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Sample records for research cbpr approach

  1. Using CBPR Methods in College Health Research: Exploring Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Bulmer, Sandra M.; Barton, Barbara A.; Liefeld, Julie; Montauti, Sara; Santos, Stephanie; Richard, Melissa; Hnath, Laura; Pelletier, Kara; Lalanne, Jude

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative methodology that uniquely involves stakeholders in all stages of the research process. CBPR has been widely utilized in the field of public health, but not widely employed with college populations. This study utilized CBPR methods within a college community to gain insight into…

  2. An Adaptive CBPR Approach to Create Weight Management Materials for a School-Based Health Center Intervention

    Andrew L. Sussman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. From our previous clinical work with overweight/obese youth, we identified the need for research to create an effective weight management intervention to address the growing prevalence of adolescent metabolic syndrome. Formative assessment through an adaptive community-based participatory research (CBPR approach was conducted toward the development of a nutritional and physical activity (DVD and clinician toolkit for a school-based health center (SBHC weight management intervention. Methods. We first conducted parent and adolescent interviews on views and experiences about obesity while convening a community advisory council (CAC recruited from two participating urban New Mexico high schools. Thematic findings from the interviews were analyzed with the CAC to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate intervention materials. Results. Themes from the parent and adolescent interviews included general barriers/challenges, factors influencing motivation, and change facilitators. The CAC and university-based research team reached consensus on the final content of nutrition and physical activity topics to produce a DVD and clinician toolkit through six monthly sessions. These materials used in the SBHC intervention resulted in a greater reduction of body mass index when compared to adolescents receiving standard care. Conclusions. Formative assessment using an adaptive CBPR approach resulted in the creation of culturally and age appropriate weight reduction materials that were acceptable to study participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00841334.

  3. Is community-based participatory research (CBPR useful? A systematic review on papers in a decade

    Yahya Salimi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant′s levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.

  4. Empowering immigrant youth in Chicago: Utilizing CBPR to document the impact of a Youth Health Service Corps program

    Ferrera, MJ; Sacks, TK; M. Perez; Nixon, JP; Asis, D; Coleman, WL

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Yo...

  5. Navigating the Tide Together: Early Collaboration between Tribal and Academic Partners in a CBPR Study

    Lonczak, Heather S. V.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis; Austin, Lisette; Sigo, Robin L.W.; Lawrence, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches stress the importance of building strong, cohesive collaborations between academic researchers and partnering communities; yet there is minimal research examining the actual quality of CBPR partnerships. The objective of the present paper is to describe and explore the quality of collaborative relationships across the first two years of the Healing of the Canoe project teams, comprised of researchers from the University of Washington an...

  6. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  7. Developing and Conducting a Dissertation Study through the Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Nadimpalli, S.B.; Van Devanter, N.; Kavathe, R.; Islam, N.

    2016-01-01

    The community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach has been shown to be innovative and effective in conducting research with communities experiencing health disparities. Doctoral nursing students, and other doctoral students in the health sciences, who are interested in this approach can benefit through structured CBPR training experiences in learning how to engage with communities, build community capacity, share resources, implement CBPR study plans, and disseminate results of CBPR-focused studies. The objectives of this case-study are to demonstrate ways in which one doctoral student aligned with academic mentors and a funded CBPR project to build a relationship with the Sikh Asian Indian (AI) community of New York City to develop and implement a CBPR-focused doctoral dissertation study. The purpose of the research was to examine the relationship between the experience of perceived discrimination and health outcomes in this community. CBPR methods utilized in developing the study entailed the author partaking in formal and informal CBPR learning experiences, building relationships with community and academic partners early on through volunteering, developing a research plan in collaboration with members of the community and academic partners, identifying an appropriate setting and methods for recruitment and data collection, increasing capacity and resources for all partners (the author, community, and academic), and presenting dissertation study findings to the community. In conclusion, CBPR-focused doctoral experiences are novel pedagogical and professional approaches for nursing and health science students which can lead to mutual benefits for all involved, and ultimately successful and effective community-based health research.

  8. Community-based participatory research: a capacity-building approach for policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities.

    Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Cheezum, Rebecca R; Schulz, Amy J; McGranaghan, Robert J; Lichtenstein, Richard; Reyes, Angela G; Clement, Jaye; Burris, Akosua

    2010-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for community-academic partnerships to enhance the capacity of partners to engage in policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a partnership approach that can facilitate capacity building and policy change through equitable engagement of diverse partners. Toward this end, the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, a long-standing CBPR partnership, has conducted a policy training project. We describe CBPR and its relevance to health disparities; the interface between CBPR, policy advocacy, and health disparities; the rationale for capacity building to foster policy advocacy; and the process and outcomes of our policy advocacy training. We discuss lessons learned and implications for CBPR and policy advocacy to eliminate health disparities. PMID:20864728

  9. Adapting community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to the implementation of an asthma shared decision making intervention in ambulatory practices

    Tapp, Hazel; Kuhn, Lindsay; Alkhazraji, Thamara; Steuerwald, Mark; Ludden, Tom; Wilson, Sandra; Mowrer, Lauren; Mohanan, Sveta; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Objective Translating research findings into clinical practice is a major challenge to improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Shared decision making (SDM) has been shown to be effective and has not yet been widely adopted by health providers. This paper describes the participatory approach used to adapt and implement an evidence-based asthma SDM intervention into primary care practices. Methods A participatory research approach was initiated through partnership development between practi...

  10. Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs

    de la Torre, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

  11. Sharing results from complex disease genetics studies: a community based participatory research approach

    Boyer, Bert B.; Mohatt, Gerald V; Pasker, Renee L.; Drew, Elaine M; McGlone, Kathleen K.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dissemination of research results to communities builds capacity of the community to understand and utilize the results. The objective of this manuscript was to propose a culturally appropriate approach to disseminate complex disease genetics research findings in small Alaska Native communities. STUDY DESIGN: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research is a community-based participatory research project (CBPR) directed at understanding the interactions between genetic, nutrition...

  12. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  13. Lessons Learned from Community-Led Recruitment of Immigrants and Refugee Participants for a Randomized, Community-Based Participatory Research Study.

    Hanza, Marcelo M; Goodson, Miriam; Osman, Ahmed; Porraz Capetillo, Maria D; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A; Meiers, Sonja J; Weis, Jennifer A; Wieland, Mark L; Sia, Irene G

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in clinical trials despite efforts to increase their enrollment. Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been effective for conducting research studies in minority and socially disadvantaged populations, protocols for CBPR recruitment design and implementation among immigrants and refugees have not been well described. We used a community-led and community-implemented CBPR strategy for recruiting 45 Hispanic, Somali, and Sudanese families (160 individuals) to participate in a large, randomized, community-based trial aimed at evaluating a physical activity and nutrition intervention. We achieved 97.7 % of our recruitment goal for families and 94.4 % for individuals. Use of a CBPR approach is an effective strategy for recruiting immigrant and refugee participants for clinical trials. We believe the lessons we learned during the process of participatory recruitment design and implementation will be helpful for others working with these populations. PMID:26984117

  14. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices

  15. Application of a CBPR Framework to Inform a Multi-level Tobacco Cessation Intervention in Public Housing Neighborhoods

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Tingen, Martha S.; Jarriel, Stacey Crawford; Caleb, Maudesta; Simmons, Alisha; Brunson, Juanita; Mueller, Martina; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Newman, Susan D.; Cox, Melissa J.; Magwood, Gayenell; Hurman, Christina

    2012-01-01

    African American women in urban, high poverty neighborhoods have high rates of smoking, difficulties with quitting, and disproportionate tobacco-related health disparities. Prior research utilizing conventional “outsider driven” interventions targeted to individuals has failed to show effective cessation outcomes. This paper describes the application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) framework to inform a culturally situated, ecological based, multi-level tobacco cessation in...

  16. Planting Healthy Roots: Using Documentary Film to Evaluate and Disseminate Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Brandt, Heather M; Freedman, Darcy A; Friedman, Daniela B; Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Guest, M Aaron; Khang, Leepao

    2016-01-01

    Documentary filmmaking approaches incorporating community engagement and awareness raising strategies may be a promising approach to evaluate community-based participatory research. The study purpose was 2-fold: (1) to evaluate a documentary film featuring the formation and implementation of a farmers' market and (2) to assess whether the film affected awareness regarding food access issues in a food-desert community with high rates of obesity. The coalition model of filmmaking, a model consistent with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and personal stories, community profiles, and expert interviews were used to develop a documentary film (Planting Healthy Roots). The evaluation demonstrated high levels of approval and satisfaction with the film and CBPR essence of the film. The documentary film aligned with a CBPR approach to document, evaluate, and disseminate research processes and outcomes. PMID:27536929

  17. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990), which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. ...

  18. A CBPR Partnership Increases HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Outcome Findings from a Pilot Test of the "CyBER/Testing" Internet Intervention

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Miller, Cindy; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee M.; Reece, Michael; Bachmann, Laura H.; Ore, Addison; Ross, Michael W.; Hendrix, Ellen; Eng, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has emerged as an important tool for the delivery of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and piloted "CyBER/testing", a culturally congruent intervention designed to promote HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) within existing…

  19. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  20. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women’s health needs: Toward sustainability

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A.; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study—a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:27310870

  1. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  2. Context and group dynamics in a CBPR-developed HIV prevention intervention.

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Zuniga, Maria Ofelia; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Navas, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    This paper will explore in detail the effects of context and group dynamics on the development of a multi-level community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack cocaine users in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, El Salvador. Community partners included residents from marginal communities, service providers from the historic center of San Salvador and research staff from a non-profit organization. The community contexts from which partners came varied considerably and affected structural group dynamics, i.e. who was identified as community partners, their research and organizational capacity, and their ability to represent their communities, with participants from marginal communities most likely to hold community leadership positions and be residents, and those from the center of San Salvador most likely to work in religious organizations dedicated to HIV prevention or feeding indigent drug users. These differences also affected the intervention priorities of different partners. The context of communities changed over time, particularly levels of violence, and affected group dynamics and the intervention developed. Finally, strategies were needed to elicit input from stakeholders under-represented in the community advisory board, in particular active crack users, in order to check the feasibility of the proposed intervention and revise it as necessary. Because El Salvador is a very different context than that in which most CBPR studies have been conducted, our results reveal important contextual factors and their effects on partnerships not often considered in the literature. PMID:25070835

  3. Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research

    Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together

  4. Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.

    Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

  5. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    Molaison Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach

  6. Community-based participatory research from the margin to the mainstream: are researchers prepared?

    Horowitz, Carol R; Robinson, Mimsie; Seifer, Sarena

    2009-05-19

    Despite an increasing arsenal of effective treatments, there are mounting challenges in developing strategies that prevent and control cardiovascular diseases, and that can be sustained and scaled to meet the needs of those most vulnerable to their impact. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to conducting research by equitably partnering researchers and those directly affected by and knowledgeable of the local circumstances that impact health. To inform research design, implementation and dissemination, this approach challenges academic and community partners to invest in team building, share resources, and mutually exchange ideas and expertise. CBPR has led to a deeper understanding of the myriad factors influencing health and illness, a stream of ideas and innovations, and there are expanding opportunities for funding and academic advancement. To maximize the chance that CBPR will lead to tangible, lasting health benefits for communities, researchers will need to balance rigorous research with routine adoption of its conduct in ways that respectfully, productively and equally involve local partners. If successful, lessons learned should inform policy and inspire structural changes in healthcare systems and in communities. PMID:19451365

  7. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  8. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  9. Addressing food security through public policy action in a community-based participatory research partnership.

    Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food. PMID:17728199

  10. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic l...

  11. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

    Ensiyeh Jamshidi; Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae; Khandan Shahandeh; Reza Majdzadeh; Elham Seydali; Kiarash Aramesh; Nina Loori Abknar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers′ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systemat...

  12. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  13. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    Garcia Piedad; Hough Richard L; Lebowitz Barry; Lindamer Laurie A; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, a...

  14. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    Cabassa Leopoldo J; Druss Benjamin; Wang Yuanjia; Lewis-Fernández Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI) and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The proposed study uses ...

  15. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  16. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  17. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  18. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  19. Computational Approaches to Vestibular Research

    Ross, Muriel D.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Biocomputation Center at NASA Ames Research Center is dedicated to a union between computational, experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of neuroscience and of life sciences in general. The current emphasis is on computer reconstruction and visualization of vestibular macular architecture in three-dimensions (3-D), and on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of neural activity in the functioning system. Our methods are being used to interpret the influence of spaceflight on mammalian vestibular maculas in a model system, that of the adult Sprague-Dawley rat. More than twenty 3-D reconstructions of type I and type II hair cells and their afferents have been completed by digitization of contours traced from serial sections photographed in a transmission electron microscope. This labor-intensive method has now been replace d by a semiautomated method developed in the Biocomputation Center in which conventional photography is eliminated. All viewing, storage and manipulation of original data is done using Silicon Graphics workstations. Recent improvements to the software include a new mesh generation method for connecting contours. This method will permit the investigator to describe any surface, regardless of complexity, including highly branched structures such as are routinely found in neurons. This same mesh can be used for 3-D, finite volume simulation of synapse activation and voltage spread on neuronal surfaces visualized via the reconstruction process. These simulations help the investigator interpret the relationship between neuroarchitecture and physiology, and are of assistance in determining which experiments will best test theoretical interpretations. Data are also used to develop abstract, 3-D models that dynamically display neuronal activity ongoing in the system. Finally, the same data can be used to visualize the neural tissue in a virtual environment. Our exhibit will depict capabilities of our computational approaches and

  20. Research review: an integral approach

    KHOMUTOVA TAMARA; KRAVTSOVA ELIZABETH

    2014-01-01

    The novelty ofour research is defined by the necessity of further theoretical consideration of integral nature of the scientific text using the material of texts of research reviews. The purpose of the article is yet further development of integral theory of the scientific text using the material of texts of research reviews and the construction of an integral model the research review text. The basic integral model of the research review is presented. The perspectives of further research are...

  1. Research in development: the approach of AAS

    Dugan, P.; Apgar, M.; Douthwaite, B.

    2013-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is pursuing a Research in Development approach that emphasizes the importance of embedding research in the development context. Reflecting this emphasis the six elements of this approach are a commitment to people and place, participatory action research, gender transformative research, learning and networking, partnerships, and capacity building. It is through the careful pursuit of these six elements that we believe that the p...

  2. Systems thinking tools as applied to community-based participatory research: a case study.

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2012-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637

  3. Research Methodology: A Practitioner Approach

    Singh, Sukhpal; Chana, Inderveer; Singh, Maninder

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of scientific research is publication so as to showcase the research outcomes. Scientists, starting as graduate students, are measured primarily not by their dexterity in laboratory manipulations, not by their innate knowledge of either broad or narrow scientific subjects, and certainly not by their wit or charm; they are…

  4. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  5. Demystifying a Hermeneutic Approach to IS Research

    Phyl Webb

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available While hermeneutics is firmly embedded in social science research and has proven merit as a qualitative research philosophy and data analysis technique, the majority of IS researchers continue to be hermeneutic neophytes. This paper seeks to promote and demystify this valuable but challenging tool, exploring the evolution of hermeneutics and its different approaches, presenting a brief overview of previous IS hermeneutic research, as reported in the literature and describing the applicability of hermeneutics to qualitative IS research In illustration, and in an attempt to smooth the way for other novice “hermeneuts”, it presents the choice and application of one hermeneutic approach based on the work of Ricoeur and Gadamer, in a research in progress. The paper concludes with a reflection on the value of the hermeneutic approach that was adopted in the research process and its contribution to IS research.

  6. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations......'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can be...

  7. Design and Implementation of Collaborative Research Approaches

    Venti, Mike W.; Berger, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This poster reviews the collarborative research approaches that NASA has been designing and implementing for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. The inputs for the technical plan are reviewed, the Research Test and Integration Plan (RTIP) WIKI, is used to create and propose a multi-themed and multi-partner research testing opportunities. The outputs are testing opportunities.

  8. Community-based participatory research contributions to intervention research: the intersection of science and practice to improve health equity.

    Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie

    2010-04-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR. PMID:20147663

  9. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  10. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  11. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  12. Interdisciplinary research approach for cultural heritage

    Drdácký, Miloš; Minster, Jiří

    Brusel : ECCREDI, 2003, s. 2-2 ISBN N. [FP6 Construction research in the enlarged European union. Warsaw (PL), 06.11.2003-07.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : cultural heritage * interdisciplinary approach * stone masonry Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  14. Ethnomethodology. I: An approach to nursing research.

    Bowers, L

    1992-02-01

    This is the first of two papers outlining and demonstrating an ethnomethodological perspective upon nursing research. The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to some of the basic ideas of ethnomethodology, and to stimulate nursing researchers into questioning some of the presuppositions involved in their work. To this end ethnomethodology is explored through a series of contrasts between the conventional approach to the sociology of nursing and an ethnomethodological approach. To conclude, some of the areas of interest for ethnomethodological nursing research are outlined. PMID:1551755

  15. Positives approaches: new empirical research in accounting

    Lara Dorado, Juan Abel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary debates of the accountancy discipline can be framed on the normative and positive approaches developed by researchers as: Mattessich, Ijiri, Zirnmerman, etc. This article attemps to organize in a systematic way the trends of the so called new empiric research in the positive accounting theory structure. The newempiric research undertakes a complex theoretical and experimental framework in the trends of the so called accounting aggregate market as well as the trend called acco...

  16. Mental Health Research in Primary Care: Mandates from a Community Advisory Board

    Chené, Roberto; García, Lorenzo (fl. 1667); Goldstrom, Margie; Pino, Mandy; Roach, Delfy Peña; Thunderchief, Wendy; Waitzkin, Howard

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to obtain the viewpoints of a community advisory board in training junior minority faculty members and graduate students for community-based participatory research (CBPR) on mental health in primary care.

  17. Ethics and community-based participatory research: perspectives from the field.

    Bastida, Elena M; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues regarding data collection and sharing. Thereafter, this article concludes with a brief discussion of six principles that can inform the practice of ethical conduct when implementing CBPR studies. This article also lists additional reading resources on the importance of ethics in the conduct of CBPR. PMID:20038649

  18. A Multicultural approach in music information research

    Serra, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Our information technologies do not respond to the world's multicultural reality; in fact, we are imposing the paradigms of our market-driven western culture also on IT, thus facilitating the access of a small part of the world???s information to a small part of the world's population. The current IT research efforts may even make it worse, and future IT will accentuate this information bias. Most IT research is being carried out with a western centered approach and as a ...

  19. A lifelogging approach to automated market research

    Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O'connor, Noel E.

    2012-01-01

    Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this practice is needed. In this work we present an automated market research system based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms with visual lifelogging data, developed in collaboration with ...

  20. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    Garcia Piedad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

  1. Economic Approaches to the Evaluation of Research.

    Averch, Harvey A.

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the principal methods economists and cost benefit analysts use in evaluating research. Two common approaches are surplus measures (combinations of consumer and producer surpluses) and productivity measures. Technical difficulties and political and organizational constraints are discussed for these measures. (SLD)

  2. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; CHAN, D; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-01-01

    A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants val...

  3. STEPS Centre research: our approach to impact

    Ely, Adrian; Oxley, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The ‘impact’ of research has seen a dramatic rise up the UK’s policy agenda in recent years. But what does ‘impact’ really mean? How do researchers and others respond to the new ‘impact agenda’ and how might we best plan, monitor and report on impact? This working paper attempts to provide answers to some of these questions by reviewing various understandings of ‘impact’ and describing the approach used by the ESRC STEPS Centre in its second five-year phase of funding. In particular, we draw ...

  4. The interdisciplinary approach in community interpreting research

    Vargas Urpi, Mireia

    2011-01-01

    Community interpreting is a complex activity that has been studied from many different angles. Based on a review of the literature, this paper aims to highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in community interpreting research, as well as the close relationship between the theoretical and methodological frameworks that have been used to date. As a prospective study and by describing theories applied from five different fields (i.e. anthropology, sociology, applied linguistics...

  5. Promoting Community Health and Eliminating Health Disparities Through Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Xia, Ruiping; Stone, John R; Hoffman, Julie E; Klappa, Susan G

    2016-03-01

    In physical therapy, there is increasing focus on the need at the community level to promote health, eliminate disparities in health status, and ameliorate risk factors among underserved minorities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is the most promising paradigm for pursuing these goals. Community-based participatory research stresses equitable partnering of the community and investigators in light of local social, structural, and cultural elements. Throughout the research process, the CBPR model emphasizes coalition and team building that joins partners with diverse skills/expertise, knowledge, and sensitivities. This article presents core concepts and principles of CBPR and the rationale for its application in the management of health issues at the community level. Community-based participatory research is now commonly used to address public health issues. A literature review identified limited reports of its use in physical therapy research and services. A published study is used to illustrate features of CBPR for physical therapy. The purpose of this article is to promote an understanding of how physical therapists could use CBPR as a promising way to advance the profession's goals of community health and elimination of health care disparities, and social responsibility. Funding opportunities for the support of CBPR are noted. PMID:26251479

  6. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.

