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Sample records for research cbpr approach

  1. Curriculum Development to Increase Minority Research Literacy for HIV Prevention Research: A CBPR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Malika Roman; Brown, Andre L.; Eley, Natalie; Mathews, Allison; Batten, Kendra; Rogers, Randy; Powell, Noah; White, Caressa; Underwood, Rosalee; MacQueen, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minority engagement in HIV prevention research can improve the process and products of research. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop capacity-building tools can promote community awareness of HIV prevention, clinical research, and community roles in research. Objectives We sought to describe a CBPR approach to curriculum development to increase HIV prevention research literacy among Blacks ages 18 to 30. Methods Community members and researchers documented the iterative and participatory nature of curriculum development and lessons learned. Results/Lessons Learned We used specific strategies to support and verify multi-stakeholder engagement, team building, capacity building, and shared decision making. Objective or formal assessments of baseline capacity, ongoing stakeholder engagement, and reinforcing the value of multiple perspectives can promote further equity in curriculum development between researchers and community members. Conclusions The iterative process of shared discussion, development, and consensus building strengthened collaboration between stakeholder groups and produced a stronger, more culturally appropriate curriculum to promote HIV prevention research engagement among young Blacks. PMID:25727984

  2. Journal Clubs: An Educational Approach to Advance Understanding among Community Partners and Academic Researchers about CBPR and Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Simmons, Vani N.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article: (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants’ needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Methods Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/university and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants’ assessment of the topic relevance. Results Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members’ ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Conclusions Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities. PMID:24078328

  3. A Capacity Building Program to Promote CBPR Partnerships Between Academic Researchers and Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L.; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A.; Pergament, Shannon; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Community-based participatory research (CBPR) adds community perspectives to research and aids translational research aims. There is a need for increased capacity in CBPR but few models exist for how to support the development of community/university partnerships Objective Evaluate an approach to promote nascent CBPR partnerships. Methods Design was a mixed-methods evaluation utilizing interviews, process notes, and open and closed ended survey questions. We trained ten community scholars, matched them with prepared researchers to form seven partnerships, and supported their developing partnerships. Sequential mixed-methods analysis assessed research and partnership processes and identified integrated themes. Results Four of seven partnerships were funded within 15 months; all self-reported their partnerships as successful. Themes were: 1) Motivators contributed to partnership development and resiliency; 2) Partners took on responsibilities that utilized individuals' strengths; 3) Partners grappled with communication, decision-making, and power-dynamics; and 4) Community-university infrastructure was essential to partnership development. Conclusions This program for developing nascent partnerships between academicians and community members may guide others in increasing capacity for CBPR. PMID:22212224

  4. Facilitating Research Faculty Participation in CBPR: Development of a Model Based on Key Informant Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L.; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen; Pergament, Shannon; Call, Kathleen T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Community based participatory research (CBPR) may enhance the translational research process; however this would require increased institutional capacity for community engaged research. In this paper we first describe results of key informant interviews with academic health center faculty regarding facilitators to faculty participation in CBPR partnerships and then propose a model arising from these results for how increased capacity may be achieved. Methods Participants were 13 key informant faculty of varying levels of expertise in CBPR at a large university academic health center. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis of each interview was conducted by research team members. Results Facilitators reported by faculty representing five health science schools were grouped into five thematic areas: 1) researcher personal attributes including an innate orientation towards working with community, 2) positive attitudes towards collaboration, 3) a partnership-building skill set, 4) community partners who are ready and eager to collaborate, and 5) supportive institutional policies and procedures. Conclusions We propose a model describing the relationship between personal attributes, learned/environmental factors and community facilitators that may be utilized to promote increased institutional capacity for CBPR and thus increase the likelihood of the successful translation of research findings into community settings. PMID:21500397

  5. Facilitating research faculty participation in CBPR: development of a model based on key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Pergament, Shannon L; Call, Kathleen T

    2010-10-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may enhance the translational research process; however, this would require increased institutional capacity for community engaged research. In this paper, we fi rst present results of key informant interviews with academic health center faculty regarding facilitators to faculty participation in CBPR partnerships and then propose a model arising from these results describing how increased capacity may be achieved. Participants were 13 key informant faculty of varying levels of expertise in CBPR at a large university academic health center. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis of each interview was conducted by research team members. Facilitators reported by faculty representing fi ve health science schools were grouped into fi ve thematic areas: (1) researcher personal attributes including an innate orientation toward working with community, (2) positive attitudes toward collaboration, (3) a partnership-building skill set, (4) community partners who are ready and eager to collaborate, and (5) supportive institutional policies and procedures. We propose a model describing the relationship between personal attributes, learned/environmental factors, and community facilitators that may be utilized to promote increased institutional capacity for CBPR and thus increase the likelihood of the successful translation of research findings into community settings. PMID:21500397

  6. Navigating the Tide Together: Early Collaboration between Tribal and Academic Partners in a CBPR Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lonczak, Heather S. V.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis; Austin, Lisette; Sigo, Robin L. W.; Lawrence, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches stress the importance of building strong, cohesive collaborations between academic researchers and partnering communities; yet there is minimal research examining the actual quality of CBPR partnerships. The objective of the present paper is to describe and explore the quality of collaborative relationships across the first two years of the Healing of the Canoe project teams, comprised of researchers from the University of Washington an...

  7. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyednezami Nasrin; Nabipour Iraj; Pazoki Raha; Imami Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) ...

  8. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  9. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health. PMID:22080712

  10. Forging a new legacy of trust in research with Alaska Native college students using CBPR

    OpenAIRE

    Alaina Ctibor; Deborah Mekiana; Sharma, Dinghy Kristine B.; Lopez, Ellen D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Disparities in the rates of matriculation and graduation are of concern to Alaska Native (AN) students and the universities committed to their academic success. Efforts to reduce attrition require a keen understanding of the factors that impact quality of life (QOL) at college. Yet, a long-standing legacy of mistrust towards research poses challenges to conducting inquiry among AN students. We introduced a partnership between the University of Alaska Fairbank's Rural Studen...

  11. Navigating the Tide Together: Early Collaboration between Tribal and Academic Partners in a CBPR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonczak, Heather S V; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Donovan, Dennis; Austin, Lisette; Sigo, Robin L W; Lawrence, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches stress the importance of building strong, cohesive collaborations between academic researchers and partnering communities; yet there is minimal research examining the actual quality of CBPR partnerships. The objective of the present paper is to describe and explore the quality of collaborative relationships across the first two years of the Healing of the Canoe project teams, comprised of researchers from the University of Washington and community partners from the Suquamish Tribe. Three quantitative/qualitative process measures were used to assess perceptions regarding collaborative processes and aspects of meeting effectiveness. Staff meetings were primarily viewed as cohesive, with clear agendas and shared communication. Collaborative processes were perceived as generally positive, with Tribal empowerment rated as especially important. Additionally, effective leadership and flexibility were highly rated while a need for a stronger community voice in decision-making was noted. Steady improvements were found in terms of trust between research teams, and both research teams reported a need for more intra-team project- and social-focused interaction. Overall, this data reveals a solid CBPR collaboration that is making effective strides in fostering a climate of respect, trust, and open communication between research partners. PMID:25356083

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; JOHNSON, MARK E.; BREMS, CHRISTIANE; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...

  13. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  14. Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silka, Linda

    2010-12-01

    In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

  15. “It’s Like Tuskegee in Reverse”: A Case Study of Ethical Tensions in Institutional Review Board Review of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E.; Yerger, Valerie B.; McGruder, Carol; Froelicher, Erika

    2006-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) addresses the social justice dimensions of health disparities by engaging marginalized communities, building capacity for action, and encouraging more egalitarian relationships between researchers and communities. CBPR may challenge institutionalized academic practices and the understandings that inform institutional review board deliberations and, indirectly, prioritize particular kinds of research. We present our attempt to study, as part of a CBPR partnership, cigarette sales practices in an inner-city community. We use critical and communitarian perspectives to examine the implications of the refusal of the university institutional review board (in this case, the University of California, San Francisco) to approve the study. CBPR requires expanding ethical discourse beyond the procedural, principle-based approaches common in biomedical research settings. The current ethics culture of academia may sometimes serve to protect institutional power at the expense of community empowerment. PMID:17018816

  16. The Indigenous Resiliency Project: a worked example of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Maher, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often cited as a suitable methodological approach for academic researchers wanting to work collaboratively with Indigenous communities. This paper describes the Indigenous Resiliency Project currently being conducted in Redfern, Townsville and Perth. This case study is used to demonstrate how a group of university-based researchers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services have used CBPR to work with young Indigenous Australians to explore young people's perspectives on resilience in relation to bloodborne viruses and sexually transmissible infections. This paper also describes some initial benefits gained through the process of developing the Indigenous Resiliency CBPR Project, such as: developing research capacity; establishing relationships between community organisations and research institutions; and prioritising ethical and social considerations in the conduct of research. A commentary on the experience of one health worker involved in the project accompanies the paper. PMID:19735622

  17. Harnessing the Power of Community-Based Participatory Research: Examining Knowledge, Action, and Consciousness in the PROUD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daina; Marshall, Zack; Lazarus, Lisa; LeBlanc, Sean; Heighton, Tarah; Preater, Beverley; Tyndall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research that recognizes the specific knowledge and abilities that individuals from diverse backgrounds bring to the generation of new knowledge for the purpose of social action aimed at improving public health and health equity. In this article, the authors apply Gaventa and Cornwall's dimensions of participatory research to the analysis of 12 semistructured interviews with members of our Community Advisory Committee for the Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs (PROUD) study. This process-to-outcomes framework may help projects more systematically explore their experiences in relation to common CBPR principles and lead to greater conceptual clarity. PMID:25774651

  18. Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

  19. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990, which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. These world views are merged to form three approaches namely-quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Quantitative approach includes positivism and post positivism world view, qualitative approach includes constructivism and transformative world view and mixed method approach corresponds to pragmatism. Beside these approaches two more approaches has been discussed namely-Logical, theoretical research used in the field of mathematics and computer science and Participatory action research used in the field of management, sociology and anthropology. Paper finally ends with criterion for choosing a research approach. In concluding remarks author stresses that all the approaches are complementary to each other rather than opposing each other. No concept or phenomena can be studied by single approach, a combination of these is necessary to uncover the truth.

  20. American Indian cultures: how CBPR illuminated intertribal cultural elements fundamental to an adaptation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper-Reeves, Leslie; Dustman, Patricia Allen; Harthun, Mary L; Kulis, Stephen; Brown, Eddie F

    2014-08-01

    The ever-increasing numbers of ethnic minority populations in the USA seeking social services suggest that a "multicultural paradigm shift" is underway and gaining speed. This shift will increasingly demand that prevention programs and interventions be more culturally responsive. Interventions that are not aligned with prospective participants' world views and experiences are only minimally effective. Existing models for conducting culturally grounded program adaptations emphasize identifying distinct levels of cultural influences while preserving core elements of the original intervention. An effective adaptation requires competent language translation as well as trained translations of program concepts and principles that will be meaningful to the targeted group, without compromising program fidelity. This article describes how a university research team and curriculum developers worked with American Indian youth and adults in a large southwestern city using a CBPR process to identify cultural elements that became foundational to the adaptation of a prevention curriculum that is a national model program, with the objective of increasing its applicability for urban native youth. PMID:23412946

  1. Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C

    2010-06-01

    Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S. PMID:19011964

  2. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity mea...

  3. Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2010-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 par...

  4. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Senier Laura; Altman Rebecca; Brody J G; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Brown Phil; Pérez Carla; Simpson Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR) environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts...

  5. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  6. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Piedad; Hough Richard L; Lebowitz Barry; Lindamer Laurie A; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, a...

  7. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim ...

  8. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making. PMID:25588933

  9. Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

  10. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cabassa Leopoldo J; Druss Benjamin; Wang Yuanjia; Lewis-Fernández Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI) and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The proposed study uses ...

  11. Research and development approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides the guidelines to research officer who are interested to conduct research and development for nuclear application. Many aspects have to be considered such as safety, quality assurance, and knowledge on nuclear

  12. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  13. Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

  14. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  15. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Piedad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

  16. Using a Participatory Research Process to Address Disproportionate Hispanic Cancer Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Pamela C.; Canedo, Juan R.; Reece, Michelle C.; Lira, Irma; Reyes, Francisco; Garcia, Erandi; Juarez, Paul; Williams, Elizabeth; Husaini, Baqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashvill...

  17. Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing; YU, HONG

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict researc...

  18. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...

  19. Practical Strategies for Promoting Full Inclusion of Individuals with Disabilities in Community-Based Participatory Intervention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, produc...

  20. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  1. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR) environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities. PMID:20637068

  2. Scientific Approach to Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar, V.

    2013-01-01

    Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

  3. Project GRACE: A Staged Approach to Development of a Community-Academic Partnership to address HIV in Rural African American communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Adimora, Adaora A; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin; Blumenthal, Connie; Ellison, Arlinda; Akers, Aletha; Council, Barbara; Thigpen, Yolanda; Wynn, Mysha; Lloyd, Stacey W.

    2010-01-01

    The HIV epidemic is a health crisis in rural African American communities in the Southeast US, however to date little attention has been paid to community-academic collaborations to address HIV in these communities. Interventions that use a community-based participatory (CBPR) approach to address individual, social and physical environmental factors have great potential for improving community health. Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) uses a CBPR approac...

  4. The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research Into Action

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A.; Reyes, Angela G.; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L.; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community–academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR ...

  5. An action research approach to curriculum development

    OpenAIRE

    Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy

    1995-01-01

    Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement ...

  6. Guiding Research: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrico, Regina Dunlavey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her library experiences in high school. She considers those trips to the central library in downtown Buffalo as the hallmark of her eleventh-grade education. Now, she observes how the old way of doing research in the library was so different from what is practiced nowadays. Students nowadays who are considered…

  7. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  8. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-01-01

    The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...

  9. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  10. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  11. Building capacity for community-based participatory research for health disparities in Canada: the case of "Partnerships in Community Health Research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Creighton, Genevieve; Nixon, Sean; Frankish, James

    2011-03-01

    Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite the increasing demand for CBPR-qualified individuals, few programs exist that are capable of facilitating in-depth and experiential training for both students and those working in communities. This article reviews the Partnerships in Community Health Research (PCHR), a training program at the University of British Columbia that between 2001 and 2009 has equipped graduate student and community-based learners with knowledge, skills, and experience to engage together more effectively using CBPR. With case studies of PCHR learner projects, this article illustrates some of the important successes and lessons learned in preparing CBPR-qualified researchers and community-based professionals in Canada. PMID:21057046

  12. Contemporary Approaches to Research in TESOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar M Anwaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL is one of the largest educational enterprises in the world. Tens of thousands of teachers—both native and non-native speakers of English—are engaged in TESOL across the world. This large population of teachers depends heavily on academic researchers for developing their knowledge base. Although it is evident that teachers who engage in classroom research are more aware of their practices and better able to facilitate student learning, teacher-research is a minority activity in the field of TESOL. In this article, I briefly discuss TESOL practitioners’ conceptions of research. Then, I focus on a dichotomous relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research, and review some contemporary orientations to TESOL research. I conclude the article with a recommendation that TESOL practitioners engage in action research for their professional development as well as their students’ increased learning of the target language.

  13. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  14. WAYS OF APPROACHING RELIGIOSITY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru?a-Paraschiva RUSU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses different approaches of religiosity in the psychological researches. We intend to explain the concept of religiosity, the distinction in the psychology field between religiosity and spirituality, religiosity dimensions and the main issues to be taken into account in measuring religiosity. In the analysis of the religiosity dimensions we refer to the hierarchical model of religiosity organization (Tsang and McCullough, 2003, which argues that religiosity is manifested at two levels: the dispositional level, reflecting the interindividual differences on religious features and the operational level, which refers to the interindividual diversity in the expression of religiosity. Regarding the measurement of religiosity, we analyze the conceptual clarity of the measured dimensions, the psychometric aspects of the religiosity measurement instruments, the sample representativeness and the cultural sensitivity of the instruments measuring religiosity. Throughout the article we present the results of some researches on the implications of the religiosity dimensions on the personal and family mental health

  15. Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

  16. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir NR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, treatment

  17. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  18. Establishing the psychometric properties of constructs in a community-based participatory research conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John G; Zhou, Chuan; Duran, Bonnie; Pearson, Cynthia; Magarati, Maya; Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Villegas, Malia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose . The purpose of this study is to establish the psychometric properties of 22 measures from a community-based participatory research (CBPR) conceptual model. Design . The design of this study was an online, cross-sectional survey of academic and community partners involved in a CPBR project. Setting . CPBR projects (294) in the United States with federal funding in 2009. Subjects . Of the 404 academic and community partners invited, 312 (77.2%) participated. Of the 200 principal investigators/project directors invited, 138 (69.0%) participated. Measures . Twenty-two measures of CBPR context, group dynamics, methods, and health-related outcomes were examined. Analysis . Confirmatory factor analysis to establish factorial validity and Pearson correlations to establish convergent and divergent validity were used. Results . Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated strong factorial validity for the 22 constructs. Pearson correlations (p science of CBPR. PMID:24720389

  19. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI) and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30) to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population. PMID:21791070

  20. Collaborative planning approach to inform the implementation of a healthcare manager intervention for hispanics with serious mental illness: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabassa Leopoldo J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes a collaborative planning approach that blends principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR and intervention mapping to modify a healthcare manager intervention to a new patient population and provider group and to assess the feasibility and acceptability of this modified intervention to improve the physical health of Hispanics with serious mental illness (SMI and at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods The proposed study uses a multiphase approach that applies CBPR principles and intervention-mapping steps--an intervention-planning approach--to move from intervention planning to pilot testing. In phase I, a community advisory board composed of researchers and stakeholders will be assembled to learn and review the intervention and make initial modifications. Phase II uses a combination of qualitative methods--patient focus groups and stakeholder interviews--to ensure that the modifications are acceptable to all stakeholders. Phase III uses results from phase II to further modify the intervention, develop an implementation plan, and train two care managers on the modified intervention. Phase IV consists of a 12-month open pilot study (N = 30 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the modified intervention and explore its initial effects. Lastly, phase V consists of analysis of pilot study data and preparation for future funding to develop a more rigorous evaluation of the modified intervention. Discussion The proposed study is one of the few projects to date to focus on improving the physical health of Hispanics with SMI and at risk for CVD by using a collaborative planning approach to enhance the transportability and use of a promising healthcare manager intervention. This study illustrates how blending health-disparities research and implementation science can help reduce the disproportionate burden of medical illness in a vulnerable population.

  1. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  2. Using the Pyramid Approach to Teaching Marketing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)

  3. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

  4. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

  5. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  6. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

  7. A Multiperspective Approach to Neuroeducational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in research that combines neuroscientific and educational perspectives on learning, but significant philosophical issues divide these perspectives. This article examines the value of such neuroeducational research and how concepts from different perspectives may be interrelated through a "level of actions" model. This…

  8. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.

  9. Contemporary Approaches to Research in TESOL

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar M Anwaruddin

    2013-01-01

    Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is one of the largest educational enterprises in the world. Tens of thousands of teachers—both native and non-native speakers of English—are engaged in TESOL across the world. This large population of teachers depends heavily on academic researchers for developing their knowledge base. Although it is evident that teachers who engage in classroom research are more aware of their practices and better able to facilitate studen...

  10. Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.

  11. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi?, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  12. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected ...

  13. Approaches to Work-Life Balance Research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka

    Brno : Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Roig

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

  15. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Thomas T. H.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  16. With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jan, Bengtsson.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

  17. Model-driven software development approaches in robotics research

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Arun Kumar; Monsuez, Bruno; Tapus, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there is an encouraging trend in adopting model-driven engineering approaches for software development in robotics research. In this paper, currently available model-driven techniques in robotics are analyzed with respect to the domain-specific requirements. A conceptual overview of our software development approach called 'Self Adaptive Framework for Robotic Systems (SafeRobots)' is explained and we also try to position our approach within this model ecosystem.

  18. A cognitive approach to soundscape research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon

    2001-05-01

    The present research on cognitive categories for soundscapes focuses on their interpretations and can be seen as mediating between individual sensory experiences and collective representations shared in language and elaborated as knowledge. Results of field inquiries in Paris, Lyon, and Nantes are presented together with results from categorization of recorded soundscapes in laboratory conditions. Categories were identified by means of linguistic analyses of verbal comments and mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results indicate that people categorize environmental sounds on the basis of semantic features, namely source identity and pleasantness judgments, rather than perceptual features. Effects of noise on human subjectivity cannot be quantitatively measured thoroughly in terms of physical parameters: auditory judgments depend upon the meaning attributed to acoustic phenomena and noise sources, rather than on inherent properties of the acoustic signal. These findings highlight the fact that an acoustic phenomenon can be diversely conceptualized and lexicalized as cognitive representations. Finally, methodological and theoretical consequences of these findings are established as the basis for further research on soundscape, in order to account not only for noise annoyance but also for sound quality of urban life.

  19. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  20. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  1. Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary A.

    The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

  2. Perspective: a systems approach to diabetes research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J.; Hager, Jörg; Sonderegger, Bernhard; Kaput, Jim

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene–environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue longitudinal studies in which each subject is analyzed at both homeostasis and after (healthy and safe) challenges. Each enrolled subject functions thereby as their own case and control and this design avoids assigning the subjects a priori to case and control groups based on limited phenotyping. Analyses at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term “systems omics.” PMID:24187547

  3. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2009-01-01

    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pe...

  4. Is dementia research ready for big data approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The "big data" paradigm has gained a lot of attention recently, in particular in those areas of biomedicine where we face clear unmet medical needs. Coined as a new paradigm for complex problem solving, big data approaches seem to open promising perspectives in particular for a better understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In this commentary, we will provide a brief overview on big data principles and the potential they may bring to dementia research, and - most importantly - we will do a reality check in order to provide an answer to the question of whether dementia research is ready for big data approaches. PMID:26099627

  5. Preparing Emerging Doctoral Scholars for Transdisciplinary Research: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Susan P.; Nurius, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Research models that bridge disciplinary, theoretical, and methodological boundaries are increasingly common as funders and the public push for timely, effective, collaborative responses to pressing social and environmental problems. Although social work is inherently an integrative discipline, there is growing recognition of the need to better prepare emerging scholars for sophisticated transdisciplinary and translational research environments. This paper outlines a developmental, competency-oriented approach to enhancing the readiness of doctoral students and emerging scholars in social work and allied disciplines for transdisciplinary research, describes an array of pedagogical tools applicable in doctoral course work and other program elements, and urges coordinated attention to enhancing the field’s transdisciplinary training capacity.

  6. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  7. FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Izotov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

  8. Case Studies Approach in Tourism Destination Branding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka-Ojo S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature indicates that there are different types of qualitative research methods such as action research, content analysis, ethnography, grounded theory, historical analysis, phenomenology and case study. However, which approach is to be used depends on several factors such as the nature and objectives of the research. The aim of this paper is to focus on the research methodology aspects of applying case study as a research approach and its relevance in tourism destination branding research specifically on a single case study (SCS context. There are arguments that the SCS is a weak research strategy. Some of the potentials or shortcomings highlighted in the literature include the primitive nature of SCS, flexibility of sample technique, data collection method and data analysis. Others include lack of rigour, reliability, validity, credibility of findings and generalisation. This paper has adopted content analysis of the literature on tourism destination branding. Findings indicate that the quality of SCS can be verified using specific case study tactics for four design tests such as validity (construct, internal and external; and reliability using the case study protocol. Theoretical implication suggests that SCS is an empirical enquiry use to understand complex phenomena and favoured by practitioners.

  9. An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Dyas Jane; Nancarrow Susan; Cooke Jo; Williams Martin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT) approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB) which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infras...

  10. The ethics of pharmaceutical research funding: a social organization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Garry C

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances a social organization approach to examining unethical behavior. While unethical behaviors may stem in part from failures in individual morality or psychological blind spots, they are both generated and performed through social interactions among individuals and groups. To illustrate the value of a social organization approach, a case study of a medical school professor's first experience with pharmaceutical-company-sponsored research is provided in order to examine how funding arrangements can constrain research integrity. The case illustrates three significant ways that institutional corruption can occur in the research process. First, conflicts of norms between pharmaceutical companies, universities, and affiliated teaching hospitals can result in compromises and self-censorship. Second, normal behavior is shaped through routine interactions. Unethical behaviors can be (or can become) normal behaviors when they are produced and reproduced through a network of social interactions. Third, funding arrangements can create networks of dependency that structurally distort the independence of the academic researcher in favor of the funder's interests. More broadly, the case study demonstrates how the social organization approach deepens our understanding of the practice of ethics. PMID:24088153

  11. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Methods A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66; structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. Results The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. Conclusion There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within the research commissioning process. This may enhance access, effectiveness and transparency of decision-making but further development is needed for this to be fully realised, including attention to process as well as the computer-mediated medium.

  12. Researching sexual and reproductive behaviour: a peer ethnographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Neil; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, ethnographic research has challenged the notion within demography that fertility-related behaviour is the outcome of individualistic calculations of the costs and benefits of having children. Anthropology has further criticised the abstraction in demographic analysis of sexual behaviour and fertility decision-making from the socio-cultural and political context in which the individual or couple is located. Within demography itself, institutional and political-economic analyses have argued strongly that sexual and reproductive behaviour must be understood within locally specific social, cultural, economic and political contexts. Positivist and empiricist research methods, such as the sample survey and focus groups, which continue to dominate demographic inquiry and applied research into sexual and reproductive behaviour, have been shown to be limited in their ability to inform about the process of behaviour change and contexts within which different behaviours occur. The article introduces a new methodology for researching sexual and reproductive behaviour, called the peer ethnographic approach, which the authors have developed in an attempt to address some of the limitations of the methods which currently dominate research into sexual and reproductive behaviour. The peer ethnographic methodology is discussed in detail and the results of recent field-testing are reported, which show that, although the approach has limitations, it also has the potential to make a significant contribution to our understanding of sexual and reproductive behaviour. PMID:12231012

  13. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J; McIntyre, Peter B; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G

    2011-08-23

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social-ecological system dynamics. PMID:21325307

  14. Phenomenological approach to profile impact of scientific research: Citation Mining

    OpenAIRE

    del Rio, J. A.; Kostoff, R. N.; Garcia, E. O.; Ramirez, A. M.; Humenik, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a phenomenological approach to describe a complex system: scientific research impact through Citation Mining. The novel concept of Citation Mining, a combination of citation bibliometrics and text mining, is used for the phenomenological description. Citation Mining starts with a group of core papers whose impact is to be examined, retrieves the papers that cite these core papers, and then analyzes the technical infrastructure (authors, jorunals, ins...

  15. A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Susila Munisamy

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to apply the various quantitative models in a spreadsheet. Indeed, imparting spreadsheet and modeling skills with OR skills will make students highly sought after in the modern workplace. This paper goes on to report on ...

  16. A techno-managerial approach in food quality management research

    OpenAIRE

    Luning, P. A.; Marcelis, W. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article it is discussed that food quality management issues are much more complex than often assumed and that it requires a specific research approach. It is argued that food quality management deals with dynamic and complex food systems and people systems involved in realising food quality. A conceptual food quality relationship is developed, assuming that food quality is a function of both food and human behaviour and their interaction. The relationship reflects that food quality is...

  17. The image of the algorithmic city: a research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hamilton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable urban design, and identifies several paths for future research.

  18. Research facilities for International Fusion Energy Research Centre of Broader Approach Activities at Rokkasho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Agreement Between the Government of Japan and the European Atomic Energy Community for the Joint Implementation of the Broader Approach (BA) Activities, a new research site has been developed in Rokkasho in Aomori prefecture of Japan. In this new site, two of the three projects of the BA activities will be implemented, namely, International Fusion Energy Research Center (IFERC) and Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility 'IFMIF/EVEDA'). The research facilities for the two projects will be also constructed in the new site. Specifications of the individual research facilities are described. (author)

  19. An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyas Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily practice, including the use of research evidence in practice and in planning service changes. Conclusion The DRT approach was effective at RCB in teams situated in a supportive organisation and in particular, where team members could be freed from clinical duties and management backing was strong. The developmental stage of the team and the research experience of constituent members also appeared to influence success. The six principles of RCB were shown to be useful as a framework for both developing and evaluating RCB initiatives.

  20. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulat...

  1. Strategic approaches to CBRN decontamination research design and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research funding is society's investment in its future, but in difficult economic times, investment in anything with a less than immediate payoff can be a challenge. Making federal research investment decisions for large scale issues with political, social, and economic consequences has always involved competition for available resources played out in universities, Federal executive departments and agencies, and in the authorizing and appropriating committees and subcommittees of the legislature. Designing a research program that relates to the national need for a long-term strategic approach to consequence management is a challenge in the natural and social sciences as well as in political analysis. A successful effort must involve intensive interactions by research managers with consequence managers, evaluation of the relative cost and potential effectiveness of alternative research strategies, an estimation of time to completion and potential for success of research, and having a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of national and local governments, as well as private enterprise and affected individuals. All this must be undertaken in concert with the development of risk communication strategies that are science-based but deal with managing societal expectations based on the costs and practicality of potential alternative suites of solutions.(author)

  2. Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

  3. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterizatishow promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders

  4. Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed gital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded approaches, and future plans of the project

  5. Constructive Synergy in Design Science Research: A Comparative Analysis of Design Science Research and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Information systems research is focused on creating knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science research, which specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems, has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science research is not the only design-oriented research framework available. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether there is something to learn between the different approaches. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are similar and compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions. The main finding that arises from the comparison is, however, that there is a potential problem in claiming knowledge contribution from evaluation of the utility of an artifact. That is, utility-based evaluation often builds the argument on adoption of the artifact, assuming that adoption and utility in general validates also claims to knowledge contribution. We show that this mode of evaluation has philosophical and practical problems that need addressing in further research.

  6. Ambiguous encounters: A relational approach to phenomenological research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda, Finlay.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an account of how to engage one phenomenologically orientated version of relational research based on ideas from existential phenomenological philosophy as well as Gestalt theory, relational psychoanalysis, intersubjectivity theory and feminist methodology. Relational dynamics (bot [...] h conscious and unconscious) between researcher and co-researcher are explored reflexively using illustrations from various phenomenological projects in which the author has been involved. The relational approach to phenomenology described involves attending to four interlinked dimensions: open presence, embodied intersubjectivity, dialogic co-creation and entangled selves. The paper aims to show the importance of retaining an open, empathic, embodied presence to another's personhood while acknowledging the power of dialogue to bring to life new realities. Data is seen to emerge out of the researcher/co-researcher relationship and is mutually co-created in this encounter as each touches and impacts on the other. What we can learn and know about another arises within the intersubjective space between. In this zone of ambiguity and uncertainty, the unforeseen hovers and layered meanings invite discovery.

  7. Empirical phenomenology: A qualitative research approach (The Cologne Seminars)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrik, Aspers.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. The approach of empirical phenomenology builds upon the phenomenology of the philosophers Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger and the sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers h [...] ow their more philosophical and theoretical insights can be used in empirical research. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and concerned about safeguarding the perspective of those studied. The main idea of empirical phenomenology is that scientific explanation must be grounded in the first-order construction of the actors; that is, in their own meanings. These constructions are then related to the second-order constructions of the scientist. In this paper, empirical phenomenology is considered in the light of phenomenological philosophy. The paper includes an explication of the approach, which is summarized in seven steps through which the researcher is guided, and considers its implications for qualitative methods such as interviewing and participant observation.

  8. An integrative approach to research of deforestation under concession management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodological approach integrating questionnaire research of tropical foresters with analyses of the actual patterns of concession logging and land use activities portrayed on various types of satellite imagery is discussed. The imagery analysis is necessary to: document the location place and magnitude of forest utilization and change in concession areas; confirm that responses vis-a-vis deforestation in the questionnaire correspond to observable behaviors as evidenced by the actual patterns of logging activities; and document the postharvest land utilization and conversion to other land uses. It is argued that this approach will link the process and pattern of logging activities to reveal the main factors leading to deforestation under the concession system of management. 20 refs

  9. A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes, "A New Approach to Commercialization of NASA's Human Research Program Technologies." NASA has a powerful research...

  10. Improving product development practice: An action-research based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne

    In studies of new product development it has often been concluded that to a large extent new product suc-cess is tunder the influence of companies and long lists of direct norma-tive guide-lines have been formulated. Nevertheless descriptive studi that deve-lopment practice is still far from the widely published normative advice. While there may be several reasons for discrepancies between research results and prac-tice this paper focuses on problems of implementation of the identified success factors. Within the research area of NPD-management there has been numerous surveys as well as case studies both purely descriptive and studies identifying success and failure factors, but almost no studies of how companies actually undertake improve-ments, which problems they encounter,, and how/whether they overcome these problems. Action research is proposed as a suitable method for studying these change processes, and it is particularly the advantages and disadvantages of this - traditionally not very popular - research approach that is in focus in this paper.

  11. Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The ...

  12. Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

  13. Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yufei; Snedeker, Jess G. [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopaedics, Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., ''elastography''), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a ''black box,'' with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. (orig.)

