WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Research Article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Procrastination is all too familiar to most people. Peopledelay writing up their research (so we hear!), repeatedly declare theywill start their diets tomorrow, or postpone until next week doing oddjobs around the house. Yet people also sometimes attempt to controltheir procrastination by setting deadlines for themselves. In this article,we pose three questions: (a) Are people willing to self-imposemeaningful (i.e., costly) deadlines to overcome procrastination? (b)Are self-imposed deadlines effective in improving task performance?(c) When self-imposing deadlines, do people set them optimally, formaximum performance enhancement? A set of studies examined theseissues experimentally, showing that the answer is "yes" to the first twoquestions, and "no" to the third. People have self-control problems,they recognize them, and they try to control them by self-imposingcostly deadlines. These deadlines help people control procrastination,but they are not as effective as some externally imposed deadlines inimproving task performance.

Dan Ariely

2

A Comparative Genre Analysis of Hedging Expressions in Research Articles: Is Fuzziness Forever Wicked?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific writers might not inevitably be exact, precise and explicit in expression, eschewing vulnerability to criticism and seeking acceptability form academia. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency, form and function of the multi-objective linguistic and rhetorical device of hedging in the discussion sections of 100 qualitative and quantitative research articles where appropriate expression of scientific claims is highly welcome. As such, the taxonomy proposed by Hyland (1996) was applied in order to identify and classify the various hedge words, followed by an independent-samples t-test to compare the total number of hedging devices. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between qualitative and quantitative research articles with respect to both frequency and form of the employed hedge words, bearing important implications for educational researchers and practitioners in applying appropriate hedging strategies in the academic publishing of scientific texts.

Biook Behnam; Amin Naeimi; Ali Darvishzade

2012-01-01

3

Artículos de investigación Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1973, Revista Médica de Chile has classified biomedical and clinical prospective research papers in a Section named "Research Articles", while purely clinical and retrospective studies were classified into another Section, named "Clinical Experiences". This distinction seems no longer necessary, because both types of manuscripts are subjected to a uniform external peer-review system and their intrinsic quality is not a distinctive feature. Furthermore, the name of Sections where similar papers are classified by the major general clinical medicine journals is clearly non-uniform. Therefore, "Research Articles" and "Clinical Experiences" will from now on be included into a single Section: "Research Articles". (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 7-8)

Humberto Reyes B; Ronald Kauffmann Q; Max Andresen H

2000-01-01

4

Article 19: Global Campaign for Free Expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Along with other global campaigns to affect social and political transformation (such as Amnesty International), Article 19 is an organization designed "to combat censorship by promoting freedom of expression and access to official information." With offices in London and South Africa, the organization has partners in over 30 countries, and monitors, researches, publishes, and litigates on behalf of freedom of expression around the world. Certainly one of the first stops on the site should be the Virtual Handbook of Expression, which contains a number of briefs of freedom of expression cases from the UN Human Rights Committee, the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. In addition, the Virtual Handbook contains a number of key documents, organized around themes that include such timely topics as defamation, national security, print regulation, and privacy. Of course, visitors will also find a great deal of additional material here, including information on Article 19's work in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and a publication archive as well.

5

Patient safety in clinical research articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient safety has remained one of the most important priorities over the past decade, particularly in hospital settings. Implementation of patient safety measures has focused not only on reducing medication and surgical errors but also on the development of a culture of safety, including enhanced communication among all healthcare stakeholders. Academic medicine may further contribute to the culture of safety if all relevant clinical article submissions address patient safety. In order to improve communication between the authors of clinical research articles and practicing physicians, we propose that each clinical research article may be accompanied by a clear statement from the authors regarding practice implications and patient safety. PMID:23910178

Vintzileos, Anthony M; Finamore, Peter S; Sicuranza, Genevieve B; Ananth, Cande V