  7. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...

  8. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  9. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: Budgetary and other cost considerations

    Hoeft, Theresa J.; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E.; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B.; James, Rosalina D.; Boyer, Bert B.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR proje...

  10. A community systems approach to research strategies.

    Richards, W

    1989-01-01

    Conflict management skills are needed when dealing with research projects, in multi-cultural settings. Alcohol projects are especially prone to conflict because of the variety of different models of causation and intervention. There are a number of theories of conflict and type of conflict management approaches. The role of people who are in "cultural broker" or interface roles between conflicting parties has been reviewed elsewhere (Spiegel, 1973). My own approach--one of a number of possible alternatives--is briefly outlined here. It involves a form of systems analysis, and a role that many researchers might not initially feel comfortable with. The role goes beyond that of the "objective scientific reporter," and even beyond that of "conflict manager" or "culture broker." I am not sure quite what to call it: there are active attempts to get community members to resolve conflicts and carry out projects, but also what I consider a research orientation to try to carefully observe and describe and measure what is done. It is, I suppose, a form of "participant-observation," but the participation involves developing an overall strategic approach to the community's perceived problems. There is careful attention to who gets defined as the "problem," and who will actually be carrying out the project. Local community factions may need assistance in developing a very clear vision of the targeted results for the project. One has to also be keenly aware of possible problems that can result from differences in world view, pressures from funding sources or other intermediary groups who may have their own agendas for the research, as well as the overall context or environmental constraints.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2490283

  11. Design Science Research – an engineering research approach to improve methods for engineering education research

    Carstensen, Anna-Karin; Bernhard, Jonte

    2015-01-01

    Modelling is an engineering activity commonly used by engineers, and can be used also in engineering education research (EER). The use of qualitative research methods have in EER not always been widely accepted but have recently gained more attention (Case & Light, 2011). There are, however, also qualitative research methods in engineering research that may be used in EER (Bernhard, in press). One such approach is design science research, where the object of research is the design process...

  12. Tin Oxide Research:. AN Hierarchical Approach

    Barsan, N.; Weimar, U.

    2000-12-01

    A huge amount of publications dealing with metal oxide gas sensors in general and with SnO2 in particular as a prototype material appeared in the literature. This amount is growing continuously and leads to a situation in which even experts in this field tend to loose an overview. The main reason for this unsatisfactory present situation results from the fact that three different approaches are generally chosen for research and development in this area, which lead to completely independent kinds of experiments and models. The first approach is chosen by the users, who test empirically every available sensor on the market. The second approach is chosen by the developers, who optimize empirically certain performances for different applications by optimizing the preparation, test structures, aging procedures, filter materials, modulation conditions during operation etc. The third approach is chosen by basic scientists, who want to understand the underlying atomistic models and hence apply spectroscopies, quantum mechanical calculations to simplified modes of sensor operation with the aim to understand thermodynamic or kinetic aspects of the overall very complex sensing mechanisms on the molecular scale. This report describes the present state of the art and typical contributions from experts in these three different fields to stimulate a more intense interdisciplinary dialogue in the near future. Based on the huge amount of data available so far, a coordinated effort is hoped to lead to a similar situation like it has been achieved for silicon as the prototype material for microelectronic devices: We hope that future textbooks will describe SnO2 as the prototype material for chemical gas sensors with all details completely understood down to the quantum mechanical level.

  13. Alternative approaches to research in physical therapy: positivism and phenomenology.

    Shepard, K F; Jensen, G M; Schmoll, B J; Hack, L M; Gwyer, J

    1993-02-01

    This article presents philosophical approaches to research in physical therapy. A comparison is made to demonstrate how the research purpose, research design, research methods, and research data differ when one approaches research from the philosophical perspective of positivism (predominantly quantitative) as compared with the philosophical perspective of phenomenology (predominantly qualitative). Differences between the two approaches are highlighted by examples from research articles published in Physical Therapy. The authors urge physical therapy researchers to become familiar with the tenets, rigor, and knowledge gained from the use of both approaches in order to increase their options in conducting research relevant to the practice of physical therapy. PMID:8421722

  14. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  15. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  16. Complexities of holistic community-based participatory research for a low income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts.

    Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014

  17. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  18. Big data as a new approach in emergency medicine research

    Ho Ting Wong; QianYin; Ying Qi Guo; Kristen Murray; Dong Hau Zhou; Diana Slade

    2015-01-01

    Big data is a hot topic in the academic sector, and healthcare researchers are definitely not an exception. This article aims to provide a showcase in emergency medicine research to demonstrate the advantages of conducting such research using big data. Big data is a new and cost-effective research approach, and emergency medicine researchers could benefit from using this approach and by doing so producing high-quality research at a faster pace.

  19. Teacher Professional Development Approach:Action Research

    LIU Yang

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice, researchers and practitioners are usually isolated in traditional education research, so much so that the research results can not solve the problems that teachers encounter in their teaching practice. As a new mode, action research provides a bridge linking theory and teaching practice as well as a way to promote teacher development.

  20. The Research Journey: A "Lonely Planet" Approach

    Mackenzie, Noella M.; Ling, Lorraine M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss the impact of research on a neophyte researcher and the research supervisor. The methodology which is applied throughout this article is autoethnographic narrative. It represents retrospective reflection on the part of the authors and thus to some extent is about retrospective meaning making. It centres upon the…

  1. Research on the Theory of Communicative Approach

    Wang Changxue

    2014-01-01

    As speaking and listening are the two basic and essential skills in English learning,the communicative approach which focus on the learners’communicative competence take a very significant status. This paper aims to review and analyze the communicative approach and promote it to apply in the English teaching class.

  2. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  3. Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation

    Aliaksandr eBirukou; Joseph Rushton Wakeling; Claudio eBartolini; Fabio eCasati; Maurizio eMarchese; Katsiaryna eMirylenka; Nardine eOsman; Azzurra eRagone; Carles eSierra; Aalam eWassef

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros ...

  4. Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation

    Aliaksandr eBirukou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.

  5. Partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes: Establishing an Advisory Committee for Pharmacogenetic Research

    Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763

  6. A qualititative approach to HCI research

    Adams, Anne; Lunt, Peter; Cairns, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Whilst science has a strong reliance on quantitative and experimental methods, there are many complex, socially based phenomena in HCI that cannot be easily quantified or experimentally manipulated or, for that matter, ethically researched with experiments. For example, the role of privacy in HCI is not obviously reduced to numbers and it would not be appropriate to limit a person's privacy in the name of research. In addition, technology is rapidly changing – just think of developments in mo...

  7. Participatory action research approaches and methods

    Nancy Gibson

    2010-01-01

    This book, published as part of Routledge’s Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with ‘Reflections’ that bracket the ‘Action’ section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.

  8. CONFERENCE CHEVREUL Nutrition research: the industrial approach

    Korver Onno

    2000-01-01

    The goal of nutrition research in an industrial setting is the marketing of products. Since consumers cannot see from the product whether it is healthy, communication to the consumer about the nutritional and health values of the products is essential. Industrial nutrition research therefore has to provide the scientific dossier to underpin the claims and other communication on and around the product as well as the scientific basis for the communication. These two lines are illustrated in fig...

  9. Using the Pyramid Approach to Teaching Marketing Research.

    Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)

  10. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  11. Principles and approaches in ethics assessment : Research integrity

    Collste, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research is a conscious and systematic approach to acquire knowledge, based on theories, methods and standards that have been developed through the history of scientific disciplines. The terms “research integrity” and “good research practice” refer to ideals for how research ought to be performed. In the 1940s the American sociologist Robert Merton proposed norms for scientific research that have influenced the discussion on research integrity since then. According to Merton good r...

  12. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Hogue, Ian B.; Bosse, Jens B.; Engel, Esteban A.; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544

  13. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research.

    Hogue, Ian B; Bosse, Jens B; Engel, Esteban A; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; Del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-11-01

    In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544

  14. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  15. Approaches to space in game design research

    Walz, Steffen P.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution, we gather major academic and design approaches for explaining how space in games is constructed and how it constructs games, thereby defining the conceptual dimensions of gamespace. Each concept’s major inquiry is briefly discussed, iterated if applicable, as well as named. Thus, we conclude with an overview of the locative, the representational, the programmatic, the dramaturgical, the typological, the perspectivistic, the form-functional, and the form-emotive dimension...

  16. Bioinformatics Approach in Plant Genomic Research.

    Ong, Quang; Nguyen, Phuc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Le, Ly

    2016-08-01

    The advance in genomics technology leads to the dramatic change in plant biology research. Plant biologists now easily access to enormous genomic data to deeply study plant high-density genetic variation at molecular level. Therefore, fully understanding and well manipulating bioinformatics tools to manage and analyze these data are essential in current plant genome research. Many plant genome databases have been established and continued expanding recently. Meanwhile, analytical methods based on bioinformatics are also well developed in many aspects of plant genomic research including comparative genomic analysis, phylogenomics and evolutionary analysis, and genome-wide association study. However, constantly upgrading in computational infrastructures, such as high capacity data storage and high performing analysis software, is the real challenge for plant genome research. This review paper focuses on challenges and opportunities which knowledge and skills in bioinformatics can bring to plant scientists in present plant genomics era as well as future aspects in critical need for effective tools to facilitate the translation of knowledge from new sequencing data to enhancement of plant productivity. PMID:27499685

  17. Gratitude in Workplace Research: A Rossian Approach

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Workplace learning is complex in form. It is explorative, social and creative enquiry, and because it is carried out in the socio-political domain of the workplace, it is potentially exploitative of all who contribute. This paper suggests that the workplace researcher might conceptualise the contributions of participants as benefits and/or gifts,…

  18. Case Studies In Business Market Research: An Abductive Approach

    DuBois, A.; Gadde, L

    1999-01-01

    Case studies are frequently used in industrial network research. In this paper we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach. In particular we deal with single case research aiming at theory generation. For this purpose we suggest an approach based on 'systematic combining' grounded in an 'abductive' logic.