  14. Elastography: modality-specific approaches, clinical applications, and research horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufei; Snedeker, Jess G

    2011-04-01

    Manual palpation has been used for centuries to provide a relative indication of tissue health and disease. Engineers have sought to make these assessments increasingly quantitative and accessible within daily clinical practice. Since many of the developed techniques involve image-based quantification of tissue deformation in response to an applied force (i.e., "elastography"), such approaches fall squarely within the domain of the radiologist. While commercial elastography analysis software is becoming increasingly available for clinical use, the internal workings of these packages often remain a "black box," with limited guidance on how to usefully apply the methods toward a meaningful diagnosis. The purpose of the present review article is to introduce some important approaches to elastography that have been developed for the most widely used clinical imaging modalities (e.g., ultrasound, MRI), to provide a basic sense of the underlying physical principles, and to discuss both current and potential (musculoskeletal) applications. The article also seeks to provide a perspective on emerging approaches that are rapidly developing in the research laboratory (e.g., optical coherence tomography, fibered confocal microscopy), and which may eventually gain a clinical foothold. PMID:20352427

  15. Novel approaches to HIV prevention and sexual health promotion among Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2014-08-01

    The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission. PMID:25068181

  16. Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

  17. Tritium research activities under the broader approach program in JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D for tritium technologies to a demonstration reactor (DEMO) plant are carried out in the Broader Approach (BA) program in Japan: 1) tritium accountancy technology; 2) basic tritium safety research; and 3) tritium durability test. A multi-purpose facility will be constructed at Rokkasho in Japan to carry out the above R and D. Beta and gamma radioisotopes as well as tritium (370 TBq/year) can be handled in the facility. At TPL (Tritium Process Laboratory) of JAEA, a series of R and D programs for tritium technologies have been carried out. The main R and D activities in this field are: tritium behavior in a confinement; monitoring; detritiation; and decontamination. In this paper, the results of recent activities at TPL of JAEA are also summarized from the viewpoint of the related R and D subjects under the BA program. (authors)

  18. Approaches in Synesthesia Research: Neurocognitive Aspects and Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mikus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly rare phenomenon in which the subject in contact with certain stimulus in one modality experiences unusual extra sensations in other modalities, such as seeing or feeling colours while listening to music or personifying of letters and numbers. The phenomenon was long perceived to be merely a product of imagination and associations. Latest research, however, is based on a multidisciplinary approach, which includes first-hand synesthetic reports, neuroimaging and behavioural tests used in confirming and explaining the phenomenon’s presence as well as its neurophysiological foundations. This article presents an overview of such investigations through the lens of cognitive and psychophysical paradigms, neural models and genetic studies of synesthesia.

  19. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  20. Rethinking Physics for Biologists: A design-based research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-03-01

    Biology majors at the University of Maryland are required to take courses in biology, chemistry, and physics - but they often see these courses as disconnected. Over the past three years the NEXUS/Physics course has been working to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment that bridges the disciplinary domains of biology and physics. Across the three years we have gone from teaching in a small class with one instructor to teaching in a large lecture hall with multiple instructors. We have used a design-based research approach to support critical reflection of the course at multiple-time scales. In this presentation I will detail our process of collecting systematic data, listening to and valuing students' reasoning, and bridging diverse perspectives led. I will demonstrate how this process led to improved curricular design, refined assessment objectives, and new design heuristics. This work is supported by NSF-TUES DUE 11-22818, the HHMI NEXUS grant, and a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE 0750616).

  1. Research and Collaboration Overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: A Bibliometric Approach toward Research Funding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mostafavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN, which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions.

  2. Research and collaboration overview of Institut Pasteur International Network: a bibliometric approach toward research funding decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Institut Pasteur International Network (IPIN), which includes 32 research institutes around the world, is a network of research and expertise to fight against infectious diseases. A scientometric approach was applied to describe research and collaboration activities of IPIN. Methods: Publications were identified using a manual search of IPIN member addresses in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2006 and 2011. Total publications were then subcategorized by geographic regions. Several scientometric indicators and the H-index were employed to estimate the scientific production of each IPIN member. Subject and geographical overlay maps were also applied to visualize the network activities of the IPIN members. Results: A total number of 12667 publications originated from IPIN members. Each author produced an average number of 2.18 papers and each publication received an average of 13.40 citations. European Pasteur Institutes had the largest amount of publications, authored papers, and H-index values. Biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, immunology and infectious diseases were the most important research topics, respectively. Geographic mapping of IPIN publications showed wide international collaboration among IPIN members around the world. Conclusion: IPIN has strong ties with national and international authorities and organizations to investigate the current and future health issues. It is recommended to use scientometric and collaboration indicators as measures of research performance in IPIN future policies and investment decisions. PMID:24596896

  3. A horizon of medical education research approach in 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhendu Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The author is a reviewer of various peer reviewed journals and during the review of the medical education research manuscript was observed that many novice of the field of medical education research do not follow the scientific steps of the medical education research. Therefore, this paper is aimed to reflect the essence of medical education research approach and to help the novice medical education research investigators to design the project in scientific approach. An intensive review is ma...

  4. The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.; Van Volkom, Michele

    2013-01-01

    A multifaceted approach to teaching five experimental designs in a research methodology course was tested. Participants included 70 students enrolled in an experimental research methods course in the semester both before and after the implementation of instructional change. When using a multifaceted approach to teaching research methods that…

  5. Safety Approach of BORAX Type Accidents in French Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of pool type French research reactors are designed to withstand an explosive BORAX accident, defined as a pressure load on the pool walls. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach implemented at IRSN to analyse this accident by linking safety assessment and supporting studies. Examples of recent work on Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) and ORPHEE will be presented. Although all aspects of the accident are addressed, we will focus on the first two frames of the transient: the reactivity insertion and the consequences on the core. The first step of the BORAX analysis is to identify the most penalizing plausible reactivity insertion. This means characterising the sequences of events that can induce a reactivity surge and evaluate the worth of such variation. Neutronic computations are then required to quantify the reactivity increase. To comply with the geometrical specificities of research reactors, IRSN chose to use the homemade Monte Carlo code MORET5. The control rod worth calculations on the JHR were in good agreement with the operator results, whereas in ORPHEE, IRSN demonstrated that the beam channels reactivity worth was largely. In both cases the obtained results allowed an interesting dialogue with the operator and were used in the conclusions of the safety assessment. Following the accidental sequence of events, the second stage analysed by IRSN is the power transient occurring in the core and the consequences on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a honces on the fuel. IRSN applied on JHR a homemade simplified model based on point kinetics and standard thermal balance equations to compute power evolution taking into account the temperatures of the fuel for feedback reactivity. As heat exchange coefficients between cladding and water for such fast transients are unknown, IRSN took the conservative hypothesis of adiabatic heating of the plates. The comparison the JHR power pulse calculation results against SPERT experimental measurements enabled IRSN to be optimistic about the possibility that a slow reactivity insertion would not lead to severe consequences on the core. It also highlighted a lack of knowledge about fast transient physical processes and the need of validated tools if a refined simulation is to be carried out. (author)

  6. Biotechnological Approaches as the New Paradigm for Insect Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganggana Talukdar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy effectiveness and in expanding the markets for the bio insecticides. Molecular techniques employed for identifying and monitoring establishment and dispersal of specific biotypes of natural enemies. Production, formulation and storage of entomopathogenic fungi can be dramatically improved through biotechnology and genetic engineering. Proteinaceous insect toxins (scorpion toxin, mite toxin, trypsin inhibitor, hormones (eclosion hormone, diuretic hormone and metabolic enzymes (juvenile hormone esterase introduced into NPV and GV genome virus to increase its efficacy to kill insect. Genetic manipulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes encoding for proteins toxic to insects offers an opportunity to produce genetically modified strains with more potent and transgenic plant expressing Bt toxin. In 2011, planting of Bt cotton in India surpassed the historical milestone of 10 million hectare for the first time and occupied 88% of the recorded 12.1 million hectare cotton crops. However, field resistance of Bt crops to various insects have been noticed and to combat this problem two approaches namely refuge and pyramiding were recently introduced. The development of cryobiological method for preserving embryos of insects can significantly save the rearing costs, and the valuable collection of insect natural enemies could be maintained indefinitely. RNAi technology enables engineering of a new generation of pest-resistant GM crops. Insect control strategies that integrate advance knowledge in biotechnology with traditional wisdom and technology will contribute to the sustainability of agriculture.

  7. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

  8. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoellner Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

  9. Systems approaches in global change and biogeochemistry research

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Pete; Albanito, Fabrizio; Bell, Madeleine; Bellarby, Jessica; Blagodatskiy, Sergey; Datta, Arindam; Dondini, Marta; Fitton, Nuala; Flynn, Helen; Hastings, Astley; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Edward O.; Kuhnert, Matthias; Nayak, Dali R.; Pogson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Systems approaches have great potential for application in predictive ecology. In this paper, we present a range of examples, where systems approaches are being developed and applied at a range of scales in the field of global change and biogeochemical cycling. Systems approaches range from Bayesian calibration techniques at plot scale, through data assimilation methods at regional to continental scales, to multi-disciplinary numerical model applications at country to global scales. We provid...

  10. (Re)Searching Queer Subjects: Approaching a Queer Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of fashioning a queer methodology for educational research through analysis of three research studies. It begins with the question of queer visibility, asking about the ethics and utility of remaining closeted vs. disclosing one's identity. It then explores the question of researcher subjectivity and of putting…

  11. Framing design research for service orientation through PSS approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; Sandström, Gunilla Ölundh

    2009-01-01

    In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, design research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such design research. First, an extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on not only PSS-design research but also on related research in fields as PSS in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Based on the literature analysis, the authors present three crucial dimensions for service oriented design research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers. The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

  12. The Interpretive Approach as a Research Tool: Inside the REDCo Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This contribution shows how the author's interpretive approach to religious education was used as a theoretical and pedagogical stimulus and an empirical research tool by researchers in the European Commission Framework 6 REDCo (religion, education, dialogue, conflict) project. The origins and development of the interpretive approach, from its…

  13. Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Piqué-Noguera

    2012-01-01

    A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Commun...

  14. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  15. A Semantic Approach to Cross-Disciplinary Research Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens De Vocht

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest developments in ICT, more specifically Social Media and Web 2.0 tools, facilitate the use of online services in research and education. This is also known as Research 2.0 and Technology Enhanced Learning. Web 2.0 tools are especially useful in cases where experts from different disciplines want to collaborate. We suggest an integrated method that embeds these services in research and learning processes, because it is a laborious task for researchers and learners to check and use all varying types of tools and services. We explain a flexible model that uses state-of-the-art semantic technologies to model both structured and unstructured research data. The research data is extracted from many online resources and Social Media. We implement learning objects as an abstraction of the semantically modeled research data. We propose an environment that improves the scientific research and learning process by allowing researchers to efficiently browse the information and concepts represented as learning objects.

  16. Research and Teaching: An Experimental Project Approach to Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris E. Petersen

    2000-11-01

    In the study described in this article, the author examined the educational benefits of an experimental project approach to students taking the last course of the introductory sequence, Biology 103. Educational benefits were defined in terms of analytical

  17. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  18. The Ethics of Digital Writing Research: A Rhetorical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Heidi; Porter, James E.

    2008-01-01

    The study of writers and writing in digital environments raises distinct and complex ethical issues for researchers. Rhetoric theory and casuistic ethics, working in tandem, provide a theoretical framework for addressing such issues. A casuistic heuristic grounded in rhetorical principles can help digital writing researchers critically…

  19. Mexican-American Folklore: An Approach to the Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Jan

    Having freshman English students at Pan American University in the Rio Grande valley of Texas focus on Mexican-American folklore themes for research papers has proved to be successful in motivating students and in activating their ethnic interests and cultural pride. Steps involved in preparing these research papers include choosing a topic which…

  20. Statistical approaches to orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders research

    CERN Document Server

    Manfredini, Daniele; Nardini, Luca Guarda; Carrozzo, Eleonora; Salmaso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the biostatistical methods utilized to interpret and analyze dental research in the areas of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders. It will guide practitioners in these fields who would like to interpret research findings or find examples on the design of clinical investigations. After an introduction dealing with the basic issues, the central sections of the textbook are dedicated to the different types of investigations in sight of specific goals researchers may have. The final section contains more elaborate statistical concepts for expert professionals. The field of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders is emerging as one of the most critical areas of clinical research in dentistry. Due to the complexity of clinical pictures, the multifactorial etiology, and the importance of psychosocial factors in all aspects of the TMD practice, clinicians often find it hard to appraise their modus operandi, and researchers must constantly increase their knowledge in epidemiology and ...

  1. Physician participation in clinical research and trials: issues and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami F Shaban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sayeeda Rahman1, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sami F Shaban2, Nuzhat Rahman3, Moslehuddin Ahmed4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, Urban JA D’Souza61Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates; 3Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 4Department of Community Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 5Department of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Post Graduate Studies, School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, MalaysiaAbstract: The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system- or organization-related as well as research- and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching–learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a ‘student-focused teaching–learning and research culture’. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives, adequate training, research questions that are in line with physician interests and have clear potential to improve patient care, and regular feedback. Finally, encouraging research culture and fostering the development of inquiry and research-based learning among medical students is now a high priority in order to develop more and better clinician-researchers.Keywords: physician, clinical research, clinical trial, medical education

  2. Process diary as methodological approach in longitudinal phenomenological research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heidi, Woll.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be [...] used based on the profile of a participant in the study "Aging with Cerebral Palsy". The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of this method. The article concludes with a brief discussion concerning the kinds of situations where the process diary is a suitable research instrument. This section of the article also touches upon the ethical challenges involved in using the process diary in longitudinal phenomenological research.

  3. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Waterson, Patrick E; Ian Noy, Y; Dainoff, Marvin J; Leveson, Nancy G; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-04-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. PMID:25728246

  4. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  5. Charting the Impact of Federal Spending for Education Research: A Bibliometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Carolina; Brown, Kevin L.; Hawkley, Louise; Dropkin, Eric; Schneider, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Impact evaluation plays a critical role in determining whether federally funded research programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are wise investments. This paper develops quantitative methods for program evaluation and applies this approach to a flagship National Science Foundation-funded education research program, Research

  6. Computational Approaches for Translational Clinical Research in Disease Progression

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Mary F; Iyengar, M. Sriram; Mercer, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, there is an ever-increasing amount of biological and clinical data available that could be used to enhance a systems-based understanding of disease progression through innovative computational analysis. In this paper we review a selection of published research regarding computational methodologies, primarily from systems biology, that support translational research from the molecular level to the bedside, with a focus on applications in trauma and critical care. Trauma is the leading c...

  7. Strategic approach to information security and assurance in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Akazawa, Shunichi; Igarashi, Manabu; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2005-01-01

    Information security and assurance are an increasingly critical issue in health research. Whether health research be in genetics, new drugs, disease outbreaks, biochemistry, or effects of radiation, it deals with information that is highly sensitive and which could be targeted by rogue individuals or groups, corporations, national intelligence agencies, or terrorists, looking for financial, social, or political gains. The advents of the Internet and advances in recent information technologies...

  8. DUCATIVE RESEARCH. EXPERIENCES AND DISCUSSIONS REGARDING A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Agustín Moreiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we want to discuss how some research projects use photography as part of their methodological constructions. We present and analyze three research experiences, by considering them from its publication in an academic journal. We also consider a fourth experience, derived from our own Master research project. Looking over these four experiences, we analyze and compare the uses of photography that each of them has performed in research projects as well as in pedagogical projects, carried out in children, young and adult schools. We also consider the relationship between photography and interviews in these experiences. We present some suggestions, derived from our own research project, for the analysis of the photographs produced by the interlocutors. In order to develop these suggestions, we need to consider pictures as a discourse and in a way they can be useful not only to researchers but also to teachers. In this process, we put together contributions from semiotics, narratology and photography and cinema studies.

  9. Approach for a joint global registration agency for research data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, Jan; Farquhar, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The scientific and information communities have largely mastered the presentation of, and linkages between, text-based electronic information by assigning persistent identifiers to give scientific literature unique identities and accessibility. Knowledge, as published through scientific literature, is often the last step in a process originating from scientific research data. Today scientists are using simulation, observational, and experimentation techniques that yield massive quantities of research data. These data are analyzed, synthesized, interpreted, and the outcome of this process is generally published as a scientific article. Access to the original data as the foundation of knowledge has become an important issue throughout the world and different projects have started to find solutions. Global collaboration and scientific advances could be accelerated through broader access to scientific research data. In other words, data access could be revolutionized through the same technologies used to make textual literature accessible. The most obvious opportunity to broaden visibility of and access to research data is to integrate its access into the medium where it is most often cited: electronic textual information. Besides this opportunity, it is important, irrespective of where they are cited, for research data to have an internet identity. Since 2005, the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) has offered a successful Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration service for persistent identification of research data. In this white paper we discuss the possibilities to open this registration to a global consortium of information institutes and libraries.

  10. Researching Embodiment in Movement Contexts: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a phenomenological approach to understanding embodiment in relation to teaching and learning taking place in movement contexts. Recently a number of studies have pointed to the potential that phenomenology has to understand the meanings and experiences of moving subjects. By presenting two examples of our own work on embodied…

  11. Approach to regulatory research related to new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory research can be defined as activities comprising of research, testing and analysis undertaken for obtaining deeper insights into intricate safety issues towards arriving at scientifically sound and better optimized regulatory decisions. Regulatory research may be performed by the regulatory body itself or by the licensee or their technical support organizations. This could be either in fulfillment of regulatory requirements for novel designs or to resolve safety issues in existing facilities. New technologies are often introduced in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for safety enhancement or for improving plant efficiency or economics. The regulators are then faced with the challenging task of reviewing such technologies to assess and confirm their reliability and robustness before consenting for their use in the plant. Regulatory research provides a sound basis to support such regulatory decisions. The Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) makes significant use of regulatory research, both for addressing safety questions in existing facilities as also for assessing the reliability of new designs. Management of safety of coolant channels in pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) based NPPs, safety assessment of unbonded prestressing system for primary containment building of an NPP and, analysis for arriving at the cause of a power rise incident in an NPP are some examples where intense played a key role in AERB's decision making process. This paper aims adecision making process. This paper aims at elaborating on the different aspects of regulatory research that help eliminate subjectivity in regulatory decisions and also improve the effectiveness of a regulatory organization through contributing to value addition to safety. Some examples of regulatory research in support of AERB's decisions are also covered in the paper. (author)

  12. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

  13. Dedifferentiation: A New Approach in Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA CAI, XIAOBING FU, ZHIYONG SHENG (; )

    2007-09-01

    This article from the September 2007 issue of BioScience provides background information and research on dedifferentiation in stem cells. Dedifferentiation is an important biological phenomenon whereby cells regress from a specialized function to a simpler state reminiscent of stem cells. Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of giving rise to differentiated cells when supplied with the appropriate factors. Stem cells that are derived by dedifferentiation of one's own cells could be a new resource for regenerative medicine, one that poses no risk of genetic incompatibility or immune rejection and provokes fewer ethical debates than the use of stem cells derived from embryonic tissue. Until now, it has not been quite clear why some differentiated cell types can dedifferentiate and proliferate, whereas others cannot. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in dedifferentiation may enable scientists to control and possibly alter the plasticity of the differentiated state, which may lead to benefits not only in stem cell research but also in regenerative medicine and even tumor biology. If so, dedifferentiation will offer an ethically acceptable alternative route to obtain an abundant source of stem cells. Dedifferentiation is likely to become a new focus of stem cell research. Here we compile recent advances in this emerging but significant research, highlighting its central concepts, research findings, possible signaling pathways, and potential applications.

  14. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  15. Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

  16. Process Diary as Methodological Approach in Longitudinal Phenomenological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the process diary as a qualitative instrument in phenomenological research. The first part of the article provides a brief historical review on the use of diaries in social and health research. The second part of the article presents an example of how the process diary may be used based on the profile of a participant in the study “Aging with Cerebral Palsy”. The third part of the article deals with the challenges of analyzing the data provided by process diaries a...

  17. Research Paper on Text Data Compression Algorithm using Hybrid Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh Sidhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Data Compression is an area that needs to be given almost attention is text quality assessment. Different methodologies have been defined for this purpose. Hence choosing the best machine learning algorithm is really important. In addition to different compression technologies and methodologies, selection of a good data compression tool is most important. There is a complete range of different data compression techniques available both online and offline working such that it becomes really difficult to choose which technique serves the best. Here comes the necessity of choosing the right method for text compression purposes and hence an algorithm that can reveal the best tool among the given ones. A data compression algorithm is to be developed which consumes less time while provides more compression ratio as compared to existing techniques. In this paper we represent a hybrid approach to compress the text data. This hybrid approach is combination of Dynamic Bit reduction method and Huffman coding.

  18. SEM in applied marketing research : Towards more liberalised modelling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Bjarne Taulo; Tudoran, Ana Alina

    In this paper we discuss two SEM approaches: an exploratory structural equation modelling based on a more liberalised and inductive philosophy versus the classical SEM based on the traditional hypothetical-deductive approach. We apply these two modelling techniques to data from a consumer survey and compare them based on several criteria, such as coefficients, parsimony, model fit, plausibility, and consistency with the theory. A comparison of the estimates obtained from the two models clearly indicates that it is not at all a trivial matter whether cross-loadings are allowed in a measurement model or not. These results shed serious doubt on the generally accepted rule of thumb according to which (cross) loadings can safely be ignored if they do not have a “practically significant” loading with an absolute value of at least 0.30 or 0.40.

  19. The image of the algorithmic city: a research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Hamilton; Karrie Karahalios; Christian Sandvig; Cedric Langbort

    2014-01-01

    Design for civic participation in the “smart” city requires examination of the algorithms by which computational processes organize and present geospatial information to inhabitants. How does awareness of these algorithms positively or negatively affect use? A renewed approach to one popular twentieth-century model for city design reveals potential paths for answering this question. The paper examines the contemporary “algorithmic” city using Kevin Lynch’s prescriptions for livable ...

  20. In Search of Holy Transcripts: Approaches to Researching Religious Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, David

    2012-01-01

    I raise the problem that religious effects on the education practices of Australian religious schooling have not been measured, despite many claims and the critical size of the sector. The paper seeks to suggest factors to be considered in shaping methodologies for researching this area. Identifying four ways that religious schooling has been…

  1. Electronic media: the problem of choosing research approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgaleeva L. V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediatization of society is one of the main factors of structural changes in the design and construction of cultural experiences. It is a transdisciplinary research object of interest. Electronic media are considered in the context of problem study of the mechanisms of medial reflection.

  2. The Vocational Guidance Research Database: A Scientometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Buils, Raquel; Gil-Beltran, Jose Manuel; Caballer-Miedes, Antonio; Martinez-Martinez, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    The scientometric study of scientific output through publications in specialized journals cannot be undertaken exclusively with the databases available today. For this reason, the objective of this article is to introduce the "Base de Datos de Investigacion en Orientacion Vocacional" [Vocational Guidance Research Database], based on the use of…

  3. Sociolinguistic Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Research: 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses sociolinguistically oriented research on second language acquisition (SLA) in the decade since Firth and Wagner (1997). Over the last 10 years, substantial progress has been made in developing a model of the sociolinguistic processes that inform second language acquisition. This model is supported by empirical evidence on…

  4. Exploring Alternative Approaches to Methodology in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide in-service teachers an opportunity to become familiar with the controversial nature of progress in science (growth of knowledge) and its implications for research methodology in education. The study is based on 41 participants who had registered for a nine-week course on Methodology of Investigation in…

  5. Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Piqué-Noguera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

  7. Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Fersch

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First...

  8. A Creative Approach to the Research Paper: Combining Creative Writing with Academic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a combination of a research essay and a creative writing assignment that encourages rigorous academic research while allowing students to get "outside the box" of traditional academic research papers. This assignment has five steps. The first two steps offer the chance to introduce academic research along with summary and…

  9. Reviewing CSR management and marketing communication research: A discourse approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup; Thomsen, Christa

    To judge from the rapidly growing body of research in the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and marketing communication, there is an increasing interest in exploring the role of communication along with the transmission from implicit towards explicit CSR in the European context (Matten & Moon 2008). Many corporations today are concerned with gaining legitimacy through integrating the expectations of their stakeholders (employees, customers, NGOs, activists, government institutions, institutions of international governance) in the overall company strategy. This also includes stakeholders in or around business units established in developing countries and emerging markets (e.g. Jamali 2010; Reimann 2012). Along with the growing pressure on corporations to engage in CSR a seemingly growing number of these are concerned with disclosure, reporting, reputation, etc. issues, and act on them through different CSR communication initiatives, channels and technology, e.g. mass media and social media. However, in spite of the growing attention on adopting CSR communication strategies and tactics, there does not seem to be a common understanding and consensus of how and to which extent CSR communication may contribute to influence stakeholders’ perception of corporations’ CSR performance. At best, some studies hold that there is a general recognition of CSR communication as a potential reputation enhancer, but also that if addressed inappropriately, CSR communication cause more damage than glory to a company. Other studies focus on CSR communication as inevitable hypocrisy (Christensen et al. 2011) and as an embedded ‘promotional dilemma’ emerging when stakeholders claim CSR information, while rejecting companies who practice it as overly self-promotion (Coombs & Holladay 2012). Consequently, CSR management and marketing communication research contains understandings that point in different directions, calling for more substantial explorations of the underlying discourse arsenal that CSR researchers and practitioners draw on. Institutional theory is one way of investigating how companies deal with social change processes such as the insisting concern with CSR communication. According to institutionalists, corporations are social institutions that require institutional legitimacy in order to survive. Within an institutional framework, organizational change is addressed as a product of institutions’ pressure on companies to adopt similar practices in a given societal context (DiMaggio & Powel 1983). Considering CSR communication under the lens of insitutional theory opens for understanding the diversity and dynamics of CSR (Brammer et al. 2012).Moreover, the institutionalizing processes of CSR and related concepts enables us to explore emerging discourses, institutionalized through research and best practices of CSR. Accordingly, we address how the emergence of discourse from CSR as accountancy and transparency invites and legitimizes a new social order in which CSR is addressed as a forum for mutual understanding, recognition, negotiation and co-creation amongst stakeholders. The aim of this paper is thus to investigate the discourse construction of CSR communication on the basis of how researchers frame corporations’ CSR doings and saying within marketing and management streams of CSR research. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze how the role of communication and interaction is conceptualized in specific social contexts such as managing and marketing corporations through CSR. Many researchers argue that CSR communication is likely to increase stakeholder engagement, corporate reputation and value creation (e.g. Porter & Kramer 2006; Du et al. 2010). By looking at the rapidly growing body of research in the field of CSR management and marketing communication, the paper focuses on the positions, arguments, con?icts and actors of CSR communication across specific CSR topics and initiatives e.g. disclosure, reporting, reputation, message, channel, etc. This research is evaluated from an o

  10. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  11. Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ling Shih

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants? community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka?s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

  12. Electroencephalogram and Alzheimer's disease: clinical and research approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolaki, Anthoula; Kazis, Dimitrios; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits, problems in activities of daily living, and behavioral disturbances. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been demonstrated as a reliable tool in dementia research and diagnosis. The application of EEG in AD has a wide range of interest. EEG contributes to the differential diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease progression. Additionally such recordings can add important information related to the drug effectiveness. This review is prepared to form a knowledge platform for the project entitled "Cognitive Signal Processing Lab," which is in progress in Information Technology Institute in Thessaloniki. The team tried to focus on the main research fields of AD via EEG and recent published studies. PMID:24868482

  13. Learning discourse discursive approaches to research in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Kieran, C

    2007-01-01

    Guest Editorial. Acknowledgements. There is more to discourse than meets the ears: Looking at thinking as communicating to learn more about mathematical learning; A. Sfard. Educational forms of initiation in mathematical culture; B. van Oers. Cultural, discursive psychology: A socio-cultural approach to studying the teaching and learning of mathematics; S. Lerman. The multiple voices of a mathematics classroom community; E. Forman, E. Ansell. 'Can any fraction be turned into a decimal?' A case study of a mathematical group discussion; M.C. O'Connor. The mathematical discourse of 13-ye

  14. Biotechnological Approaches as the New Paradigm for Insect Research

    OpenAIRE

    Diganggana Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food it is essential to increase the production of food. Insect pests are major constraints to global production for food and fibre that can be reduced utilizing modern biotechnological tools. In insect research field, the biotechnological tools have been applied to study various issues such as insect identification, insect control and insect genetic relationships. It has a significant role in improving efficacy effectiveness and in expanding the mar...

  15. [Patents and scientific research: an ethical-legal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to review the relationship between patents and scientific research from an ethical point of view. The recent developments in the law of industrial property led in many cases to patent discoveries, contributions of basic science, and laws of nature. This trend, which denies the central principles of the discipline, creates disturbances in scientific activity, which requires the free movement of knowledge in order to develop their potentialities. PMID:25845205

  16. Environmental operations strategies: European approaches and research challenges

    OpenAIRE

    A?lvarez Gil, Mari?a Jose?; Rivera Camino, Jaime

    1998-01-01

    Since the environment has very recently emerged as a strategic issue, work has only begun to investigate the conceptual linkages between strategic management and the environment. A thoroughly revision of both academic and professional literature evidences that such scarcity of research doubles, or even trebles, when the scenery of the European Operations Management Strategies is considered. The main objective of this paper is, therefore, to discuss the impact of the design of the environmenta...

  17. Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Ling Shih; Jussi Nuutinen; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Nian-Shing Chen

    2010-01-01

    Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS). This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS) to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used t...

  18. Evaluating International Research Ethics Capacity Development: An Empirical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Joseph; Kass, Nancy E.; Sewankambo, Nelson K.; White, Tara D.; Hyder, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    The US National Institutes of health, Fogarty International Center (NIH-FIC) has, for the past 13 years, been a leading funder of international research ethics education for resource-limited settings. Nearly half of the NIH-FIC funding in this area has gone to training programs that train individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the impact of training investments, as well as the potential predictors of post-training success, can support curricular decision-making, help establish fundi...

  19. SOCIAL MARKETING : A NEW APPROACH IN MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Tiwari

    1998-01-01

    Social marketing has a proven role in marketing and many manufacturing establishments/ organizations have been marketing their products incorporating social marketing research. Social marketing has its root in the ground fact that the perceptions and expectations of the consumers are important in influencing buying behaviour. The principles of social marketing, therefore, have been extensively utilized in the areas of consumer products. These are also used in several other fields for modifyin...

  20. Electroencephalogram and Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical and Research Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Anthoula Tsolaki; Dimitrios Kazis; Ioannis Kompatsiaris; Vasiliki Kosmidou; Magda Tsolaki

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits, problems in activities of daily living, and behavioral disturbances. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been demonstrated as a reliable tool in dementia research and diagnosis. The application of EEG in AD has a wide range of interest. EEG contributes to the differential diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease progression. Additionally such recordings can add important information related to t...

  1. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; Mcintyre, Peter B.; Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine...

  2. A Mixed Method Approach to Quality of Life Research: A Case Study Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Heather; Williams, Allison; Abonyi, Sylvia; Crooks, Valorie

    2008-01-01

    Increased use of qualitative and quantitative methods in quality of life projects necessitates an examination of how to effectively work within a mixed method framework. The research objectives of this paper are to (1) operationalize the two goals of mixed method research (confirmation and comprehension) and (2) develop a strategy for using mixed…

  3. The lexical approach to personality: A historical review of trait taxonomic research

    OpenAIRE

    John, Oliver P.; Angleitner, Alois; Ostendorf, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    We review research aimed at the development of a compelling taxonomy of personality-descriptive terms. We identify five issues central to the construction of personality taxonomies and discuss the advantages and limitations of the lexical approach. Our review of research stimulated by this approach begins with Allport and Odbert’s trait names, retraces the procedures that led to Cattell’s personality factors, and summarizes contemporary work in English and in Dutch. Taxonomers and lay peo...

  4. Pronunciation in EFL instruction a research-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Szpyra-Kozlowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent debates on the global spread of English and its international lingua franca role, what pronunciation models are appropriate for millions of EFL learners? Which aspects of English phonetics should be taught to foreign students and which can be neglected with little loss to successful communication? How can English pronunciation be taught in an interesting and effective way which is both learner- and teacher-friendly, in accordance with the latest scholarly and technological achievements? This research-based book addresses these and many other fundamental issues that are curren

  5. Application of Person-Centered Approaches to Critical Quantitative Research: Exploring Inequities in College Financing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcom-Piqueux, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the utility of person-centered approaches to critical quantitative researchers. These techniques, which identify groups of individuals who share similar attributes, experiences, or outcomes, are contrasted with more commonly used variable-centered approaches. An illustrative example of a latent class analysis of the college…

  6. Integrating Different Perspectives on Socialization Theory and Research: A Domain-Specific Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusec, Joan E.; Davidov, Maayan

    2010-01-01

    There are several different theoretical and research approaches to the study of socialization, characterized by frequently competing basic tenets and apparently contradictory evidence. As a way of integrating approaches and understanding discrepancies, it is proposed that socialization processes be viewed from a domain perspective, with each…

  7. The Research Collective: A Model for Developing Timely, Contextually Relevant and Dynamic Approaches to Research Synthesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Charlyn

    2006-01-01

    In this issue, Pineault and colleagues (2006) report on a Quebec-based research collective, a process aimed at rapidly synthesizing results from ongoing or recently completed research and releasing them to decision-makers.

  8. Recommending a Book with a Chapter Reviewing Innovative Approaches of Solar Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jianming Li

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief description of some innovative approaches presented in Chapter 6 of a book entitled “Solar Cell Research Progress”. One approach is a novel superficial modification technique which offers a new opportunity to fabricate low cost solar cells by using silicon materials with the lowest possible purity. The other approach is a V-shaped module (VSM) technique which enables an obvious increase of the efficiencies for silicon solar cells.

