collaboration with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), is engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the science of exoplanet detection into STEM classrooms. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of astronomers pursuing research related to exoplanets, along with a significant increase in interest amongst students and the general public regarding the topic of exoplanets. CAE has previously developed a curriculum unit (including Think-Pair-Share questions and a Lecture-Tutorial) to help students develop a deeper understanding of the Doppler method for detecting extrasolar planets. To date, there is a nearly nonexistent research base on students’ conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to the science of the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for detecting extrasolar planets. Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills in these areas. In this talk, we will report on our development process for two new Lecture-Tutorials that help students learn about the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for finding exoplanets.

Brissenden, Gina; Wallace, C. S.; Prather, E. E.; Traub, W. A.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, A. A.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

White, Scott R.

362

Professional Development of In-service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Action Research Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with an attempt to organize a university research-based course designed to promote inservice primary teachers' professional development in environmental education. The various problems that arise in the running of such a course are identified, and some suggestions for their resolution are offered. (LZ/Author)

Papadimitriou, Vasiliki

1995-01-01

363

From Archive to Awards Ceremony: An Approach for Engaging Students in Historical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature on history teaching has emphasized "doing history"--whether as "active learning", cognitive science, or with simple photocopies of primary sources. This article extends the discussion of a "signature pedagogy" of history to include all aspects of the work of historians, from archival research through public presentation. It…

Erekson, Keith A.

2011-01-01

364

Stem cell research and therapies in Argentina: the legal and regulatory approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argentina has a significant number of researchers in public and private institutions conducting research in regenerative medicine and stem cells. There is not specific legislation in this area; however, the National Ministry of Health has issued regulations under the scope of the Transplant Act and the Medicines Act. Alongside the groups doing research, it is possible to find professionals offering experimental stem cell therapies to patients. These professionals take refuge in the term "medical practice" and sell experimental treatment to patients with no guarantee of safety and security given that they were not tested in clinical research. These practices offered to patients in a scheme, apparently legal, are generating an important number of judicial actions requesting the payment of said treatments. The decisions of the courts ordering payment in most cases are generating a transfer of funds from patients, social welfare systems, and the state to medical centers offering stem cell experimental therapies. This article describes the current regulations as well as the course of action to solve the emerging problems of these new technologies at legislative level. PMID:24304074

de Arzuaga, Fabiana C

2013-12-01

365

Nigeria research reactor (NIRR-1) conversion programme implementation - A regulatory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nigeria is embarking on a fuel conversion programme in view of her being a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by extension, acceptance of the non-proliferation programme which encompasses a global effort to convert her type of research reactor to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) is a 31kW miniature neutron source reactor situated at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The reactor was acquired through the tripartite project and supply agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria, International Atomic Energy Agency and China Institute of Atomic Energy. The reactor attained criticality on the 3rd February 2004 and has since been used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Experiments and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology. NIRR-1 uses U-235 fuel enriched to about 90.2%. This paper analyzes the status of NIRR-1 conversion programme from a regulatory perspective, especially the major milestones fulfilled towards the submission/review of the feasibility/LEU conversion report. The paper considers the legal framework including the Act, Regulations and guidance documents developed or in the process of development for effective regulation of the conversion from project schedule to shipping requirements. The various international instruments endorsed by Nigeria as a demonstration of her commitment to conversion programme in form of Treaties, Conventions and Agreements are highlighted. The status of the draft Regulations on Research Reactors and the key elements of the Regulations are discussed.