  19. Approach to Teaching Research Methodology for Information Technology

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; McCord, Samual Alan

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports on an approach to teaching a course in information technology research methodology in a doctoral program, the Doctor of Management in Information Technology (DMIT), in which research, with focus on finding innovative solutions to problems found in practice, comprises a significant part of the degree. The approach makes a…

  20. CONFERENCE CHEVREUL Nutrition research: the industrial approach

    Korver Onno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of nutrition research in an industrial setting is the marketing of products. Since consumers cannot see from the product whether it is healthy, communication to the consumer about the nutritional and health values of the products is essential. Industrial nutrition research therefore has to provide the scientific dossier to underpin the claims and other communication on and around the product as well as the scientific basis for the communication. These two lines are illustrated in figure 1. For scientific audiences the steps to collect the scientific evidence are obvious: first screening for new ideas on the basis of scientific developments and business options, then identifying ingredients that can deliver the health benefit, followed by mechanistic and bioavailability studies and finally human intervention trials. The communication line is less obvious for most scientifically oriented audiences. Experience has shown that an information cascade has to be followed: during the execution of the research work close contact with academic experts (a true dialogue is essential, when the research data are available information of a wide selection of health professionals (e.g. physicians, dieticians, science journalists is taking place and only after this step communication to the consumer starts. The communication with the scientific experts (the first step of the cascade obviously has to be in the hands of the nutrition research group of the industry involved. In Unilever this is the Unilever Nutrition Centre based in Vlaardingen in the Netherlands. Their role in the scientific dialogue is outlined in figure 2. The fact that the “Medaille Chevreul” has been awarded twice to members of the Unilever Nutrition Centre in the last two decades, illustrates that the UNC is considered to be a group with a truly scientific tradition.

  1. Innovation Acceptance Research: A Review of Theories, Contexts, and Approaches

    ALI HUSSEIN SALEH ZOLAIT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing literature and studies on the impact of Information Systems (IS on the adoption of Internet Banking (IB. We reviewed the adoption theories utilized in IB studies within different contexts and approaches. This explanatory study was conducted to develop an understanding of the theoretical-based research of IB. The findings indicate that there is a large body of literature regarding IB adoption. Most IB research investigated the adoption of IB using the psychological approach, where some used the social approach or a combined approach of both. Our research recommends new approaches to investigate the adoption of IB and develop new theories. Specifically, and among others, the User’s Informational-Based Readiness is a new approach this study recommends for future research of innovation adoption.

  2. Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach

    Antoni Roig

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

  3. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  4. Approaches to Work-Life Balance Research

    Formánková, Lenka

    Brno: Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13766S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  5. Carlink II: Research Approach and Early Findings

    Shaheen, Susan

    2004-01-01

    CarLink II is a commuter-based carsharing pilot project administered by the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis (ITS-Davis) in conjunction with Caltrans, American Honda Motor Company, and Caltrain. Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) researchers are conducting the evaluation. Launched in Summer 2001, CarLink II continues the investigation of commuter-based carsharing that was originally explored in the 1998 CarLink longitudinal survey (Shah...

  6. A new research approach in marketing: neuromarketing

    Aysun KAHRAMAN; Aytekin, Pınar

    2014-01-01

    Marketers generally use classical methods such as survey or observation to research what kind of responses consumers give to products, brands or ads. However, neuromarketing, which utilize neuroscience techniques to understand consumer behavior, has broken a new ground for marketers. In neuromarketing; to determine consumers’ responses to a product, a brand or an ad, the movements in different parts of their brains are monitored by neuroscience equipments such as fMRI, EEG. Informations gathe...

  7. USING CASE STUDIES AS AN APPROACH FOR CONDUCTING AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH

    Sterns, James A.; Schweikhardt, David B.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Many agricultural economists are not familiar with case study research, yet the approach is a useful means of collecting data, and building and testing theory. Case study research has a prescribed set of objectives, epistemology, methodology, and methods that have been developed and tested in a wide range of scholarly and pragmatic situations. This paper reviews these fundamentals, and then demonstrates the case study approach within the context of an agribusiness research project. This appli...

  8. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  9. A cognitive approach to soundscape research

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon

    2001-05-01

    The present research on cognitive categories for soundscapes focuses on their interpretations and can be seen as mediating between individual sensory experiences and collective representations shared in language and elaborated as knowledge. Results of field inquiries in Paris, Lyon, and Nantes are presented together with results from categorization of recorded soundscapes in laboratory conditions. Categories were identified by means of linguistic analyses of verbal comments and mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results indicate that people categorize environmental sounds on the basis of semantic features, namely source identity and pleasantness judgments, rather than perceptual features. Effects of noise on human subjectivity cannot be quantitatively measured thoroughly in terms of physical parameters: auditory judgments depend upon the meaning attributed to acoustic phenomena and noise sources, rather than on inherent properties of the acoustic signal. These findings highlight the fact that an acoustic phenomenon can be diversely conceptualized and lexicalized as cognitive representations. Finally, methodological and theoretical consequences of these findings are established as the basis for further research on soundscape, in order to account not only for noise annoyance but also for sound quality of urban life.

  10. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  11. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research...... point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to...... the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlying assumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is...

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, JE.; Duran, B.; Tafoya, G.; Baker, EA.; Chan, D.; Chang, C.; Greene-Moton, E.; Kelley, M.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual/logic model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus-building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nation-wide. Participants validated and expanded upon existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on “real-world” praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

  13. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Mandić, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  14. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    . However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and......Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research...

  15. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and...

  16. Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese

    XinQi Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

  17. Methodological Approaches in MOOC Research: Retracing the Myth of Proteus

    Raffaghelli, Juliana Elisa; Cucchiara, Stefania; Persico, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological approaches most commonly adopted in the scholarly literature on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), published during the period January 2008-May 2014. In order to identify trends, gaps and criticalities related to the methodological approaches of this emerging field of research, we analysed 60 papers…

  18. Model-driven software development approaches in robotics research

    Ramaswamy, Arun Kumar; Monsuez, Bruno; Tapus, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there is an encouraging trend in adopting model-driven engineering approaches for software development in robotics research. In this paper, currently available model-driven techniques in robotics are analyzed with respect to the domain-specific requirements. A conceptual overview of our software development approach called 'Self Adaptive Framework for Robotic Systems (SafeRobots)' is explained and we also try to position our approach within this model ecosystem.

  19. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  20. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  1. Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.

    Hill, Gary A.

    The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

  2. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  3. Measuring the Value of Research: A Generational Accounting Approach

    Robert Hofmeister

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a generational accounting approach to valuating research. Based on the flow of scientific results, a value-added (VA) index is developed that can, in principle, be used to assign a monetary value to any research result and, by aggregation, on entire academic disciplines or sub-disciplines. The VA-index distributes the value of all applications that embody research to the works of research which the applications directly rely on, and further to the works of research of prev...

  4. An approach to virtual research environment user interfaces dynamic construction

    Assante, Massimiliano; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR); Candela, Leonardo; De Faveri, Federico; Lelii, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Research Environments are internet-based working environments tailored to serve needs of diverse and evolving user communities. These environments are oriented to promote new ways of dealing with modern research tasks. Their realization requires user interfaces that are dynamically built to provide their clients with organised views on the data and services aggregated to meet specific community needs. This paper presents an approach to the problem of Virtual Research Environment user ...

  5. Action Research – A New Approach for Environmental RD

    Danubianu Mirela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy, directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europe’s resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers in the real world, requires teamwork, collaboration with communities and other stakeholders. Action Research is especially suitable in projects for reducing anthropic footprint / environmental aggression and in waste management. In essence, Action Research (for the first time systematically applied in Romania is the research approach that lets the problem studied to conduct the analysis and generate appropriate solutions; it constitutes a flexible, versatile technique to generate new knowledge through iterative interaction with the domain studied - namely the environment - researchers and communities.

  6. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  7. A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches

    James Gibson

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.

  8. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research

    Tamlin S. Conner; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2009-01-01

    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pers...

  9. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    Cabassa Leopoldo J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

  10. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499

  11. Exploring a new narrative inquiry approach: "narrative as research (nar)"

    Young, Allan Buddy

    2012-01-01

    Narrative is an ancient practice still woven throughout our modern society in a myriad forms ranging from novels to computer games, yet the field of narrative inquiry is among the youngest of research approaches, and hence among the most swiftly evolving. This dissertation explores a newly emerging form of narrative inquiry in an education context, “Narrative as Research (NAR).” The dissertation first examines the familiar form of narrative inquiry in an education context, which draws upon st...

  12. Family Research: An Ethnographic Approach: How this approach can work for family health care

    Stein, Howard F

    1991-01-01

    An ethnographic approach based on in-depth interviewing, naturalistic and participant observation, narrative description, and contextual interpretation is proposed as a tool for family health care research. The multiple meanings of family, both for research clinicians and for society, are considered. The problem of how a family orientation is incorporated into biomedical' health care is discussed.

  13. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  14. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  15. A trans-disciplinary approach to the evaluation of social determinants of health in a hispanic population

    Dulin Michael F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual and community health are adversely impacted by disparities in health outcomes among disadvantaged and vulnerable populations. Understanding the underlying causes for variations in health outcomes is an essential step towards developing effective interventions to ameliorate inequalities and subsequently improve overall community health. Working at the neighborhood scale, this study examines multiple social determinates that can cause health disparities including low neighborhood wealth, weak social networks, inadequate public infrastructure, the presence of hazardous materials in or near a neighborhood, and the lack of access to primary care services. The goal of this research is to develop innovative and replicable strategies to improve community health in disadvantaged communities such as newly arrived Hispanic immigrants. Methods/design This project is taking place within a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN using key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR. Associations between social determinants and rates of hospitalizations, emergency department (ED use, and ED use for primary care treatable or preventable conditions are being examined. Geospatial models are in development using both hospital and community level data to identify local areas where interventions to improve disparities would have the greatest impact. The developed associations between social determinants and health outcomes as well as the geospatial models will be validated using community surveys and qualitative methods. A rapidly growing and underserved Hispanic immigrant population will be the target of an intervention informed by the research process to impact utilization of primary care services and designed, deployed, and evaluated using the geospatial tools and qualitative research findings. The purpose of this intervention will be to reduce health disparities by improving access to, and utilization of

  16. FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON

    M.O. Izotov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

  17. A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching

    Munisamy, Susila

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to apply the various quantitative models in a spreadsheet. Indeed,…

  18. Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches

    Brand, Manny

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

  19. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    . However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the...... constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge......Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research...

  20. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  1. Medical Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations: The Relationship-Based Approach.