  9. HIV Testing Experience and Risk Behavior Among Sexually Active Black Young Adults: A CBPR-Based Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling in Durham, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Chen, Mario; Jolly, David; Mueller, Monique P; Okumu, Eunice; Eley, Natalie T; Laws, Michelle; Isler, Malika Roman; Kalloo, Allison; Rogers, Randy C

    2015-06-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic inclusive of men who have sex with men, heterosexual men, and women. As part of a community-based participatory research study we assessed HIV testing experience among sexually active 18-30 year old Black men and women in Durham, NC. Of 508 participants, 173 (74 %) men and 236 (86 %; p = 0.0008) women reported ever being tested. Barriers to testing (e.g., perceived risk and stigma) were the same for men and women, but men fell behind mainly because a primary facilitator of testing-routine screening in clinical settings-was more effective at reaching women. Structural and behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection were prevalent but did not predict HIV testing experience. Reduced access to health care services for low income Black young adults may exacerbate HIV testing barriers that already exist for men and undermine previous success rates in reaching women. PMID:25893817

  10. Qualitative Research? Quantitative Research? What's the Problem? Resolving the Dilemma via a Postconstructivist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Gary

    It is argued that the debate between qualitative and quantitative research for educational researchers is actually an argument between constructivism and positivism. Positivism has been the basis for most quantitative research in education. Two different things are actually meant when constructivism is discussed (constructivism and…

  11. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  12. Regulatory Oversight. Approach to life extension of nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdebil, I. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Nuclear Laboratories and Research Reactors Div.; Omar, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Assessment Integration Div.

    2014-07-15

    As nuclear power plants and large research and isotope production facilities age, licensees are applying for permission to extend the operation of such nuclear installations beyond their assumed design life. It is the current practice in such cases for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to request the licensee to conduct an Integrated Safety Review (ISR). This is to collect sufficient and necessary information to allow CNSC staff to make determinations and recommendations to support regulatory decisions on granting a licence for safe and reliable continued operation of such facilities. The ISR (a process equivalent to a one-time Periodic Safety Review (PSR)) is a systematic and comprehensive assessment to determine the extent to which the plant conforms to modern codes, standards and practices; the licensing bases remains valid over the proposed extended operation period; arrangements are in place to maintain continued plant safety; and to ensure improvements are implemented to resolve identified issues. This paper presents the Canadian regulatory oversight experience, challenges, and lessons learned from the assessment of the results of an ISR that was conducted by a licensee to extend the operating licence of the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. (orig.)

  13. Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system. PMID:25991244

  14. The Romanian Consumer And Online Marketing – An Exploratory Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, online marketing has been quickly overtaking the traditional means of marketing due to several reasons, such as: low costs, the growing number of internet users and the long lasting relationship developed with them, the effortless usage of the web and of the online marketing tools. Online marketing is done by those individuals or organizations which exchange ideas and offers by using computers, online networks and interactive media, in order to reach their marketing objectives. The results of an exploratory research in terms of the consumers’ exposure, their behavior in relationship with the specific campaigns oriented toward them and the future of the online and offline direct communication at the level of the pre-defined target segments are presented in a comparative manner: online versus offline direct communication tools.

  15. Exploring Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Approaches to Business Communication Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Ruark, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    With our core focus on teaching and scholarship, business communication teacher-scholars are well placed to become leaders in the international Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) movement. In this article, SoTL is defined and contextualized, three SoTL research approaches are introduced, and disciplinary research projects are suggested. A…

  16. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  17. Current Cognitive Distortion Theory and Research: An Internalist Approach to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    This review examines contemporary cognitive distortion theory and research relating to sexual offenders. In particular, this review highlights that researchers--to date--have tended to adopt an internalist approach to sexual offenders' cognition which views offence-supportive cognitive activity as occurring solely within the mind. This review…

  18. Team Approach in the First Research Experience for Undergraduates in Botany/Zoology 152: Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. LEAD Center.

    This document summarizes the findings of the Learning through Evaluation, Adaptation and Dissemination (LEAD) Center's report on the team approach to the first research experience for undergraduates in botany and zoology. Students (N=25) and faculty (N=12) were interviewed and a comparison was made between students who performed the research in…

  19. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  20. Approaches and Methodological As Well As Interpretative Issues in Quality of Life Research in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Quality of life measures are designed to enable patients’ perspectives on the impact of health and healthcare interventions on their lives to be assessed and taken into account in clinical decision-making and research. This paper discusses some approaches, methodological as well as interpretative issues of health related quality of life research.

  1. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Research Development (II): Supporting Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, I. M.; Slammert, L.

    2006-01-01

    In South Africa, dominant discourses on research development are characterised by a technical-rational approach combined with a focus on the individual. Working from the notion that research is best characterised by the notion of communities of practice, it is claimed that more attention must be given to the building of intellectually engaging…

  2. Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

  3. Estuarine Science: A Synthetic Approach to Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William

    Estuarine Science arrives at a time when our views about estuaries and how human activities interact with them is changing. The growing understanding of estuaries feeds a movement toward an active approach to their management. This movement, in turn, has spawned a number of monitoring and management programs, each of which is focused on a different coastal region.The Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000, signed into law on November 7, authorizes $225 million over 5 years just to coordinate the numerous federal and nonfederal estuarine restoration programs now underway in the United States.The stakes are high. For example, failure to reverse decades of wetland loss in coastal Louisiana promises inevitable disaster for the one million residents of New Orleans. At an average elevation of 2.4 meters below sea level and sinking, New Orleans relies on the shrinking ˜50 km expanse of wetlands that lie between it and the Gulf of Mexico to absorb the storm surge from hurricanes that frequent this part of the coast.

  4. Capacity-building for health research in developing countries: a manager's approach

    OpenAIRE

    White Franklin

    2002-01-01

    Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both con...

  5. Researching emotional labour among Public Relations consultants in the UK: a social phenomenological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liz YEOMANS

    2013-01-01

    ‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978) and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009) and Svensson (2007) have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR) consultants exp...

  6. Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a survey on “Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience” conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European countries and few extra European countries as well, allow for three main considerations: i) projects involved 5 different disciplines as average and geography and sociology were present in the majority of the projects; ii) the level of interconnection between disciplines seems intermediate, meaning that information and methods are exchanged, but a full integration of methods and concepts into a common shared language and system of axioms is missing; iii) the lack of a common framework and common terminology represents a major barrier to good interdisciplinary work. The results highlight the role played in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers to interdisciplinary work and improve the efficacy and quality of resilience design.

  7. Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

  8. Meaning: lost, found or 'made' in translation? : A hermeneutical approach to cross-language interview research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research that includes interviews in languages foreign to the researcher(s) has become increasingly common. However, there is surprisingly little reflection on the methodological implications of such research practices. Furthermore, strategies on how to analyse cross- and multi-language interview material are lacking. The aim of this article is to present possible ways of handling these challenges, focusing mainly on analysis. I propose a hermeneutical approach to the issue. First, I will discuss the epistemological/methodological foundations of the approach before proposing some 'tools' to help practically tackle the 'problem' of analysis using the chosen methodological perspective. Rather than ignoring or trying to circumvent the question of foreign language and/or translation, in the proposed approach linguistic questions and questions of translation are the central focus.

  9. Can Approaches to Research in Art and Design Be Beneficially Adapted for Research into Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the research practices in Art and Design that are distinctively different from those common in research into higher education outside those fields. It considers whether and what benefit could be derived from their adaptation by the latter. The paper also examines the factors that are conducive and obstructive to adaptive…

  10. Development and Application of an Integrated Approach toward NASA Airspace Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Fong, Robert K.; Abramson, Paul D.; Koenke, Ed

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Systems Program is contributing air traffic management research in support of the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Contributions support research and development needs provided by the interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). These needs generally call for integrated technical solutions that improve system-level performance and work effectively across multiple domains and planning time horizons. In response, the Airspace Systems Program is pursuing an integrated research approach and has adapted systems engineering best practices for application in a research environment. Systems engineering methods aim to enable researchers to methodically compare different technical approaches, consider system-level performance, and develop compatible solutions. Systems engineering activities are performed iteratively as the research matures. Products of this approach include a demand and needs analysis, system-level descriptions focusing on NASA research contributions, system assessment and design studies, and common systemlevel metrics, scenarios, and assumptions. Results from the first systems engineering iteration include a preliminary demand and needs analysis; a functional modeling tool; and initial system-level metrics, scenario characteristics, and assumptions. Demand and needs analysis results suggest that several advanced concepts can mitigate demand/capacity imbalances for NextGen, but fall short of enabling three-times current-day capacity at the nation s busiest airports and airspace. Current activities are focusing on standardizing metrics, scenarios, and assumptions, conducting system-level performance assessments of integrated research solutions, and exploring key system design interfaces.

  11. How to conduct research on burnout: advantages and disadvantages of a unidimensional approach in burnout research

    OpenAIRE

    Brenninkmeijer, V; VanYperen, N

    2003-01-01

    When conducting research on burnout, it may be difficult to decide whether one should report results separately for each burnout dimension or whether one should combine the dimensions. Although the multidimensionality of the burnout concept is widely acknowledged, for research purposes it is sometimes convenient to regard burnout as a unidimensional construct. This article deals with the question of whether and when it may be appropriate to treat burnout as a unidimensional variable, and pres...

  12. How Psychical Researchers Construct Their Research as Scientific: A Discursive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Loraine, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Many academics have attempted to resolve the demarcation problem through boundary work. Due to this problem, it is difficult to distinguish between Science and Non-Science. Even some reasoned Science, such as Psychology, are accused of being unscientific. This investigation looks at how the designated Pseudoscience of Psychical research constructs its research as scientific when widely believed to investigate “non-science”. By analysing this construction through discourse analysis, a better u...

  13. Good research practices: a commonsense approach to ensuring quality in research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D R; Usher, R W

    1994-12-01

    This guideline can be a useful tool for assisting and assessing "non-GLP" laboratories in academic and contract settings. This guideline has proven useful in assessing academic and/or contract labs where a final product is needed which would meet FDA expectations for preclinical or clinical research. Because of differing research settings and study types, we apply the standards in a flexible manner. For example, in some settings, the study plan is simply documented in a research notebook as the study unfolds, whereas in other settings a written protocol (which is signed by the principal investigator) is in place prior to study initiation. Additionally, all criteria may not be applicable to every research facility. The focus of this guideline is to ensure that sufficient documentation exists which will allow for study reconstruction and to provide adequate evidence that the raw data generated by the facility are accurate. This guideline is a useful tool for Quality Assurance personnel and can also be used by research personnel in the development of appropriate quality systems for their research environment. PMID:7613744

  14. A problem-based approach to teaching research methodology to medical graduates in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jalalian Hosseini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Physicians are reticent to participate in research projects for avariety of reasons. Facilitating the active involvement ofdoctors in research projects is a high priority for the IranianBlood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. A one-month trainingcourse on research methodology was conducted for a groupof physicians in Mashhad, in northeast Iran. The participantswere divided in ten groups. They prepared a researchproposal under the guidance of a workshop leader. Thequality of the research proposals, which were prepared by allparticipants, went beyond our expectations. All of theresearch proposals were relevant to blood safety. In this briefreport we describe our approach.

  15. The 'whole-animal approach' as a heuristic principle in neuroscience research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRO, SERANI-MERLO; RODRIGO, PAZ; ANDRÉS, CASTILLO.

    Full Text Available Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A `whole-animal approach' is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of thi [...] s point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-animal-based approach may help to organize and integrate basic and clinical neuroscience research. Our proposal is in agreement with recent statements calling for more integrative approaches in biological and neuropsychiatric research

  16. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): An Integrated Approach for Analyzing Single Molecule Data

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfeld, Max; Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Mabuchi, Hideo; Herschlag, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for or...

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Multidiscipline Research Teams at NASA Langley Research Center: A Systems Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Barthelemy, Jean-Francois; Jones, Kenneth M.; Silcox, Richard J.; Silva, Walter A.; Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Multidisciplinary analysis and design is inherently a team activity due to the variety of required expertise and knowledge. As a team activity, multidisciplinary research cannot escape the issues that affect all teams. The level of technical diversity required to perform multidisciplinary analysis and design makes the teaming aspects even more important. A study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop a model of multidiscipline teams that can be used to help understand their dynamics and identify key factors that influence their effectiveness. The study sought to apply the elements of systems thinking to better understand the factors, both generic and Langley-specific, that influence the effectiveness of multidiscipline teams. The model of multidiscipline research teams developed during this study has been valuable in identifying means to enhance team effectiveness, recognize and avoid problem behaviors, and provide guidance for forming and coordinating multidiscipline teams.

  18. Capacity-building for health research in developing countries: a manager's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Franklin

    2002-09-01

    Research may be viewed as rigorous inquiry to advance knowledge and improve practices. An international commission has argued that strengthening research capacity is one of the most powerful, cost-effective, and sustainable means of advancing health and development. However, the global effort to promote research in developing countries has been mostly policy driven, and largely at the initiative of donor agencies based in developed countries. This policy approach, although essential, both contrasts with and is complementary to that of research managers, who must build capacity "from the ground up" in a variety of health service settings within countries and with differing mandates, resources, and constraints. In health organizations the concept of research is broad, and practices vary widely. However, building research capacity is not altogether different from building other kinds of organizational capacity, and it involves two major dimensions: strategic and operational. In organizations in the health field, if reference to research is not in the mission statement, then developing a relevant research capacity is made vastly more difficult. Research capacities that take years to develop can be easily damaged through inadequate support, poor management, or other negative influences associated with both internal and external environments. This paper draws from key international research policy documents and observations on the behavior of research and donor agencies in relation to developing countries. It examines capacity-building primarily as a challenge for research managers, realities underlying operational effectiveness and efficiency, approaches to resource mobilization, and the need for marketing the research enterprise. Selected examples from South Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean are presented. PMID:12396634

  19. The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Afanasieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article consists of determination the peculiarities of marketing researches of the regional product market and formation the system approach to marketing research for the regional market of meat and processed meats. The results of the analysis. The author considered theoretical approaches to determination of a sense of marketing research of market and proposed a definition of a concept «marketing research of a regional product market», taking into account its peculiarities. The author proposed the system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats. Especially, an object, a subject, an aim, tasks, directions, procedures, and methodical support are thoroughly considered. Also, the system of principles of marketing research of this market is improved. All this aspects are components of scientific novelty of the done research. Taking into consideration a key role of the market of meat and processed meats and its importance for increase of a food safety level during a current period, research and prognostication of this product market facilitate determination of basic principles on support of an appropriate amount of production of meat and processed meats and saturation of the market with a required amount of products that are of high quality and have an optimal price in attempt to provide all social classes with such products. Since results of such researches are more and more required, development of the system approach to marketing research of the market of meat and processed meats is of great practical importance. Using the methods for rating valuation of regions, each region is given a rank according to a level of an absolute figure. According to results of the research the author determined that only five regions of Ukraine have a considerably higher level of development of the market of meat and processed meats compared to other regions. These regions include AR Crimea, Dnipropetrovska, Donetska, Kyivska, Cherkaska regions. Cherkaska region is an absolute leader for a level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. The researches showed that 44% of Ukrainian regions are characterized by a low level of development of the market of meat and processed meats. Conclusions and directions of further researches. The system approach to marketing research of the regional market of meat and processed meats is developed and substantiated in the article. All components of the approach are thoroughly characterized. The results of research show that there is significant differentiation of conditions and tendencies of development of Ukrainian market of meat and processed meats through three types of regions. This process causes necessity of studying of regional peculiarities and working up of regional target programs of development of this product market. To form regional target program of development of the market of meat and processed meats the state should create more considerable researches of social and economic conditions and indicators of a potential of development of the market of meat and processed meat. Such researches are the direction of further scientific work. The approach enables to do complex marketing research of a modern state and peculiarities of development the market of meat and processed meats of Kharkiv region.

  20. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  1. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  2. A Proposal for a Framework of Research Approaches on Information Technology Impacts on Corporate Level Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Keramati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, much study has been conducted on the impact of Information Technology (IT on productivity at various levels. With a careful scan of the published work at corporate level productivity, we shows that, researchers have developed 3 different approaches in assessing the correlation between IT implementation and productivity measures. Broadly speaking, the first two approaches focus on the effects of IT investment on direct and intermediary, financial and non-financial, measures of productivity. None of these two approaches could positively prove either a direct correlation or lack of such a relation. The third approach, `complementary` approach, considers the IT implementation but emphasizes the role of complementary investments that enhance and complement the IT implementation. In this article, an effort has been made to provide satisfactory evidences to show that IT implementation, when rationally backed up by suitable complementary investment, will lead to a considerable increase in productivity at corporate level.

  3. Translating Research Evidence into Practice to Reduce Health Disparities: A Social Determinants Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard H.; Oppenheimer, Sarah C.; Massin-short, Sarah B.; Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, K.

    2010-01-01

    Translating research evidence to reduce health disparities has emerged as a global priority. The 2008 World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health recently urged “closing the health gap in a generation”1. Achieving this goal requires a social determinants approach to create public health systems that translate efficacy (documented in research settings) to effectiveness (in the broader community). In this article, we review the scope, definitions, and framing of he...

  4. An agnostic approach to ancient landscapes: conversations about the cultural anthropology of archaeological research

    OpenAIRE

    Winder, I. C.; Winder, N. P.; I.C.; Winder; N.P.

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the phenomenological or ‘agnostic’ approach to evolutionary systems advocated by Thomas Henry Huxley is applicable in anthropological archaeology and show how agnosticism helps defuse the tension between humanists, natural philosophers and natural historians in integrative research. We deploy problem-framing methods from policy-relevant research in a palaeoanthropological context, developing a model of complex (scale-dependent, irreversible) causality and applying it to the ...

  5. Social and behavioral research in genomic sequencing: approaches from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium Outcomes and Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stacy W; Martins, Yolanda; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biesecker, Barbara B; Christensen, Kurt D; Joffe, Steven; Rini, Christine; Veenstra, David; McGuire, Amy L

    2014-10-01

    The routine use of genomic sequencing in clinical medicine has the potential to dramatically alter patient care and medical outcomes. To fully understand the psychosocial and behavioral impact of sequencing integration into clinical practice, it is imperative that we identify the factors that influence sequencing-related decision making and patient outcomes. In an effort to develop a collaborative and conceptually grounded approach to studying sequencing adoption, members of the National Human Genome Research Institute's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium formed the Outcomes and Measures Working Group. Here we highlight the priority areas of investigation and psychosocial and behavioral outcomes identified by the Working Group. We also review some of the anticipated challenges to measurement in social and behavioral research related to genomic sequencing; opportunities for instrument development; and the importance of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method approaches. This work represents the early, shared efforts of multiple research teams as we strive to understand individuals' experiences with genomic sequencing. The resulting body of knowledge will guide recommendations for the optimal use of sequencing in clinical practice. PMID:24625446

  6. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  7. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  8. Narratives as Zones of Dialogic Constructions: A Bakhtinian Approach to Data in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanova, Gergana

    2013-01-01

    Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…

  9. Action Research as an Approach to Integrating Sustainability into MBA Programs: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory project that employed an action research approach to integrating sustainability into core subjects in the MBA program at an Australian university. It documents the change methodology used, the theoretical basis for this choice, and the project outcomes. It then identifies some key enabling factors and…

  10. Antecedents and Consequences of Service Quality in a Higher Education Context: A Qualitative Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho Yin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to report on the perception of students in regard to critical antecedents, dimensions and consequences of service quality with an aim to develop a theoretical model in the context of a university in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This research used focus group discussions with 19 students who had been…

  11. On Conceptual Analysis as the Primary Qualitative Approach to Statistics Education Research in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petocz, Agnes; Newbery, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education in psychology often falls disappointingly short of its goals. The increasing use of qualitative approaches in statistics education research has extended and enriched our understanding of statistical cognition processes, and thus facilitated improvements in statistical education and practices. Yet conceptual analysis, a…

  12. Christian Faculty Teaching Reflective Practice: An Action Research Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arch Chee Keen

    2009-01-01

    The article reports the final results of a collaborative action research project that devised a reflective approach to theological education. This project lives within the tension between prescribing and implementing a model of theological education and working at the level of applied understanding. Living within this tension are six professors in…

  13. Strategic Management Approaches Preference in Turkish Industry: A Research on ISO 1000 Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Erol

    Full Text Available Positioning school approach that gives prominence to the effect of positioning and environmental powers in industry and resource-based approach that emphasize the importance of firm’s resource, capabilities and competences are two basic approaches that express firms’ performance differences in strategic management field. Which one of these basic approaches will be chosen occupies an important place in strategic management subjects. Purpose of this study is to reveal preferences of managers and accordingly firms about strategic management approaches in branch of Turkish industry and to determine whether positioning school approach or resource-based approach is efficient and predominant in success of firms from the viewpoints of managers. The research was carried out upon the first 500 big industrial enterprises and second 500 big industrial enterprises carrying on their business in industrial sector in Turkey as published by Istanbul Chamber of Industry (ISO. As a result of the analysis of the acquired data, it has been precipitated that in Turkey, managers of the biggest 1000 industrial enterprises, accordingly firms, adopt positioning school approach.

  14. THE TEACHING RESEARCH FOCUSED ON THE MOVEMENT: HEURISTIC APPROACHES AND ELEMENTS OF COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIELLO PAOLA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation

  15. Evaluating a team-based approach to research capacity building using a matched-pairs study design

    OpenAIRE

    Holden Libby; Pager Susan; Golenko Xanthe; Ware Robert S; Weare Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a continuing need for research capacity building initiatives for primary health care professionals. Historically strategies have focused on interventions aimed at individuals but more recently theoretical frameworks have proposed team-based approaches. Few studies have evaluated these new approaches. This study aims to evaluate a team-based approach to research capacity building (RCB) in primary health using a validated quantitative measure of research capacity in...

  16. Critical approaches in physical therapy research: investigating the symbolic value of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Teachman, Gail

    2012-08-01

    Research using a critical social science perspective is uncommon in physiotherapy (PT) despite its potential advantages for investigating questions other approaches cannot address. Critical approaches can be used to expose ideas and concepts that are dominant, given, or taken-for-granted in practice in order to reflect on how "things could be otherwise." The purpose of this paper is to use an example of research examining the symbolic value of walking to outline the key features of critical research and its application to PT. The study drew from Pierre Bourdieu's sociology of practice to illuminate how socially ingrained notions of normality and disability are reflected in rehabilitation practices and affect parents and children with cerebral palsy. Dominant social assumptions about the value of walking are shown to shape individual choices and contribute to parental feelings of angst and doubt, and negative self-identities for children. The example reveals how critical approaches to research can be used to reveal the socio-political dimension of rehabilitation practice and address important research questions that have been largely neglected. PMID:22507195

  17. Review of Family Business Definitions: Cluster Approach and Implications of Heterogeneous Application for Family Business Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Harms

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a deeper understanding of family firms’ uniqueness, might lead to more reliable comparative studies as well as interdisciplinary work (e.g., finance and family firms and enables a quicker consolidation of family business research, especially in contrast to research on small and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurship. Therefore, the present review contributes to the development of family business research by providing an initial attempt to comprehensively systematized existing family firm definitions which could be used by researchers in family business research.

  18. Community-researcher liaisons: The pathways to Resilience Project advisory panel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda C, Theron.

    Full Text Available The Pathways to Resilience Project is an ongoing, community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Its express focus is the exploration of how at-risk youths use formal services and/or informal, naturally occurring resources to beat the odds that have been stacked against them, with the intent [...] of partnering with communities to promote youth resilience. As part of this exploration, project researchers partnered with representatives of participating communities, or advisory panels (AP). However, in literature documenting the worth of participatory methodologies in knowledge generation and social change, there is little mention of how partnerships with AP support communities build on existing knowledge to effect meaningful change. Therefore, the aim of this article is to report the instrumental case study of the AP to the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, in order to foreground the research-informing, knowledge-generating, and practice-shaping value of collaboration with an AP. Simultaneously, this case showcases the complexity of AP-researcher partnerships in order to sensitise CBPR researchers to the need for reflexive, flexible cooperations if communities are to cogenerate and implement local knowledge in enabling ways.

  19. A Review of Approaches of Resource-based Empirical Research in Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the approaches employed in banking empirical studies that use the resource-based view as a core theoretical anchor to relate bank resources to performance outcomes. The review dwelt on measurement issues and strategies for controlling confounding factors. Six approaches of measuring bank resources are identified as: indirect assessment through the use of observable attributes, direct assessment through output counts, direct assessment by top managers, direct assessment by customers, direct assessment by experts and indirect assessment through inductive case studies. Three approaches to measuring bank performance are identified as: the use of only financial measures, the use of only nonfinancial measures and the use of a mix of financial and nonfinancial measures. Overall, approaches that relate bank resources, strategy and performance have great potential to advance the resource-based view theory from being a mere theoretical framework to being a practical framework for practicing managers in banking firms.

  20. Playing the power game for qualitative researchers: the possibility of a post-modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, C; Beech, I

    1998-04-01

    The later work of Wittgenstein (1953) takes language and meaning as arising in use. A local 'grammar' is created. Ethical/research awarding committees have developed, and clashing, meanings about what constitutes 'good' research. The fixed rule language game of the committee is implicitly powerful because it is part of well-rehearsed societal narratives which equate science and knowledge. This creates a force on the qualitative researcher to conform to the authoritative grammar which it is difficult to counter. In these circumstances, qualitative researchers may choose to inhabit two, parallel research universes by 'storying' their research proposal according to the audience. But a question arises as to whether ethical approval has been gained when a 'Trojan horse' approach is used. Moving between worlds involves the researcher living with a dual identity. The postmodernist movement away from structure, form and singular truth is seen as setting a context for a new archaeology of knowledge which transcends good/bad dichotomies in relation to research. The qualitative researcher is encouraged to enter into dialogical communication with committees with the hope that a shared grammar may emerge. PMID:9578210

  1. Preparatory and field work phases in the qualitative empirical research process in management: the case studies approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rua, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to promote qualitative methodology within the scientific community of management. The specific objective is oriented to propose an empirical research process based on case study method. This is to ensure rigor in the empirical research process, that future research may follow a similar procedure to that is proposed. Design/methodology/approach: Following a qualitative methodological approach, we propose a research process that develops according to four ph...

  2. Ethics education for clinician–researchers in genetics: The combined approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma'n Zawati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in genomic technology and genetic research have uncovered new and unforeseen ethical and legal issues that must now be faced by clinician–researchers. However, lack of adequate ethical training places clinician–researchers in a position where they might be unable to effectively assess and resolve the issues presented to them. The literature demonstrates that ethics education is relevant and engaging where it is targeted to the level and context of the learners, and it includes real-world based cases approached in innovative ways. In order to test the feasibility of a combined approach to ethics education, a conference was held in 2012 to raise awareness and familiarize participants with the ethical and legal issues surrounding medical technology in genetics and then to have them apply this to reality-based case studies. The conference included participants from a variety of backgrounds and was divided into three sections: (i informative presentations by experts in the field; (ii mock REB deliberations; and (iii a second mock-REB, conducted by a panel of experts. Feedback from participants was positive and indicated that they felt the learning objectives had been met and that the material was presented in a clear and organized fashion. Although only an example of the combined approach in a particular setting, the success of this conference suggests that combining small group learning, practical cases, role-play and interdisciplinary learning provides a positive experience and is an effective approach to ethics education.

  3. Processes of international collaboration in management research : A reflexive, autoethnographic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsen, Karsten; Butler, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and academics increasingly work on collaborative projects and write papers in international research teams. This trend is driven by greater publishing demands in terms of the quality and breadth of data and analysis methods, which tend to be difficult to achieve without collaborating across institutional and national boundaries. Yet, our understanding of the collaborative processes in an academic setting and the potential tensions associated with them remains limited. We use a reflexive, autoethnographic approach to explicitly investigate our own experiences of international collaborative research. We offer systematic insights into the social and intellectual processes of academic collaborative writing, identifying six lessons and two key tensions that influence the success of international research teams. Our findings may benefit the formation of future coauthor teams, the preparation of research proposals, and the development of PhD curricula.

  4. Principles in practice: reflections on a 'postpositivist' approach to evaluation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, O; Gnich, W; Platt, S

    2001-04-01

    User participation is currently seen as an ethically appropriate way to proceed when researching disadvantaged groups and it is encouraged by funding agencies. However, the literature rarely discusses the methodological and practical implications for researchers attempting to incorporate user participation into evaluation studies which are informed from an epistemologically opposed (positivist) research paradigm. The paper explores this issue by drawing on the evaluation of a community-based smoking intervention to describe and reflect upon the recruitment, training and employment of local residents as survey interviewers. While the evaluation methodology adopts a quasi-experimental approach, the appointment of local residents as survey interviewers reflects an alternative (interpretive) research tradition. The combined strategy constitutes a postpositivist methodology in that it combines a data collection strategy more akin to interpretive social science while retaining a positivistic epistemological framework. The paper describes some logistics of this approach and problems encountered during the course of survey. While many of the problems described may be routinely associated (although seldom aired) with survey work, particularly in disadvantaged areas, the paper suggests they are also a function of the postpositivist research strategy which we adopted. The failure to involve interviewers in the conception and development of the evaluation meant that they lacked identification with our endeavour and this had practical implications for the survey interviewing. Although the survey was successfully executed and the employment of local residents was a valuable and worthwhile experience, the authors recognize that this narrow conception of user involvement meant that many of the potential benefits (both to the research and the participants) associated with participatory approaches were forfeited. PMID:11345663

  5. Forging New Service Paths: Institutional Approaches to Providing Research Data Management Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Raboin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to bring support for data management and eScience to their communities. The approaches described include two library-based, integrated service models and one collaboratively-staffed, center-based service model.Results: Three institutions describe their experiences in creating the organizational capacity for research data management support services. Although each institutional approach is unique, common challenges include garnering administrative support, managing the integration of services with new or existing staff structures, and continuing to meet researchers needs as they evolve.Conclusions: There is no one way to provide research data management services, but any staff position, committee, or formalized center reflects an overarching organizational commitment to data management support.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology: an improved pharmacology approach for chinese herbal medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Ying-Wu; Qin, Xiu-de; Hua, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Lian; Kang, Li-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in the health maintenance of specific survival environment for neurons and glial cells, has been constructed and applied to CHM research for treating ND. In the present review, the concept and advantages of CSFP are briefly introduced. The approaches and key technologies of CSFP in CHM research are also collated and analyzed. Furthermore, the developing tendency of CSFP is summarized, and its framework in CHM research is also proposed. In summary, CSFP provides a new strategy not only to eliminate some barriers of CHM research for treating ND, but also to broaden the pharmacology research for bridging the gap between CHM and modern medicine. Moreover, the advancements in CSFP will bring about a conceptual move in active ingredients discovery of CHM and make a significant contribution to CHM modernization and globalization. PMID:24454505

  7. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, I.B.; Kaul, M.K.; Post, R.I.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Vinson, T.J.

    1979-02-01

    An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants.

  8. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project VII. Systems analysis specification of computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial specification is presented of a computation approach for a probabilistic risk assessment model for use in the Seismic Safety Margin Research Program. This model encompasses the whole seismic calculational chain from seismic input through soil-structure interaction, transfer functions to the probability of component failure, integration of these failures into a system model and thereby estimate the probability of a release of radioactive material to the environment. It is intended that the primary use of this model will be in sensitivity studies to assess the potential conservatism of different modeling elements in the chain and to provide guidance on priorities for research in seismic design of nuclear power plants

  9. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data. PMID:25417028

  10. Canadian Experience in Application of Graded Approach for Safety Assessment of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Research reactors are typically used for basic and applied research, education and training, production of isotopes, material testing, neutron activation analysis and other purposes. Most research reactors have a small potential for hazard to the public compared with power reactors. Safety assessment for the research reactors needs to be undertaken to evaluate compliance with safety requirements and to determine the measures to ensure reactor safety. Considering the different types of research reactors and their associated utilization, safety assessment should be commensurate with the potential hazard, ensuring that the design and operation of each reactor lead to adequate safety and defence in depth. The scope of presentation will cover the following topics: - Canadian regulatory framework for licensing research reactors; - Graded approach applied to safety assessment of the research reactors; - Use of graded approach to safety assessment of SLOWPOKE and NRU reactors. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has developed a regulatory framework for licensing small reactor facilities (including research reactors) that sets out requirements for the safety analysis and reactor design. CNSC staff considers each application individually in determining how much rigour and stringency are required for the safety assessment. All important factors affecting the overall reactor safety, such as safety system design, inherent safety features, the amount of fissile andsafety features, the amount of fissile and fissionable materials, and the source terms are considered. The graded approach introduced, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such way that the level of safety assessment is proportional to the potential hazards posed by the research reactor. Licensing requirements vary with the type of facility and they may be applied in a graded fashion based on overall risk. Graded approach can be applied to all components of safety assessment including radiation risk, safety functions, defence in depth, engineering aspects, site characteristics and safety analysis. Examples of application of this approach to safety assessment of the Canadian research reactors, Slowpoke and NRU, are presented. The SLOWPOKE reactor (20 kW) has inherent reactivity control by design, since any increase in core temperature has a negative reactivity effect causing a passive reduction of reactor power to limit any temperature excursion. The NRU reactor (135 MW) operates at low pressure and low temperature (except for the experimental loops) and it is used for material testing and isotope production. For SLOWPOKE reactors, less detailed assessment of radiation risk is needed in comparison to the NRU due to a smaller amount of fission product inventory in the core. Full assessment of defence in depth is required for the high power, complex NRU reactor. However, assessment of means to mitigate severe accidents may not be needed for SLOWPOKE reactors due to their inherent reactivity characteristics. A design of any reactor facility must provide the fundamental safety functions during and following postulated accident events. The extent and rigour for demonstrating that such safety functions are fulfilled can be graded and vary depending on the reactor design. In general, basic safety function related to control reactivity cannot be graded. However, the grading can be applied to SLOWPOKE reactors since they exhibit inherent self-limiting power levels, which physically limit the amount of positive reactivity that can be inserted in the core. Assessments of safety functions relevant to the reactor core cooling and confinement could be less extensive for the SLOWPOKE reactors since their cooling systems are less complex than those of NRU. Very small source terms of the SLOWPOKE reactors do not require a confinement system to be as stringent as those used in large research reactors. If the research reactor is designed without a confinement system (e.g., NRU), it must be justified to show that there is no potential release of radioactive materials

  11. Advanced Pre-Clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    ChengWang

    2012-01-01

    Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging tech...