366

Application of Content-Based Approach in Research Paper Recommendation System for a Digital Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recommender systems are software applications that provide or suggest items to intended users. These systems use filtering techniques to provide recommendations. The major ones of these techniques are collaborative-based filtering technique, content-based technique, and hybrid algorithm. The motivation came as a result of the need to integrate recommendation feature in digital libraries in order to reduce information overload. Content-based technique is adopted because of its suitability in domains or situations where items are more than the users. TF-IDF (Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency and cosine similarity were used to determine how relevant or similar a research paper is to a user's query or profile of interest. Research papers and user's query were represented as vectors of weights using Keyword-based Vector Space model. The weights indicate the degree of association between a research paper and a user's query. This paper also presents an algorithm to provide or suggest recommendations based on users' query. The algorithm employs both TF-IDF weighing scheme and cosine similarity measure. Based on the result or output of the system, integrating recommendation feature in digital libraries will help library users to find most relevant research papers to their needs.

Simon Philip

2014-10-01

367

Basic approach to research of scientific and technical development in fuel and energy complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific and technical development within the fuel and energy complex includes technical innovations facilitating the optimal development of the electric power supply system and the heat supply system, the optimal use of fossil fuels and reductions of energy demands. The basic research stages, methodology and economic and mathematical models are described for the development of the fuel and energy complex. (E.J.)

368

Career Education Programming in Three Diverse High Schools: A Critical Psychology--Case Study Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

From a critical psychology perspective, Prilleltensky and Nelson advocate for research that has explicit focus on social change and can allow for full participation and empowerment of those under study. The current article describes the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of a career education program within three ethnically…

Ali, Saba Rasheed; Yang, Ling-Yan; Button, Christopher J.; McCoy, Thomasin T. H.

2012-01-01

369

A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

2012-01-01

370

Developing a Second Life Virtual Field Trip for University Students: An Action Research Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Integrating 3D virtual world technologies into educational subjects continues to draw the attention of educators and researchers alike. The focus of this study is the use of a virtual world, Second Life, in higher education teaching. In particular, it explores the potential of using a virtual world experience as a learning component…

Mathews, Shane; Andrews, Lynda; Luck, Edwina

2012-01-01

371

Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build networks, develop partnerships between professionals locally, regionally and nationally, and also act as change agents in the dissemination and adoption of knowledge and innovations in health services. However, the research focused on knowledge use as a support to decision-making, further research is needed to identify and evaluate effective incentives and strategies to implement so as to enhance RBDM adoption among health decision makers and more theoretical development are to complete in this perspective. PMID:17622021

Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

2007-06-01

372

A Comprehensive Approach to Management of Workplace and Environmental Noise at NASA Lewis Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Lewis Research Center is home to more than 100 experimental research testing facilities and laboratories, including large wind tunnels and engine test cells, which in combination create a varied and complex noise environment. Much of the equipment was manufactured prior to the enactment of legislation limiting product noise emissions or occupational noise exposure. Routine facility maintenance and associated construction also contributes to a noise exposure management responsibility which is equal in magnitude and scope to that of several small industrial companies. The Noise Program, centrally managed within the Office of Environmental Programs at LRC, maintains overall responsibility for hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering. Centralized management of the LRC Noise Program facilitates the timely development and implementation of engineered noise control solutions for problems identified via either the Hearing Conservation of Community Noise Program. The key element of the Lewis Research Center Noise Program, Acoustical and Noise Control Engineering Services, is focused on developing solutions that permanently reduce employee and community noise exposure and maximize research productivity by reducing or eliminating administrative and operational controls and by improving the safety and comfort of the work environment. The Hearing Conservation Program provides noise exposure assessment, medical monitoring, and training for civil servant and contractor employees. The Community Noise Program aims to maintain the support of LRC's neighboring communities while enabling necessary research operations to accomplish their programmatic goals. Noise control engineering capability resides within the Noise Program. The noise control engineering, based on specific exposure limits, is a fundamental consideration throughout the design phase of new test facilities, labs, and office buildings. In summary, the Noise Program addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and acoustical and noise control engineering.

Cooper, Beth A.