    Olson, Nate W

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I provide a new account of the basis of medical researchers' ancillary care obligations. Ancillary care in medical research, or medical care that research participants need but that is not required for the validity or safety of a study or to redress research injuries, is a topic that has drawn increasing attention in research ethics over the last ten years. My view, the relationship-based approach, improves on the main existing theory, Richardson and Belsky's 'partial-entrustment model', by avoiding its problematic restriction on the scope of health needs for which researchers could be obligated to provide ancillary care. Instead, it grounds ancillary care obligations in a wide range of morally relevant features of the researcher-participant relationship, including the level of engagement between researchers and participants, and weighs these factors against each other. I argue that the level of engagement, that is, the duration and intensity of interactions, between researchers and participants matters for ancillary care because of its connection to the meaningfulness of a relationship, and I suggest that other morally relevant features can be grounded in researchers' role obligations. PMID:26424512

  2. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

  3. Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches

    Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded

  4. Enquiry Pull Research: An Ethnomethodological Approach to Lean Construction Research or a Lean Approach to Ethnomethodological Research

    Rooke, John; Seymour, David; Koskela, Lauri; Bertelsen, Sven; Owen, Robert; Cleary, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper assembles some principals from three strands of thought: lean theory; ethnomethodology; and Wittgensteinian philosophy. These are considered with a view to their impact on research design and used here as a basis for an initial exploration of a candidate research topic, in order to illustrate this impact. Principles of Lean Theory are considered, along with those from Wittgensteinian social enquiry and Ethnomethodology, in order to suggest a strategy for Lean Research. These are ap...

  5. Developing quantitative research skills and conceptualising an integrated approach to teaching research methods to education students

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, research methods in a core component of many undergraduate social science programmes. Education is no exception. Engaging students and developing their research skills, particularly in the area of quantitative methods, is challenging. This paper presents the redesign and reconceptualisation of a compulsory research methods in education module for 2nd year undergraduates. It highlights the approach taken and provides the results of a small exploratory study that was used to asse...

  6. Researching sexual and reproductive behaviour: a peer ethnographic approach.

    Price, Neil; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, ethnographic research has challenged the notion within demography that fertility-related behaviour is the outcome of individualistic calculations of the costs and benefits of having children. Anthropology has further criticised the abstraction in demographic analysis of sexual behaviour and fertility decision-making from the socio-cultural and political context in which the individual or couple is located. Within demography itself, institutional and political-economic analyses have argued strongly that sexual and reproductive behaviour must be understood within locally specific social, cultural, economic and political contexts. Positivist and empiricist research methods, such as the sample survey and focus groups, which continue to dominate demographic inquiry and applied research into sexual and reproductive behaviour, have been shown to be limited in their ability to inform about the process of behaviour change and contexts within which different behaviours occur. The article introduces a new methodology for researching sexual and reproductive behaviour, called the peer ethnographic approach, which the authors have developed in an attempt to address some of the limitations of the methods which currently dominate research into sexual and reproductive behaviour. The peer ethnographic methodology is discussed in detail and the results of recent field-testing are reported, which show that, although the approach has limitations, it also has the potential to make a significant contribution to our understanding of sexual and reproductive behaviour. PMID:12231012

  7. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial

  8. From consultation to participation in public health research: reflections on a community-based research partnership

    Breen, Lauren J.; O’Connor, Moira

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes and their outcomes are substantial global public health issues and public health initiatives are increasingly involving relevant community members in order to create sustainable change. This paper describes an applied research project utilizing participatory methods to establish a road trauma support service in Western Australia and reflects on the extent of participation in the community-based research partnership. Community-based participatory research (CBPR)...

  9. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: Research needs and implementation strategies

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Arlinghaus, R.; Cooke, S.J.; McIntyre, P.B.; De Silva, S.; Bartley, D.; Cowx, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. ?? 2010 The Royal Society.

  10. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies.

    Beard, T Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J; McIntyre, Peter B; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G

    2011-08-23

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. PMID:21325307

  11. Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense -- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement existing methods to rank univer...

  12. Agricultural Risk Management - Experiences from an Action Research Approach

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben Ulf; Andersen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don't apply probabilistic thinking and o...

  13. Phenomenological approach to profile impact of scientific research Citation Mining

    Río, J A; García, E O; Ramírez, A M; Humenik, J A

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, institutions) of the citing papers as well as their thematic characteristics.

  14. A licence renewal approach for the NRU research reactor

    Licence Renewal is not only a subject that is being addressed for power reactors, but it is one of immediate interest for a number of research facilities, world-wide. In Canada, research reactors and power reactors are issued an operating licence for a limited term (typically two years), hence, licence renewal is done on a regular basis. Therefore, licence renewal in the Canadian context is different than in the context of this topical meeting. The NRU research reactor facility is being assessed for a licence renewal beyond its original design life. This paper describes the licence renewal approach, the assessments being performed to establish the condition of the facility, and the Safety Assessment Basis which defines the requirements for licence renewal. The current status of the assessments is also described. (author)

  15. Reviewing CSR management and marketing communication research: A discourse approach

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Thomsen, Christa

    ). Consequently, CSR management and marketing communication research contains understandings that point in different directions, calling for more substantial explorations of the underlying discourse arsenal that CSR researchers and practitioners draw on. Institutional theory is one way of investigating how...... as a forum for mutual understanding, recognition, negotiation and co-creation amongst stakeholders. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the discourse construction of CSR communication on the basis of how researchers frame corporations’ CSR doings and saying within marketing and management streams......-linguistic communication and the social practices in which they are embedded (Heracleous and Hendry 2000; Fairclough 2003). Our motivation for applying this approach is that the study of organizational discourse and CDA allows us to understand the way in which the notion of interaction is constructed and made meaningful...

  16. Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment

    Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

  17. Research on runoff forecast approaches to the Aksu River basin

    OUYANG RuLin; CHENG WeiMing; WANG WeiSheng; JIANG Yan; ZHANG YiChi; WANG YongQin

    2007-01-01

    The Aksu River (the international river between China and Kirghiz) has become the main water source for the Tarim River. It significantly influences the Tarim River's formation, development and evolution.Along with the western region development strategy and the Tarim River basin comprehensive development and implementation, the research is now focused on the Aksu River basin hydrologic characteristic and hydrologic forecast. Moreover, the Aksu River is representative of rivers supplied with glacier and snow melt in middle-high altitude arid district. As a result, the research on predicting the river flow of the Aksu River basin has theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, considering the limited hydrometeorological data for the Aksu River basin, we have constructed four hydrologic forecast approaches using the daily scale to simulate and forecast daily runoff of two big branches of the Aksu River basin. The four approaches are the upper air temperature and the daily runoff correlation method, AR(p) runoff forecast model, temperature and precipitation revised AR(p) model and the NAM rainfall-runoff model. After comparatively analyzing the simulation results of the four approaches, we discovered that the temperature and precipitation revised AR(p) model, which needs less hydrological and meteorological data and is more predictive, is suitable for the short-term runoff forecast of the Aksu River basin. This research not only offers a foundation for the Aksu River and Tarim Rivers' hydrologic forecast, flood prevention, control and the entire basin water collocation, but also provides the hydrologic forecast reference approach for other arid ungauged basins.

  18. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  19. Meeting the Challenges of Intervention Research in Health Science: An Argument for a Multimethod Research Approach.

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-06-01

    Research within health science is often based on developing, implementing and evaluating interventions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, with patients or other health care users as the target group. The results of RCTs can have limited generalizability. Since a trial often takes place in a controlled setting, it may be difficult to implement the results in other settings. Successful implementation in practice requires knowledge of the context and the social mechanisms and processes through which an intervention works. It is therefore important to secure such knowledge of high quality. The aim of this paper was to present and discuss how intervention research in RCT designs can be developed and strengthened by using a multimethod research approach. First, we focus on four considerations relating to the use of RCTs, namely objectivity and linearity, contextual dimensions, generalizability, and complex interventions. Second, a multimethod research approach including the terms 'research style' and 'forms of integration' is presented to address the four considerations. Third, a Danish intervention study is presented in order to discuss the potential of this multimethod research approach. We conclude by suggesting that future intervention studies should consider the potential for combining different research styles and forms of integration to the benefits of the patients and other health care users as the target group. PMID:26597448

  20. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  1. An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management

    A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs

  2. The image of the algorithmic city: a research approach

    Kevin Hamilton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable urban design, and identifies several paths for future research.

  3. Sí se puede: using participatory research to promote environmental justice in a Latino community in San Diego, California.

    Minkler, Meredith; Garcia, Analilia P; Williams, Joy; LoPresti, Tony; Lilly, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC's strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities. PMID:20683782

  4. An Institutional Approach to Developing Research Data Management Infrastructure

    James A. J. Wilson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the work that the University of Oxford is undertaking to implement a coordinated data management infrastructure. The rationale for the approach being taken by Oxford is presented, with particular attention paid to the role of each service division. This is followed by a consideration of the relative advantages and disadvantages of institutional data repositories, as opposed to national or international data centres. The article then focuses on two ongoing JISC-funded projects, ‘Embedding Institutional Data Curation Services in Research’ (Eidcsr and ‘Supporting Data Management Infrastructure for the Humanities’ (Sudamih. Both projects are intra-institutional collaborations and involve working with researchers to develop particular aspects of infrastructure, including: University policy, systems for the preservation and documentation of research data, training and support, software tools for the visualisation of large images, and creating and sharing databases via the Web (Database as a Service.

  5. Investigating the Research Approaches for Examining Technology Adoption Issues

    Jyoti Choudrie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of technology, a research topic within the Information Systems area, is usually studied at two levels: organizational level and user level. This paper examines the range of methods used for studying technology adoption issues at both these levels. The approaches were selected after conducting a review of 48 articles on technology adoption and usage, published in peer reviewed journals between 1985 and 2003. The journals reviewed include the MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, European Journal of Information Systems, Information Systems Journal, and other relevant journals in the IS area. The findings suggest that the survey method was used predominantly when investigating the topics of user adoption and the usage of technology. In contrast, the case study method is the most widely used when examining adoption issues at the organizational level.

  6. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from the ...... change processes, and it is particularly the advantages and disadvantages of this - traditionally not very popular - research approach that is in focus in this paper....... widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case...... studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying these...