  12. Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research

    OpenAIRE

    Facio Flavia M; Sapp Julie C; Linn Amy; Biesecker Leslie G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of...

  13. Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medium to communicate a complete computational analysis. PMID:20738864

  14. Galaxy: a comprehensive approach for supporting accessible, reproducible, and transparent computational research in the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Goecks, Jeremy; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    Increased reliance on computational approaches in the life sciences has revealed grave concerns about how accessible and reproducible computation-reliant results truly are. Galaxy http://usegalaxy.org, an open web-based platform for genomic research, addresses these problems. Galaxy automatically tracks and manages data provenance and provides support for capturing the context and intent of computational methods. Galaxy Pages are interactive, web-based documents that provide users with a medi...

  15. Surgical Approaches to Vascular Access for Large-Caliber Devices in Preclinical Research Models

    OpenAIRE

    Barka, Noah; Rakow, Nancy; Lentz, Linnea; Kopcak, Michael; Wika, Kent; Menk, Ana; Green, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Percutaneous vascular access options in preclinical models are often smaller than the relevant structures in humans or undersized for early-prototype research devices. Here we describe the surgical approaches and results for surgical vascular access sites in preclinical swine and sheep models. Fourteen adult miniature swine underwent successful 18-French vascular access by means of thoracotomy to the brachiocephalic artery. In addition, 11 swine and 10 sheep underwent successful 22-French vas...

  16. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gliddon Terry; Woodruff Roger; Annells Merilyn; Swift Kathleen; Street Annette F; Oakley Anne; Ottman Goetz

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-i...

  17. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight iblood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  18. Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

  19. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  20. Food and physical activity environments: an energy balance approach for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062

  1. Researching emotional labour among Public Relations consultants in the UK: a social phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz YEOMANS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social phenomenology’ (Schütz, 1970; 1978 and its concept of the ‘lifeworld’ has received limited attention in the research methods literature. Few contemporary researchers, with the exception of Aspers (2006a; 2006b; 2009 and Svensson (2007 have developed procedures for undertaking social phenomenological research in occupational settings. I developed a social phenomenological approach to explore, from an emotional labour perspective, how public relations (PR consultants experienced, practised and understood their everyday interactions with clients, colleagues and journalists (Hochschild, 1983. If emotion is understood as a relational practice, the analysis of socially-constructed discourse is essential to access emotional meaning structures within occupational cultures such as public relations. I adopted an iterative analytical process whereby I interviewed, twice, a sample of six participants. From transcript analysis I produced a ‘description of practice’ document for participants to check (Aspers, 2006a; 2009. ‘Bracketing’ (Husserl, 1963/1913 involved writing self-memos throughout the research process, and finally, a self-reflexive account. Thematic analysis of findings resulted in a rich understanding of emotion management and identity work in public relations. This paper demonstrates that an iterative and reflexive analytical process that involves participants in co-creating social reality, is a compelling approach to understand the ‘lifeworld’ of social actors in occupational settings.

  2. A generalizable pre-clinical research approach for orphan disease therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaulieu Chandree L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing, the pace of inherited orphan disease gene identification has increased dramatically, a situation that will continue for at least the next several years. At present, the numbers of such identified disease genes significantly outstrips the number of laboratories available to investigate a given disorder, an asymmetry that will only increase over time. The hope for any genetic disorder is, where possible and in addition to accurate diagnostic test formulation, the development of therapeutic approaches. To this end, we propose here the development of a strategic toolbox and preclinical research pathway for inherited orphan disease. Taking much of what has been learned from rare genetic disease research over the past two decades, we propose generalizable methods utilizing transcriptomic, system-wide chemical biology datasets combined with chemical informatics and, where possible, repurposing of FDA approved drugs for pre-clinical orphan disease therapies. It is hoped that this approach may be of utility for the broader orphan disease research community and provide funding organizations and patient advocacy groups with suggestions for the optimal path forward. In addition to enabling academic pre-clinical research, strategies such as this may also aid in seeding startup companies, as well as further engaging the pharmaceutical industry in the treatment of rare genetic disease.

  3. Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Sjoerd

    2013-03-01

    The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such "a-priorism" is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitutes the organization. The main argument of this paper holds that performing organization level research in scientometrics can only proceed by taking a pragmatic stance on the constitution of the organization. As such, we argue that performing organization level research in scientometrics (i) requires both authoritative "objective" and non-authoritative "subjective" background knowledge, (ii) involves non-logic practices that can be more or less theoretically informed, and (iii) depends crucially upon the general aim of the research endeavor in which the organization is taken as a basic unit of analysis. To our opinion a pragmatic stance on organization level research in scientometrics is a viable alternative to both overly positivist and overly relativist approaches as well as that it might render the relation between scientometrics and science policy more productive. PMID:23419790

  4. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  5. ENFOQUES DE ESTUDIO DE CASOS EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA / CASE STUDY APPROACHES IN NURSING RESEARCH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EUGENIA, URRA MEDINA; ROCÍO, NÚÑEZ CARRASCO; CARMEN, RETAMAL VALENZUELA; LUCY, JURE CARES.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de casos han sido usados en una variedad de disciplinas en las ciencias sociales y salud, al tener cualidades para comprender en profundidad un fenómeno en variados contextos y situaciones naturales. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido confuso por las diferentes visiones de los investigadores. [...] Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una distinción de los estudios de casos: con perspectiva cualitativa y como un diseño de investigación. Los estudios de casos cualitativos se originan por la forma particular de ver el caso como un todo: su contexto y sus límites, con análisis intensivo del caso o casos colectivos, y siempre bajo la concepción de su idiosincrasia y sin generalización. El diseño de estudios de casos como parte de una estrategia investigativa busca dar respuesta a una pregunta de investigación que permite usar diferentes métodos para hacer constantes comparaciones múltiples. En síntesis, los estudios de casos son usados en ambas formas por los investigadores y tienen un potencial de utilidad en situaciones y contextos de enfermería y salud. Abstract in english Case studies have been used into social sciences and health disciplines because of their properties to understand complex phenomena in a variety of contexts and situations. However, its use has been confusing because of the different researcher's perspectives. This article aims to distinguish two ty [...] pes of two types of case studies approaches: the one with a qualitative perspective and as a design research strategy. The qualitative case study are originated by the particular way of seing the case as a whole: its contexts and limits, intensive case analysis or collective cases, and always under the conception of their idiosyncrasy without generalization. In a research design, case study is a research strategy that tries to answer a research question by applying different methods for data collection and analyzing by using constant comparison. Currently, both approaches of case studies are used by researchers, having a potential benefit for nursing and health settings and contexts.

  6. The Application of a Multiphase Triangulation Approach to Mixed Methods: The Research of an Aspiring School Principal Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Howard; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged as a credible alternative to unitary research approaches. The authors show how a combination of a triangulation convergence model with a triangulation multilevel model was used to research an aspiring school principal development pilot program. The multilevel model is used to show the national and regional levels…

  7. The intersubjective endeavor of psychopathology research: methodological reflections on a second-person perspective approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Laura; Fellin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Research in psychopathology may be considered as an intersubjective endeavor mainly concerned with understanding other minds. Thus, the way we conceive of social understanding influences how we do research in psychology in the first place. In this paper, we focus on psychopathology research as a paradigmatic case for this methodological issue, since the relation between the researcher and the object of study is characterized by a major component of "otherness." We critically review different methodologies in psychopathology research, highlighting their relation to different social cognition theories (the third-, first-, and second-person approaches). Hence we outline the methodological implications arising from each theoretical stance. Firstly, we critically discuss the dominant paradigm in psychopathology research, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) and on quantitative methodology, as an example of a third-person methodology. Secondly, we contrast this mainstream view with phenomenological psychopathology which-by rejecting the reductionist view exclusively focused on behavioral symptoms-takes consciousness as its main object of study: it therefore attempts to grasp patients' first-person experience. But how can we speak about a first-person perspective in psychopathology if the problem at stake is the experience of the other? How is it possible to understand the experience from "within," if the person who is having this experience is another? By addressing these issues, we critically explore the feasibility and usefulness of a second-person methodology in psychopathology research. Notwithstanding the importance of methodological pluralism, we argue that a second-person perspective should inform the epistemology and methods of research in psychopathology, as it recognizes the fundamental circular and intersubjective construction of knowledge. PMID:25368589

  8. Advanced Pre-clinical Research Approaches and Models to Studying Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengWang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in pediatric and obstetric surgery have resulted in an increase in the duration and complexity of anesthetic procedures. A great deal of concern has recently arisen regarding the safety of anesthesia in infants and children. Because of obvious limitations, it is not possible to thoroughly explore the effects of anesthetic agents on neurons in vivo in human infants or children. However, the availability of some advanced pre-clinical research approaches and models, such as imaging technology both in vitro and in vivo, stem cell and nonhuman primate experimental models, have provided potentially invaluable tools for examining the developmental effects of anesthetic agents. This review discusses the potential application of some sophisticaled research approaches, e.g., calcium imaging, in stem cell-derived in vitro models, especially human embryonic neural stem cells, along with their capacity for proliferation and their potential for differentiation, to dissect relevant mechanisms underlying the etiology of the neurotoxicity associated with developmental exposures to anesthetic agents. Also, this review attempts to discuss several advantages for using the developing rhesus monkey models (in vivo, when combined with dynamic molecular imaging approaches, in addressing critical issues related to the topic of pediatric sedation/anesthesia. These include the relationships between anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity, dose response, time-course and developmental stage at time of exposure (in vivo studies, serving to provide the most expeditious platform toward decreasing the uncertainty in extrapolating pre-clinical data to the human condition.

  9. Authentic And Concurrent Evaluation-refining : An Evaluation Approach In Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Carina Ihlström; Åkesson, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for more detailed accounts for evaluation in design science research literature. By revisiting a design project regarding the future e-newspaper we give detailed descriptions of its authentic and concurrent evaluation approach by illustrating the what, why and how of all evaluation activities throughout the whole project. The project produced seven different design artifacts that were evaluated. The utility and theoretical outcomes of the evaluation activities clearly influenced design decisions regarding newspaper design, user value and business model design as well as decisions on strategic levels. We emphasize a holistic and concurrent approach to evaluation compared to the general design science research thinking and argue that reflecting on how to seek authenticity is important. By authenticity we refer to the notion of how closely an evaluation captures the context and actual use of an artifact. With the holistic approach we encourage evaluation to be inclusive of different aspects and relationships between stakeholder groups in the evaluation activities. Further we think that concurrency is not narrowed to evaluation but also regards theorizing. While it makes sense for planning to distinguish between phases and stages of evaluation and theorizing, in practice they are intrinsically interlinked and concurrent.

  10. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  11. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145

  12. An Integrative, Multilevel, and Transdisciplinary Research Approach to Challenges of Work, Family, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Kelly, Erin L; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M; Dearing, James W; King, Rosalind B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2013-03-01

    Recognizing a need for rigorous, experimental research to support the efforts of workplaces and policymakers in improving the health and wellbeing of employees and their families, the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention formed the Work, Family & Health Network (WFHN). The WFHN is implementing an innovative multisite study with a rigorous experimental design (adaptive randomization, control groups), comprehensive multilevel measures, a novel and theoretically based intervention targeting the psychosocial work environment, and translational activities. This paper describes challenges and benefits of designing a multilevel and transdisciplinary research network that includes an effectiveness study to assess intervention effects on employees, families, and managers; a daily diary study to examine effects on family functioning and daily stress; a process study to understand intervention implementation; and translational research to understand and inform diffusion of innovation. Challenges were both conceptual and logistical, spanning all aspects of study design and implementation. In dealing with these challenges, however, the WFHN developed innovative, transdisciplinary, multi-method approaches to conducting workplace research that will benefit both the research and business communities. PMID:24618878

  13. Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotz Karola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

  14. Review: Approaches to research on CO2/brine two-phase migration in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Dong, Bo; Breen, Stephen; Zhao, Minglong; Qiao, Juan; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Song, Yongchen

    2015-02-01

    Understanding CO2/brine multiphase migration processes is critical for effectively evaluating potential storage capacity, ensuring storage security, and predicting the long-term fate of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. Success depends on the development and application of appropriate research methods. This paper accordingly reviews the progress made in research methods on CO2/brine two-phase migration. Due to intrinsic linkage between CO2 migration and trapping in saline aquifers, prediction of CO2/brine migration processes requires an accurate understanding of CO2 trapping mechanisms. Six recognized physical or geochemical mechanisms, including structural and stratigraphic trapping, residual gas trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping, local capillary trapping and mineral trapping, can impede or prevent CO2 migration according to different dominating variables, and consequently immobilize CO2 in brine formations at varying time and spatial scales. Laboratory experiments, field-scale monitoring and computational modeling are the main approaches in studies on CO2/brine multiphase migration. Different techniques have been designed and developed within each of these methods in terms of physical conditions and spatial scales of multiphase migration phenomena. Due to multi-scale characteristics of CO2/brine multiphase migration processes and complementary relationships among these methods and techniques, different research methods and techniques are often used in combination. Based on a systematic analysis of limitations and weaknesses, improvements are recommended which could potentially increase the accuracy, reliability and applicability of the approaches.

  15. ProMateus—an open research approach to protein-binding sites analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvirth, Hani; Heinemann, Uri; Birnbaum, David; Tishby, Naftali; Schreiber, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    The development of bioinformatic tools by individual labs results in the abundance of parallel programs for the same task. For example, identification of binding site regions between interacting proteins is done using: ProMate, WHISCY, PPI-Pred, PINUP and others. All servers first identify unique properties of binding sites and then incorporate them into a predictor. Obviously, the resulting prediction would improve if the most suitable parameters from each of those predictors would be incorporated into one server. However, because of the variation in methods and databases, this is currently not feasible. Here, the protein-binding site prediction server is extended into a general protein-binding sites research tool, ProMateus. This web tool, based on ProMate's infrastructure enables the easy exploration and incorporation of new features and databases by the user, providing an evaluation of the benefit of individual features and their combination within a set framework. This transforms the individual research into a community exercise, bringing out the best from all users for optimized predictions. The analysis is demonstrated on a database of protein protein and protein-DNA interactions. This approach is basically different from that used in generating meta-servers. The implications of the open-research approach are discussed. ProMateus is available at http://bip.weizmann.ac.il/promate. PMID:17488838

  16. ProMateus--an open research approach to protein-binding sites analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvirth, Hani; Heinemann, Uri; Birnbaum, David; Tishby, Naftali; Schreiber, Gideon

    2007-07-01

    The development of bioinformatic tools by individual labs results in the abundance of parallel programs for the same task. For example, identification of binding site regions between interacting proteins is done using: ProMate, WHISCY, PPI-Pred, PINUP and others. All servers first identify unique properties of binding sites and then incorporate them into a predictor. Obviously, the resulting prediction would improve if the most suitable parameters from each of those predictors would be incorporated into one server. However, because of the variation in methods and databases, this is currently not feasible. Here, the protein-binding site prediction server is extended into a general protein-binding sites research tool, ProMateus. This web tool, based on ProMate's infrastructure enables the easy exploration and incorporation of new features and databases by the user, providing an evaluation of the benefit of individual features and their combination within a set framework. This transforms the individual research into a community exercise, bringing out the best from all users for optimized predictions. The analysis is demonstrated on a database of protein protein and protein-DNA interactions. This approach is basically different from that used in generating meta-servers. The implications of the open-research approach are discussed. ProMateus is available at http://bip.weizmann.ac.il/promate. PMID:17488838

  17. How desertification research is addressed in Spain? Land versus Soil approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero Sierra, Celia; Marques, María Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; Escadafal, Richard; Exbrayat, Williams; Akthar-Schuster, Mariam; El Haddadi, Anass

    2013-04-01

    This study intend to understand how desertification research is organised in a south Mediterranean country, as is Spain. It is part of a larger work addressing soil and land research and its relationships with stakeholders. This wider work aims to explain the weakness of the United Nation Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which devoid of a scientific advisory panel. Within this framework, we assume that a fitting coordination between scientific knowledge and a better flow of information between researchers and policy makers is needed in order to slow down and reverse the impacts of land degradation on drylands. With this purpose we conducted an in-depth study at national level in Spain. The initial work focused on a small sample of published references in scientific journals indexed in the Web of Science. It allowed us to identify the most common thematic approaches and working issues, as well as the corresponding institutions and research teams and the relationships between them. The preliminary results of this study pointed out that two prevalent approaches at this national level could be identified. The first one is related to applied science being sensitive to socio-economic issues, and the second one is related to basic science studying the soil in depth, but it is often disconnected from socio-economic factors. We also noticed that the Spanish research teams acknowledge the other Spanish teams in this subject, as frequent co-citations are found in their papers, nevertheless, they do not collaborate. We also realised that the Web of Science database does not collect the wide spectrum of sociology, economics and the human implications of land degradation which use to be included in books or reports related to desertification. A new wider database was built compiling references of Web of Science related to "desertification", "land", "soil", "development" and "Spain" adding references from other socioeconomic databases. In a second stage we used bibliometric techniques through the Tetralogie software and network analysis using UCINET software, to proceed to: 1. Identify the most referred themes based on the keywords provided by the authors and by the Web of Science platform itself. 2. Identify the relationships between the different topics being addressed and their approach to the desertification from a basic scientific vision (soil degradation) and/or from an applied science vision (land degradation). 3. Identify and evaluate the strenght of possible networks and links established between institutions and/or research teams.

  18. Individual differences in approach-avoidance aptitude: some clues from research on Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Approach and avoidance are two basic behavioral aptitudes of humans whose correct balance is critical for successful adaptation to the environment. As the expression of approach and avoidance tendencies may differ significantly between healthy individuals, different psychobiological factors have been posited to account for such variability. In this regard, two main issues are still open that refers to (i) the role played by dopamine neurotransmission; and (ii) the possible influence of cognitive characteristics, particularly executive functioning. The aim of the present paper was to highlight the contribution of research on Parkinson’s disease (PD) to our understanding of the above issues. In particular, we here reviewed PD literature to clarify whether neurobiological and neuropsychological modifications due to PD are associated to changes in approach-avoidance related personality features. Available data indicate that PD patients may show and approach-avoidance imbalance as documented by lower novelty-seeking and higher harm-avoidance behaviors, possibly suggesting a relationship with neurobiological and neurocognitive PD-related changes. However, the literature that directly investigated this issue is still sparse and much more work is needed to better clarify it. PMID:25852500

  19. Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory: A Research-Integrated Approach using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra University (Hofstra University)

    2012-01-06

    This advanced molecular biology laboratory course, which uses a project approach to learning and incorporates an independent research component, was designed to enhance the preparation of students for careers in research, biotechnology and science education and to increase knowledge retention and integration of concepts among upper level biology majors. The students use enhancer trap techniques in Drosophila melanogaster to work on two related projects in a single semester. One project has been carefully worked out to proceed through a set of experiments that take the students from a behavior mutant (flightless), to a cloned and sequenced gene (gene for muscle myosin heavy chain protein), and finally to a study of the protein. This part of the laboratory experience exposes the students to a wide array of molecular biology methodologies and instrumentation commonly used in biotechnology and molecular biology laboratories and demonstrates the logical progression of a research project. The research project starts with mutants which are already available but for which the mutated gene has not yet been discovered. The students will use the techniques that they have learned to clone and sequence the gene and to begin to study the protein. The integration of a research component into this laboratory course will increase students' mastery of the principles of scientific inquiry and their ability to draw on their accumulated knowledge to solve research problems. This course will give students who plan career in research or biotechnology practical experience that mimics the realities of the laboratory setting. It will provide students who are planning careers in education with the background necessary to bring modern technology and inquiry-based learning into the classroom.

  20. The Synergetic Approach to Effective Teachers' Research Education: An Innovative Initiative for Building Educational Research Capacity in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Ward, Hsuying C.; Overton, Terry; Shin, Yousun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic approach to research education for graduate students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). A group of cross-disciplinary faculty members developed a series of graduate-level research methods-related workshops for pre- and in-service teachers. The investigators…

  1. Ontology-anchored Approaches to Conceptual Knowledge Discovery in a Multi-dimensional Research Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Borlawsky, Tara B.; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Greaves, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the U.S., and is currently incurable. Though a small number of biomarkers that may correlate to risk of disease progression or treatment outcome in CLL have been discovered, few have been validated in prospective studies or adopted in clinical practice. In order to address this gap in knowledge, it is desirable to discover and test hypotheses that are concerned with translational biomarker-to-phenotype correlations. We report upon a study in which commonly available ontologies were utilized to support the discovery of such translational correlations. We have specifically applied a technique known as constructive induction to reason over the contents of a research data repository utilized by the NCI-funded CLL Research Consortium. Our findings indicate that such an approach can produce semantically meaningful results that can inform hypotheses about higher-level relationships between the types of data contained in such a repository. PMID:21347129

  2. Ontology-anchored Approaches to Conceptual Knowledge Discovery in a Multi-dimensional Research Data Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Borlawsky, Tara B; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Greaves, Andrew W

    2008-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the U.S., and is currently incurable. Though a small number of biomarkers that may correlate to risk of disease progression or treatment outcome in CLL have been discovered, few have been validated in prospective studies or adopted in clinical practice. In order to address this gap in knowledge, it is desirable to discover and test hypotheses that are concerned with translational biomarker-to-phenotype correlations. We report upon a study in which commonly available ontologies were utilized to support the discovery of such translational correlations. We have specifically applied a technique known as constructive induction to reason over the contents of a research data repository utilized by the NCI-funded CLL Research Consortium. Our findings indicate that such an approach can produce semantically meaningful results that can inform hypotheses about higher-level relationships between the types of data contained in such a repository. PMID:21347129

  3. Team process in community-based participatory research on maternity care in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Chiang, Fidela; Hillard, Rebecca C; Hall, Priscilla; Heath, Annemarie

    2010-12-01

    A cross-cultural team consisting of US trained academic midwife researchers, Dominican nurses, and Dominican community leaders have partnered in this international nursing and midwifery community-based participatory research (CBPR) project in the Dominican Republic to understand the community experience with publicly funded maternity services. The purpose of the study was to understand community perceptions of maternity services. This article highlights the activities that the research team carried out during each phase of the research process, and how they established team identity, team trust, and team efficacy. This research has created a platform for new avenues for health providers and community to partner to improve maternal-newborn care. Community-based participatory research is one way forward to address the past and present inequities constitutive of global health disparities. PMID:21059148

  4. La investigación clínica. Un primer acercamiento / The Clinical Research. A first approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana, Marañon Cardonne; Rosario, León Robaina.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación clínica es la actividad encaminada a conocer el resultado de una intervención o un producto para el diagnóstico o la terapéutica en los seres humanos. El ensayo clínico es el principal exponente de la investigación clínica y toda evaluación experimental de una sustancia o medicament [...] o en seres humanos. En Cuba, existe un desarrollo importante de la biotecnología y de los centros de investigación que necesitan de ensayos clínicos según estándares nacionales e internacionales. En el presente trabajo se exponen aspectos relacionados con la evolución histórica de la Investigación Clínica, el Ensayo Clínico y su contexto en el país como un primer acercamiento al tema. Abstract in english Clinical research is just that activity to know the potential diagnostic or therapeutic nature of an intervention or a product in humans. The clinical trial is the leading exponent of clinical research and the whole experimental evaluation of a substance or drug in humans and has revolutionized medi [...] cal practice around the mundo.Sus precursors date back to the XVII and XVIII centuries and evolved since this methodology until the randomized controlled clinical trial. From the fifties significant regulatory and ethical changes appear. In Cuba, there is a significant development of biotechnology and research institutions that require clinical trials to national and international standards. This paper aims to clarify aspects of the historical development of Clinical Research, Clinical Trial in Cuba and its context as a first approach to the subject.

  5. SINGLE MOLECULE APPROACHES TO BIOLOGY, 2010 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JUNE 27-JULY 2, 2010, ITALY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor William Moerner

    2010-07-09

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Single-Molecule Approaches to Biology focuses on cutting-edge research in single-molecule science. Tremendous technical developments have made it possible to detect, identify, track, and manipulate single biomolecules in an ambient environment or even in a live cell. Single-molecule approaches have changed the way many biological problems are addressed, and new knowledge derived from these approaches continues to emerge. The ability of single-molecule approaches to avoid ensemble averaging and to capture transient intermediates and heterogeneous behavior renders them particularly powerful in elucidating mechanisms of biomolecular machines: what they do, how they work individually, how they work together, and finally, how they work inside live cells. The burgeoning use of single-molecule methods to elucidate biological problems is a highly multidisciplinary pursuit, involving both force- and fluorescence-based methods, the most up-to-date advances in microscopy, innovative biological and chemical approaches, and nanotechnology tools. This conference seeks to bring together top experts in molecular and cell biology with innovators in the measurement and manipulation of single molecules, and will provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work in poster format and to exchange ideas with leaders in the field. A number of excellent poster presenters will be selected for short oral talks. Topics as diverse as single-molecule sequencing, DNA/RNA/protein interactions, folding machines, cellular biophysics, synthetic biology and bioengineering, force spectroscopy, new method developments, superresolution imaging in cells, and novel probes for single-molecule imaging will be on the program. Additionally, the collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with programmed discussion sessions as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings in the beauty of the Il Ciocco site in Tuscany, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to interact and brainstorm and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations directed toward compelling biological problems.

  6. Robotic collaborative technology alliance: an open architecture approach to integrated research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

    2014-06-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities [1]. Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.

  7. 78 FR 20672 - Literature Review Approach “Identifying Research Needs for Assessing Safe Use of High Intakes of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...SERVICES National Institutes of Health Literature Review Approach ``Identifying Research...Acid,'' for review of the pertinent literature. The document is available on the NTP...folate and folic acid, screening of the literature was undertaken to identify the...

  8. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  9. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hyejeong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC)...

  10. A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.

    Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

  11. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  12. Approaches to informed consent for hypothesis-testing and hypothesis-generating clinical genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facio Flavia M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively-parallel sequencing (MPS technologies create challenges for informed consent of research participants given the enormous scale of the data and the wide range of potential results. Discussion We propose that the consent process in these studies be based on whether they use MPS to test a hypothesis or to generate hypotheses. To demonstrate the differences in these approaches to informed consent, we describe the consent processes for two MPS studies. The purpose of our hypothesis-testing study is to elucidate the etiology of rare phenotypes using MPS. The purpose of our hypothesis-generating study is to test the feasibility of using MPS to generate clinical hypotheses, and to approach the return of results as an experimental manipulation. Issues to consider in both designs include: volume and nature of the potential results, primary versus secondary results, return of individual results, duty to warn, length of interaction, target population, and privacy and confidentiality. Summary The categorization of MPS studies as hypothesis-testing versus hypothesis-generating can help to clarify the issue of so-called incidental or secondary results for the consent process, and aid the communication of the research goals to study participants.

  13. Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research - introduction to the copula approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölzel, C.; Friederichs, P.

    2008-10-01

    Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

  14. Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil H. Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.

  15. Video Games as a Multifaceted Medium: A Review of Quantitative Social Science Research on Video Games and a Typology of Video Game Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ivory

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games’ social function that are often difficult to reconcile— or even contradictory. Research is also often categorized by topic area, rendering a comprehensive view of video games’ social role across topic areas difficult. This interpretive review presents a novel typology of four identified approaches that categorize much of the quantitative social science video game research conducted to date: “video games as stimulus,” “video games as avocation,” “video games as skill,” and “video games as social environment.” This typology is useful because it provides an organizational structure within which the large and growing number of studies on video games can be categorized, guiding comparisons between studies on different research topics and aiding a more comprehensive understanding of video games’ social role. Categorizing the different approaches to video game research provides a useful heuristic for those critiquing and expanding that research, as well as an understandable entry point for scholars new to video game research. Further, and perhaps more importantly, the typology indicates when topics should be explored using different approaches than usual to shed new light on the topic areas. Lastly, the typology exposes the conceptual disconnects between the different approaches to video game research, allowing researchers to consider new ways to bridge gaps between the different approaches’ strengths and limitations with novel methods.

  16. Taking a Multi-pronged Approach to Expand the Reach of Climate Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, R.; Unger, M.; Eastburn, T.; Rockwell, A.; Laursen, K. K.; National CenterAtmospheric Research

    2011-12-01

    Recognizing the importance of tailoring content to a variety of audiences, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) takes a multi-pronged approach to expand the reach of climate research results. The center's communications and education and outreach teams leverage Web 1.0 and 2.0 functionality - Google searches, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube - as well as face-to-face interactions and traditional media outlets to ensure climate change messages effectively connect with multiple audiences. Key to these efforts, NCAR seeks to frame messages that emphasize cultural cognition, that is, in a manner that recognizes and resonates with different audiences' values and thus their identities. Among the basic communications approaches NCAR uses to engage the public are one-on-one interactions with the visiting public, which ranges from school children and tourists, to dignitaries and journalists. As an example, the NCAR Journalism Fellowship brings a competitively selected group of internatoinal journalists to NCAR. During a week-long visit and ongoing contact, journalists are provided with a close-up, nuanced view of the science and individuals working on the bigger-picture research that drives climate-related sound bites reported by the press. NCAR provides media training for its scientists, giving them tools and practice in effectively handling interviews for print, Web and radio outlets. The institution hosts public events like "Super Science Saturday," and NCAR staff participate in external activities such as school science fairs, community events and continuing education sessions. In addition to interactive displays that allow the public to "experience" science directly and informally, NCAR develops educational programs and curricula targeted to specific age groups and levels of expertise. We will explore the importance of analogies, images and anecdotes in explaining complicated subjects to such a varied set of audiences, and identify key concepts in simplifying content without compromising scientific integrity.

  17. Approaches to strategic research and technology (R&T) analysis and road mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2002-07-01

    Increasingly, the timely and successful incorporation of innovative technologies into new systems is a critical factor in their success or failure. This is true for both commercial and government space missions. In addition, continuing progress in methodologies that may enable the effective identification of long-term technology needs and opportunities—and the guidance of ongoing research and technology (R&T) programs to address them—is vital to progress in space exploration and commercial development. NASA's long-standing use of technology readiness levels (TRLs) is one such approach. These technology discipline-independent metrics provide a valuable tool in technology management at all levels in an organization. However, TRLs provide only the basic guideposts for R&T management: information on the current and desired level of maturity of a technology for a particular application. In order to succeed over the longer term, additional methodologies are needed, including those which allow the identification of anticipated uncertainty in planned R&T programs, as well as approaches that permit the identification of overall technology-derived uncertainty in future space systems developments. This paper provides a preliminary discussion of this critical subject, including an overview of the history and the current practices of the TRL approach. In addition, the paper presents a recently-formulated strategic technology management approach that attempts to address the question of uncertainty in technology development and applications: the Integrated Technology Analysis Methodology (ITAM). The paper concludes with a discussion of a future directions for space technology management, and how these tools might be used to facilitate coordination and discussions in an international setting.

  18. Building national capacity for research mentor training: an evidence-based approach to training the trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Christine; Spencer, Kimberly C; Asquith, Pamela; House, Stephanie C; Miller, Sarah; Sorkness, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    Research mentor training (RMT), based on the published Entering Mentoring curricula series, has been shown to improve the knowledge and skills of research mentors across career stages, as self-reported by both the mentors engaged in training and their mentees. To promote widespread dissemination and empower others to implement this evidence-based training at their home institutions, we developed an extensive, interactive, multifaceted train-the-trainer workshop. The specific goals of these workshops are to 1) increase facilitator knowledge of an RMT curriculum, 2) increase facilitator confidence in implementing the curriculum, 3) provide a safe environment to practice facilitation of curricular activities, and 4) review implementation strategies and evaluation tools. Data indicate that our approach results in high satisfaction and significant confidence gains among attendees. Of the 195 diverse attendees trained in our workshops since Fall 2010, 44% report implementation at 39 different institutions, collectively training more than 500 mentors. Further, mentors who participated in the RMT sessions led by our trained facilitators report high facilitator effectiveness in guiding discussion. Implications and challenges to building the national capacity needed for improved research mentoring relationships are discussed. PMID:26033872

  19. A structured approach to introduce knowledge management practice in a national nuclear research institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002, the Government of Malaysia has launched the Knowledge Management Master Plan with the aim to transform Malaysian from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy. In June 2003, the 2nd National Science and Technology policy was launched. The policy puts in place programmes, institutions and partnerships to enhance Malaysian economic position. Several initiatives developed emphasize on the important roles of national nuclear research institutions in the knowledge based economy. The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) as a national nuclear research institution is thus expected to make significant contributions to the knowledge economy. To a certain extent MINT has been successful in knowledge acquisition and exploitation from more advanced countries as well as in knowledge generation and in the knowledge application and diffusion to the socio-economic sectors. This paper describes a structured approach to introduce the knowledge management practices or initiatives in MINT. It also describes some of the challenges foreseen in adopting the practices. (author)

  20. Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

  1. A Partnership Approach to Promoting Information Literacy for Higher Education Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Goldstein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of information literacy in the UK higher education research sector has traditionally been the preserve of academic libraries. However, other professional groups have obvious interests in this area, and there is a strong case for providing a framework which enables different parties with a stake in information literacy to work together in order to reach practical objectives. In the UK, a coalition of partners has been set up to provide this collective framework and to provide synergy. This paper sets out the rationale for this approach, sets out the sort of activities that the coalition has fostered since its inception in late 2009 and reflects on whether it might serve as an example for other parts of Europe or for transnational collaborations.