1995-01-01

373

Walking the talk : A Micro-Sociological Approach to the Co-production of Knowledge and Power in Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is a contribution to the ongoing discussion in reflexive action research about how the ´co´ in co-production can be understood in the nexus of epistemology and methodology. We apply a micro-sociological approach together with a Foucauldian conception of power/knowledge in the exploration of how knowledge and power relations are negotiated in a workshop which was a part of Action Research project in psychiatric setting. Few action research studies show in detail how power relations between participants affect the knowledge production and we argue that this theoretical and methodological combination has the potential to unpack the local workings of power. The analyses show how knowledge and power are intimately related and intertwined. Our orchestration of the workshop, for instance, bears consequences for the generated context and production of knowledge. It paradoxically becomes an exertion of power by which we in- or exclude certain voices in spite of our good intentions not to do so. In conclusion we assert that any involvement is a powerful act and that we as researchers have an ethical obligation to reflect on the complexity of and tensions involved in the co-production of knowledge in order to “walk the talk” and try to live up to the democratic ideals in Action Research.

Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Ravn Olesen, Birgitte

2013-01-01

374

Three-level approach to quality programs for research, development and production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primary mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop nuclear weapons systems for the Department of Defense. The activities included in this effort cover a broad spectrum, ranging from pure research to routine production. In order to provide a workable framework for a comprehensive quality assurance program for these varied activities, we have proposed a three-level structure of quality plans, corresponding to a rough classification of the weapons work into three general categories. These categories are: (1) research into materials and processes, and preliminary development; (2) design, development, and fabrication of prototype components; (3) routine production, analysis, or refinement activities. The first category requires a quality program to assure the validity, reliability, and retrievability of the information developed; this is accomplished by a conscientious application of what is generally recognized as good laboratory practice. The second category requires in addition a strong emphasis on design review and inspection. For the third category, a comprehensive quality program is appropriate

375

Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adult Cancer Study—A Methodologic Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0–39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

Nancy J. Link

2009-01-01

376

Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

377

An approach to visualize the course of solving of a research task in humans  

CERN Document Server

A technique to study the dynamics of solving of a research task is suggested. The research task was based on specially developed software Right- Wrong Responder (RWR), with the participants having to reveal the response logic of the program. The participants interacted with the program in the form of a semi-binary dialogue, which implies the feedback responses of only two kinds - "right" or "wrong". The technique has been applied to a small pilot group of volunteer participants. Some of them have successfully solved the task (solvers) and some have not (non-solvers). In the beginning of the work, the solvers did more wrong moves than non-solvers, and they did less wrong moves closer to the finish of the work. A phase portrait of the work both in solvers and non-solvers showed definite cycles that may correspond to sequences of partially true hypotheses that may be formulated by the participants during the solving of the task.

Gavrikov, Vladimir L

2010-01-01

378

An introduction to a postmodern approach to nursing research: discourse analysis - Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article serves as an introduction to discourse analysis. It therefore does not give an account for the whole research process.

Opsomming
Hierdie artikel dien as 'n inleiding tot diskoers-analise. Dit beoog dus nie om die hole navorsingsproses breedvoerig te bespreek nie aangesien diskoers-analise 'n relatiefnuwe en multifasettige benadering in navorsing is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Marie Poggenpoel

2002-01-01

379

One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

McElwain Terry F

2010-04-01

380

Dynamic system-wide mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach for a new Era in drug research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis was to develop metabolic analytical platforms for static and dynamic measurements that could answer biological questions for in vitro and in vivo animal models in the area of lipid research. Gene profiling together with the transcriptome and metabolome data was used in combination with the LC/MS analytical platform. In terms of the analytical platforms developed, the focus was on high resolution LC/MS but not limited, as amalgamation with other platforms such as gradient...

Castro Perez, Jose Miguel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Current Research and Classroom Practice: Toward More Inclusive Approaches to Literacy Development in Schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available ...