  7. Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications

    In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

  8. Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons

    Li, Yufei; Snedeker, Jess G. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)

  9. A new approach in cross-domain collaborative research

    Diviacco, Paolo; Fox, Peter; Busato, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Scientific research commonly faces the study of complex systems where multiple skills and competences are needed at the same time. Effective collaboration among researchers then becomes of paramount importance. Multidisciplinary studies imply the use of information and knowledge from domains that can be rather far from each other. Notwithstanding this, researchers, need to understand: what they handle, how to extract what they need and eventually produce something that can be used also by others. The management of information and knowledge in this perspective is not trivial. To develop methods and tools able to support such activities we need to analyze how collaborative research takes place. Besides the standard view that picture scientists committed to their endeavour to achieve solid and undebatable results, modern epistemology and sociology of science added a more fluid perspective where science can be considered mostly a social construct conditioned also by cognitive issues. These aspects cannot be obliterated; on the contrary they need to be carefully taken into consideration. Information is to be built from different perspectives and ways of thinking by actors with different point of views, approaches and aims, and in this, data should be understandable by all the designated community. In fact different communities develop their own ways of thinking, language and even myths, in other words they can be considered such as different cultures. To address these issues we invoke two strategies: (I) to formalize all the knowledge relevant for the study. This will means resolving all conflicting models among actors; something that is theoretically and has been demonstrated practically, very difficult to achieve. (II) Exploit the results of ethnographic studies conducted in the 1990's that explained how the introduction of representative artifacts allow different cultures to understand and use the same concepts in a different way. Both approaches have limitations and

  10. The personnel economics approach to public workforce research.

    Gibbs, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This article argues that the relatively new field of personnel economics (PE) holds strong potential as a tool for studying public sector workforces. This subfield of labor economics is based on a strong foundation of microeconomics, which provides a robust theoretical foundation for studying workforce and organizational design issues. PE has evolved on this foundation to a strong practical emphasis, with theoretical insights designed for practical use and with strong focus on empirical research. The field is also characterized by creative data entrepreneurship. The types of datasets that personnel economists use are described. If similar datasets can be obtained for public sector workforces, PE should be a very useful approach for studying them. PMID:19829236

  11. Dream research in schizophrenia: methodological issues and a dimensional approach.

    Schredl, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Dreaming in patients with schizophrenia was and is of particular interest to researchers and clinicians due to the phenomenological similarities between the dreaming state and schizophrenic daytime symptomatology such as bizarre thoughts or hallucinations. Extensive literature reviews have shown that dream studies in the field of psychopathology often do not fulfill common scientific criteria. The present paper focuses on the methodological issues like sampling methods, the dream collection method, and dream content analysis that are crucial with regard to the validity of the findings. It is also suggested that the so-called dimensional approach (linking severity of daytime symptoms directly to specific dream characteristics) will be very helpful for identifying which psychopathological symptoms of schizophrenia are most closely linked to dream content. PMID:20537924

  12. Approaches in Synesthesia Research: Neurocognitive Aspects and Diagnostic Criteria

    Nina Mikus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly rare phenomenon in which the subject in contact with certain stimulus in one modality experiences unusual extra sensations in other modalities, such as seeing or feeling colours while listening to music or personifying of letters and numbers. The phenomenon was long perceived to be merely a product of imagination and associations. Latest research, however, is based on a multidisciplinary approach, which includes first-hand synesthetic reports, neuroimaging and behavioural tests used in confirming and explaining the phenomenon’s presence as well as its neurophysiological foundations. This article presents an overview of such investigations through the lens of cognitive and psychophysical paradigms, neural models and genetic studies of synesthesia.

  13. Neuroelectrophysiological approaches in heroin addiction research: A review of literatures.

    Motlagh, Farid; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Menke, J Michael; Rashid, Rusdi; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Neuroelectrophysiological properties have been used in human heroin addiction studies. These studies vary in their approach, experimental conditions, paradigms, and outcomes. However, it is essential to integrate previous findings and experimental methods for a better demonstration of current issues and challenges in designing such studies. This Review examines methodologies and experimental conditions of neuroelectrophysiological research among heroin addicts during withdrawal, abstinence, and methadone maintenance treatment and presents the findings. The results show decrements in attentional processing and dysfunctions in brain response inhibition as well as brain activity abnormalities induced by chronic heroin abuse. Chronic heroin addiction causes increased β and α2 power activity, latency of P300 and P600, and diminished P300 and P600 amplitude. Findings confirm that electroencephalography (EEG) band power and coherence are associated with craving indices and heroin abuse history. First symptoms of withdrawal can be seen in high-frequency EEG bands, and the severity of these symptoms is associated with brain functional connectivity. EEG spectral changes and event-related potential (ERP) properties have been shown to be associated with abstinence length and tend to normalize within 3-6 months of abstinence. From the conflicting criteria and confounding effects in neuroelectrophysiological studies, the authors suggest a comprehensive longitudinal study with a multimethod approach for monitoring EEG and ERP attributes of heroin addicts from early stages of withdrawal until long-term abstinence to control the confounding effects, such as nicotine abuse and other comorbid and premorbid conditions. PMID:26748947

  14. A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research...

  15. Cultivating Research Skills: An interdisciplinary approach in training and supporting energy research

    Winkler, H.; Carbajales-Dale, P.; Alschbach, E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience and energy research has essentially separate and diverse tracks and traditions, making the education process labor-intensive and burdensome. Using a combined forces approach to training, a multidisciplinary workshop on information and data sources and research skills was developed and offered through several departments at Stanford University. The popular workshops taught required skills to scientists - giving training on new technologies, access to restricted energy-related scientific and government databases, search strategies for data-driven resources, and visualization and geospatial analytics. Feedback and data suggest these workshops were fundamental as they set the foundation for subsequent learning opportunities for students and faculty. This session looks at the integration of the information workshops within multiple energy and geoscience programs and the importance of formally cultivating research and information skills.

  16. Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  17. 76 FR 52954 - Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse...

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting... ``Advancing Research on Mixtures: New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects... Research and Training, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, MD K3-04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (telephone)...

  18. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  19. Arts-Based Research: Trojan Horses and Shibboleths. The Liabilities of a Hybrid Research Approach. "What Hath Eisner Wrought?"

    Pariser, David

    2009-01-01

    The term "arts-based research" has been debated for some time now. In an article strongly in favor of this approach Bean (2007) identifies three species: "Research on the arts (italics in the original) (art history, visual and cultural studies, media studies etc.)...Research for the arts, refers to research into applied techniques, materials and…

  20. Safety Approach of BORAX Type Accidents in French Research Reactors

    Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility

  1. Ethics in Violence and Abuse Research - a Positive Empowerment Approach

    Julia Downes; Liz Kelly; Nicole Westmarland

    2014-01-01

    Research governance, including research ethics committees and data protection legislation, is invested in protecting the individual rights of participants in social care and health research. Increasingly funders expect evidence of outcomes that engage with 'service users', making research critical in supporting social interventions to compete for scant resources in an economic climate marked by 'austerity' (Sullivan 2011). This article focuses on the tensions that can arise from the research ...

  2. New approaches to the economic evaluation of fusion research

    The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research

  3. Pluralism in qualitative research: the impact of different researchers and qualitative approaches on the analysis of qualitative data.

    Frost, Nollaig; Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa; Brooks-Gordon, Belinda; Esin, Cigdem; Holt, Amanda; Mehdizadeh, Leila; Shinebourne, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative approaches to research in psychology and the social sciences are increasingly used. The variety of approaches incorporates different epistemologies, theoretical traditions and practices with associated analysis techniques spanning a range of theoretical and empirical frameworks. Despite the increase in mixed method approaches it is unusual for qualitative methods to be used in combination with each other. The Pluralism in Qualitative Research project (PQR) was developed in order ...

  4. Genetics in psychosomatic medicine : research designs and statistical approaches

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Snieder, Harold; Dong, Yanbin; de Geus, Eco

    2007-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that genetic factors influence many of the behaviors and disease endpoints of interest to psychosomatic medicine researchers. There has been increasing interest in incorporating genetic variation markers into psychosomatic research. In this Statistical Corner article

  5. Implications of a Contextualist Approach to Media-Effects Research.

    Perry, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses implications of the contextualism of William McGuire for media-effects research and for the answers media-effects researchers give to questions of social concern. Argues that mass communication research long has contained latent contextualist orientations. (MS)

  6. A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century

    Sukhendu Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...

  7. Collaborative Action Research Approaches Promoting Professional Development for Elementary School Teachers

    Jaipal, Kamini; Figg, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Action research in classrooms can be challenging for novice teacher researchers. This paper reports on a study involving eight action research teacher teams. Analysis of the teams as they conducted action research resulted in the identification of three collaborative action research approaches promoting professional development. The findings…

  8. 76 FR 45268 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to Addressing Drug Shortage; Public Workshop

    2011-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Approach to... approach of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) to addressing drug shortages. This public... Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire...

  9. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  10. Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics:: Lessons Learned along the Research-to-Practice-to-Community Continuum

    Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for ...

  11. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh; Matzen, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a...... first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the...... literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and...

  12. Action Research – A New Approach for Environmental RD

    Danubianu Mirela; Teodorescu Cristian

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency research, development and innovation (RD&I) constitute an answer to the ever growing importance that EU states give to knowledge-based development (a central idea in the Europe 2020 Strategy), directed toward finding comprehensive solutions to concerns connected to the Europe’s resource depletion, energy future, climate changes, etc. The "Action Research" paradigm appeared in the late 1940s but its systematic application is the attribute of recent years. It keeps researchers i...

  13. Segmentation in Tourism: A Holistic Approach for Future Research

    Helena Nemec Rudež (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of segmentation research issues in the field of tourism. Several gaps in tourism segmentation research are highlighted. Research in this area is usually limited to identification of market segments. Hence, it does not address questions about compatibility, financial issues, possible resources or the implementation of segments into marketing practice. To date, there is a lack of comparative analysis of segments in tourism, in terms of both different time periods...

  14. An Enhanced Action Research Approach for Managing Risks in Software Process Improvement

    Faiza Ayub Syed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing risks in Software Process Improvement (SPI is a key point of software success. A software risk is considered as an essential characteristic of software development process which if ignored will increase the chance of project failure. For this purpose different risk management approaches are developed. These approaches lead to the identification, assessment and control of risk occurrence in software projects. Collaborative Practice Research (CPR is one of the action research approaches for managing risk in SPI. In this approach the focus is on gathering information regarding SPI and acknowledging risk management in process development by developing risk assessment strategies and models. The main challenge of this action research approach is to validate the developed risk approach. This paper has a critical review on the existing research approach i.e. CPR. It also provides an enhanced form of CPR which modifies the current CPR approach by including a risk validation activity.

  15. RESEARCH ON NEGOTIATION-BASED PARTNER SELECTION APPROACH

    2002-01-01

    The key problem in the construction of virtual enterprises (VEs) is how to select appropriate partners. The negotiation-based approach is proposed to support partner selection in the construction of VEs . The negotiation model is discussed from three main aspects respectively, i.e., negotiation protocol, negotiation goal and negotiation decision-making model. And the generic mathematical description of the negotiation model is formally presented. Finally, a simple example is used to validate the approach's availability.