  2. Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research and development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented. (paper)

  3. Review of fast reactor operational experience gained in Russia. Approaches to coordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of the experience gained in Russia in the field of fast reactors with sodium coolant is given in the report. The information on fast reactors operating in the Russian Federation (BR-10, BOR-60, BN-600) is presented: their current status, further prospects, and basic indices achieved by the facilities. The principal results of operation of test facilities and power plants with fast reactors in Russia are summarized. Necessity in implementation of special work on preservation and generalization of experience gained in the field of fast reactors have been analyzed, as well as possibility of organizing a coordinated research project in this area. In particular, possible approaches to the organization of activities on systematization of published information on fast reactors. (author)

  4. Methodological lessons in neurophenomenology: Review of a baseline study and recommendations for research approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PatriciaBockelman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurophenomenological methods integrate objective and subjective data in ways that retain the statistical power of established disciplines (like cognitive science while embracing the value of first-person reports of experience. The present paper positions neurophenomenology as an approach that pulls from traditions of cognitive science but includes techniques that are challenging for cognitive science in some ways. A baseline study is reviewed for “lessons learned”, that is, the potential methodological improvements that will support advancements in understanding consciousness and cognition using neurophenomenology. These improvements, we suggest, include (1 addressing issues of interdisciplinarity by purposefully and systematically creating and maintaining shared mental models among research team members; (2 making sure that neurophenomenological experiments include high standards of experimental design and execution to achieve variable control, reliability, generalizability, and replication of results; and (3 conceiving of phenomenological interview techniques as placing the impetus on the interviewer in interaction with the experimental subject.

  5. Adopting a farming systems research approach to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Pedersen, SØren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural systems are complex, because managers need to cope with interlinked and dynamic ecological, social, political and economic aspects. Understanding and analysing such systems requires researchers to adopt a holistic approach to grasp the links between those aspects. Holistic approaches within agricultural research - known as Farming Systems Research (FSR) support researchers in sharing knowledge and different perspectives concerning the research process and problems. Sharing knowledge and perspectives enables to holistically understand and conceptualise complex systems, as well as to structure and manage research projects. The aim of this paper is to suggest and present a guideline for agricultural researchers to carry out an economic and environmental analysis of food supply chains with a FSR approach. We describe how participants of the EU-project SOLIBAM (Strategies for Organic and Low-input Integrated Breeding and Management) used the guideline to structure, manage and carry out an economic and environmental analysis of the food supply chains of concern. The FSR approach enabled the participants to jointly define and model the structure of the supply chains, identify the requirements for data collection and collect data.

  6. A Holistic Approach to Climate and Health Research: Respiratory and Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Alonoso, W.; McCormick, B.; Schuck-Paim, C.; Miller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The link between climate variability and change, especially extreme conditions, is well documented in both environmental and health literature. The focus of research in the recent past, and current studies, is to understand causal relationships between the disease agents and environmental conditions, based on post-hoc analysis of observed cases to develop predictive models for advance warning of public by health authorities. A combination of the isolated examination of individual diseases and routes of infection (e.g. respiratory system, skin, digestive tract, etc.) and reliance mostly on correlative evidence from past occurrences have restricted public health progress (e.g. compared to experimental evidence of the quantitative balance of different transmission routes) and the utility of knowledge gained from such studies (e.g. reliably predicting seasonal outbreaks is no longer an advance). We propose a shift from focusing on the prediction of individual disease pattern(s) to a more holistic identification and mitigation of broader vulnerabilities within the provision of public health. Such an approach has the potential to account for and reveal health vulnerabilities common to a broader range of health stresses, thus facilitating a more holistic response to health challenges. The human health fragilities associated with respiratory diseases caused by a combination of natural (i.e dust, pollen, etc.) and industrial particulates (i.e. soot, aerosols, etc.) and other infectious airborne agents, for example, and their adverse impact on human health such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc. is an ideal candidate for such a holistic approach to environment and health research.

  7. Radiation dose optimization research: Exposure technique approaches in CR imaging – A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on exposure technique approaches in Computed Radiography (CR) imaging as a means of radiation dose optimization in CR imaging. Specifically the review assessed three approaches: optimization of kVp; optimization of mAs; and optimization of the Exposure Indicator (EI) in practice. Only papers dating back to 2005 were described in this review. The major themes, patterns, and common findings from the literature reviewed showed that important features are related to radiation dose management strategies for digital radiography include identification of the EI as a dose control mechanism and as a “surrogate for dose management”. In addition the use of the EI has been viewed as an opportunity for dose optimization. Furthermore optimization research has focussed mainly on optimizing the kVp in CR imaging as a means of implementing the ALARA philosophy, and studies have concentrated on mainly chest imaging using different CR systems such as those commercially available from Fuji, Agfa, Kodak, and Konica-Minolta. These studies have produced “conflicting results”. In addition, a common pattern was the use of automatic exposure control (AEC) and the measurement of constant effective dose, and the use of a dose-area product (DAP) meter

  8. Conceptualizing and Researching the Body: A Comparison Between the Psychological and the Cultural Studies Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei HOLMAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the multiplication of social science investigations on the body, the topics of research and the interpretation grids employed have become more and more diverse. We compare two major perspectives on the body–related experiences and behaviors – the psychological and the cultural studies approaches – emphasizing a set of important differences in the topics that have drawn the scholars’ interest and, in general, in the manners of conceptualizing the body. We present the core conceptual networks of each approach and some of the illustrative investigations carried out so far in the respective areas. Both highlight a set of significant differences on several layers, such as the external / internal localization of relevant factors of body-related experiences, the neutral / pathologically – oriented discourse on these experiences, the degree of exploration of their phenomenological realm, the more or less extended focus on the aesthetic evaluation of one’s body and the prevalent search for causes / purposes of the body experiences and uses.

  9. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization : A Theoretical Analysis of the Research Literature.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HjØrland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apple’s iPhone, Dialog’s search system and Google’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples. The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than be derived from studies of individuals or from the study of abstract minds.

  10. CRITIQUE OF SOME TRADITIONAL APPROACHES TO RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF ASYMMETRY CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutnik B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the number papers presented at the Conference “MODERN TRENDS IN THE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND PLASTICITY OF THE BRAIN ” (MoscowDecember 2-3, 2010 and is generalization of the of the results of a long period research, conducting by the authors which studied manual , sensory-motor, structural-anatomical and cognitive asymmetries . The article is devoted to the comparative evaluation of methods for testing the asymmetry of the human brain, including and its manual derivative. This article discusses some approaches that used traditional methods of determination of the dominant and subdominant limbs and also domination in activation of the sensory organs as well. It is clear shown that in the existed studies of asymmetry there is still no any standardization of the basic principles of lateralization. The conventional approach to manual and other forms of asymmetry is largely contrary to the basic principles of “physiology of functional systems” and “physiology of activity” which was established by Bernstein. According to abovementioned basic principles the control of motor and sensory systems largely depends upon the physiological states on the «periphery». The authors are not able to give satisfactory answers to the issues put in this article yet. Nevertheless, in their work, they set the foundation for future studies of asymmetry as an integral and multifacet occurrence, which can not be completely divorced from the theory of functional systems. However, even these results may form the starting point for development of more reliable approaches for assessing of functional asymmetry of a human body. The authors hope that their findings and conclusions will be useful for to specialists in the field of physiology, neurology, psychiatry and psychology.

  11. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488

  12. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

  13. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA's Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported

  14. Research Data Management at the University of Warwick: recent steps towards a joined-up approach at a UK university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Delasalle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the steps taken and possible ways forward for the University of Warwick in its approach to research data management, providing a typical example of a UK research university’s approach in two strands: requirements and support. The UK government approach and funding landscape in relation to research data management provided drivers for the University of Warwick to set requirements and provide support, and examples of good practice at other institutions, support from a central national body (the UK Digital Curation Centre and learning from other universities’ experiences all proved valuable to the University of Warwick. Through interviews with researchers at Warwick, various issues and challenges are revealed: perhaps the biggest immediate challenges for Warwick going forward are overcoming scepticism amongst researchers, overcoming costs, and understanding the implications of involving third party companies in research data management. Building technical infrastructure could sit alongside and beyond those immediate steps and beyond the challenges that face one University are those that affect academia as a whole. Researchers and university administrators need to work together to address the broader challenges, such as the accessibility of data for future use and the reward for researchers who practice data management in exemplary ways, and indeed it may be that a wider, national or international but disciplinary technical infrastructure affects what an individual university needs to achieve. As we take these steps, universities and institutions are all learning from each other.

  15. DETECTION OF EARNINGS MANAGEMENT - A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK BASED ON ACCRUALS APPROACH RESEARCH DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladu Alina Beattrice

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this theoretical research is to outline recommendations for improving the complex process of detection of accounts manipulation. In this respect we turned to the previous literature and assessed empirical studies in order to be able to develop a robust model for understand the process of detection for accounts manipulation and further to ease the path of detection by proposing as we stated above a theoretical framework in this respect. Since there is a constant conjecture between cause and effect we are able to assert that two direction of research can be identified and both can explain further the roots for limiting earnings management since its detection can be much easier approached: the event that can represent the root for accounts manipulation and the normal trend considered for a certain company related to the accruals level and economic trend. In the end if we know the cause we can interpret the event and combat its appearance. But when this kind of research appears, another question springs. Should we fight earnings management practices? Clikeman (2003:78 sensed that by using those practices companies are walking on a very slippery slope where minor accounting gimmicks become more and more aggressive until they create material misstatements in the financial statements. So, the recourse to such practices creates a stake that is not negligible. The users of financial statements are misled when making decisions based on manipulated accounting numbers. To a certain extent, the existence of earnings management distorts the usefulness of financial statements, and in this respect the process of detecting it can be regarded both as being important and challenging. Our proposal is not related to a technical process of detecting earnings management as typical empirical studies found in the literature and more than that we open a new stream of research based on understanding the forms of manifestation for accounts manipulation, getting to know the antecedents, the features, the possible interactions among antecedents and current features. Based on the recommendations found in the literature the eradication of manipulative processes is next to impossible but the limitation can be a reality. In this respect the researchers recommend controlling the conditions and motives that increase the likelihood of its presence and also developing stronger tools to detection.

  16. The KNOO research consortium: work package 3 - an integrated approach to waste immobilisation and management - 16375

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Keeping the Nuclear Option Open (KNOO) research consortium is a four-year research council funded initiative addressing the challenges related to increasing the safety, reliability and sustainability of nuclear power in the UK. Through collaboration between key industrial and governmental stakeholders, and with international partners, KNOO was established to maintain and develop skills relevant to nuclear power generation. Funded by a research grant of Pounds 6.1 M from the 'Towards a Sustainable Energy Economy Programme' of the UK Research Councils, it represents the single largest university-based nuclear research programme in the UK for more than 30 years. The programme is led by Imperial College London, in collaboration with the universities of Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bristol, Cardiff and the Open University. These universities are working with the UK nuclear industry, who contributed a further Pounds 0.4 M in funding. The industry/government stakeholders include AWE, British Energy, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Environment Agency, the Health and Safety Executive, Doosan Babcock, the Ministry of Defence, Nirex, AMEC NNC, Rolls-Royce PLC and the UK Atomic Energy Authority. Work Package 3 of this consortium, led by the University of Leeds, concerns 'An Integrated Approach to Waste Immobilisation and Management', and involves Imperial College London, and the Universities of Manchester and Sheffield. The aims of this work packaand Sheffield. The aims of this work package are: to study the re-mobilisation, transport, solid-liquid separation and immobilisation of particulate wastes; to develop predictive models for particle behaviour based on atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale simulations; to develop a fundamental understanding of selective adsorption of nuclides onto filter systems and their immobilisation; and to consider mechanisms of nuclide leaving and transport. The paper describes highlights from this work in the key areas of multi-scale modeling (using atomic scale, thermodynamic and process scale models), the engineering properties of waste (linking microscopic and macroscopic behaviour, and transport and rheology), and waste reactivity (considering waste hosts and wasteforms, generation IV wastes, and waste interactions). (authors)

  17. Exploring "Halaqah" as Research Method: A Tentative Approach to Developing Islamic Research Principles within a Critical "Indigenous" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a traditional Islamic pedagogy known as "halaqah" as a potentially useful authentic research method and contributes to discourses about critical and indigenous research methodologies through an analysis of Islamization of Knowledge and other "critical indigenous" movements amongst Muslims. Islamic research

  18. Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wolff

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1 The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2 Compartment/network models, (3 Mesocosm experiments and (4 Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecosystems (VE. The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has changed over time. Aquatic biomas spectra (derived from the theory of pelagic ecosystems can give insight into the trophic structure of different systems, and can show how organism sizes are distributed within the system and how different size groups participate in the system’s metabolism and production. Compartment/network models allow for a more detailed description of the trophic structure of ecosystems and of the energy/biomass fluxes through the explicit modelling of P/B-and food consumption rates and biomasses for each system compartment. Moreover, system indices for a characterization and comparison with other systems can be obtained such as average trophic efficiency, energy throughput, and degree of connectivity, degree of maturity, and others. Recent dynamic extensions of trophic network models allow for exploring past and future impacts of fishing and environmental disturbances as well as to explore policies such as marine protected areas. Mesocosm experiments address a multitude of questions related to aquatic processes (i.e. primary production, grazing, predation, energy transfer between trophic levels etc. and the behaviour of organisms (i.e. growth, migration, response to contaminants etc. under semi-natural conditions. As processes within mesocosms often differ in rate and magnitude from those occurring in nature, mesocosms should be viewed as large in vitro experiments designed to test selected components of the ecosystem and not as an attempt to enclose a multitude of interacting processes. Models that use individual organisms as units can provide insight into the causes of natural variability within populations (growth, phenotype, behaviour and into the role of intraspecific variation for interspecific processes, succession, and feedback mechanisms. In biological oceanography, interdisciplinary research is increasingly using "Virtual Ecosystems" to simulate non-linear interactions between the dynamics of fluctuating ocean circulation, the physics of air-sea interaction, turbulence and optics, biogeochemistry, and the physiology and behaviour of plankton, which can be compared with real observations. The different approaches available for the analysis of aquatic ecosystems should be seen as complementary ways for the description and understanding of ecosystems. The modern view of marine ecosystems, as has emerged from ecosystem analysis over the last decades, is that of a composite of loosely coupled subsystems of desynchron dynamics which through their combined action maintain the fundamental structure and function of the wholeEste artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1 la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2 modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models, (3 experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y

  19. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrov Vihren

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-training programs are faced with numerous barriers. Many residency programs report having been cited by the ACGME residency review committee in IM for lack of scholarly activity by residents. Methods We would like to share our experience at Lincoln Hospital, an affiliate of Weill Medical College Cornell University New York, in designing and implementing a successful structured research curriculum based on ACGME competencies taught during a dedicated "research rotation". Results Since the inception of the research rotation in 2004, participation of our residents among scholarly activities has substantially increased. Our residents increasingly believe and appreciate that research is an integral component of residency training and essential for practice of medicine. Conclusion Internal medicine residents' outlook in research can be significantly improved using a research curriculum offered through a structured and dedicated research rotation. This is exemplified by the improvement noted in resident satisfaction, their participation in scholarly activities and resident research outcomes since the inception of the research rotation in our internal medicine training program.

  20. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level

    OpenAIRE

    Tonglet, R.; Maheshe Mudosa,; Masumbuko Badashonderana,; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to ...

  1. Developing a web-based information resource for palliative care: an action-research inspired approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliddon Terry

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners and community nurses rely on easily accessible, evidence-based online information to guide practice. To date, the methods that underpin the scoping of user-identified online information needs in palliative care have remained under-explored. This paper describes the benefits and challenges of a collaborative approach involving users and experts that informed the first stage of the development of a palliative care website 1. Method The action research-inspired methodology included a panel assessment of an existing palliative care website based in Victoria, Australia; a pre-development survey (n = 197 scoping potential audiences and palliative care information needs; working parties conducting a needs analysis about necessary information content for a redeveloped website targeting health professionals and caregivers/patients; an iterative evaluation process involving users and experts; as well as a final evaluation survey (n = 166. Results Involving users in the identification of content and links for a palliative care website is time-consuming and requires initial resources, strong networking skills and commitment. However, user participation provided crucial information that led to the widened the scope of the website audience and guided the development and testing of the website. The needs analysis underpinning the project suggests that palliative care peak bodies need to address three distinct audiences (clinicians, allied health professionals as well as patients and their caregivers. Conclusion Web developers should pay close attention to the content, language, and accessibility needs of these groups. Given the substantial cost associated with the maintenance of authoritative health information sites, the paper proposes a more collaborative development in which users can be engaged in the definition of content to ensure relevance and responsiveness, and to eliminate unnecessary detail. Access to volunteer networks forms an integral part of such an approach.

  2. LA FORMACIÓN INTEGRAL: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA INVESTIGACIÓN / WHOLE EDUCATION: AN APPROACH FROM RESEARCH

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Elsy, Díaz Monsalve; Ruth Elena, Quiroz Posada.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen los resultados de la investigación en la que se indagó acerca de las representaciones que tienen los docentes de inglés de educación básica primaria, en algunas instituciones públicas de Medellín, Colombia, acerca del ideal de formación integral. A partir de un enfoque de [...] investigación cualitativa, se implementó una encuesta con preguntas abiertas aplicadas a diecinueve docentes y, posteriormente, se realizó una entrevista a profundidad a cinco de los encuestados. La información recogida fue sometida a la técnica del análisis crítico del discurso propuesta por Teun Van Dijk (2003). Los principales hallazgos permiten reconocer que dichas representaciones reflejan cinco líneas temáticas principales: (1) Formación integral de un ser humano multidimensional; (2) Formación de un ser humano valioso; (3) Formación integral, aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y acercamiento a diferentes culturas; (4) Formación integral, enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras y personas autónomas; (5) Formación integral y competencia comunicativa en lengua extranjera. Se encontró que las representaciones de los docentes, sobre la formación integral, poseen un marcado énfasis ético -moral, valores y normas- y que esta, analizada desde la enseñanza de la lengua extranjera, no debe reducirse al uso de estructuras lingüísticas básicas, en contextos de comunicación inmediatos y cotidianos. Abstract in english In this article, the results of a research inquiring about representations that primary education English teachers from some public institutions in the city of Medellin, Colombia have about ideal of comprehensive education are presented. From a qualitative research approach, an open-ended question s [...] urvey was implemented to 19 teachers and subsequently an in-depth interview was carried out to 5 teachers. Information collected was subject to the technique of critical discourse analysis by Teun Van Dijk (2003). The main findings revealed that these representations show five main thematic areas: (1) whole education for a multidimensional human being; (2) education of a valuable human being; (3) whole education, foreign language learning and different culture approaching; (4) whole education, foreign language teaching and autonomous people; (5) whole education and communicative competence in foreign language. It was found that teachers' representations about whole education have a marked ethic and moral, values and rules emphasis-and that it, being analyzed from foreign language teaching, must not be limited to basic linguistic structures usage in daily and immediate communication contexts.

  3. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  4. A Roadmap for Forming Successful Interdisciplinary Education Research Collaborations: A Reflective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossio, Diana; Loch, Birgit; Schier, Mark; Mazzolini, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Current literature about interdisciplinary education research is focused on three points: conceptual definitions of interdisciplinarity, the need for interdisciplinary research to tackle the advent of problem-based research and the positive curriculum outcomes to be gained from interdisciplinary research. While this research is important, it does…

  5. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  6. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  7. From QTL to Candidate Gene: A Genetic Approach to Alcoholism Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John P.; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Lixiang; Johnson, Philip L.; Foroud, Tatiana; Carr, Lucinda G.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A major focus of research in alcohol-related disorders is to identify the genes and pathways that modulate alcohol-seeking behavior. In light of this, animal models have been established to study various aspects of alcohol dependence. The selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and -nonpreferring (NP) lines were developed from Wistar rats to model high and low voluntary alcohol consumption, respectively. Using inbred P and NP strains, a strong QTL (LOD-9.2) for alcohol consumption was identified on rat chromosome 4. To search for candidate genes that underlie this chromosomal region, complementary molecular-based strategies were implemented to identify genetic targets that likely contribute to the linkage signal. In an attempt to validate these genetic targets, corroborative studies have been utilized including pharmacological studies, knock-out/transgenic models as well as human association studies. Thus far, three candidate genes, neuropeptide Y (Npy), ?-synuclein (Snca), and corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 2 (Crhr2), have been identified that may account for the linkage signal. With the recent advancements in bioinformatics and molecular biology, QTL analysis combined with molecular-based strategies provides a systematic approach to identify candidate genes that contribute to various aspects of addictive behavior. PMID:19630743

  8. A 'bottom-up' approach to aetiological research in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LisaMarieUnwin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are currently diagnosed in the presence of impairments in social interaction and communication, and a restricted range of activities and interests. However, there is considerable variability in the behaviours of different individuals with an ASD diagnosis. The heterogeneity spans the entire range of IQ and language abilities, as well as other behavioural, communicative and social functions. While any psychiatric condition is likely to incorporate a degree of heterogeneity, the variability in the nature and severity of behaviours observed in ASD is thought to exceed that of other disorders. The current paper aims to provide a model for future research into ASD subgroups. In doing so, we examined whether two proposed risk factors – low birth weight (LBW, and in-utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs – are associated with greater behavioural homogeneity. Using data from the Western Australian Autism Biological Registry, this study found that LBW and maternal SSRI use during pregnancy were associated with greater sleep disturbances and a greater number of gastrointestinal complaints in children with ASD, respectively. The findings from this ‘proof of principle’ paper provide support for this 'bottom-up' approach as a feasible method for creating homogenous groups.

  9. Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Ghini; Emília, Hamada; Francislene, Angelotti; Lúcio B., Costa; Wagner, Bettiol.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are [...] explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

  10. Research approaches, adaptation strategies, and knowledge gaps concerning the impacts of climate change on plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ghini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the present trends in studies on the impacts of climate change on plant diseases. Firstly, the approaches used for studying the potential effects of altered temperature, water availability, CO2 and O3 air concentrations, and UV-B radiation on components of the disease cycle are explained and discussed. Next, the impact of changes in climate patterns on the geographic and temporal distribution of diseases by integrating biological and epidemiological models into geographic and climate databases are assessed. Finally, adaptation strategies are discussed and areas where there is a recognized lack of knowledge are highlighted. The literature shows that different pathosystems respond in different ways to climate change. Thus, case-by-case studies on the responses of crop species or varieties and their diseases to climate change are necessary. In addition to that, wide-scale projections of disease risk are necessary in order to identify research priorities, whereas industry must be strategically directed and public policies developed to establish adaptation measures and to prevent potential food security crisis. Only by conducting long-term and multidisciplinary studies can we reduce the uncertainty regarding the effects of climate change on plant diseases.

  11. A brief review on biomarkers and proteomic approach for malaria research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Vivek Bhakta; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-04-01

    Malaria remains as one of the significant health threat to people living in countries throughout tropical and subtropical zones. Proteomic studies of Plasmodium, the protozoan causing malaria, is essential for understanding its cellular structure, growth stage-specific expression of protein metabolites and complex interaction with host. In-depth knowledge of the pathogen is required for identification of novel biomarkers that can be utilized to develop diagnostic tests and therapeutic antimalarial drugs. The alarming rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium has created an urgent need to identify new targets for drug development that can act by obstructing life cycle of this parasite. In the present review, we briefly discuss on role of various biomarkers including Plasmodium-associated aldolase, histidine-rich proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for diagnosis of malaria. Here we also summarize the present and future prospects of currently used techniques in proteomic approaches such as two dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) for diagnosis and potential identification of novel proteins for malaria research. PMID:25975495

  12. Motor behavior research: implications for therapeutic approaches to central nervous system dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, V; Haugen, J B

    1994-08-01

    This article reviews the models and theories of motor behavior that are the foundation for the traditional approaches to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and presents a new theoretical model and approach that are beginning to influence practice. Reflex, hierarchical, and systems models of motor control and developmental and motor learning theories are discussed. The relationships of these models and theories to past, present, and future treatment approaches to CNS dysfunction are explored. The assumptions and limitations of the muscle reeducation, neurodevelopmental, and motor relearning approaches are discussed. A contemporary task-oriented approach based on the systems model is proposed and contrasted with traditional neurodevelopmental approaches. PMID:7943161

  13. Concepts and approaches for marine ecosystem research with reference to the tropics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matthias, Wolff.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una revisión de los conceptos y enfoques predominantes en la modelación e investigación de los ecosistemas marinos, tales como: (1) la Teoría Trofodinámica de ecosistemas pelágicos, (2) modelos de compartimentos/ red (compartment/network models), (3) experimentos de mesocosmos, y (4 [...] ) modelos basados en enfoques individuales y ecosistemas virtuales. Se resumen y discuten preguntas relevantes para la investigación así como las limitaciones de cada enfoque, y se muestra como el concepto de ecosistema ha cambiado a través del tiempo. El espectro de biomasa acuática (obtenido de la teoría de ecosistemas pelágicos) puede revelar la estructura trófica de los diferentes ecosistemas; puede mostrar como el tamaño de los organismos se distribuyen dentro del ecosistema y como los diferentes grupos, de acuerdo al tamaño, participan en el metabolismo y producción del mismo. Los modelos de compartimentos/redes permiten describir más detalladamente la estructura trófica y el flujo de energía-/ biomasa en los ecosistemas, particularmente, con el modelamiento explícito de P/B y las tasas de consumo de alimento y biomasa de cada compartimento. Además, se pueden obtener índices para la caracterización y comparación entre sistemas, como por ejemplo la eficiencia trófica promedio, el rendimiento energético, los grados de conectividad y de madurez, y otros. Novedosas ampliaciones dinámicas de los modelos tróficos de red, permiten explorar los impactos pasados y futuros de las pesquerías y de las perturbaciones ambientales, así como sondear políticas de manejo como por ejemplo, las áreas marinas protegidas. Los experimentos de mesocosmos tratan con una multitud de preguntas relacionadas con procesos acuáticos (i.e. producción primaria, pastoreo, depredación, paso de energía entre niveles tróficos, etc.) y el comportamiento de los organismos (i.e. crecimiento, migración, reacción a los contaminantes, etc.) bajo condiciones seminaturales. Como los procesos dentro del mesocosmos frecuentemente difieren de los naturales en tasa y magnitud, éstos deberán ser considerados como grandes experimentos in vitro, diseñados para probar selectos componentes del ecosistema y no como intentos de abarcar múltiples procesos interactivos. Los modelos que utilizan organismos individuales como unidades, pueden revelar las causas de la variabilidad natural dentro de las poblaciones (crecimiento, fenotipo, comportamiento) y del papel de la variación intraespecífica de los procesos interespecíficos, de la sucesión y de los mecanismos retroactivos. Los ecosistemas virtuales están siendo utilizados ampliamente en la investigación interdisciplinaria dentro de la oceanografía biológica para simular interacciones no lineares entre las fluctuaciones dinámicas de la circulación oceánica, la física de las interacciones aire- mar, turbulencia y óptica, biogeoquímica, y en la fisiología y comportamiento del plancton. Todos estos aspectos pueden ser comparados con observaciones reales. Los diferentes enfoques disponibles para el análisis de ecosistemas acuáticos deberán ser considerados como medios complementarios para la descripción y comprensión de los ecosistemas. La perspectiva actual de los ecosistemas marinos es el resultado del análisis de ecosistemas durante las últimas décadas, y es la de un compuesto de subsistemas poco acoplados de dinámicas desincronizadas que mantienen la función y estructura fundamental del todo a través de la acción combinada Abstract in english The present article gives an overview on the leading concepts and modelling approaches for marine ecosystems’ research including (1) The trophodynamic theory of pelagic ecosystems, (2) Compartment/network models, (3) Mesocosm experiments and (4) Individual based modelling approaches and virtual ecos [...] ystems (VE). The main research questions addressed, as well as the potential and limits of each approach, are summarized and discussed and it is shown how the concept of ecosystem has chang

  14. Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities: A Simplified Stepwise Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides practical information, experience and assistance to practitioners who are faced with decommissioning of a small nuclear facility, yet have limited or no previous experience. In such circumstances, it is also conceivable that newcomers to decommissioning may be faced with inadequate financial and scientific resources to complete the task; making it all the more important to avoid costly errors. Furthermore, it is also possible that a worker may need some guidance in starting the process of obtaining finance and resources to progress with the task of decommissioning. The aim of this report is to provide useful practical advice to newcomers to decommissioning to aid them in the planning and management of hands-on decommissioning technologies for small nuclear facilities, using a step wise approach, through to facility and site release. This report breaks down the process of decommissioning into a number of manageable stages, such that the inexperienced practitioner has the opportunity to build confidence as they progress with each stage. Whilst acknowledging that there may be a wide diversity of regulatory licence termination conditions throughout the world, the generic stages of decommissioning will broadly be the same, such that this report should be a basic handbook of use in all instances of small facility decommissioning. This text emphasizes, at each stage, the importance of appropriate interface and dialogue with the Regulatory Body and other alogue with the Regulatory Body and other stakeholders, not only as a means of advancing any regulatory permission required for decommissioning and licence termination, but also for the many benefits gained by early and ongoing dialogue. This report covers the practical aspects of decommissioning of small nuclear facilities typically found in medical, research and industrial applications. Power reactors, prototype and demonstration reactors, larger research reactors, fuel processing and reprocessing plants and their associated large chemical facilities, and all forms of waste disposal are outside the scope of this report and have been covered adequately elsewhere. Typical facilities covered by this report include: - Medical facilities with radiography and radiotherapy units and those using radioisotopes; - Industrial facilities, such as those producing radioisotopes, using irradiation and radiography devices, and manufacturing products incorporating radioactive materials; - Research facilities such as particle accelerators, and those associated with the nuclear industry (e.g. critical assemblies or zero-power reactors), pharmaceuticals and medicine; - Laboratories in universities and hospitals. This publication has been structured as a series of sequential actions, and is supported by tables identifying lessons learned during decommissioning of small facilities. This should assist the inexperienced worker in following a logical stepwise approach to decommissioning. Whereas it is not possible to include all the specific detail of every aspect of decommissioning in this report, a number of useful references are included at each stage, thereby directing the reader to further information. This report is structured as a number of practical stages, some of which can be initiated in parallel rather than sequentially, taking note that many factors under consideration may change throughout the decommissioning process up to achievement of release conditions. An accompanying CD includes a range of practical examples of decommissioning projects from around the world in the annexes, specifically providing details of project planning and implementation, along with lessons learned. (author)

  15. Multisensory Approach to the Teaching of Reading to Learning Disabled Students: A Review of Research and a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutaria, Saroj

    The paper reports on multisensory approaches to reading instruction of learning disabled children. G. Fernald's "tracing" method, also known as the V-A-K-T method, is described and research questioning its effectiveness is cited. Next, the Adapted Fernald Technique (AFT) which requires the student to write, illustrate, read and reread his/her own…

  16. Approaches of Integrated Watershed Management Project: Experiences of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Rosana P.; Wani, Suhas P.; Dar, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The process of innovation-development to scaling is varied and complex. Various actors are involved in every stage of the process. In scaling the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)-led integrated watershed management projects in India and South Asia, three drivers were identified--islanding approach,…

  17. Teachers' Ideas about the Nature of Science: A Critical Analysis of Research Approaches and Their Contribution to Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ramos, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks into research aimed to elicit teachers' ideas about science through the development of resources as questionnaires, problematic tasks and interviews. It is focused on how those ideas are conceptualised and how such conceptualisations have been reflected in the methodological approaches adopted and the advantages and disadvantages…

  18. Analyzing the limitations and possibilities of education policy research under the positivist, phenomenological and dialectical materialistic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abreu de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instigate discussions about the construction of educational research for policy and practices. This will be done considering three different categories: epistemological perspective, epistemological positioning and epistemethodological approach by Tello (2012. Moreover, this article will consider the contributions of Mainardes and Ball (2011, Lima (2010, Alves-Mazzotti (2003, Masson (2013, among others, in order to analyze the context of dialectical materialism, the impact of positivist approaches, phenomenological and materialist dialectics. The latter especially analyzed with regard to qualitative research. In addition, we seek to understand the epistemological nature of such approaches, considering their possibilities and limitations to the process of scientific knowledge production, as well as to contribute to the field of studies on educational policies consolidation.

  19. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejeong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC, based on Vygotsky’s notion of scaffolding. Assessment was conducted by comparing students’ writing samples, before and after the teaching intervention. The results indicated that the teacher’s active scaffolding processes at the early stage of the cycle benefited students by making them aware of the different ways texts are organised for different communicative purposes. In addition, students’ confidence level increased and the approach encouraged a positive attitude towards writing.

  20. Research & market strategy: how choice of drug discovery approach can affect market position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams-Dodd, Frank

    2007-04-01

    In principal, drug discovery approaches can be grouped into target- and function-based, with the respective aims of developing either a target-selective drug or a drug that produces a specific biological effect irrespective of its mode of action. Most analyses of drug discovery approaches focus on productivity, whereas the strategic implications of the choice of drug discovery approach on market position and ability to maintain market exclusivity are rarely considered. However, a comparison of approaches from the perspective of market position indicates that the functional approach is superior for the development of novel, innovative treatments. PMID:17395091

  1. Book review: introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches, third edition, by Keith F Punch

    OpenAIRE

    Lecheler, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    In Introduction to Social Research, Keith F. Punch wants to ‘demystify’ and ‘simplify’ the research process, in an attempt to show that quality research can always be achieved. With its straightforward language, an intuitive structure, and well-defined learning objectives, this book does just that, finds Sophie Lecheler. This third edition features a number of interesting updates, such as chapters on research ethics and conducting research online.