2013-08-01

6

Generic Structure of Research Article Abstracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As an academic genre, the research article (RA) abstracts play an important role in academic community. This paper aims to explore the differences between RA abstracts by native and non-native speakers of English in terms of the generic structure. Theoretically, the commonly accepted IMRD model (Introduction-Method-Results-Discussion) and Swale’s Move-Step model are adopted to analyse the macro- and micro-structure respectively. It is found that the Introduction Move is obligatory for English RA abstracts by non-native speakers as opposed to the Introduction and the Results move by native speakers. Key words: Research Article; ; GeGenre Analysisneric Structure

Hai-lin DONG; Huan XUE

2010-01-01

7

A contrastive analysis of the use of modal verbs in the expression of epistemic stance in Business Management research articles in English and Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present paper an intercultural quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of modal verbs as epistemic stance markers in SERAC (Spanish-English Research Article Corpus), a corpus of research articles (RAs) in different disciplines, is carried out. The corpus selected for this research consists of 48 Business Management research articles. Special emphasis is laid on the introduction and discussion sections of RAs, where stance devices are most frequently located to pursue convergence with the readership. This kind of intercultural analysis has been achieved through both a bottom-up research approach and a top-down research approach. The results obtained in this study point in the direction that there are obvious differences between the use of modal verbs by native writers and the use of modal verbs by non-native Spanish writers. The most remarkable aspect is that Spanish writers show a deviant handling of hedges and boosters. Therefore, they have difficulties in establishing a proper tenor when they write in English.

Ignacio Vázquez Orta

2010-01-01

8

"The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

Cortes, Viviana

2013-01-01

9

A RESEARCH REVIEW ARTICLE ON COMPOSITE MATERIAL.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The search of aesthetic dental material is on. Composites are a material of choice in this category. Composite have developed over past few years and increased use of material is in demand. This article gives us a brief knowledge of existing and newer composites.

Choksi D; Idnani B

2013-04-01

10

Criticism and interpretation: teaching the persuasive aspects of research articles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely informative aspects of research articles, such as descriptions of the methods and results, from the persuasive aspects, such as interpretation of results and critical evaluation of the work of other scientists.

Gillen CM

2006-01-01

11

Accessible Article: Involving People with Learning Disabilities in Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)

Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel

2010-01-01

12

Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2013-01-01

13

Criticism and interpretation: teaching the persuasive aspects of research articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely informative aspects of research articles, such as descriptions of the methods and results, from the persuasive aspects, such as interpretation of results and critical evaluation of the work of other scientists. PMID:17012188

Gillen, Christopher M

2006-01-01

14

Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This paper presents the development and validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles, which could assess trustworthiness of qualitative research articles as defined by Guba and at the same time aid clinicians in their assessment. BACKGROUND: There are more than 100 sets of proposals for quality criteria for qualitative research. However, we are not aware of an assessment tool that is validated and applicable, not only for researchers but also for clinicians with different levels of training and experience in reading research articles. METHOD: In three phases from 2007 to 2009 we delevoped and tested such an assessment tool called VAKS, which is the Danish acronym for appraisal of qualitative studies. Phase 1 was to develop the tool based on a literature review and on consultation with qualitative researchers. Phase 2 was an inter-rater reliability test in which 40 health professionals participated. Phase 3 was an inter-rater reliability test among the five authors by means of five qualitative articles. RESULTS: The new assessment tool was based on Guba's four criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of qualitative inquiries. The nurses found the assessment tool simple to use and helpful in assessing the quality of the articles. The inter-rater agreement was acceptable, but disagreement was seen for some items. CONCLUSION: We have developed an assessment tool for appraisal of qualitative research studies. Nurses with a range of formal education and experience in reading research articles are able to appraise, relatively consistently, articles based on different qualitative research designs. We hope that VAKS will be used and further developed.