  16. A Semantic Approach to Cross-Disciplinary Research Collaboration

    Laurens De Vocht

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use all varying types of tools and services. We explain a flexible model that uses state-of-the-art semantic technologies to model both structured and unstructured research data. The research data is extracted from many online resources and Social Media. We implement learning objects as an abstraction of the semantically modeled research data. We propose an environment that improves the scientific research and learning process by allowing researchers to efficiently browse the information and concepts represented as learning objects.

  17. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  18. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  19. Mexican-American Folklore: An Approach to the Research Paper.

    Seale, Jan

    Having freshman English students at Pan American University in the Rio Grande valley of Texas focus on Mexican-American folklore themes for research papers has proved to be successful in motivating students and in activating their ethnic interests and cultural pride. Steps involved in preparing these research papers include choosing a topic which…

  20. The Ethics of Digital Writing Research: A Rhetorical Approach

    McKee, Heidi; Porter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The study of writers and writing in digital environments raises distinct and complex ethical issues for researchers. Rhetoric theory and casuistic ethics, working in tandem, provide a theoretical framework for addressing such issues. A casuistic heuristic grounded in rhetorical principles can help digital writing researchers critically…

  1. The Research Roadmap: A Primer to the Approach and Process

    Burian, Philip E.; Rogerson, Lynda; Maffei, Francis R., III.

    2010-01-01

    Performing research can be an overwhelming and challenging endeavor. It's easy to get confused just from collecting, reading and deciphering textbooks and journal articles. Getting organized and mapping out the entire process would be extremely helpful and more importantly provide a path for accomplishing the research project. This paper will…

  2. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  3. Using Hermeneutics as a Qualitative Research Approach in Professional Practice

    Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy

    2005-01-01

    This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…

  4. Statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research

    Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...

  5. Approach for a joint global registration agency for research data

    Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam; Gastl, Angela;

    2009-01-01

    , is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally...... research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic...... textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service...

  6. Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches

    Sami F Shaban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and

  7. Decision-making in multinational enterprises: concepts and research approaches.

    Ghertman M

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper on decision making processes in multinational enterprises - gives definition, type and classification of decision making in large enterprises; outlines the centralization decentralization theory and the iterative process; notes research needs. Bibliography.

  8. A system-level approach to automation research

    Harrison, F. W.; Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    Automation is the application of self-regulating mechanical and electronic devices to processes that can be accomplished with the human organs of perception, decision, and actuation. The successful application of automation to a system process should reduce man/system interaction and the perceived complexity of the system, or should increase affordability, productivity, quality control, and safety. The expense, time constraints, and risk factors associated with extravehicular activities have led the Automation Technology Branch (ATB), as part of the NASA Automation Research and Technology Program, to investigate the use of robots and teleoperators as automation aids in the context of space operations. The ATB program addresses three major areas: (1) basic research in autonomous operations, (2) human factors research on man-machine interfaces with remote systems, and (3) the integration and analysis of automated systems. This paper reviews the current ATB research in the area of robotics and teleoperators.

  9. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  10. A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches

    James Gibson

    2005-01-01

    We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three...

  11. The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats

    O.P. Afanasieva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article consists of determination the peculiarities of marketing researches of the regional product market and formation the system approach to marketing research for the regional market of meat and processed meats. The results of the analysis. The author considered theoretical approaches to determination of a sense of marketing research of market and proposed a definition of a concept «marketing research of a regional product market», taking into acc...

  12. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  13. A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century

    Sukhendu Dutta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is made on the available printed and online resources. The resources were mainly on the social science and medical education research methodologies. Medical education research steps must follow the various steps of social science research methodology. Due to various reasons case study methodology became popular approach in medical education. The case study comprises of interview survey, questionnaire survey, participant observation and documentary analysis. To overcome the inherent weakness of the non-experimental subjective research, triangulation methodology is being used in recent years. Case study approach is the best way to explore the research issues of the medical education. The triangulation methodology must be applied to overcome the inherent subjectivity of the research approach. This paper may be used as a guide to design the various steps of case study research approach in medical education.

  14. Towards a joint approach for access to environmental research infrastructures

    Mann, Ingrid; Tjulin, Anders; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Gagliardi, Simone; Philippin, Sabine; Sellegri, Karine; Chabbi, Abad

    2016-04-01

    Geoscience is a multi-disciplinary field and in many cases its research benefits from considering different kinds of observational results. Geoscience observations are in some cases of direct interest also to the public. For these reasons effective knowledge transfer and access also across disciplines are especially important for research infrastructures (RIs) in the environmental domain. More generally, the ultimate success of a RI is measured by its scientific outcome and this is best achieved based on efficient access for a broad scientific community. In this presentation the authors report activities to develop governance tools so that the access to environmental RIs and to the data that they provide is common, fair and based on scientific rationale, regarding at the same time economically and technically reasonable use of limited resources. Implementing such governance tools will indeed foster and widen the access to RIs across environmental science domains while addressing societal challenges. The strategies also need to be flexible and sustainable over the expected lifetimes of the RIs. The reported activities involve researchers from different projects and environmental subdomains that come together in the project ENVRI_plus. ENVRI_plus is a Cluster project of RIs that brings together the current ESFRI roadmap RIs in the environmental domain and other relevant existing and developing RIs and projects. ENVRI_plus also offers opportunities for free-of-charge transnational access to four multi-disciplinary research platforms. These calls for access target research groups and companies wishing to conduct research or to test instruments for cross-disciplinary topics within the environmental domains atmosphere, biosphere, marine, and solid earth. They are initiated specifically to gain experience with access across different disciplines (further information is given at www.envriplus.eu). ENVRI_plus receives funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research

  15. A GENERAL APPROACH TO THE TOURISM RESEARCH IN SINALOA

    Luis Miguel Flores-Campaña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of tourism research is described, analyzing trends in the short term and the role they have played some government agencies to support tourism and training of human resources in Sinaloa. He was elected to Mazatlan, main tourist destination in the state, to establish the development of tourism research in Sinaloa, using cognitive arguments to analyze its scientific nature also epistemological and scientific level compared from the academic production two units of higher education in the centennial Autonomous University of Sinaloa. 40 educational training and human resource development for the tourism sector in seven municipalities of the state territory, both in public institutions (20 and private (20, four of them in training, a similar number in the high school level were identified , two higher technical college, 27 undergraduate and graduate in only three. This type of provision begins in the early 1970s and today, 12 schools have closed or changed programs, while 28 are active. Limited articulation between management and tourism policy, whose pillars are academic institutions aimed at tourism research in sight. The creation of a government agency dedicated to tourism research to determine, monitor and implement plans to adverse situations emerging in tourist destinations in Sinaloa, under consistent, rigorous and systematic processes, as required by all scientific research is recommended.

  16. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  17. Comparative research on spatial quality in Europe: motivation and approach

    Nijkamp, P.; Bergh, J. van den; Verhoef, E. [Free Univ., Dept. of Spatial Economics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the structure of the ESF-founded TERM research project 'Environment Quality in European Space', and serves as the introduction to the special issue presenting the results of this project. The aim of the project was to organise existing European research teams in the area of spatial sustainability, focusing on two themes: 'transport and environment', and 'energy efficiency and spatial sustainability'. A number of criteria are identified for the comparison and evaluation of research in these areas for 12 European countries: UK, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Russia, Israel and Austria. These criteria involve 'intrinsic characteristics' (problem definition, policy options, theoretical assumptions, method and data) and 'meta characteristics' (scientific innovation and contribution to real policy-making). (Author)

  18. Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach

    O'Shea, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

  19. Genomic and proteomic approaches in pig meat quality research field

    Bigi, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Pig meat and carcass quality is a complex concept determined by environmental and genetic factors concurring to the phenotypic variation in qualitative characteristics of meat (fat content, tenderness, juiciness, flavor,etc). This thesis shows the results of different investigations to study and to analyze pig meat and carcass quality focusing mainly on genomic; moreover proteomic approach has been also used. The aim was to analyze data from association studies between genes considered as ...

  20. Approaching Quality in Survey Research: Towards a Comprehensive Perspective

    Krejčí, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    The article has two goals: (1) bring attention to the problem of inappropriate treatment of survey data quality issues in the social sciences, and (2) introduce the basic principles of contemporary approaches to survey quality. If quality evaluation focuses solely on sampling error, most aspects of data quality are ignored and surveys are assumed to have ‘ideal’ statistical characteristics that are rarely attainable in the pragmatic world of survey fieldwork. A complex overview of the entire ...

  1. Analysis of scientific approaches to research of convergence theories

    Газуда, Леся Михайлівна

    2015-01-01

    The scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of convergence theories are analyzed and summarized in the article. Feasibility of updating process of territorial convergence of economic systems with differential features of development is outlined. It is proved a necessity of developing a promising concept for the development of rural border areas, which will promote sustainable development based on the consideration of socio-economic, natural and environmental characteristics of the ...

  2. The history of road safety research : a quantitative approach.

    Hagenzieker, M.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Bijleveld, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a global description in quantitative terms, of the developments in road safety research from the early 1900’s until 2010. To this end, electronic databases have been searched and papers matching search criteria were selected for analysis. Word and co-word frequencies of key-words in all the titles and abstracts of these publications were collected and analysed. In this study, we explored the possibility to identify historical trends in road safety research topics. Fur...

  3. The oculometer - A new approach to flight management research.

    Spady, A. A., Jr.; Waller, M. C.

    1973-01-01

    For the first time researchers have an operational, nonintrusive instrument for determining a pilot's eye-point-of-regard without encumbering the pilot or introducing other artifacts into the simulation of flight experience. The instrument (the oculometer developed for NASA by Honeywell, Inc.) produces data in a form appropriate for online monitoring and rapid analysis using state-of-the-art display and computer technology. The type and accuracy of data obtained and the potential use of the oculometer as a research and training tool will be discussed.

  4. Research libraries – new approaches for library-based publishing

    Ayris, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the UCL model (University College London) for 21st-century university publishing. This is centred in the University Library, not just as the curator and indexer of Knowledge, but as the producer of Knowledge. The paper sets the establishment of UCL Press in the context of Open Access developments in the UK and examines the traditional role of the Library in the research process. It posits a role for the University Library as publisher in at least three areas: research mon...