  2. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  3. Approach of Case Base Reasoning in Handling the Unavailable information Based on Real Integrated Price Language in a Marketing Research Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj, Rinkal

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:This research effort aims to use a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach for the unavailable information in a marketing research tool language based on real integrated price and attempts to investigate its advantages over traditional expert systems approach. Marketing research tool divided into the different parts language Scripting Editor, language debugger, Web Interface. is an application for writing script for collecting the information for Marketing research tools. The collect the...

  4. Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-06-01

    Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

  5. Information work analysis : an approach to research on information interactions and information behaviour in context

    OpenAIRE

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. A work roles and role theory-based approach to conceptualise human information activity, denoted information work analysis is discussed. The present article explicates the approach and its special characteristics and benefits in comparison to earlier methods of analysing human information work. Method. The approach is discussed in the light of the results of an empirically-based qualitative investigation of the information work of Finnish and Swedish archaeology professionals. T...

  6. An Approach to Evaluating Research Developed by Five Aboriginal Health Workers Currently Studying at Batchelor College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootjans, John; Spiers, Michele

    1996-01-01

    Using the principles of Both Ways (incorporating cross-cultural perspectives), five Aboriginal health workers developed evaluation guidelines for research on Aboriginal populations. The guidelines address whether and how the perspectives of the population are integrated into the research. (SK)

  7. An Engineering Approach to Management of Occupational and Community Noise Exposure at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1997-01-01

    Workplace and environmental noise issues at NASA Lewis Research Center are effectively managed via a three-part program that addresses hearing conservation, community noise control, and noise control engineering. The Lewis Research Center Noise Exposure Management Program seeks to limit employee noise exposure and maintain community acceptance for critical research while actively pursuing engineered controls for noise generated by more than 100 separate research facilities and the associated services required for their operation.

  8. Research priorities for tobacco control in developing countries: a regional approach to a global consultative process

    OpenAIRE

    Baris, E.; Brigden, L. W.; Prindiville, J.; E, S.; Chitanondh, H.; Chandiwana, S.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To develop regional tobacco control research agendas for developing countries through a consultative process.?METHODS—Research for International Tobacco Control, located at the International Development Research Centre in Ottawa, Canada, convened three regional meetings for Latin America and the Caribbean, South and Southeast Asia, and Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Participation by researchers, policymakers, and advocates from a wide range of disciplines ensured an acc...

  9. Linking research and education to promote an integrated approach to sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Camino, Elena; Perazzone, Anna; Colucci Gray, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, researchers from various disciplines (biology, physics, geology, economics, sociology, linguistics, psychology and science education) founded the Centre IRIS – Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Sustainability (www.iris.unito.it) based at the University of Torino (Italy). IRIS links research in science with educational practice: as new conceptual tools are produced and research findings are published, they are discussed within the group and ‘metabolised’, turned into liter...

  10. Knowledge Asymmetries Between Research and Practice : A Social Systems Approach to Implementation Barriers in Organic Arable Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; AlrØe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problem of implementing scientific knowledge in practice. The discussion is based on a case study of barriers to implementing research-based principles of sustainable organic arable farming. The current literature tends to see this problem either as a dissemination issue (the linear approach) or as a failure of science to address real-world problems (the co-constructive approach). We argue that Luhmann's theory of social systems offers a way to understand the shortcomings of existing approaches and enables us to identify knowledge gaps that have often been overlooked so far. This theoretical claim is substantiated by an empirical analysis based on 10 in-depth interviews with owners of organic arable farms. The farmers were interviewed about barriers to the implementation of research-based knowledge in practice. The analysis points to the operational closure and the observational blindness of both research systems and farming systems as the keys to understanding knowledge gaps and suggests new ways of dealing with the problems of implementing research knowledge in practice.

  11. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  12. 78 FR 35323 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Gender-Informed Research (Women): Enhanced Approaches to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...corrections), the research and academic community, other Federal agencies...hypotheses developed from those same bodies of research. Much of that...areas of convergence across the bodies of knowledge; explore those...yet fully supported by large bodies of research but could...

  13. The SERP Approach to Problem-Solving Research, Development, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, M. Suzanne; Snow, Catherine; Daro, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Education researchers are increasingly working in practice-based partnerships in order to direct their research efforts toward important problems of practice. We argue for the creation of an infrastructure to support routine and sustained interaction among researchers, practitioners, and designers in order to make partnership efforts more…

  14. A strategy to apply a graded approach to a new research reactor I and C design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project for the development of a new research reactor (NRR) was launched by KAERI in 2012. It has two purposes: 1) providing a facility for radioisotope production, neutron transmutation doping, and semiconductor wafer doping, and 2) obtaining a standard model for exporting a research reactor (RR). The instrumentation and control (I and C) design should reveal an appropriate architecture for the NRR export. The adoption of a graded approach (GA) was taken into account to design the I and C and architecture. Although the GA for RRs is currently under development by the IAEA, it has been recommended and applied in many areas of nuclear facilities. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission allows for the use of a GA for RRs to meet the safety requirements. Germany applied the GA to a decommissioning project. It categorized the level of complexity of the decommissioning project using the GA. In the case of 10 C.F.R. Part 830 830.7, a contractor must use a GA to implement the requirements of the part, document the basis of the GA used, and submit that document to U.S. DOE. It mentions that a challenge is the inconsistent application of GA on DOE programs. RG 1.176 states that graded quality assurance brings benefits of resource allocation based on the safety significance of the items. The U.S. NRC also applied the GA to decommissioning small facilities. The NASA published a handbook for risk informed decision making that is conducted using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplemend using a GA. ISATR67.04.09 2005 supplements ANSI/ISA.S67.04.01. 2000 and ISA RP67.04.02 2000 in determining the setpoint using a GA. The GA is defined as a risk informed approach that, without compromising safety, allows safety requirements to be implemented in such a way that the level of design, analysis, and documentation are commensurate with the potential risks of the reactor. The IAEA is developing a GA through DS351 and has recommended applying it to a reactor design according to power and hazarding level. Owing to the wide range of RR utilization, the safety requirements for RRs may not be required to be applied to every RR in the same way. DS351 also states that the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a multipurpose and high power RR might be very different from the way in which the requirements are demonstrated to be met for a RR with very low power and very low associated radiological hazards to the facility staff, the public, and the environment. The GA should not compromise safety or waive the safety requirements. The GA is not a quantitative method but rather a qualitative method to determine the scope and level of application of the safety requirements to the design of a RR. It adopts a systematic approach and engineering judgment for the determination. The GA is applicable in all stages of the RR lifetime. Any grading during the lifetime should ensure that safety functions are maintained and that there are no radiological hazards to the operators and public. The grading activities should be based on a safety analysis, regulatory requirements, and engineering judgment. In DS351, the GA activities consist of two steps: 1) categorizing a facility into a range of the highest to the lowest risk, which is an initial grading of the facility, and 2) grading the system, structure, and components important to safety, which is a more detailed grading of the facility. As an example of the GA, fewer inspections and hold points for a 100 kW RR than those for a 5 MW RR can be determined. For the application of the GA to the I and C design of an RR, Rah man proposed the GA to develop the digital MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) for RRs regarding cyber security, software V and V, and human factors engineering. However, it did not show the specific design decisions. Suh presented the overall I and C architecture for the NRR, but it has a lack of rationale for the design decision making. This paper presents a strategy to make a design decision for NRR I and C systems. According to the characteristics and safety analysis of the NRR,

  15. The SPIRIT Action Framework: A structured approach to selecting and testing strategies to increase the use of research in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Davies, Huw; Williamson, Anna; Haynes, Abby; Brennan, Sue; Milat, Andrew; O'Connor, Denise; Blyth, Fiona; Jorm, Louisa; Green, Sally

    2015-07-01

    The recent proliferation of strategies designed to increase the use of research in health policy (knowledge exchange) demands better application of contemporary conceptual understandings of how research shapes policy. Predictive models, or action frameworks, are needed to organise existing knowledge and enable a more systematic approach to the selection and testing of intervention strategies. Useful action frameworks need to meet four criteria: have a clearly articulated purpose; be informed by existing knowledge; provide an organising structure to build new knowledge; and be capable of guiding the development and testing of interventions. This paper describes the development of the SPIRIT Action Framework. A literature search and interviews with policy makers identified modifiable factors likely to influence the use of research in policy. An iterative process was used to combine these factors into a pragmatic tool which meets the four criteria. The SPIRIT Action Framework can guide conceptually-informed practical decisions in the selection and testing of interventions to increase the use of research in policy. The SPIRIT Action Framework hypothesises that a catalyst is required for the use of research, the response to which is determined by the capacity of the organisation to engage with research. Where there is sufficient capacity, a series of research engagement actions might occur that facilitate research use. These hypotheses are being tested in ongoing empirical work. PMID:26004208

  16. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  17. The research rotation: competency-based structured and novel approach to research training of internal medicine residents

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov Vihren; Valerio Jose A; Erickson Savil N; Deng Changchun; Kanna Balavenkatesh; Soni Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the United States, the Accreditation Council of graduate medical education (ACGME) requires all accredited Internal medicine residency training programs to facilitate resident scholarly activities. However, clinical experience and medical education still remain the main focus of graduate medical education in many Internal Medicine (IM) residency-training programs. Left to design the structure, process and outcome evaluation of the ACGME research requirement, residency-t...

  18. Interpretive approaches in nursing research: the influence of Husserl and Heidegger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, T

    1995-05-01

    This paper aims to throw some light on Husserlian phenomenology and Heideggerian hermeneutics, and to discuss their influences and applicability to the nursing research agenda. There are definite distinctions between Husserlian transcendental phenomenology and Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology and these distinctions have implications for the methodology employed. These traditions are discussed with respect to some fundamental research issues: the philosophical perspectives of the traditions and the notion that data that result from the inquiry are created by the interaction between researcher and researched. The central recommendation in this paper is that nurse researchers appraise the philosophical underpinnings of the methodologies they pursue. PMID:7601989

  19. Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.

  20. Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, th identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

  1. Point of View: Approaches to Undergraduate Research and Their Practical Impact on Faculty Productivity in the Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen J. Thompson

    2009-05-01

    The many and diverse demands on faculty at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs) are such that any research endeavors undertaken must be efficient and beneficial to both students and faculty. Sustaining faculty productivity into midcareer and beyond thus requires careful consideration of strategic approaches and processes. For this reason, faculty should be aware of the potential pitfalls associated with certain situations that any undergraduate project may succumb to and that lessen the likelihood that the research experience will be productive for both faculty and students. Some of these situations are examined in this article.

  2. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofor...

  3. RESEARCH NOTE Analytical approach to the thermodynamics and density distribution of crystalline phases of hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Mederos, L.; Navascues, G.

    We extend the well-known free-volume approach to describe the thermodynamic properties and density distribution of crystalline phases of hard hypersphere systems. Despite its extreme simplicity the approach yields results which are in quantitative agreement with simulation data. The theory can, in particular, describe the properties of the body-centred cubic phase of hard spheres, for which density-functional approaches provide unphysical results, allowing for the application of perturbation theory to situations where, as is the case in some colloidal systems, the body-centred cubic is one of the most interesting phases. The theory is also tested by applying it to systems of hard discs.

  4. A abordagem sistêmica na pesquisa em Engenharia de Produção / The systems approach to the Production Engineering research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Iarozinski Neto; Maria Silene, Leite.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A Engenharia de Produção está afeta a problemas que se caracterizam pela complexidade. Para serem resolvidos, esses problemas demandam conhecimentos que vão além da matemática e da física, como ocorre nas engenharias mais clássicas. Eles necessitam de uma abordagem que permita o acesso ao conhecimen [...] to de várias disciplinas simultaneamente, ou seja, uma abordagem interdisciplinar. Para praticar a interdisciplinaridade e sistematizar o processo de pesquisa na Engenharia de Produção é apresentada a abordagem sistêmica. Ela é capaz de levar em conta o conjunto das variáveis que caracterizam os problemas considerados complexos. A base metodológica escolhida para implementar a abordagem sistêmica é a sistemografia, que permite ampliar o horizonte de pesquisa para aproximar a realidade do fenômeno observado. Finalmente, será mostrada como a abordagem sistêmica permite que o pesquisador trabalhe em um nível maior de subjetividade sem perder a tão necessária "objetividade" científica. Abstract in english Production Engineering is beset by problems that may be characterized by their complexity. To solve these problems demands knowledge that goes beyond mathematics and physics, since they occur within the classical areas of engineering. It requires an approach that allows access to knowledge of severa [...] l disciplines simultaneously, that is, an interdisciplinary approach. To perform the interdisciplinarity and to systemize the research process in Production Engineering, a systemic approach is imparted. This is capable of taking into account the set of variables that characterize the perceived problems as complex. The methodological base chosen to implement the systemic approach is sistemography. This allows the research scope draw closer to the reality of the observed phenomenon. Finally, it will be demonstrated how the systemic approach allows the researcher to work at a higher level of subjectivity without losing the indispensable scientific "objectivity".

  5. Perceptions of Tuberculosis Among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sullivan, Susan M.; Millington, Kendra L.; Smith, Christina M.; Bertram, Susan; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    English as a Second Language programs serve large foreign-born populations in the US with elevated risks of tuberculosis (TB), yet little is known about TB perceptions in these settings. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we elicited perceptions about TB among immigrant and refugee learners and staff at a diverse adult education center. Community partners were trained in focus groups moderation. Ten focus groups were conducted with 83 learners and staff...

  6. Decomposed Approach of Market Orientation and Marketing Mix Capability: Research on Their Relationships with Firm Performance in the Korean Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sohyoun Shin

    2011-01-01

    The notion that market orientation provides firms a source of competitive advantage seems to be widely accepted since the effects of market orientation on business performance have been extensively researched and many studies have confirmed their affirmative relationships. However, aggregated approach of market orientation as one single construct has left the detailed investigations yet unexplored despite its tremendous contribution in marketing strategy arena. Thus, decomposed properties of ...

  7. What's the use of 'well-being' in contexts of child poverty? Approaches to research, monitoring and children's participation

    OpenAIRE

    Camfield, Laura; Streuli, Natalia; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring, protecting and promoting ‘well-being’ are central to realisation of children’s rights. Yet definitions of the concept are both variable and can appear conceptually confused. Competing research paradigms engage with the concept and its measurement, while applications of well-being in policy are equally contested. This paper outlines some of the major debates, as a starting point for reviewing three contrasting approaches to well-being: indicator-based, participatory and longi...

  8. Negotiation on the assessment of research articles with academic reviewers: Application of peer-review approach of teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Rafiq, Mi; Imam, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor revisions, major revisions and reject) were collected. A commonly practised peer-review approach in teaching was applied to analyse the data and to ident...

  9. Approaches of national 3D mapping: Research results and standardisation in practice:

    OpenAIRE

    Stoter, J. E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper...

  10. Needs Assessment in Health Research Projects: A New Approach to Project Management in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Niloofar Peykari; Parviz Owlia; Hossein Malekafzali; Mostafa Ghanei; Abdolreza Babamahmoodi; Shirin Djalalinia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The science and technology health plan has defined the outline of health research to the national vision of Iran by 2025. The aim of this study was to focus on the process of needs assessment of health research projects also health research priority setting in Iran.Methods: The project management life cycle has four phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution and Closure. Based on abovementioned points we conducted the study.Results: Focusing on the needs assessment led to systematic ...

  11. THE TEACHING RESEARCH FOCUSED ON THE MOVEMENT: HEURISTIC APPROACHES AND ELEMENTS OF COMPLEXITY

    OpenAIRE

    AIELLO PAOLA; MAURIZIO SIBILIO

    2010-01-01

    The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise...

  12. Segment of the action research in the Reggio Emilia educational approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jug, Anita

    2010-01-01

    At contemporary educational research the paradigmatic clusters are often intertwined and they overlap. Within the research individual aspects of a particular problem are differently focused. A quality paradigm comprises interpretive as well as action research, whereby the goal of the former is to mainly comprehend and explain developments in the society, whereas the task of the latter is to try and change them, as well. In the article particular segments of the action resear...

  13. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpit Silkavute; Dinh Xuan Tung; Pongpisut Jongudomsuk

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge gene...

  14. Approaches for Longitudinally Tracking Graduates of NCI-Funded Short-Term Cancer Research Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Casey L.; Brooks, C. Michael; Waterbor, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term cancer research programs for health professions students typically state goals of encouraging and fostering interest in pursuing cancer research-based careers. Evaluating career choices and professional achievements of these trainees has been problematic. Well-designed program evaluation is a key element in determining successful training experiences, and program-specific outcome measures are typically used to assess the effectiveness of each short-term cancer research experience. ...

  15. Obstacles and approaches to clinical database research: experience at the University of California, San Francisco.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, T. B.; Brown, A; Easterling, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    With increasing availability of clinical data in machine-readable form, and decreasing cost of storing and manipulating that data, retrospective research using clinical databases has become more feasible. Nonetheless, much of the potential for clinical research using these data remains unrealized. Obstacles to clinical database research include difficulty accessing data, difficulty using retrospective data to draw valid inferences about medical tests and treatments, and a shortage of investig...

  16. Enhancing Interdisciplinary Human System Risk Research Through Modeling and Network Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) supports research to reduce human health and performance risks inherent in future human space exploration missions. Understanding risk outcomes and contributing factors in an integrated manner allows HRP research to support development of efficient and effective mitigations from cross-disciplinary perspectives, and to enable resilient human and engineered systems for spaceflight. The purpose of this work is to support scientific collaborations and research portfolio management by utilizing modeling for analysis and visualization of current and potential future interdisciplinary efforts.

  17. A Methodological and Scientific Approach to Developing a Research Agenda in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the development of a National Educational Research Agenda. The study surveys 912 stakeholders regarding their perceptions of pertinent education issues believed to be significant in the context of the current educational reform. Through a modified Delphi Technique (DT, thirteen faculty members in a National Arab-Gulf university reduced the 2332 remarks to nine categories containing 10 Research Statement/Questions (RS/Q. The knowledge based research agenda will produce a research program aimed at improving teacher practices and students’ educational outcomes from which these results and findings will be used to support new educational decisions and policies.

  18. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended

  19. What would judgment and decision making research be like if we took a Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Matthews

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Judgment and decision making research overwhelmingly uses null hypothesis significance testing as the basis for statistical inference. This article examines an alternative, Bayesian approach which emphasizes the choice between two competing hypotheses and quantifies the balance of evidence provided by the data---one consequence of which is that experimental results may be taken to strongly favour the null hypothesis. We apply a recently-developed ``Bayesian $t$-test'' to existing studies of the anchoring effect in judgment, and examine how the change in approach affects both the tone of hypothesis testing and the substantive conclusions that one draws. We compare the Bayesian approach with Fisherian and Neyman-Pearson testing, examining its relationship to conventional $p$-values, the influence of effect size, and the importance of prior beliefs about the likely state of nature. The results give a sense of how Bayesian hypothesis testing might be applied to judgment and decision making research, and of both the advantages and challenges that a shift to this approach would entail.

  20. Enhanced Six Sigma Business Scorecard and Application Research Based on Entropy Weight and Relative Approach Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Weimin Ye; Deyong Zhao; Woye Liu; Jingzhong Li; Xiao Chen; Yu Bai

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and operability of Six Sigma Business Scorecard (SSBS) method, the model of enhanced SSBS based on entropy weight and relative approach degree was proposed. For overcoming the lack of specific method in determining the indexes weight, entropy weight theory was introduced to modify the subjective weight which improved the accuracy of the index weight determination process in SSBS. Moreover, approach degree theory was also int...

  1. Estimation of the correlation coefficient using the Bayesian Approach and its applications for epidemiologic research

    OpenAIRE

    England Lucinda J; Moysich Kirsten B; Schisterman Enrique F; Rao Malla

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the Bayesian approach for estimating correlations using prior knowledge. Methods The use of the hyperbolic tangent transformation (? = tanh ? and r = tanh z) enables the investigator to take advantage of the conjugate properties of the normal distribution,...

  2. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. Confirmatory research is needed to validate that safety-related issues concerning the installation of instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in the electromagnetic environment of commercial nuclear power plants are being addressed adequately

  3. Technical and Policy Approaches to Balancing Patient Privacy and Data Sharing in Clinical and Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse, and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure widespread availability of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy.

  4. Mental Health Research in K-12 Schools: Translating a Systems Approach to University-School Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Britnell, Heather Brandt

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the challenges that researchers from university and community systems face in gaining access to and partnering with K-12 school systems to conduct research. Borrowing from Szapocznik, Hervis, and Schwartz's (2003) brief strategic family theory and therapy and Bronfenbrenner's (1979, 1986) ecological systems theory, the authors…

  5. AN APPROACH TO MEASURE RESEARCH RELATED DOMAINS USING WEB-MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr vijay Singh Rathore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the time passes by, people are seeing more and more research activities in various fields including medicine, pure science, and technology and so on. The research works are published by the researchers in various journals and conferences, which are made publically available by the publishers. Though such research is spread all over the world, there should be a distinct pattern for this, which suggest that different geographical areas observes distinct trend towards particular direction of research. Government and the other state organizations periodically need adaptation of certain new technology or process for improving or implementing certain policies. Such new requirements are generally met by calling for researchers to join in hand with the organization with their proposal. Filtering such proposals also takes a hectic schedule and thorough understanding of the researchers profile and to gauge his ability to complete the work. In order to solve this problem we emphasize on extracting meaningful information from the web through web mining techniques that helps understanding the region wise trends in research domain activities and further extract more meaningful information like patterns that suggest the progress in a particular area and prominent contributors in the area.

  6. HIV/AIDS and Employment Research: A Need for an Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Liza Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a reflection on the three articles that compose the Major Contribution on HIV/AIDS and employment research. It highlights the merits of the contribution in the broader context of HIV/AIDS employment research and recommends future directions for this area of inquiry, including theory integration, an investigation of HIV health…

  7. Time Is Precious: Variable- and Event-Centred Approaches to Process Analysis in CSCL Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Although temporality is a key characteristic of the core concepts of CSCL--interaction, communication, learning, knowledge building, technology use--and although CSCL researchers have privileged access to process data, the theoretical constructs and methods employed in research practice frequently neglect to make full use of information relating…

  8. Needs Assessment in Health Research Projects: A New Approach to Project Management in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Peykari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The science and technology health plan has defined the outline of health research to the national vision of Iran by 2025. The aim of this study was to focus on the process of needs assessment of health research projects also health research priority setting in Iran.Methods: The project management life cycle has four phases: Initiation, Planning, Execution and Closure. Based on abovementioned points we conducted the study.Results: Focusing on the needs assessment led to systematic implementation of needs assessment of health project in all of the medical sciences universities. Parallel with this achieved strategies health research priority setting was followed through specific process from empowerment to implementation.Conclusion: We should adopt with more systematic progressive methods of health project managements for both our national convenience as well as our international health research programs.

  9. Exploring multiple intelligences theory in the context of science education: An action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen Catherine

    2000-10-01

    Since the publication of Frames of Mind: The Theory in Practice, multiple intelligences, theory (Gardner, 1983) has been used by practitioners in a variety of ways to make teaching and learning more meaningful. However, little attention has been focused on exploring the potential of the theory for science teaching and learning. Consequently, this research study was designed to: (1) explore Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) and its merit for making science teaching and learning more meaningful; (2) provide a forum for teachers to engage in critical self-reflection about their theory and practice in science education; (3) study the process of action research in the context of science education; and (4) describe the effectiveness of collaborative action research as a framework for teacher development and curriculum development. The study reports on the experiences of four teachers (two elementary teachers, one junior high teacher, and one high school teacher) and myself, a university researcher-facilitator, as we participated in a collaborative action research project. The action research group held weekly meetings over a five-month period (January--May, 1999). The inquiry was a qualitative case study (Stake, 1994) that aimed to understand the perspectives of those directly involved. This was achieved by using multiple methods to collect data: audiotaped action research meetings, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, journal writing, and concept mapping. All data were analysed on an ongoing basis. Many positive outcomes resulted from the study in areas such as curriculum development, teacher development, and student learning in science. Through the process of action research, research participants became more reflective about their practice and thus, enhanced their pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman, 1987) in science. Students became more engaged in learning science, gained a greater understanding of how they learn, and experienced a science curriculum that was more relevant and personalized. In addition, the action research process provided a feasible and effective forum for both curriculum development and professional development.

  10. Individual Project-Based Approach to Develop Research Aptitude in Manufacturing Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Vedraman

    This paper chronicles experiences with individual research-paper projects in teaching a senior level course on Polymer Properties and Processing to manufacturing engineering majors. Polymer Properties and Processing is one of five elective courses in the area of processes. Students complete courses on 'Materials Engineering' and 'Materials Selection and Processes' prior to taking this course. The course exposes students to current trends in plastics and composites industry as a means to prepare them for graduate study. Accordingly, in this course rather than assigning team based projects, research paper topics were assigned on an individual basis. Thirty percent weight was given to this research activity. Students were systematically prepared for taking up the research paper activity. Demonstrations were organized in the research laboratories in the Chemistry department pertaining to basic polymer characterization techniques. These techniques include GPC, TGA, and DMA. Three industrial visits were organized to expose students to injection molding, extrusion, and carboncomposite manufacturing processes. Students also viewed videos prepared by the 'Society of Manufacturing Engineers' in the areas of processing. The instructor suggested a few important research topics. These topics included polymer nanocomposites; bio-based polymers and composites; and polymers in NVH applications. Students were also encouraged to bring their own topic ideas. Students were expected to refer handbooks, magazines, research articles, and web sources. They were encouraged to visit industry and research labs within and outside university. A minimum of 15 core technical references were expected from different sources. Students prepared a 10-12 page research paper and delivered a 10 minute presentation in front of the entire class. Two external evaluators with broad industrial experience were invited to assess the performance. Course evaluations revealed very promising results and provided concrete feedback. In fact, out of ten students, three have decided to pursue careers in composite materials.This paper details the pedagogy and the research paper activity.

  11. Evaluating National Innovation System of Malaysia Based on University-industry Research Collaboration: A System Thinking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeda Muhammad Iqbal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available National innovation system (NIS is an essential, effective and dynamic factor for the development of the nation. Despite the enormous research activities on NIS, there have been certain issues still remaining in this domain specially, in developing countries. Several articles have been published to deal with the factors affecting NIS of Malaysia but the role of research collaboration between university and industry (UIRC on NIS is totally unattended in mainstream literature. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine the influence of UIRC on the NIS of Malaysia. Additionally, this study aims to indicate the current innovation performance and to identify the existing constraints of NIS. For the purpose of system modeling, system thinking approach is used to conceptualize and analyze the effect of UIRC on NIS. The result of this research shows that constraints of UIRC in Malaysia negatively influence on the success of NIS.

  12. Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and inter-generational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively, knowingly, or reflexively; and their activities cannot be understood through the use of a single method, but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

  13. Paradigmatic approaches used in enterprise resource planning systems research: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Burgess

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the range of research paradigms employed in a smaller subset of Information Systems (IS literature, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems. A systematic literature review based on papers that mentioned ERPs was drawn from eight of the most highly ranked journals according to their h-index. The findings indicate that the majority (96.6% of the ERP research papers were conducted within a positivist research paradigm, which is a far higher proportion than is suggested by other research in the general IS literature (approximately 81%. This paper suggests that there is a strong case for ERP researchers to look at existing paradigm selection and how effectively their research relates to the ERP body of knowledge, especially in respect to the issues of importance to managers within organizations (notably social and change management issues. This research also identified areas where existing paradigm evaluation methods could be enhanced and refined in respect to non-positivist classifications.

  14. Keeping research reactors relevant: a pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2 at RMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the Royal Military College of Canada replaced its aging analogue SLOWPOKE-2 reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. An upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system has been completed and will be installed in October 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a simulation and training system that will enhance training, education and research by licensed operators, students and researchers.

  15. Through the lens of Merleau-Ponty: advancing the phenomenological approach to nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P

    2005-01-01

    Phenomenology has proved to be a popular methodology for nursing research. I argue, however, that phenomenological nursing research could be strengthened by greater attention to its philosophical underpinnings. Many research reports devote more page space to procedure than to the philosophy that purportedly guided it. The philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty is an excellent fit for nursing, although his work has received less attention than that of Husserl and Heidegger. In this paper, I examine the life and thought of Merleau-Ponty, with emphasis on concepts, such as perception, intentionality and embodiment, which have particular relevance to the discipline of nursing. PMID:15659091

  16. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  17. Using global positioning systems in health research a practical approach to data collection and processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Duncan, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The use of GPS devices in health research is increasingly popular. There are currently no best-practice guidelines for collecting, processing, and analyzing GPS data. The standardization of data collection and processing procedures will improve data quality, allow more-meaningful comparisons across studies and populations, and advance this field more rapidly. This paper aims to take researchers, who are considering using GPS devices in their research, through device-selection criteria, device settings, participant data collection, data cleaning, data processing, and integration of data into GIS. Recommendations are outlined for each stage of data collection and analysis and indicates challenges that should be considered. This paper highlights the benefits of collecting GPS data over traditional self-report or estimated exposure measures. Information presented here will allow researchers to make an informed decision about incorporating this readily available technology into their studies. This work reflects the state of the art in 2011.

  18. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  19. Seismic safety margins research program. Phase I. Project VII: systems analysis specifications of computational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational methodology is presented for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

  20. Specifications of computational approach. Seismic safety margins research program. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a computational methodology for the prediction of core melt probabilities in a nuclear power plant due to earthquake events. The proposed model has four modules: seismic hazard, structural dynamic (including soil-structure interaction), component failure and core melt sequence. The proposed modules would operate in series and would not have to be operated at the same time. The basic statistical approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation to treat random and systematic error but alternate statistical approaches are permitted by the program design

  1. A discursive look at large bodies--implications for discursive approaches in nursing and health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud

    2015-01-01

    This article illuminates discursive constructions of large bodies in contemporary society and discusses what discursive approaches might add to health care. Today, the World Health Organization describes a current "epidemic of obesity" and classifies large bodies as a medical condition. Texts on the obesity epidemic often draw upon alarming perspectives that involve associations of threat and catastrophe. The concern we see for body size in contemporary discourse is not new. Understandings of body size in Western societies are highly cultural and normative and could be different. The way we approach large bodies affects health care practice as well as subjects' self-perceptions. PMID:25635505

  2. Some research results by risk-inform approaches for NPP safety and operational efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Article is the presentation of the same name monograph, which is planned to be issued. In the article the perspective problems of further development risk-oriented approach (ROA) for the grounding and realization of measures on increase of safety and operational efficiency of NPP are considered. Unlike the traditional approach for the ROA, mean due the definition of probabilistic and/or deterministic methods of risk parameters, as criterion functions essence and the measure of the estimation are defined by the solution of specific problem in nuclear field. The ROA application allows essentially expanding opportunities of the substantiations and realizations of measures on safety and operational efficiency increase of NPP

  3. Organization level research in scientometrics: a plea for an explicit pragmatic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hardeman, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    The general aim of this paper is to come to terms with the organization and organization level research in scientometrics. Most of the debate on the issues that revolve organization level research in scientometrics is technical. As such, most contributions presume a clear understanding of what constitutes the organization in the first place. To our opinion however, such “a-priorism” is at least awkward, given that even in specialist fields there is no clear understanding of what constitut...

  4. Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research; Nuklearmedizinische Ansaetze in der klinischen Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Andreas; Nguyen, Tristan (eds.)

    2009-11-15

    In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.

  5. RA research reactor in 'Vinca' Institute-approach to the decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper short overview of decommissioning process of research reactors according to IAEA standards and world practice is given. Basic technical characteristics and details of operational history of the RA research reactor in Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences are present. The main nuclear and radiation safety problems related to the RA reactor facility are defined and the outlines of the future decommissioning project are proposed. (author)

  6. Teaching versus research: A multi-tasking approach to multi-department universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Axel; Wauthy, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The budget of a university essentially depends on the number of students it enrols. In multidepartment universities resources created in one department may be redistributed to other departments. This redistribution affects the way academics share their working time between research and teaching activities. Redistribution creates free-riding on teaching efforts. In this paper, we show that by designing internal financial rules which create yardstick competition for research funds, a multi-depa...

  7. A Methodological and Scientific Approach to Developing a Research Agenda in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Nasser

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a National Educational Research Agenda. The study surveys 912 stakeholders regarding their perceptions of pertinent education issues believed to be significant in the context of the current educational reform. Through a modified Delphi Technique (DT), thirteen faculty members in a National Arab-Gulf university reduced the 2332 remarks to nine categories containing 10 Research Statement/Questions (RS/Q). The knowledge based...

  8. Subnational governance approaches on the rise : reviewing a decade of Eastern European regionalization research

    OpenAIRE

    Pitschel, Diana; Bauer, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the past decade of decentralization and regionalization research on the new Eastern European member states of the EU (EU-10). We classify the existing literature according to focus of analysis, explanatory programme and methodological preferences, and propose a distinction between three different research agendas: system transformation, EU conditionality and subnational governance. We argue that with respect to the EU-10, scholarly interest in the perspectives of state tr...

  9. A research approach to designing chemistry education using authentic practices as contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Pilot, Albert; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Westbroek, Hanna B.; Jong, Onno

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We discuss how to reduce the incongruence between outcomes (both cognitive and affective) of conventional secondary chemistry curriculum and what is to be attained: the meaningful connection of students’ learning to daily life and societal issues. This problem is addressed by a design study with one curriculum unit about ‘Water Quality’. With several research cycles using developmental research, we developed an emergent understanding about an instructional framework ...

  10. An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic; Wen, Yean-fu

    2008-01-01

    Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of signifi...