Schou L; Høstrup H; Lyngsø EE; Larsen S; Poulsen I

2012-09-01

15

Tips on Writing an Educational Research Article for Brock Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The editor of Brock Education offers tips for writing educational research articles that will appeal to him as a reader and as editor of Brock Education. First, capture his interest in the first few paragraphs. Second, convey your topic is of great interest or importance at the moment. Third, convey a sense of wonder and engagement about the topic and the research. Fourth, explain how your work relates to the larger field of study. Fifth, provide a thorough analysis of the research findings. Sixth, write well. He draws on the six articles in this issue to illustrate.

Julian Kitchen

2011-01-01

16

First-Year Students Benefit from Reading Primary Research Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary research articles discuss aspects of scientific inquiry that are important in understanding the nature of science. Yet, most introductory science courses use textbooks that ignore the scientific process; opportunities for explicit discussion of the nature of science are lost. In Hampshire College's science program, students read current…

Wenk, Laura; Tronsky, Loel

2011-01-01

17

How to write research articles in computing and engineering disciplines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article advocates a general way of presenting research articles on any topic and in any field related to computer science, information technology, and engineering disciplines. The key advice to a successful presentation is to repeat the description of main contribution four times: in the title, abstract, introduction (or chapter 1) and in the text. That is, to make readable, appealing, and as complete as possible versions of the work using the order of 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 words. This corresponds to the decreasing portion of readers for corresponding parts of the article. To the extent possible, each of these parts should address, in this order: the problem statement, existing solutions, the new solution(s), assumptions and limitations, analysis, simulation and comparison with best competing solutions

Ivan Stojmenovi?; Veljko Milutinovi?

2012-01-01

18

What do reviewers look for in an original research article?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this article common errors committed by authors especially those, whose first language is not English, while writing an original research articleis described. Avoiding common errors and improving chances of publication has also been covered. This article may resemble instruction to the author. However, tips from reviewer's eyes has been given. The abstract is the section of the paper most commonly read and care should be taken while writing this section. Keywordsare usedto retrieve articles following searches and use of words from the MeSH database is recommended.The introduction describes work already conducted in the particular area and briefly mentions how the manuscript will add to the existing knowledge.The methods section describes how the study was conducted, is written in the past tense and is often the first part of the paper to be written. The results describe what was found in the study and is usually written after the methods section.The discussion compares the study with the literature and helps to put the study findings in context. The conclusions should be based on the results of the study. The references should be written strictly according to the journal format. Language should be simple, active voice should be used and jargon avoided. Avoid directly quoting from reference articles and paraphrase these in your own words to avoid plagiarism. Keywords: Original research, publication, reviewer, scientific journals.

Shankar PR

2012-04-01

19

Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

Carmen Piqué-Noguera

2012-01-01

20

Publication of research article: an art or science?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The publication process is a shared responsibility. Besides the writing, reviewing, publishing, and editorial teams, readers are one of the most important pillars of this process. Readers and authors cannot be dealt with separately, because most of the readers are authors. The varieties of articles and improvement in presentations reflect the rising interest and enthusiasm of writers and readers. Increasing number in critical comments and author's reply can be considered as a post-publication peer review process. Impact Factor, which was used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal, is now being considered a misleading tool in assessing the quality of a paper or the researcher. Here, we are trying to discuss in brief the points which should be kept in mind before manuscript preparation and submission, so that our research should reach to maximum readers in an unbiased form.

Kapoor S; Sikka P; Saxena K

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Linking adverbials in research articles across eight disciplines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biber et al. (1999) contend linking adverbials perform important cohesive and connective functions by signalling connections between units of discourse; however, there has been little previous corpus-based research in this important area of ESP. This paper describes an analysis of linking adverbials, such as “however” and “therefore”, in a corpus of 320 published research articles (RAs) across eight disciplines, four science and four non-science. New lists of linking adverbials were developed and the parameters of frequency, function and disciplinary variation were examined using WordSmith Tools. They were found to be more frequent than previously thought, with numerous statistically significant disciplinary differences, for example between the sciences and non-sciences. Also, they often clustered together in complex sequences. A close examination of RAs in two of the sciences revealed some reasons for the much lower rate of occurrence there. Authors developed claims in a different way, describing methods and results in a more narrative or descriptive style rather than explicitly telling readers the connections between ideas, claims and facts. Conclusions are that linking adverbials are more important in RAs as signalling and cohesive devices, and for helping RA authors construct and strengthen claims, than previously thought by experts in this field. Also, different disciplines achieve this in significantly different ways, confirming the importance of discipline variation when researching their use.