  5. Language Teaching Research: Promoting a More Interdisciplinary Approach

    Stapleton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although research in the field of language teaching and learning has appeared to enhance classroom pedagogy, I argue here that these advances have had a relatively small impact on actual foreign language learning. Unlike in most school subjects, the recipients of language pedagogy, i.e. the students, arrive in the classroom with several…

  6. A Collaborative Action Research Approach to Professional Learning

    Bleicher, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…

  7. An integrated approach to rotorcraft human factors research

    Hart, Sandra G.; Hartzell, E. James; Voorhees, James W.; Bucher, Nancy M.; Shively, R. Jay

    1988-01-01

    As the potential of civil and military helicopters has increased, more complex and demanding missions in increasingly hostile environments have been required. Users, designers, and manufacturers have an urgent need for information about human behavior and function to create systems that take advantage of human capabilities, without overloading them. Because there is a large gap between what is known about human behavior and the information needed to predict pilot workload and performance in the complex missions projected for pilots of advanced helicopters, Army and NASA scientists are actively engaged in Human Factors Research at Ames. The research ranges from laboratory experiments to computational modeling, simulation evaluation, and inflight testing. Information obtained in highly controlled but simpler environments generates predictions which can be tested in more realistic situations. These results are used, in turn, to refine theoretical models, provide the focus for subsequent research, and ensure operational relevance, while maintaining predictive advantages. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of research are described along with examples of experimental results.

  8. Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach

    Carmen Piqué-Noguera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

  9. The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach

    Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…

  10. Video "talks back" in a relational research approach

    Mumford, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The author argues for the use of unedited, fixed-camera-position video footage in relationally responsive research grounded in Bakhtinian dialogic theory. The paper offers an empirical example of such a use, and shows how this contrasts with an ethnomethodological interactionist use of similar types of video footage.

  11. Progress, failures and new approaches for TBI research

    Menon, David K; Maas, Andrew I R

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The past year saw the 40th anniversary of the Glasgow Coma Scale, which continues to be effective for monitoring patients with traumatic brain injury. Three new clinical trials were completed, but none revealed beneficial interventions. These failures have prompted exploration of more-subtle therapy targets, novel disease classifications and collaborative research paradigms.

  12. The Implications of Feyerabend's Epistemological Approach for Educational Research Methods

    Ghadikolaei, Elham Shirvani; Sajjadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Epistemology is defined as theory of knowledge and the ways of achieving it. Epistemology is research questions of the possibility of knowledge and the riddle of knowledge. Epistemology and methodology despite being interconnected are inseparable and are not reducible from each other. In addition, their relationship is direct, meaning that…

  13. In Search of Holy Transcripts: Approaches to Researching Religious Schools

    Hastie, David

    2012-01-01

    I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…

  14. Adaptive E-Learning Environments: Research Dimensions and Technological Approaches

    Di Bitonto, Pierpaolo; Roselli, Teresa; Rossano, Veronica; Sinatra, Maria

    2013-01-01

    One of the most closely investigated topics in e-learning research has always been the effectiveness of adaptive learning environments. The technological evolutions that have dramatically changed the educational world in the last six decades have allowed ever more advanced and smarter solutions to be proposed. The focus of this paper is to depict…

  15. ICT for Inquiry in Mathematics: A Developmental Research Approach

    Fuglestad, Anne Berit

    2009-01-01

    Computers and calculators are in general widely used in Norwegian schools, but with limited use in specific school subjects, as particularly in mathematics teaching. Various reports from surveys and research projects indicate that teachers' competence with ICT is a crucial point, and that teachers' lack of knowledge of how to utilise software for…

  16. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    Low, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  17. Personal Reflections on Observational and Experimental Research Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology

    Rapoport, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen dramatic changes in childhood psychopathology research. The goal of this overview is to contrast observational and experimental research approaches; both have grown more complex such that the boundary between these approaches may be blurred. Both are essential. Landmark observational studies with long-term follow-up…

  18. Learning discourse discursive approaches to research in mathematics education

    Kieran, C

    2007-01-01

    Guest Editorial. Acknowledgements. There is more to discourse than meets the ears: Looking at thinking as communicating to learn more about mathematical learning; A. Sfard. Educational forms of initiation in mathematical culture; B. van Oers. Cultural, discursive psychology: A socio-cultural approach to studying the teaching and learning of mathematics; S. Lerman. The multiple voices of a mathematics classroom community; E. Forman, E. Ansell. 'Can any fraction be turned into a decimal?' A case study of a mathematical group discussion; M.C. O'Connor. The mathematical discourse of 13-ye

  19. Metabolomics, a promising approach to translational research in cardiology

    Martino Deidda

    2015-12-01

    In this article, we will provide a description of metabolomics in comparison with other, better known “omics” disciplines such as genomics and proteomics. In addition, we will review the current rationale for the implementation of metabolomics in cardiology, its basic methodology and the available data from human studies in this discipline. The topics covered will delineate the importance of being able to use the metabolomic information to understand the mechanisms of diseases from the perspective of systems biology, and as a non-invasive approach to the diagnosis, grading and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach

    Ju-Ling Shih

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants‟ community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka‟s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

  1. A new approach to helicopter rotor blade research instrumentation

    Knight, V. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A rotor-blade-mounted telemetry instrumentation system developed and used in flight tests by the NASA/Langley Research Center is described. The system uses high-speed digital techniques to acquire research data from miniature pressure transducers on advanced rotor airfoils which are flight tested using an AH-1G helicopter. The system employs microelectronic PCM multiplexer-digitizer stations located remotely on the blade and in a hub-mounted metal canister. The electronics contained in the canister digitizes up to 16 sensors, formats this data with serial PCM data from the remote stations, and transmits the data from the canister which is above the plane of the rotor. Data is transmitted over an RF link to the ground for real-time monitoring and to the helicopter fuselage for tape recording.

  2. Supercritical fluid technology: a promising approach in pharmaceutical research.

    Girotra, Priti; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Nagpal, Kalpana

    2013-02-01

    Supercritical fluids possess the unique properties of behaving like liquids and gases, above their critical point. Supercritical fluid technology has recently emerged as a green and novel technique for various processes such as solubility enhancement of poorly soluble drugs, plasticization of polymers, surface modification, nanosizing and nanocrystal modification, and chromatographic extraction. Research interest in this area has been fuelled because of the numerous advantages that the technology offers over the conventional methods. This work aims to review the merits, demerits, and various processes such as rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS), particles from gas saturated solutions (PGSS), gas antisolvent process (GAS), supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) and polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS), that have enabled this technology to considerably raise the interest of researchers over the past two decades. An insight has been given into the numerous applications of this technology in pharmaceutical industry and the future challenges which must be appropriately dealt with to make it effective on a commercial scale. PMID:23036159

  3. The Changing Cost of Performing Agricultural Research: An Index Approach

    Murphy, Joseph W.; Kaldor, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Inflation erodes the purchasing power of dollars in every budget in our society. Budgets of agricultural research organizations have been no exception. Inflation has been defined as an increase in the average of prices {I}. A popular indicator of the rate of inflation is the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (cpr) {2}, The CPI is intended to apply to consumer purchases, yet the concept implies that a similar indicator of the annual percentage change in prices of inputs purc...

  4. Environmental operations strategies: European approaches and research challenges

    Álvarez Gil, María José; Rivera Camino, Jaime

    1998-01-01

    Since the environment has very recently emerged as a strategic issue, work has only begun to investigate the conceptual linkages between strategic management and the environment. A thoroughly revision of both academic and professional literature evidences that such scarcity of research doubles, or even trebles, when the scenery of the European Operations Management Strategies is considered. The main objective of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the impact of the design of the environmenta...

  5. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205

  6. Electroencephalogram and Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical and Research Approaches

    Anthoula Tsolaki; Dimitrios Kazis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Vasiliki Kosmidou; Magda Tsolaki

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits, problems in activities of daily living, and behavioral disturbances. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been demonstrated as a reliable tool in dementia research and diagnosis. The application of EEG in AD has a wide range of interest. EEG contributes to the differential diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease progression. Additionally such recordings can add important information related to t...

  7. ICT for inquiry in mathematics: A developmental research approach

    Fuglestad, Anne Berit

    2009-01-01

    Computers and calculators are in general widely used in Norwegian schools, but with limited use in specific school subjects, as particularly in mathematics teaching. Various reports from surveys and research projects indicate that teachers’ competence with ICT is a crucial point, and that teachers’ lack of knowledge of how to utilise software for mathematics is a key challenge for further development. In the project ICT and mathematics learning (ICTML) at the University o...

  8. SOCIAL MARKETING : A NEW APPROACH IN MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Tiwari, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...

  9. Cross-species approaches to cognitive neuroplasticity research.

    Mishra, J; Gazzaley, A

    2016-05-01

    Neuroplasticity studies investigate the neural mechanisms that support learning-induced changes in cognition and behavior. These studies are performed in both experimental animals and humans across development from childhood to aging. Here, we review select recent studies that have sought to combine both animal and human neuroplasticity research within the same study. In investigating the same cognitive/behavioral functions in parallel in animals and humans, these studies take advantage of complementary neuroscience research methods that have been established for each species. In animals, these methods include investigations of genetic and molecular biomarker expression and micro-scale electrophysiology in single neurons in vivo or in brain slices. In humans, these studies assess macro-scale neural network dynamics using neuroimaging methods including EEG (electroencephalography) and functional and structural MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Thus, by combining these diverse and complementary methodologies cross-species studies have the unique ability to bridge molecular, systems and cognitive neuroscience research. Additionally, they serve a vital role in translational neuroscience, providing a direct bridge between animal models and human neuropsychiatric disorders. Comprehensive cross-species understanding of neural mechanisms at multiple scales of resolution and how these neural dynamics relate to behavioral outcomes, then serve to inform development and optimization of treatment strategies. PMID:26348561

  10. Modelling research: a collaborative approach to helping PhD students develop higher-level research skills

    Garcia-Perez, Alexeis; Ayres, Robert

    2012-06-01

    A high proportion of PhD candidates in science and engineering fail to complete their degrees. This paper reports the results of a series of workshops where experienced researchers and supervisors were brought together with PhD students to discuss and develop a model of the PhD process. The objective was to help students develop a more rounded and thoughtful approach to their work. The impact of the workshops was assessed by carrying out structured interviews and coding the results to determine the impact on participant perceptions. The analysis suggests that the approach is effective in helping participants to clarify their thinking about the research process in which they are engaged. A proportion of participants appear to have moved from a tactical to a more strategic approach to their research. The study involved students in a postgraduate university but has implications for training of all research students in applied disciplines.