  11. Forging New Service Paths: Institutional Approaches to Providing Research Data Management Services

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Raboin; Rebecca C. Reznik-Zellen; Dorothea Salo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes three different institutional experiences in developing research data management programs and services, challenges/opportunities and lessons learned.Overview: This paper is based on the Librarian Panel Discussion during the 4th Annual University of Massachusetts and New England Region e-Science Symposium. Librarians representing large public and private research universities presented an overview of service models developed at their respective organizations to ...

  12. Quantitative reviewing of medical literature. An approach to synthesizing research results in clinical pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenbacher, K J; Petersen, P

    1984-08-01

    The quantitative literature review is presented as a unique type of research endeavor complete with formal stages that parallel those associated with primary or experimental research. This article provides a tutorial overview of the quantitative literature review procedure and, in conjunction with the companion article published in this issue, serves to illustrate the application of this technique in the review process. The stages in quantitative review include: (1) problem formation; (2) data collection; (3) data evaluation; (4) analysis and interpretation; and (5) reporting results. It is argued that inferences made in the research review process are as central to the establishment of valid biomedical and clinical knowledge as inferences made in primary research. Despite some limitations, quantitative reviewing procedures constitute a significant advance over the traditional narrative methods of integrating empirical research in an area of interest. The use of quantitative reviewing procedures represents a paradigm shift in which the literature review is conceptualized as a unique form of scientific inquiry complete with formal stages and methods. The adoption of these methods should assist researchers in the behavioral and biomedical sciences in establishing scientifically valid data bases to guide theory development and direct future clinical investigation. PMID:6734016

  13. A practical approach to risk-benefit estimation in pediatric drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in pediatric drug research is in exposing children to risk, often without a balanced chance of benefits. While the concept of risk is similar in adult research, the adult patient can decide for himself/herself on an acceptable level of risk, whereas children have to accept the decisions of their guardians. This paper attempts to put the complexities of estimating risk in pediatric drug research into their practical perspective, and to familiarize the reader with the way such processes are conducted in different parts of the world. Although there are regional differences, all authorities typically quantify risks of pediatric research in general, and drug research in particular, in three levels: those experienced in day-to-day life; risks slightly above this 'baseline' risk; and risks substantially above 'baseline risk'. Proportionally, the diligence of the ethics process depends on these levels, as well as on the potential benefits (or lack of) to the child involved in the research. Importantly, risk is context dependent, and a particular intervention may be effective or safe in one setting but not in another, based on local experience, staffing levels, and similar variabilities. PMID:25408294

  14. Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss and present results of the research work undertaken as well as further expected, important spin-off applications of DMP devices.

  15. Research on ethics in two large Human Biomonitoring projects ECNIS and NewGeneris: a bottom up approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casteleyn Ludwine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Assessment of ethical aspects and authorization by ethics committees have become a major constraint for health research including human subjects. Ethical reference values often are extrapolated from clinical settings, where emphasis lies on decisional autonomy and protection of individual's privacy. The question rises if this set of values used in clinical research can be considered as relevant references for HBM research, which is at the basis of public health surveillance. Current and future research activities using human biomarkers are facing new challenges and expectancies on sensitive socio-ethical issues. Reflection is needed on the necessity to balance individual rights against public interest. In addition, many HBM research programs require international collaboration. Domestic legislation is not always easily applicable in international projects. Also, there seem to be considerable inconsistencies in ethical assessments of similar research activities between different countries and even within one country. All this is causing delay and putting the researcher in situations in which it is unclear how to act in accordance with necessary legal requirements. Therefore, analysis of ethical practices and their consequences for HBM research is needed. This analysis will be performed by a bottom-up approach, based on a methodology for comparative analysis of determinants in ethical reasoning, allowing taking into account different social, cultural, political and historical traditions, in view of safeguarding common EU values. Based on information collected in real life complexity, paradigm cases and virtual case scenarios will be developed and discussed with relevant stakeholders to openly discuss possible obstacles and to identify options for improvement in regulation. The material collected will allow developing an ethical framework which may constitute the basis for a more harmonized and consistent socio-ethical and legal approach. This will not only increase the possibilities for comparison between data generated but may also allow for more equality in the protection of the rights of European citizens and establish trustful relationships between science and society, based on firmly rooted ethical values within the EU legislative framework. These considerations outline part of the research on legal, socio-ethical and communication aspects of HBM within the scope of ECNIS (NoE and NewGeneris (IP.

  16. Barriers and Facilitators to Research Use Among Allied Health Practitioners: A Mixed-Method Approach to Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dunne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The disparity between what is known to be effective and what is done in practice points to barriers to research use among health practitioners. Library and information services (LIS collect, organize and disseminate published research findings so they may be uniquely positioned to be of influence. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to research use among allied health practitioners working in the alcohol and other drugs (AOD field in Ireland, and to explore the services, strategies, and resources that may help alleviate these issues.Methods – Three focus groups were held with AOD practitioners. A survey questionnaire was then sent by post to 175 counsellors. The survey included the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Barriers Scale (Funk et al. 1991, which assessed potential barriers from four factors: practitioner, setting, qualities of the research, and communication.Results – The number of responses was 71 (41%. All communication-related Barriers Scale items, and some items associated with the setting and practitioner, were perceived to be a moderate or great barrier by the majority of survey respondents. Similar issues were also raised in focus groups, where language, presentation, and time to engage with research were considered significant influences. Qualitative aspects of the study also revealed scepticism about research application and relevance.All proposed LIS were rated as moderate or great facilitators by the majority of respondents who expressed an opinion (those who choose “no opinion” or did not respond, 6–8%, were excluded.Conclusions – The high incidence of communication-related issues among top barriers and the enthusiasm expressed about proposed library services and training reveals the key role that LIS personnel can play in enabling practitioners to use research in practice. The addition of setting and practitioner factors indicates that a holistic, collaborative approach to promoting the effective use of research collections and resources is required. Mixed-method data collection (focus group and survey provided a rich source of information, and may offer a useful approach for future study.

  17. A Simple Regression-based Approach to Account for Survival Bias in Birth Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Phiri, Kelesitse; Shapiro, Roger

    2015-07-01

    In perinatal epidemiology, birth outcomes such as small for gestational age (SGA) may not be observed for a pregnancy ending with a stillbirth. It is then said that SGA is truncated by stillbirth, which may give rise to survival bias when evaluating the effects on SGA of an exposure known also to influence the risk of a stillbirth. In this article, we consider the causal effects of maternal infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the risk of SGA, in a sample of pregnant women in Botswana. We hypothesize that previously estimated effects of HIV on SGA may be understated because they fail to appropriately account for the over-representation of live births among HIV negative mothers, relative to HIV positive mothers. A simple yet novel regression-based approach is proposed to adjust effect estimates for survival bias for an outcome that is either continuous or binary. Under certain straightforward assumptions, the approach produces an estimate that may be interpreted as the survivor average causal effect of maternal HIV, which is, the average effect of maternal HIV on SGA among births that would be live irrespective of maternal HIV status. The approach is particularly appealing, because it recovers an exposure effect which is robust to survival bias, even if the association between the risk of SGA and that of a stillbirth cannot be completely explained by adjusting for observed shared risk factors. The approach also gives a formal statistical test of the null hypothesis of no survival bias in the regression framework. PMID:26011373

  18. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herche?, J.; Swenson, M. J.; Verbeke, W. J. M. I.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  19. Using Strengths-Based Approaches in Early Years Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…

  20. A Systems Biology Approach to Toxicology Research with Small Fish Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing use of mechanistically-based molecular and biochemical endpoints and in vitro assays is being advocated as a more efficient and cost-effective approach for generating chemical hazard data. However, development of effective assays and application of the resulting data i...

  1. Riding Tandem: An Organic and Collaborative Approach to Research in Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Cathy; Dyer, Alec; Thompson, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to explore the use of the Internet in peer-to-peer learning environments within vocational education and training and to investigate whether this approach could replace traditional teaching and learning. A mixed methods design, including classroom observations, design experiments, interviews and questionnaires was adopted.…

  2. A Bayesian Approach to Person Fit Analysis in Item Response Theory Models. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, Cees A. W.; Meijer, Rob R.

    A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of person fit in item response theory (IRT) models is presented. In a posterior predictive check, the observed value on a discrepancy variable is positioned in its posterior distribution. In a Bayesian framework, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure can be used to generate samples of the posterior distribution…

  3. Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Teaching and Studying Social Issues: Major Programs and Approaches" focuses on many of the major innovations developed over the past 100 years by noted educators to assist students in the study and analysis of key social issues that impact their lives and society. This book complements earlier books that address other aspects of studying and…

  4. Gender, Narratives and Intersectionality: Can Personal Experience Approaches to Research Contribute to "Undoing Gender"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barbara Ann

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines narrative methodologies as one approach to exploring issues of gender, education and social justice and, particularly, insights into "undoing gender". It furthermore examines the possibilities of exploring gender and its multiple intersections in a range of global and policy contexts through the use of personal experience…

  5. Ethical Responsibility of Neuromarketing Companies in Harnessing the Market Research – a Global Exploratory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Al. Pop

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in the 21st century is identifying how to satisfy consumers’ needs in the best manner possible, whilst ensuring companies’ financial profitability. Scientists play a major role in achieving this goal, as research methods, techniques and tools have continuously evolved. In the last two decades, the development of these instruments has seen an important boost, as neuromarketing methods and techniques added depth and accuracy to traditional studies. The main aim of this paper is to highlight the role and importance of neuromarketing research techniques in the evolution of neurosciences and to explain how these techniques are used in market research. One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. This is an obligation they have both towards the beneficiaries – the companies providing products or services – and towards their consumers as well. This challenge has always been a subject of dispute between the advocates and critics of neuromarketing. Thus, this paper deals with this and other controversial topics. It starts with analysing a traditional persuasion model that has inherently been influenced by the neuromarketing research features. Then, it addresses the positive and negative aspects that subjects might have to face throughout neuromarketing studies, always bearing in mind the current Ethical Code of Conduct issued by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association (NMSBA. An exploratory online research helped the authors test several hypotheses on ethical issues that neuromarketing companies have to handle. The research was performed on 67 neuromarketing companies from around the world that are members of the NMSBA. The findings are relevant both to researchers and neuromarketing companies, even the Romanian ones, who can use them used as insights.

  6. Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography or in-pool mixed field irradiations); and 3) On-line viewing of archived data (temperatures, neutron flux, rod position, etc). This modernized digital control system, along with new tools for training, education and research will ensure a viable platform for teaching and research while at the same time reduce vulnerability due to an aging control system. (author)

  7. Scientometrical approach of the definition of a research domain using scientific journals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this thesis is to analyse how the academic domain of a research entity can be defined by a panel of scientific journals. The aim of this work is to contribute to the creation of information tools as a help in research management. The first part gives an analysis of the scientific journals as markers of the scientific development: the production and diffusion of scientific journals and their ''scientometrical'' analysis (references, citation reports, citation indexes etc..). In the second part, a research unit is analyzed according to its related scientific journals and to its research domain. The SPAM (Photons, Atoms and Molecules Service) of the CEA was chosen for this task (main journals and co-publications network, specialization, main topics, collaborations and competition). The OST (Observatory of Sciences and Techniques) has in charge the production of scientific and technical indicators for research operators. The third part evaluates the methods used by the OST (analyses of reviews and journals) to provide a documentary corpus, taking the topic of the environment as an example. Finally the relevance of the information products obtained is evaluated. (J.S.)

  8. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: The Approach to Equilibrium in Strongly Interacting Matter. Volume 118

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Venugopalan, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berges, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaizot, J. -P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gelis, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-04-09

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center (RBRC) was established in April 1997 at Brookhaven National Laboratory*. It is funded by the ''Rikagaku Kenkyusho'' (RIKEN, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) of Japan and the U. S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science. The RBRC is dedicated to the study of strong interactions, including spin physics, lattice QCD, and RHIC physics through the nurturing of a new generation of young physicists. The RBRC has theory, lattice gauge computing and experimental components. It is presently exploring the possibility of an astrophysics component being added to the program. The purpose of this Workshop is to critically review the recent progress on the theory and phenomenology of early time dynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies, to examine the various approaches on thermalization and existing issues, and to formulate new research efforts for the future. Topics slated to be covered include Experimental evidence for equilibration/isotropization, comparison of various approaches, dependence on the initial conditions and couplings, and turbulent cascades and Bose-Einstein condensation.

  9. As pesquisas sobre professores iniciantes: algumas aproximações Researches about inexperienced teachers: some approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara de Oliveira Gomes Papi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como foco as investigações sobre professores iniciantes e faz um balanço do tema a partir de pesquisas realizadas no Brasil, tendo em vista a atual tendência dos estudos sobre essa etapa do desenvolvimento profissional do professor. Para tanto, são analisados os trabalhos apresentados nas reuniões da ANPEd, nos anos de 2005, 2006 e 2007, e as pesquisas disponíveis no banco de teses da CAPES - 2000 a 2007 (mestrado e doutorado. Também é analisada a pesquisa de Brzezinski (2006, em que foi apresentado o estado do conhecimento sobre a formação de profissionais da educação. O estudo evidencia que a maioria das pesquisas analisa o professor, focando sua prática pedagógica, a construção de sua identidade, a socialização profissional e as dificuldades encontradas. Demonstra também a quase inexistência de ações de formação para esses professores e a necessidade das pesquisas brasileiras se dedicarem mais ao tema, que é pouco explorado, se considerada a relevância dessa etapa profissional.The following text focuses on the investigation into "Inexperienced Teachers" and ponders on the theme based on researches conducted in Brazil, regarding current trends about this stage of the teacher's professional development. In order to accomplish this objective, we analyzed the work presented at the ANPEd meetings in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007 and the researches available at the CAPES Thesis Bank from 2000 to 2007 (for mastering and doctorate degrees. The research carried out by Brzezinski (2006 was also taken as an object of analysis In this research, the state of knowledge on the development of professionals working with education was presented. The study reveals that most of the researchers analyzed the teachers, focusing on their pedagogic practice, identity construction, and professional socialization, as well as on the difficulties found. It also demonstrates the nearly inexistence of development actions for those teachers and the need for further research by Brazilian specialists, since this issue has been poorly explored considering its relevance.

  10. An Approach to Learning Research with a Wireless Sensor Network in an Outdoor Setting

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Tom Adam Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Automated collection of environmental data may be accomplished with wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a general discussion of WSNs is given for the gathering of data for educational research. WSNs have the capability to enhance the scope of a researcher to include multiple streams of data: environmental, location, cyberdata, video, and RFID. The location of data stored in a database can allow reconstruction of the learning activity for the evaluation of significance at a later time. A brief overview of the technology forms the basis of an exploration of a setting used for outdoor learning.

  11. Cognitive development in introductory physics: A research-based approach to curriculum reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Raluca Elena

    This project describes the research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created for designing and clarifying educational objectives, for developing assessments that can evaluate individual component processes of the problem-solving process, and for guiding curriculum design in introductory physics courses, specifically within the context of a "thinking-skills" curriculum. TIPP relies on the following resources: (1) cognitive research findings adopted by physics education research, (2) expert-novice research discoveries acknowledged by physics education research, (3) an educational psychology taxonomy for educational objectives, and (4) various collections of physics problems created by physics education researchers or developed by textbook authors. TIPP was used in the years 2006--2008 to reform the first semester of the introductory algebra-based physics course (called Phys 11) at The George Washington University. The reform sought to transform our curriculum into a "thinking-skills" curriculum that trades "breadth for depth" by focusing on fewer topics while targeting the students' cognitive development. We employed existing research on the physics problem-solving expert-novice behavior, cognitive science and behavioral science findings, and educational psychology recommendations. Our pedagogy relies on didactic constructs such as the GW-ACCESS problem-solving protocol, learning progressions and concept maps that we have developed and implemented in our introductory physics course. These tools were designed based on TIPP. Their purpose is: (1) to help students build local and global coherent knowledge structures, (2) to develop more context-independent problem-solving abilities, (3) to gain confidence in problem solving, and (4) to establish connections between everyday phenomena and underlying physics concepts. We organize traditional and research-based physics problems such that students experience a gradual increase in complexity related to problem context, problem features and cognitive processes needed to solve the problem. The instructional environment that we designed allows for explicit monitoring, control and measurement of the cognitive processes exercised during the instruction period. It is easily adaptable to any kind of curriculum and can be readily adjusted throughout the semester. To assess the development of students' problem-solving abilities, we created rubrics that measure specific aspects of the thinking involved in physics problem solving. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' shift in dispositions towards learning physics. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered pre- and post-instruction to determine students' level of conceptual understanding. The results feature improvements in students' problem-solving abilities and in their attitudes towards learning physics.

  12. Designing Study Nurses’ Training to Enhance Research Integrity: A MacroergonomicApproach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossman, Susan; Casper, Gail R.; Severtson, Dolores J.; Grenier, Anne-Sophie; Or, Calvin; Carayon, Pascale; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2006-01-01

    Successful field evaluation of informatics initiatives designed to create technology-enhanced professional practice relies on adequate training of experimental participants. However, such training presents design, implementation and evaluation challenges. A macroergonomic approach, focusing on an organizational view of people, technology, task and environment interactions in work systems, provides a framework for training that allows anticipation and compensation for challenges. In the HeartCare II project, we developed a multi-level training program for nurses and patients enrolled in a field trial of an innovative technology-enhanced professional practice model. Using a macroergonomic approach, we designed three waves of training and assessment centered on a train-the-trainer model. Despite planning, a drop-off occurred between training waves, affecting both recruitment and patient training. Evaluation identified people, task, technology, and organizational concerns. Strategies to increase nurse buy-in and improve technical performance are making a difference. Organizational challenges remain the most intractable. PMID:17238379

  13. Research on Mobile E-commerce Information Search Approach Based on Mashup Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile e-commerce information search will become popular with the mobile devices being widely used. Thus,how to provide content-rich and precise commerce information to mobile end-users becomes a challenge. Therise of mashup technology provides a promising solution for this challenge. In this paper the platformarchitecture of mobile e-commerce information search based on mashup technology is presented, and then themain components are described and discussed to illustrate how the platform facilitates mobile e-commerceinformation search. In section 4 a new approach of web search results processing adapted to mobile devices isproposed. An experiment is carried out to show the flow of web search results processing based on the presentedapproach. Mobile operators and internet operators can realize mutual benefits with the presented approach.

  14. Estimation of the correlation coefficient using the Bayesian Approach and its applications for epidemiologic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    England Lucinda J

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bayesian approach is one alternative for estimating correlation coefficients in which knowledge from previous studies is incorporated to improve estimation. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the Bayesian approach for estimating correlations using prior knowledge. Methods The use of the hyperbolic tangent transformation (? = tanh ? and r = tanh z enables the investigator to take advantage of the conjugate properties of the normal distribution, which are expressed by combining correlation coefficients from different studies. Conclusions One of the strengths of the proposed method is that the calculations are simple but the accuracy is maintained. Like meta-analysis, it can be seen as a method to combine different correlations from different studies.

  15. Designing Study Nurses’ Training to Enhance Research Integrity: A MacroergonomicApproach

    OpenAIRE

    Kossman, Susan; Casper, Gail R.; Severtson, Dolores J.; Grenier, Anne-sophie; Or, Calvin; Carayon, Pascale; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2006-01-01

    Successful field evaluation of informatics initiatives designed to create technology-enhanced professional practice relies on adequate training of experimental participants. However, such training presents design, implementation and evaluation challenges. A macroergonomic approach, focusing on an organizational view of people, technology, task and environment interactions in work systems, provides a framework for training that allows anticipation and compensation for challenges. In the HeartC...

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pharmacology: An Improved Pharmacology Approach for Chinese Herbal Medicine Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-qing Wu; Ying-wu Zhou; Xiu-de Qin; Sheng-yu Hua; Yu-lian Zhang; Li-yuan Kang

    2013-01-01

    Despite many successful applications of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment and prevention of neurological diseases (ND), the fully scientific understanding of CHM's action mechanisms had been hampered for lack of appropriate methods to explore the combinatorial rules, the synergistic mechanisms, and the molecular basis of CHM. As an improved pharmacology approach, cerebrospinal fluid pharmacology (CSFP), based on the fact that cerebrospinal fluid plays an important role in t...

  17. Research on the Acquirement Approach of Enterprise Competitiveness Based on the Network View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Chu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Under the market situation of economic globalization, the premise of enterprise existence and development is to foster the competitiveness of enterprise. Starting from the network view, this article will confirm the interest relatives of enterprise and systematically discuss the approach of enterprise competitiveness through such aspects as the formation of enterprise competitive potential, the increase of enterprise competitiveness and the continual renovation of competitiveness.

  18. Review of Family Business Definitions: Cluster Approach and Implications of Heterogeneous Application for Family Business Research

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Harms

    2014-01-01

    This review article displays several attempts to define family businesses as well as a systematization approach to get new insights about the relationship between family business definitions and their application under different conditions such as legal framework, culture or regional understanding of family. Potential explanations for the ambiguity of what is meant by family firms are revealed by reviewing 267 journal articles. A consensus about the object of investigation would result in a d...

  19. Leonardo on hydrostatic force: a research engineering approach towards the idea of hydrostatic pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavagnero, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    As evidenced by many scholars, hydraulics was one of the main interests of Leonardo da Vinci; his manuscripts are full of drawings and projects on water, accompanied by a variety of notes, subtle meditations, and some remarkable considerations. Leonardo's expertise in this field surely comes, first of all, from the well-established technical tradition of his time. But the particular approach that he often adopts to study and solve the problems encountered in his activity as an engineer someti...

  20. Researching Student Experiences of Digital Workshops in Art Gallery Education : A Q Methodological Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In the development of methods to explore student views on creative learning processes using digital media, Q methodology and its applications offer a promising framework. The method addresses the complexity of subjective viewpoints by applying a technique and analysis that combine materials to investigate shared patterns among students’ experiences. The integration of a qualitative approach with quantitative technique provides a special interview and ensures that the analysis remains focused on the students’ perspective. This approach offers a way to overcome problems with weak links between data materials in mixed-method studies, as the viewpoints expressed by study participants are initially mapped by a quantification procedure designed to integrate open-ended questioning and survey technique. The study presented here illustrates the use of this approach in an enquiry into students’ experiences of activities in digital media workshops in a Danish museum of contemporary art. Data were collected from 85 students, who participated in three types of workshops, and the results show a typology of four distinct views regarding three interrelated aspects: (1) views on art, which entail students’ general attitudes about art; (2) use of digital media for the creation of audio or animated cartoon digital files; and (3) reflective thinking during and after the workshop.

  1. Empirical research evaluating non-traditional approaches to managing sleep problems in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Laura-Lee Kathleen; France, Karyn

    2014-04-11

    Abstract Objective: This paper examines the efficacy of non-behavioural and non-pharmacological approaches to the treatment of sleep disturbance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Methods: A systematic search of electronic databases and reference lists identified eight studies that met inclusion criteria. Studies were evaluated according to (a) treatment used, (b) participants, (c) experimental design, (d) baseline measures, (e) dependent variables, (f) follow-up measures, (g) reliability and treatment integrity, (h) results and certainty of evidence and (i) implications for treatment. Results: Positive outcomes were reported for the use of massage therapy and vitamin supplements. Aromatherapy was reported to have no effect on sleep. No studies were found that examined other non-traditional treatment approaches, nor did any of the studies provide conclusive evidence. Conclusions: The limited corpus of evidence and the methodological limitations suggests that the efficacy of non-traditional approaches to treatment of sleep problems in individuals with autism is yet to be demonstrated. PMID:24724691

  2. A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Exoplanet Detection in STEM Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissenden, Gina; Wallace, C. S.; Prather, E. E.; Traub, W. A.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    JPL’s NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program’s (ExEP) Public Engagement Program, in collaboration with the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE), is engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the science of exoplanet detection into STEM classrooms. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of astronomers pursuing research related to exoplanets, along with a significant increase in interest amongst students and the general public regarding the topic of exoplanets. CAE has previously developed a curriculum unit (including Think-Pair-Share questions and a Lecture-Tutorial) to help students develop a deeper understanding of the Doppler method for detecting extrasolar planets. To date, there is a nearly nonexistent research base on students’ conceptual and reasoning difficulties related to the science of the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for detecting extrasolar planets. Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills in these areas. In this talk, we will report on our development process for two new Lecture-Tutorials that help students learn about the transit and gravitational microlensing methods for finding exoplanets.

  3. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chatwood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required.

  4. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required. PMID:26004427

  5. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  6. A Qualitative Experiment: Research on Mediated Meaning Construction Using a Hybrid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sue; Mendelson, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a hybrid methodological technique that fuses elements of experimental design with qualitative strategies to explore mediated communication. Called the "qualitative experiment," this strategy uses focus groups and in-depth interviews "within" randomized stimulus conditions typically associated with experimental research. This…

  7. Co-Learning Agreements in Research and Teaching: Another Approach to Collaboration in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Derrico, Regina Dunlavey

    2009-01-01

    This article looks at a research partnership between a high school English teacher and a university teacher educator, focusing on the impact of their work of co-teaching two integrated courses in the university's teacher education program. Findings from a study conducted during their third year of working together were used to revise the course…

  8. Nigeria research reactor (NIRR-1) conversion programme implementation - A regulatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigeria is embarking on a fuel conversion programme in view of her being a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and by extension, acceptance of the non-proliferation programme which encompasses a global effort to convert her type of research reactor to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The Nigeria Research Reactor (NIRR-1) is a 31kW miniature neutron source reactor situated at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT) Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The reactor was acquired through the tripartite project and supply agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria, International Atomic Energy Agency and China Institute of Atomic Energy. The reactor attained criticality on the 3rd February 2004 and has since been used for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Experiments and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology. NIRR-1 uses U-235 fuel enriched to about 90.2%. This paper analyzes the status of NIRR-1 conversion programme from a regulatory perspective, especially the major milestones fulfilled towards the submission/review of the feasibility/LEU conversion report. The paper considers the legal framework including the Act, Regulations and guidance documents developed or in the process of development for effective regulation of the conversion from project schedule to shipping requirements. The various international instruments endorsed by Nigeria as a demonstration of her commitment to conversion programme in form of Treaties, Conventions and Agreements are highlighted. The status of the draft Regulations on Research Reactors and the key elements of the Regulations are discussed.

  9. Input-Based Approaches to Teaching Grammar: A Review of Classroom-Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Examines the theoretical rationales (universal grammar, information-processing theories, skill-learning theories) for input-based grammar teaching and reviews classroom-oriented research (i.e., enriched-input studies, input-processing studies) that has integrated this option. (Author/VWL)

  10. Application of Content-Based Approach in Research Paper Recommendation System for a Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are software applications that provide or suggest items to intended users. These systems use filtering techniques to provide recommendations. The major ones of these techniques are collaborative-based filtering technique, content-based technique, and hybrid algorithm. The motivation came as a result of the need to integrate recommendation feature in digital libraries in order to reduce information overload. Content-based technique is adopted because of its suitability in domains or situations where items are more than the users. TF-IDF (Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency and cosine similarity were used to determine how relevant or similar a research paper is to a user's query or profile of interest. Research papers and user's query were represented as vectors of weights using Keyword-based Vector Space model. The weights indicate the degree of association between a research paper and a user's query. This paper also presents an algorithm to provide or suggest recommendations based on users' query. The algorithm employs both TF-IDF weighing scheme and cosine similarity measure. Based on the result or output of the system, integrating recommendation feature in digital libraries will help library users to find most relevant research papers to their needs.

  11. Approaches to Art Therapy for Cancer Inpatients: Research and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Common symptoms reported by cancer patients include pain, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, lack of appetite, and anxiety. A study conducted by an interdisciplinary research team (Nainis et al., 2006) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in these cancer symptoms with the use of traditional art therapy methods. The study found a…

  12. MIRACLE Approaches to Multilingual Information Retrieval: A Baseline for Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Fernández, José Luis; Villena Román, Julio; Fombella Mourelle, Jorge; García Serrano, Ana; Martínez Fernández, Paloma; Goñi Menoyo, José Miguel; González Cristóbal, José Carlos

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first set of experiments defined by the MIRACLE (Multilingual Information RetrievAl for the CLEf campaign) research group for some of the cross language tasks defined by CLEF. These experiments combine different basic techniques, linguistic-oriented and statistic-oriented, to be applied to the indexing and retrieval processes.

  13. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  14. A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.

    This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

  15. When she earns enough…’ The biographic research approach to gender diversity in the management of organisations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    K?ížková, Alena

    Brno : Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2011, s. 70-81. ISBN 978-80-7204-775-8 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP404/10/0021; GA ?R GA403/09/1839 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender diversity * gender in organisations * women in management Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  16. BOOK REVIEW: ESTUARINE SCIENCE: A SYNTHETIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is the product of fifty leading estuarine scientists most of whom attended a workshop convened for the purpose of "put[ting] together the case for synthesis of estuarine data and to show the capabilities of synthetic methods of research" (p. 2). The editor, John E. Hob...

  17. Institutional Infrastructure for Broader Impacts Engagement - Showcasing Effective Strategies and Approaches from a Large Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Sullivan, S. B.; Smith, L. K.; Lynds, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The need for robust scientific and especially climate literacy is increasing. Funding agencies mandate that scientists make their findings and data publically available. Ideally, this mandate is achieved by scientists and educators working together to translate research findings into common knowledge. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) is the largest research institute at the University of Colorado and home institute to over 500 scientists. CIRES provides an effective organizational infrastructure to support its scientists in broadening their research impact. Education specialists provide the necessary experience, connections, logistical support, and evaluation expertise to develop and conduct impactful education and outreach efforts. Outreach efforts are tailored to the project needs and the scientists' interests. They span from deep engagement efforts with a high time commitment by the scientist thus a high dosage to short presentations by the scientists that reach many people without stimulating a deep engagement and have therefore a low dosage. We use three examples of current successful programs to showcase these different engagement levels and report on their impact: i) deep transformative and time-intensive engagement through a Research Experience for Community College students program, ii) direct engagement during a teacher professional development workshop centered around a newly developed curriculum bringing authentic climate data into secondary classrooms, iii) short-time engagement through a virtual panel discussion about the state of recent climate science topics, the recordings of which were repurposed in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). In this presentation, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of broader impacts work. We discuss successful strategies that we developed, stress the importance of robust impact evaluation, and summarize different avenues of funding outreach efforts.

  18. Nursing research in community-based approaches to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large. PMID:20192112

  19. Building bridges between theory and practice in medical education using a design-based research approach: AMEE Guide No. 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmans, Diana H J M; Tigelaar, D

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research has grown enormously over the past 20 years, but it does not sufficiently make use of theories, according to influential leaders and researchers in this field. In this AMEE Guide, it is argued that design-based research (DBR) studies should be conducted much more in medical education design research because these studies both advance the testing and refinement of theories and advance educational practice. In this Guide, the essential characteristics of DBR as well as how DBR differs from other approach such as formative evaluation are explained. It is also explained what the pitfalls and challenges of DBR are. The main challenges deal with how to insure that DBR studies reveal findings that are of a broader relevance than the local situation and how to insure that DBR contributes toward theory testing and refinement. An example of a series of DBR studies on the design of a teaching portfolio in higher education that is aimed at stimulating a teacher's professional development is described, to illustrate how DBR studies actually work in practice. Finally, it is argued that DBR-studies could play an important role in the advancement of theory and practice in the two broad domains of designing or redesigning work-based learning environments and assessment programs. PMID:22250671

  20. ISO-9001: An approach to accreditation for an MTR facility: SAFARI-1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAFARI-1 Research Reactor obtained ISO-9001 accreditation via the South African Bureau of Standards in September 1998. In view of the commercial applications of the reactor, the value of acquisition of the accreditation was considered against the cost of implementation of the Quality System. The criteria identified in the ISO-9001 standard were appraised and a superstructure derived for management of the generation and implementation of a suitable Quality Management System (QMS) for the fairly unique application of a nuclear research reactor. A Quality Policy was established, which formed the basis of the QMS against which the various requirements and/or standards were identified. In addition, since it was considered advantageous to incorporate the management controls of Conventional and Radiological Safety as well as Plant Maintenance and Environmental Management (ISO 14001), these aspects were included in the QMS. (author)

  1. Psychologists' role in family-centered approach to practice, training, and research with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R N; Magrab, P R

    1991-02-01

    Family-centered, community-based, coordinated care for children with special needs is presented as the best practice model for providing services to children and families. Psychologists must learn to play an active role in this frame-work that both integrates psychology with other health and education disciplines and uses the broad spectrum of psychological knowledge about families, development, community organization, and intervention strategies. Key principles of family-centered child psychology affect practice research and training. The psychologist becomes part of a team created to support families as the primary care-givers of their children. Training programs must reorganize the types of experiences both in the classroom and the field to train new psychologists within this model. As mandates for family-centered care affect policies at the state and federal levels, research will remain a critical factor in understanding the effects of these policy shifts on child and family functioning and the delivery of services. PMID:2014941

  2. Three-level approach to quality programs for research, development and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop nuclear weapons systems for the Department of Defense. The activities included in this effort cover a broad spectrum, ranging from pure research to routine production. In order to provide a workable framework for a comprehensive quality assurance program for these varied activities, we have proposed a three-level structure of quality plans, corresponding to a rough classification of the weapons work into three general categories. These categories are: (1) research into materials and processes, and preliminary development; (2) design, development, and fabrication of prototype components; (3) routine production, analysis, or refinement activities. The first category requires a quality program to assure the validity, reliability, and retrievability of the information developed; this is accomplished by a conscientious application of what is generally recognized as good laboratory practice. The second category requires in addition a strong emphasis on design review and inspection. For the third category, a comprehensive quality program is appropriate

  3. Research requirements for a unified approach to modelling chemical effects associated with radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a review of the current modelling, laboratory experiments and field experiments being conducted in the United Kingdom to aid understanding and improve prediction of the effects of chemistry on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The aim has been to summarise present work and derive a structure for future research effort that would support the use of probabilistic risk assessment (pra) methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The review was conducted by a combination of letter and personal visits, and preliminary results were reported to a plenary meeting of participants held in April, 1986. Following this meeting, copies of the report were circulated to participants at draft stage, so that the finalised report should be taken to provide as far as possible a consensus of opinion of research requirements. (author)

  4. [Study on Chinese medicine pairs (V)--Their modern research strategies and approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xia; Tang, Yu-Ping; Su, Shu-Lan; Liu, Pei; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Da-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-12-01

    Along with progress of modern science and technology, human is utilizing natural resources and their inherent law more effectively and more efficiently according to their own purposes. Chinese medicine pair (CMP) is relatively fixed combination of two TCMs which was proven to be effective in clinical application. CMP has its inner specification, and it is an intermediate point between single herb and many TCM formulae. With the aid of modern science and technology, and by means of choosing appropriate strategies and approaches, the compatibility rules of CMP might be revealed, which will be significant to develop the compatibility theory of TCM formulae and create modern TCM new drugs. PMID:24791518

  5. A Survey & Current Research Challenges in Meta Learning Approaches based on Dataset Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Bhatt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification is a process that predicts class of objects whose class label is unknown. According to No Free Lunch (NFL theorem, there is no single classifier that performs better on all datasets. Meta learning is one of the approaches that acquired knowledge based on the past experience. The knowledge in Meta-Learning is acquired from a set of meta-examples which stores the features of the problem and the performance obtained by executing a set of candidate algorithms on Meta Features. Based on the experience acquired by the system during training phase, ranking of the classifiers is provided based on considering various measures of classifiers.