Matthew Peacock

2010-01-01

22

Interacting with the Reader: Politeness in Engineering Research Article Discussions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writer’s strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Myers’ studies (1989, 1992) on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness strategies in regularities of scientific style that are usually explained in terms of conventions. In the context of scientific communication, the researcher performs two basic tasks: presenting a claim and contradicting former theories or beliefs. Both actions could be interpreted as impolite behaviours and constitute what Brown and Levinson (1987) call face threatening acts (FTAs). In this study we explore the presence of face-redressive politeness strategies in the discussion sections of engineering research articles. The data are drawn from a corpus of 46 discussion sections in the fields of computing, telecommunications, nanotechnology and robotics.La estrategia del escritor de combinar la exposición de información factual a la vez que expresa sus opiniones personales y mantiene la interacción con el lector ya ha sido objeto de análisis (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour y Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Los estudios de Myers (1989, 1992), enfocados a la pragmática de la cortesía en artículos científicos, analizan las estrategias de cortesía presentes en las regularidades del discurso científico, que tienden a ser consideradas como convenciones del género. En el contexto de la comunicación científica, el investigador realiza dos tareas básicas: presentar una hipótesis o afirmación científica y contradecir teorías u opiniones asumidas por la comunidad científica. Ambas acciones son susceptibles de ser consideradas descorteses y constituyen lo que Brown y Levinson (1987) denominan ‘actos de amenaza de la imagen pública’ (face threatening acts en su denominación inglesa). En este estudio se describen las estrategias de cortesía destinadas a preservar la imagen en las secciones de discusión de 46 artículos científicos pertenecientes a los campos de la informática, las telecomunicaciones, la nanotecnología y la robótica.

Luz Gil-Salom; Carmen Soler-Monreal

2009-01-01

23

Open Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact Than Articles Not Freely Available, A review of: Antelman, Kristin. “Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?” College & Research Libraries 65.5 (Sep. 2004): 372-82.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To ascertain whether open access articles have a greater research impact than articles not freely available, as measured by citations in the ISI Web of Science database. Design – Analysis of mean citation rates of a sample population of journal articles across four disciplines. Setting – Journal literature across the disciplines of philosophy, political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering. Subjects – A sample of 2,017 articles across the four disciplines published between 2001 and 2002 (for political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering) and between 1999 and 2000 (for philosophy). Methods – A systematic presample of articles for each of the disciplines was taken to calculate the necessary sample sizes. Based on this calculation, articles were sourced from ten leading journals in each discipline. The leading journals in political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering were defined by ISI’s Journal Citation Reports for 2002. The ten leading philosophy journals were selected using a combination of other methods. Once the sample population had been identified, each article title and the number of citations to each article (in the ISI Web of Science database) were recorded. Then the article title was searched in Google and if any freely available full text version was found, the article was classified as open access. The mean citation rate for open access and non?open access articles in each discipline was identified, and the percentage difference between the means was calculated. Main results – The four disciplines represented a range of open access uptake: 17% of articles in philosophy were open access, 29% in political science, 37% in electrical and electronic engineering, and 69% in mathematics. There was a significant difference in the mean citation rates for open access articles and non?open access articles in all four disciplines. The percentage difference in means was 45% in philosophy, 51% in electrical and electronic engineering, 86% in political science, and 91% in mathematics. Mathematics had the highest rate of open access availability of articles, but political science had the greatest difference in mean citation rates, suggesting there are other, discipline?specific factors apart from rate of open access uptake affecting research impact. Conclusion – The finding that, across these four disciplines, open access articles have a greater research impact than non?open access articles, is only one aspect of the complex changes that are presently taking place in scholarly publishing and communication. However, it is useful information for librarians formulating strategies for building institutional repositories, or exploring open access publishing with patrons or publishers.