David Booth; Susan Elliott-Johns

2009-01-01

382

Current Research and Classroom Practice: Toward More Inclusive Approaches to Literacy Development in Schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper offers an exploration of current research and related practice in boys’ literacy development, interprets key findings in the literature, and further explores some of the complex dilemmas and debates related to the ‘gender gap’ – i.e., differences between the achievement of boys and girls in this area. In conclusion, the authors suggest that governments, policy-makers, administrators, teachers and parents all need to closely examine and consider available ...

David Booth; Susan Elliott-Johns

2010-01-01

383

North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: A Collaborative Multisite Approach to Prodromal Schizophrenia Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the rationale, design, and preliminary findings of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), a collaborative, multisite investigation into the earliest phase of psychotic illness. We describe how 8 independently conceived research projects were integrated methodologically, how diagnostic reliability was achieved across sites on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, and how baseline and follow-up data were aggregated for 888 at risk and compariso...

Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara; Mcglashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Heinssen, Robert

2007-01-01

384

Videoethnographic approaches to audience research : questions of exploration, authorship and multimodal presentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations.                       Hypermediated forms of presentation afford not just a capability for accommodating non-sequentiality,polyphony and multi-perspectivalism, I will argue, but acknowledge and foreground the inevitable processes of selection and interpretation which lies at the heart of each and every practice of  ‘authoring'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can be accommodated with a continued commitment to the production of a form of authoring which maintains intellectual coherence, is thereby at the focus of the preliminary assessment of the potential of hypermediated forms of academic authoring that this paper seeks to contribute to.

Wildermuth, Norbert

385

Politics and power within multinational corporations: Mainstream studies, emerging critical approaches and suggestions for future research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the increased public interest in the use and misuse of power in multinationals in the aftermath of the financial crisis, it is notable that power relations in multinational corporations (MNCs) have not gained enhanced attention in the academic community. What is missing so far in the study of MNCs is a systematic examination of how power and politics within multinational corporations have been addressed in mainstream International Business (IB) and sociological research studying the MNC...

Geppert, M.; Do?rrenba?cher, C.

2014-01-01

386

Leveraging a clinical research information system to assist biospecimen data and workflow management: a hybrid approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Large multi-center clinical studies often involve the collection and analysis of biological samples. It is necessary to ensure timely, complete and accurate recording of analytical results and associated phenotypic and clinical information. The TRIBE-AKI Consortium http://www.yale.edu/tribeaki supports a network of multiple related studies and sample biorepository, thus allowing researchers to take advantage of a larger specimen collection than ...

Nadkarni Prakash M; Kemp Rowena; Parikh Chirag R

2011-01-01

387

Integration of Research Into Science-outreach (IRIS): A Video and Web-based Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of the IRIS (Integration of Research Into Science-outreach) initiative is aimed at using field- and laboratory- based videos and blog entries to enable a sustained outreach relationship between university researchers and local classrooms. IRIS seeks to communicate complex, cutting-edge scientific research in the Earth and Planetary sciences to school-aged children in a simple and interesting manner, in the hope of ameliorating the overall decline of children entering into science and engineering fields in future generations. The primary method of delivery IRIS utilizes is the media of film, ';webinars' and blog entries. Filmed sequences of laboratory work, field work, science demos and mini webinars on current and relevant material in the Earth and Planetary sciences are ';subscribed' to by local schools. Selected sequences are delivered in 20-30 minute film segments with accompanying written material. The level at which the subject matter is currently geared is towards secondary level school-aged children, with the purpose of inspiring and encouraging curiosity, learning and development in scientific research. The video broadcasts are supplemented by a hands-on visit 1-2 times per year by a group of scientists participating in the filmed sequences to the subscribing class, with the objective of engaging and establishing a natural rapport between the class and the scientists that they see in the broadcasts. This transgresses boundaries that traditional 'one off' outreach platforms often aren't able to achieve. The initial results of the IRIS outreach initiative including successes, problems encountered and classroom feedback will be reported.

Clay, P. L.; O'Driscoll, B.

2013-12-01