  6. A Survey & Current Research Challenges in Meta Learning Approaches based on Dataset Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Bhatt; Amit Thakkar; Amit Ganatra

    2012-01-01

    Classification is a process that predicts class of objects whose class label is unknown. According to No Free Lunch (NFL) theorem, there is no single classifier that performs better on all datasets. Meta learning is one of the approaches that acquired knowledge based on the past experience. The knowledge in Meta-Learning is acquired from a set of meta-examples which stores the features of the problem and the performance obtained by executing a set of candidate algorithms on Meta Features. Bas...

  7. The Six Identities of Marketing: A Vector Quantization of Research Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Nikolaus; Mazanec, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article provides an empirical identification of groups of marketing scholars who share common beliefs about the role of science and the logic of scientific discovery. Design: We use Topology Representing Network quantization to empirically identify classes of marketing researchers within a representative sample of marketing professors. Findings: We find six distinct classes of marketing scholars. They differ with regard to popularity (size) and productivity (level...

  8. In Silico Approaches and the Role of Ontologies in Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Fuellen, Georg; Boerries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; de Grey, Aubrey; Hahn, Udo; Hiller, Thomas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Jansen, Ludger; Janssens, Georges E.; Kaleta, Christoph; Meinema, Anne C.; Schäuble, Sascha; Simm, Andreas; Schofield, Paul N; Smith, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Aging Research was again dedicated to dissecting the aging process using in silico means. A particular focus was on ontologies, because these are a key technology to systematically integrate heterogeneous information about the aging process. Related topics were databases and data integration. Other talks tackled modeling issues and applications, the latter including talks focused on marker development and cellular stress as w...

  9. One Health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwain Terry F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the United States. A collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the One Health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in April 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. The impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as Texas cattle fever, associated with the re-infestation of the U.S. by cattle fever ticks. Results The involvement of wildlife in the ecology of cattle fever ticks jeopardizes the ability of state and federal agencies to keep the national herd free of Texas cattle fever. Similarly, there has been a progressive increase in the number of cases of human babesiosis over the past 25 years due to an increase in the white-tailed deer population. Human babesiosis due to cattle-associated Babesia divergens and Babesia divergens-like organisms have begun to appear in residents of the United States. Research needs for human and bovine babesioses were identified and are presented herein. Conclusions The translation of this research is expected to provide veterinary and public health systems with the tools to mitigate the impact of bovine and human babesioses. However, economic, political, and social commitments are urgently required, including increased national funding for animal and human Babesia research, to prevent the re-establishment of cattle fever ticks and the increasing problem of human babesiosis in the United States.

  10. The use of grey literature in historical journals and historical research: A bibliometric and qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blaaij, Cees de (ZEBI); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2007-01-01

    Grey literature is generally accepted as an important part of scholarly communication especially in the "hard" sciences. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in the humanities and specifically in the discipline of history, a systematic analysis was done to characterize the bibliographic references appearing in ten core history journals. Methods: references from all research articles published in ten core history journals in 2005 were analyzed – five printed and fi...

  11. Health Disparities and Toxicant Exposure of Akwesasne Mohawk Young Adults: A Partnership Approach to Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Ravenscroft, Julia; Cole, Maxine; Jacobs, Agnes; Newman, Joan

    2005-01-01

    In this article we describe a research partnership between the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and scientists at the University at Albany, State University of New York, initiated to address community and scientific concerns regarding environmental contamination and its health consequences (thyroid hormone function, social adjustment, and school functioning). The investigation focuses on cultural inputs into health disparities. It employs a risk-focusing model of biocultural interaction: behaviors exp...

  12. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research : questions of exploration, authorship and multimodal presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

      In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptualisations and theories of hypermodality and multimodal ethnography (Lemke, 2002; Idema, 2003; Dicks and Mason, 1998; Dicks, Soyinka and Coffey, 2006) I will seek to show, by help of my own material, that the creative integration of different media may offer the reader and analyst a more adequate approximation of the richness of mediaethnographic knowledge than conventional textual presentations.                       Hypermediated forms of presentation afford not just a capability for accommodating non-sequentiality,polyphony and multi-perspectivalism, I will argue, but acknowledge and foreground the inevitable processes of selection and interpretation which lies at the heart of each and every practice of  ‘authoring'. Finally, considerations regarding a planned hypermediated presentation of my research project in Recife, will be related to the experiences made with video as tool of mediaethnographic investigation and analysis. How the potential of non-sequentiality enshrined in hypermedia applications can be accommodated with a continued commitment to the production of a form of authoring which maintains intellectual coherence, is thereby at the focus of the preliminary assessment of the potential of hypermediated forms of academic authoring that this paper seeks to contribute to.

  13. Basil Bernstein as an inspiration for educational research: Specific methodological approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Ana Maria; Neves, Isabel Pestana

    2010-01-01

    The article is focused on the research that has been developed by the ESSA Group (Sociological Studies of the Classroom) and which is fundamentally based on Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic discourse. It presents the theoretical assumptions and the methodological procedures that have guided the conception of the models and instruments of analysis and the steps followed in their construction. Aspects related to validity and reliability criteria are also referred. It is clarified the epistemol...

  14. Quantitative approaches to linguistic variation in IRC : implications for qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenhaar, Beat

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of code choice, code switching, and language style in Internet Relay Chat (IRC) can shed light on functional-pragmatic aspects of the use of different linguistic varieties. However, in a qualitative analysis, the status of varieties within a channel or for a single chatter can only be guessed at. Moreover, qualitative research on linguistic variation in IRC often fails to generalize its findings due to a restricted database or a restricted view of a database. This article...

  15. Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) – Approach, Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Fischer, Gabriele; Heil, Sarah H.; Kaltenbach, Karol; Martin, Peter R.; Coyle, Mara G.; Selby, Peter; Stine, Susan M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project, an eight-site randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, flexible-dosing, parallel-group clinical trial is described. This study is the most current – and single most comprehensive – research effort to investigate the safety and efficacy of maternal and prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine. Methods The MOTHER study design is outlined, and its basic features are presented. Conclusions At least seven important lessons have been learned from the MOTHER study: (1) an interdisciplinary focus improves the design and methods of a randomized clinical trial; (2) multiple sites in a clinical trial present continuing challenges to the investigative team due to variations in recruitment goals, patient populations, and hospital practices that in turn differentially impact recruitment rates, treatment compliance, and attrition; (3) study design and protocols must be flexible in order to meet the unforeseen demands of both research and clinical management; (4) staff turnover needs to be addressed with a proactive focus on both hiring and training; (5) the implementation of a protocol for the treatment of a particular disorder may identify important ancillary clinical issues worthy of investigation; (6) timely tracking of data in a multi-site trial is both demanding and unforgiving; and, (7) complex multi-site trials pose unanticipated challenges that complicate the choice of statistical methods, thereby placing added demands on investigators to effectively communicate their results. PMID:23106924

  16. Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions. PMID:19605884

  17. A guiding framework and approach for implementation research in substance use disorders treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Hagedorn, Hildi J

    2011-06-01

    This paper introduces readers to the concepts of implementation science, implementation theory, and implementation frameworks and models. A wide range of models has been published in the literature related to implementation. The paper will present an overview of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which is a comprehensive typology that unifies and consolidates the array of constructs that influence implementation from the perspective of these models. The CFIR is then used to evaluate implementation models used in studies of substance use disorder (SUD) treatments. Implementation research is scarce, with few prospective studies of theory-driven implementation. We assert that future research in SUD needs to meet three overarching objectives to promote wider implementation of evidence-based practices: (a) differentiation of core versus adaptable components of evidence-based interventions need; (b) development of methods to design implementation strategies, effectively adapted to the broad context; and (c) design and testing of predictive models to assess likelihood of effective implementation and prospects for sustainability while taking into account salient contextual factors. A recommended strategy for accomplishing these objectives is described. PMID:21443291

  18. A promising approach in comparative research on care for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Zee Jouke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long-term care (LTC in the form of care provided in nursing homes, homes for the aged and home care is considered an appropriate answer to the growing needs of the aging populations of the industrialized world. However, the provision of and expenditures on LTC vary considerably between these industrialized countries. Although one would expect LTC to be subject to many internationally comparative studies, including all European countries, this is not the case. A paper presented by Damiani et al. in BMC Health Services Research contains an internationally comparative model regarding the development of LTC in Europe (2003 to 2007. They achieve an intriguing compromise between depth and width in the sparsely populated domain of internationally comparative research on LTC by characterizing countries' LTC and interpreting the large north/south differences found. Their results also show that 'cash for care' schemes form a substantial alternative to traditional LTC provision. An additional time series analysis showed that many countries seem to be engaged in reorganizing the LTC sector. This study widens knowledge in a neglected area of health services research and should serve as a source of inspiration for further studies. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/11/316 1

  19. An Approach for Comparative Research Between Ontology Building & Learning Tools for Information Extraction & Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Suresh Jain C. S. Bhatia Dharmendra Gupta Sumit Jain Bharat Pahadiya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information available on the web is huge & it covers diversified fields. Nowadays most of search engines use essentially keyword based search techniques. We simply specify a set of keywords or query as a request and a reference we get a list of pages, ranked based on similarity of query. Currently searching web face with one problem that many times outcome is not satisfactory because of irrelevance of the information. Searching the exact information from such a huge repository of unstructured web data is still main area of research interest. One solution to achieve this is Semantic Web. Ontology is an effective concept commonly used for the Semantic Web. Ontology is “an explicit specification of a conceptualization”. There are two main pillars of semantic Web one is Problem Solving Methods & another is Ontology. Ontology building is a tedious job and a time consuming task for user. The quality of ontology plays an important role in information retrieval application .This paper deals with features & familiarity with different Ontology building & learning tools. After all the preliminary knowledge about all tools & software we have made research about specific features & services provided by some tools & identified the optimum tool in all respect for particularly for our further research project.

  20. A Research-Based Approach to Transforming Upper-Division Electricity & Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We present research on transforming an upper-division undergraduate electricity and magnetism course using principles of active engagement and learning theory. We build on a systematic investigation of student learning difficulties, with the goal of developing useful curricular materials and suggestions for effective teaching practices. We observe students in classroom, help-session, and interview settings, and analyze their written work. To assess student learning, we have developed and validated a conceptual instrument, the CUE (Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics) diagnostic. We collaborate with faculty to establish learning goals, and have constructed a bank of clicker questions, tutorials, homeworks, and classroom activities. We find that students in the transformed courses exhibit improved performance over the traditional course, as assessed by common exam questions and the CUE, but there is still much work to be done. Our work underlines the need for further research on the nature of student learning and appropriate instructional interventions at the upper division. Research supported by NSF DUE-0737118, and the Colorado Science Education Initiative.

  1. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  2. Use of systems engineering approach to prioritize fuel cycle, research and development choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has issued a road-map (1) for its research, development and demonstration (RDD) activities to ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The road-map defines NE RDD activities according to four research and development (RD) Objectives that address the challenges to expanding the use of nuclear power. The RD Objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the ability of the new reactors to enable nuclear energy help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) Develop sustainable fuel cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program, within the Office of Nuclear Energy supports achievement of the RD Objective 3 and has the mission to research, develop and demonstrate options to the current U.S commercial fuel cycle to enable the safe, secure, economic and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation and terrorism risks. Sustainable fuel cycle options are those that improve uranium resource availability and utilization, minimize waste generation, and provide adequate capability and capacity to manage all wastes produced by the fuel cycle. The key challenge for the the fuel cycle. The key challenge for the government is to develop a suite of options that will enable future decision-makers to make informed choices about how best to manage the used fuel from reactors. The overall goal is to have demonstrated the technologies necessary to allow commercial deployment of solution(s) for the sustainable management of used nuclear fuel that is safe, economic, secure and widely acceptable to American society by 2050. Since the scope of the program is very broad and the goal is four decades away, the principles of systems engineering are being used to help prioritize the research and development conducted under the program. The presentation will describe progress achieved toward development and implementation of a documented transparent and objective methodology to support decision making. Ref 1: Nuclear Energy Research and Development road-map, Report to Congress, April 2010. (author)

  3. Gender, Narratives and Intersectionality: can Personal Experience Approaches to Research Contribute to "Undoing Gender"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barbara Ann

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines narrative methodologies as one approach to exploring issues of gender, education and social justice and, particularly, insights into "undoing gender". It furthermore examines the possibilities of exploring gender and its multiple intersections in a range of global and policy contexts through the use of personal experience approaches. The "storying" of lived experience is examined as a means of challenging dominant discourses which can construct and other individuals and groups in relation to many aspects of gender and education. Drawing on intersectionality, as a complex and developing feminist theory, the paper considers ways in which narrative can illuminate often hidden complexities while seeking to avoid generalisations and essentialisms. The difficulties of using narrative in relation to these aims are explored in the light of the warnings of feminist writers such as Michele Fine and bell hooks. The paper briefly considers narrative as both methodology and phenomenon, and finally, drawing on critical discourse analysis, discusses the potential of intersectionality and narrative in relation to undoing gender.

  4. Research and development of safety approach and safety assessment for the next generation SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary safety assessments have been conducted on the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor during 2005-2010 as a part of the FaCT (Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development) project. The main conclusions and achievements related to safety were that 1) the safety analyses results that the key safety-related parameters satisfy the design limits for the anticipated operational occurrences and design accidents; 2) passive reactor shutdown mechanism [i.e. Self-Actuated Shutdown System] for the prevention of severe accidents and an in-vessel retention concept for reactor core material retention for the mitigation of severe accidents were built-in the JSFR design, 3) the core damage frequency was assessed to be less than 10-5/site-year, and risk target for earthquakes was assessed to meet the design conditions as of 2007. In the light of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accidents, the next target safety-related R and D will be focused on acquiring safer and more robust SFR system: 1) In-detail Level-1 PRA on loss of heat sink type severe accidents, 2) Unreliability factor evaluations on passive safety mechanism/system, 3) Accident scenario initiated by external events, with due consideration on SFR system pro/con features, 4) Risk-informed approach to extreme external hazards by utilizing hazard curves for clarifying reasonable design margins and 5) Establishment of harmonized safety design approach/criteria based on fundamental SFR characteristics. (author)

  5. Integration of nuclear spectrometry methods as a new approach to material research. Final report of a coordinated research project 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2006, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Unification of Nuclear Spectrometries: Integrated Techniques as a New Tool for Material Research' as one of the elements of a project on 'Improvements in Nuclear Spectrometry Applications'. The major objective was to assist laboratories in Member States in enhancing proper utilization of nuclear analytical methods and to help them develop nuclear instruments for special applications. An overall objective of the CRP was to help Member States to improve characterization of materials by the effective utilization of nuclear spectrometry instruments and techniques as well as by developing integrated/unified instruments and analytical methodologies in support of environmental pollution monitoring, industry, study of cultural heritage, human health, agriculture, etc. These techniques can be used in small laboratories as well as in state of the art synchrotron sources. The specific research objectives of the CRP included development (or upgrading) of integrated multifunctional instruments based on nuclear spectrometries and related techniques as well as development of software for the handling and operation of integrated multifunctional instruments, including data acquisition. The CRP also covered: development (or upgrading) of integrated analytical approaches/methodologies and software for processing and presentation of data collected by multifunctional instruments; extension of the applications of integrated/unified instruments; and synergistic and complementary use of nuclear spectrometries, with the aim of assisting end users of nuclear spectrometries in various fields. The CRP covered a period of four years (2006-2009). Twelve laboratories from both developed and developing Member States and the IAEA's Laboratories participated. The first research coordination meeting (RCM) was held in Vienna, from 16 to 20 April 2007. The participants presented progress reports, reviewed the status of the instrumentation and methodologies available, and agreed on a detailed work plan for the CRP. The second (final) RCM was held in Athens, Greece, from 11 to 15 May 2009. The participants reviewed and summarized the overall research results of the CRP, assessed the impact of the CRP and identified outstanding research related to integration of nuclear spectrometry techniques and analytical methodologies. This publication presents the results of the CRP.

  6. USO DEL ENFOQUE POR PROCESOS EN LA ACTIVIDAD INVESTIGATIVA / USE OF THE APPROACH BY PROCESSES IN THE RESEARCH ACTIVITY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Iván, Pérez Rave; Jairo Antonio, Ruiz Córdoba; Carlos Mario, Parra Mesa.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La realización de una investigación no sólo comprende actividades propias del campo de conocimiento de donde proviene la idea, sino también labores de gestión que permitan llevar a cabo de manera efectiva todas las etapas investigativas. Estas labores, en la mayoría de los casos subvaloradas en el c [...] ampo investigativo, pero bien apreciadas en el contexto empresarial, son determinantes en el éxito de un proyecto de investigación. El enfoque por procesos constituye una de las principales bases de las prácticas de gestión que caracterizan a exitosas organizaciones empresariales y, en esta oportunidad, se exhibe la experiencia de aplicarlo al trabajo de campo de la investigación realizada por un grupo de la Universidad de Antioquia (Colombia). Este artículo pretende motivar y potenciar el desarrollo y/o la adaptación de modelos y técnicas de gestión en el ámbito investigativo, que propicien un desarrollo más eficaz y eficiente de las labores de investigación. En esta experiencia se define la misión del trabajo de campo, se identifican los procesos clave, se describe y se documenta cada uno de ellos y se realiza sensibilización y capacitación del equipo investigador en tales temas. Abstract in english Research requires management tasks that allow effective execution of all the research stages. In most cases, these activities, which are decisive for the success of the project, are undervalued in the research context, but well appreciated in the enterprise context. The approach by processes is one [...] of the main foundations of successful enterprise management practices. In this opportunity, the use of the aforementioned approach in the fieldwork stage of the research performed by a group of the Universidad de Antioquia (Colombia) is shown. This article intends to motivate and promote the development and/or adaptation of management models and tools, which will lead to a better development of the research. The mission of the fieldwork stage is defined, and the key processes are identified, described, and documented. Additionally, the research team is brought into awareness and trained in these topics.

  7. Stress management interventions for HIV-infected individuals: review of recent intervention approaches and directions for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown JL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Brown1,2, Peter A Vanable3 1Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, 2Center for AIDS Research, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA Abstract: To promote psychological wellbeing and adaptive coping among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWHA, a number of stress management interventions have been designed and evaluated. This paper reviews recent stress management intervention approaches designed to improve the coping skills of PLWHA and reduce psychological distress. First, a summary of findings from previous narrative reviews and meta-analyses of the stress management intervention literature for PLWHA is provided. Next, recent stress management interventions for PLWHA that fall into one of four categories are reviewed: (a interventions to improve coping and modify other health behaviors (ie, highly active antiretroviral medication adherence, sexual behaviors, (b meditation, mindfulness, and relaxation-based stress management approaches, (c computer-delivered interventions, and (d interventions that target specific populations including older individuals, individuals with childhood sexual abuse histories, and women. A critique of recent stress management interventions for PLWHA is provided as well as directions for future research. Keywords: stress management intervention, stress, coping, cognitive behavioral stress management, review, HIV, HIV-positive, HIV-infected, AIDS

  8. Substitute of Animals in Drug Research: An Approach Towards Fulfillment of 4R's

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, T.; Mehta, A. K.; Joshi, V.; Mehta, K. D.; Rathor, N.; Mediratta, P. K.; Sharma, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    The preclinical studies for drug screening involve the use of animals which is very time consuming and expensive and at times leads to suffering of the used organism. Animal right activists around the world are increasingly opposing the use of animals. This has forced the researchers to find ways to not only decrease the time involved in drug screening procedures but also decrease the number of animals used and also increase the humane care of animals. To fulfill this goal a number of new in ...

  9. A pragmatist approach to the hope discourse in health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrestad, Henning; Biong, Stian; McCormack, Brendan; Borg, Marit; Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Hope is a central concept in nursing and other fields of health care. However, there is no consensus about the concept of hope. We argue that seeking consensus is futile given the multifaceted and multidimensional nature of the concept, but instead we encourage in-depth studies of the assumptions behind talk about hope in specific contexts. Our approach to the 'science of hope' is inspired by philosophical pragmatism. We argue that hope is a concept that opens different rooms for action in different contexts and that accordingly, all hope interventions are contextually sensitive. Careful attention to how the relative positions and power of nurses and patients influence what can be inferred from their different ways of talking about hope may make hopeful conversations more meaningful in health care relationships. PMID:24548689

  10. Grants4Targets - an innovative approach to translate ideas from basic research into novel drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessl, Monika; Schoepe, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Schneider, Martin; Asadullah, Khusru

    2011-04-01

    Collaborations between industry and academia are steadily gaining importance. To combine expertises Bayer Healthcare has set up a novel open innovation approach called Grants4Targets. Ideas on novel drug targets can easily be submitted to http://www.grants4targets.com. After a review process, grants are provided to perform focused experiments to further validate the proposed targets. In addition to financial support specific know-how on target validation and drug discovery is provided. Experienced scientists are nominated as project partners and, depending on the project, tools or specific models are provided. Around 280 applications have been received and 41 projects granted. According to our experience, this type of bridging fund combined with joint efforts provides a valuable tool to foster drug discovery collaborations. PMID:21129498

  11. Research on a New Approach of R&D Budgeting based on Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce value chain and uses stage-gate model, which is widely used in programming, to find a new approach of R&D budgeting based on value chain. The expense of R&D of contemporary enterprises is taking larger and larger part of the whole production cost, so R&D budgeting, as a forward feed management mode, has been paid great attention to. R&D budgeting model is a management system that contains relevant basic concepts, procedures and methods correspondingly. The present model most enterprises are using follows the budgeting method in the field of manufacturing, which is more difficult to adapt to the characteristics of R&D activities, leading to adverse effects on R&D budget slack, as well as low management efficiency. Actually, the process of budgeting is the allocation of scarce resources to organize all kinds of work.

  12. An Adoption of Semantic Web from the Perspective of Technology Innovation: A Qualitative Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo, Jaehun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available What factors affect the adoption and diffusion of Semantic Web innovation? This paper answers this question using multiple case studies. The case study as a qualitative approach is appropriate to achieve this, because the Semantic Web is at the early introduction stage. Data was gathered from seven out of nine organizations adopting the Semantic Web in Korea. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Three factors affecting adoption of the Semantic Web were identified. The first factor is demand pull including requirements for solving search and integration problems of the existing systems and for creating new services. Second, environmental conduciveness, potential business value, government sponsorship programs, and active roles of suppliers affect the adoption of the Semantic Web from the perspective of technology push. Finally, absorptive capacity is an important role of the adoption. Four propositions are derived from this case study.

  13. Analytical Approach for the Systematic Research of the Periodic Ferroresonant Solutions in the Power Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Ben Amar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroresonance is a complex and little known electrotechnical phenomenon. This lack of knowledge means that it is voluntarily considered responsible for a number of unexplained destructions or malfunctioning of equipment. The mathematical framework most suited to the general study of this phenomenon is the bifurcation theory, the main tool of which is the continuation method. Nevertheless, the use of a continuation process is not devoid of difficulties. In fact, to continue the solutions isolats which are closed curves, it is necessary to know a solution belonging to this isolated curve (isolat to initialise the continuation method. The principal contribution of this article is to develop an analytical method allowing systematic calculation of this initial solution for various periodic ferroresonant modes (fundamental, harmonic and subharmonic appearing on nonlinear electric system. The approach proposed uses a problem formulation in the frequency domain. This method enables to directly determine the solution in steady state without computing of the transient state. When we apply this method to the single-phase ferroresonant circuits (series and parallels configurations, we could easily calculate an initial solution for each ferroresonant mode that can be established. Knowing this first solution, we show how to use this analytical approach in a continuation technique to find the other solutions. The totality of the obtained solutions is represented in a plane where the abscissa is the amplitude of the supply voltage and the ordinate the amplitude of the system’s state variable (flux or voltage. The curve thus obtained is called “bifurcation diagram”. We will be able to then obtain a synthetic knowledge of the possible behaviors of the two circuits and particularly the limits of the dangerous zones of the various periodic ferroresonant modes that may appear. General results related to the series ferroresonance and parallel ferroresonance, obtained numerically starting from the theoretical and real cases, are illustrated and discussed.

  14. Concepción pedagógica del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas / Pedagogical approach of the formation of research skills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo Luis, Herrera Miranda.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La investigación está dirigida al perfeccionamiento del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas relacionadas con los modos de actuación profesional en estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina, de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río. La lógica de la investigación transitó, med [...] iante diversos métodos de investigación, por el diagnóstico inicial del proceso de formación de habilidades investigativas y la elaboración del marco teórico. Como aporte teórico, se fundamentó una concepción pedagógica de dicho proceso, sustentada en los métodos clínico y epidemiológicos como agente dinamizador de un cambio en el proceso formativo, lo que permitió identificar tres etapas por las que transcurre este proceso en sus dimensiones curricular y extracurricular, así como los principios que regulan su funcionamiento. Se diseñó una estrategia para su implementación a través de cuatro acciones estratégicas específicas, de las cuales resultaron como productos: programa de la asignatura Metodología de la Investigación; los programas del tiempo electivo La Investigación, como herramienta en la solución de problemas de salud, en la dimensión curricular y el programa del Curso "La Investigación, como herramienta en la solución de problemas de salud", en la dimensión extracurricular y Programa de capacitación para los docentes. Para evaluar la factibilidad y validez de la concepción pedagógica y de la estrategia diseñada, se utilizó el método de criterio de expertos, que junto al desarrollo de una experiencia, aportaron resultados devenidos en importante contribución al perfeccionamiento de estas. Abstract in english The research is aimed at improving the process of research skills training related to modes of performance in students from the School of Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Pinar del RC-o. The logic of the research presented by various research methods for the initial diagnosis of the formati [...] on of research skills and the development of the theoretical framework. As a theoretical contribution, a pedagogical conception of the process, based on the clinical and epidemiological methods as a catalyst for change in the training process was based, which identified three stages through which this process takes place in their curricular and extracurricular dimensions and the principles governing its operation. A strategy for implementation was designed through four specific strategic actions, which resulted as products: program subject Research Methodology; elective time programs Research as a tool in solving health problems in curriculum and program dimension Course "Research as a tool in solving health problems" on extracurricular dimension and Training Program for teachers. To evaluate the feasibility and validity of the pedagogical approach and strategy designed, the method of expert judgment, which together with the development of an experience, provided results turned-important contribution to the improvement of these was used.

  15. Socio-Cultural Approaches to Tourism: A Research on the “Tourist” Notion of Young Turkish People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferika Özer Sari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significance of tourism sector in Turkey is constantly expanding. Correspondingly the importance of the economic and socio-cultural impact of tourism also continues to develop. Because tourism draws tourists get into closer contact with the locals it has positive and negative effects on the destination. In general the aim of tourists is satisfying their expectations at the maximum degree during their stay. On the other side locals who live and work in the destination region have a primary role in welcoming them and satisfying the tourists’ needs and expectation. Turkish society is particularly well known for many generations as being very hospitable. Current research aims to reveal whether the young Turkish people sustain traditional “Turkish Hospitality” and to see their thoughts about tourists. The field research has been conducted on students of a foundation university located in Izmir and these young people’s point of view on tourists has been investigated by face to face interviews. It has been concluded that there is a weakening trend, nevertheless the notion of hospitality remains.

  16. A Research-Informed Approach to Teaching About Light & Matter in STEM Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Wallace, C. S.; Schlingman, W. M.; Prather, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    In collaboration with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), we have engaged in a research and curriculum development program to bring the detailed science of light and matter into STEM classrooms. Typical Astro 101 classes often discuss emission/absorption spectra with reference to the Bohr model only and teach radiation as produced/absorbed only by electron transitions. We present here curricula developed to highlight other emission/absorption phenomena (specifically those produced by rotational/vibrational molecular transitions as well as synchrotron radiation.) Appropriate for physical science classrooms from middle school to the introductory college level, the learner-centered active engagement activities we are developing are going through an iterative research and assessment process to ensure that they enable students to achieve increased conceptual understandings and reasoning skills. In this talk, we will report on our development process for a suite of activities, including lecture slides, Think-Pair-Share questions, assessment questions and a new Lecture-Tutorial that help students learn about these other important emission models.

  17. A three-level approach to quality programs for research, development, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to develop nuclear weapons systems for the Department of Defense. The activities included in this effort cover a broad spectrum ranging from pure research to routine production. In order to provide a workable framework for a comprehensive quality assurance program for these varied activities, the authors have proposed a three-level structure of quality plans, corresponding to a rough classification of the weapons work into three general categories. These categories are: 1) research into materials and processes, and preliminary development; 2) design, development, and fabrication of prototype components; 3) routine production, analysis, or refinement activities. The first category requires a quality program to assure the validity, reliability, and retrievability of the information developed; this is accomplished by a conscientious application of what is generally recognized as good laboratory practice. The second category requires in addition a strong emphasis on design review and inspection. For the third category, a comprehensive quality program is appropriate, following the general guidelines of NQA-1

  18. A multifaceted approach to radionuclide radiotherapy: The MURR [Missouri University Research Reactor] radioisotope program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal radionuclide radiotherapy of malignancies began with various forms of radium injections, solutions, and implants early in this century and achieved its most wide-spread success in the application of 131I iodide for the treatment of thyroid metastases. Implants such as 198Au and 192Ir, and colloids such as 32P chromic phosphate, have also proved useful, but the greatest utility would be found for radiotherapeutic drugs possessing the selectivity for other forms of cancer that radioiodine shows for thyroid carcinoma. The objective of tumor radiotherapy is the selective destruction of malignant cells by radiation while sparing normal tissue. Recent improvements in the guidance mechanisms of radiopharmaceuticals have made possible a third wave of radiotherapeutics that may revolutionize the treatment of malignancies. The basic guidance methods include direct placement (implants), anatomical-physiological deposition, chemical-physiological concentration, and immunochemical uptake. These new drugs are primarily based on reactor-produced beta emitters, because typical beta ranges of 1 to 10 mm are the most appropriate for radiotherapy. The Missouri University research reactor (MURR) Radioisotope Applications Group has been involved for 10 yr in collaborative research to bring about this new generation of cancer-fighting drugs and is currently producing isotopes for clinical trials of all these types of treatmentof all these types of treatment

  19. Regulatory Approach to Safety of Long Time Operating Research Reactors in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Russian Federation more than 60% of operating Nuclear Research Facilities (NRFs) are of age over 30 years old or their usage exceeds originally conceived continuous operation. In this regard, important areas of regulatory body activity are: 1) a systematic assessment of the actual state of structures, systems and components (SSCs) important to safety, 2) control of implementation of organizational and technical measures to mitigate ageing impact on the basis of programmes to manage reliability (service life) of SSCs, and 3) issues of facility modification/reconstruction in line with up-to-day safety requirements. The practice of licensing NRFs with long operating times shows that the national regulations are generally in compliance with IAEA recommendations for ageing management of research reactors. In operating organizations, the ageing management is being effectively provided as a part of the integrated management system for NRFs, including the monitoring of the reliability of SSCs, a methodology to detect their ageing, reporting and investigation of events, analysis of their root causes, and measures to prevent and mitigate ageing effects to safety. The report outlines a good practice of safety regulation of NRFs with long operating times and based on lessons learned from experience, including challenges for future improvement of ageing management

  20. Neural network approaches to tracer identification as related to PIV research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neural networks have become very powerful tools in many fields of interest. This thesis examines the application of neural networks to another rapidly growing field flow visualization. Flow visualization research is used to experimentally determine how fluids behave and to verify computational results obtained analytically. A form of flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV). determines the flow movement by tracking neutrally buoyant particles suspended in the fluid. PIV research has begun to improve rapidly with the advent of digital imagers, which can quickly digitize an image into arrays of grey levels. These grey level arrays are analyzed to determine the location of the tracer particles. Once the particles positions have been determined across multiple image frames, it is possible to track their movements, and hence, the flow of the fluid. This thesis explores the potential of several different neural networks to identify the positions of the tracer particles. Among these networks are Backpropagation, Kohonen (counter-propagation), and Cellular. Each of these algorithms were employed in their basic form, and training and testing were performed on a synthetic grey level array. Modifications were then made to them in attempts to improve the results