Suzanne P. Lewis

2006-01-01

24

Research Article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cognitive processes at work in masked priming experimentsare usually considered automatic and independent of attention.We provide evidence against this view. Three behavioral experimentsdemonstrate that the occurrence of unconscious priming in a numbercomparisontask is determined by the allocation of temporal attentionto the time window during which the prime-target pair is presented.Both response-congruity priming and physical repetition priming vanishwhen temporal attention is focused away from this time window.These findings are inconsistent with the concept of a purely automaticspreading of activation during masked priming.

Lionel Naccache; Elise Blandin

25

Differences in Quality between Thai and International Research Articles in ELT  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to explore potential problems of English Language Teaching (ELT) academics in Thailand in getting their research published in international journals. Using content analysis, the study analyzes and compares 100 research articles published by ELT academics in Thailand with 100 research articles published in international journals.…

Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut; Todd, Richard Watson; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Hall, David

2012-01-01

26

How Elsevier's Article of the Future supports researchers in the digital era  

Science.gov (United States)

The first phase of Elsevier's Article of the Future article format was released on SciVerse ScienceDirect in January 2012. While this new format for online scholarly articles brings a significantly improved online presentation, it also enables further enhancements in terms of domain-specific content and contextualization of research results. Of particular interest to the Earth Sciences research community are the seamless integration of an interactive map viewer that displays author-submitted KML files inside the article, and real-time links to leading research data portals like Pangaea and Earthchem. These enhancements allow for a richer form of communication between authors and readers, and present researchers with valuable additional information in the context of the article. In this presentaion I will review these ongoing efforts to enhance online articles in the digital era.

Keall, B.

2012-04-01

27

A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

28

Trends in Research Librarianship Literature: A Social Network Analysis of Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the bibliometric characteristics of research librarianship literature and to visualize relationships in research librarianship by means of social network analysis. It was found out that the majority (66%) of the articles had single authorship and College & Research Libraries is the prominent actor among the research librarianship journals. It was also observed that Peter Hernon is the most productive and cited author in the field. The findings of this study can be used by the research librarianship community to better understand their core literature.

Umut Al; ?rem Soydal; Gülten Alir

2012-01-01

29

Evaluative Functions of Reporting Evidentials in English Research Articles of Applied Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reporting evidentials are frequently used in Research Articles. Based on the data analysis of 50 English research articles of applied linguistics, the study shows that reporting evidentials not only function as indicating the information sources, but also have multiple evaluative functions. The analyses have proved this by showing the evaluative functions of reporting evidential in choosing different information sources and different realization forms. At the same time the persuasive effects and discourse implications of these different choices are also discussed.

Linxiu Yang

2013-01-01

30

Communication research in Spain, 1998-2007. An analysis of articles published in Spanish communication journals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of communication research in Spain in the last decade contrasts with the scarcity of works trying to describe and assess the quality of this research. Attempting to address this problem, this article presents a quantitative content analysis of all the articles published in four years between 1998 and 2007 (1998, 2002, 2003 and 2007) by four of the most important Spanish communication journals, with a total sample of 285 articles, of which 235 are from authors working in Spanish universities or research centres. Results show that the Spanish communication researchers are basically interested in the study of Journalism, and more specifically in the analysis of news discourses. Another finding is that most research is empirically-oriented, but by and large lacks methodological rigour. These deficiencies were decreasing during the period under analysis, but increased once again in the works published more recently.

Manuel Martínez-Nicolás; Enric Saperas-Lapiedra

2011-01-01

31

Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison’s (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and differences regarding the move occurrence, move-ordering patterns, and move cyclicity were found. The marked differences of the two corpora were in the step employment. The findings obtained in the current study are useful particularly for novice non-native writers by facilitating them to better understand the rhetorical structure of research article Discussions in the different publication contexts. In addition, they may provide L2 teachers with insight into effective instructional strategies to help EFL/ESL learners acquire pragmatic knowledge of the rhetorical structure of research article Discussions.

Wirada Amnuai; Anchalee Wannaruk

2013-01-01

32

DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.

Pilar Mur Dueñas

2009-01-01

33

Elluminate Article: Distance Education Research, Design-based Research and the 'CIDER Solution'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this free software.

Terry Anderson

2005-01-01

34

Reprint of "Citation analysis as a measure of article quality, journal influence and individual researcher performance".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for 'citation analysis' are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines.This article uses 'real world' examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community.The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment.

Nightingale JM; Marshall G

2013-09-01

35

Investigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract. Research into English research articles (RAs) has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian) writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990) Create-A­Research-Space (CARS) model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategics between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational

Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

2002-01-01

36

Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two l...

Fatemeh Mirzapour; Maryam Ahmadi

37

How to Read Scientific Research Articles: A Hands-On Classroom Exercise  

Science.gov (United States)

|Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…

Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily

2009-01-01

38

Cerebrospinal Fluid Research: The first six months and the introduction of article processing charges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Article processing charges (APCs) have recently been introduced for authors submitting papers to Cerebrospinal Fluid Research. This editorial is to inform readers about the need and use of APCs and about the advantages of free open access publishing.

Jones Hazel C

2005-01-01

39

EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters  

Science.gov (United States)

To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free publication in the journal until the end of 2012. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full list of nominees can be found below (in alphabetical order). Nominees Achard F, DeFries R, Eva H, Hansen M, Mayaux P and Stibig H-J 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045022 Baccini A, Laporte N, Goetz S J, Sun M and Dong H 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011 Barona E, Ramankutty N, Hyman G and Coomes O T 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024002 Charpentier A D, Bergerson J A and MacLean H L 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014005 Chester M V and Horvath A 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024008 Cooley S R and Doney S C 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024007 Diffenbaugh N S, White M A, Jones G V and Ashfaq M 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 024024 Farrell A E and Brandt A R 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014004 Graham W M, Condon R H, Carmichael R H, D'Ambra I, Patterson H K, Linn L J and Hernandez F J Jr 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301 Hansen J E 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024002 Heinonen J and Junnila S 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Jackson R B et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 044006 Jiang M, Michael Griffin W, Hendrickson C, Jaramillo P, VanBriesen J and Venkatesh A 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034014 Koren I, Kaufman Y J, Washington R, Todd M C, Rudich Y, Martins J V and Rosenfeld D 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 Kummu M, Ward P J, de Moel H and Varis O 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 Lau W K M, Kim M-K, Kim K-M and Lee W-S 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 025204 Lindeboom H J et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 035101 Lowe J A, Huntingford C, Raper S C B, Jones C D, Liddicoat S K and Gohar L K 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 Möhler O, Benz S, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M, Wagner R, Schneider J, Walter S, Ebert V and Wagner S 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 025007 Menon S, Akbari H, Mahanama S, Sednev I and Levinson R 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 014005 Schneider A, Friedl M A and Potere D 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044003 Sloan T and Wolfendale A W 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 024001 Tedesco M, Fettweis X, van den Broeke M R, van de Wal R S W, Smeets C J P P, van de Berg W J, Serreze M C a

Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

2011-12-01

40

Longitudinal study on patent citations to academic research articles in nanotechnology (1976-2004)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patents.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lisa R Stoneking, Kristi H Grall, Alice A Min, Ashish R PanchalDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USABackground: Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents.Methods: Participants answered three questions weekly on a discussion board: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed.Results: Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%). Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4%) whereas 5/32 (15.6%) participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%), difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%), and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%).Conclusion: Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.Keywords: online research, discussion board, knowledge translation, emergency medicine residency

Stoneking LR; Grall KH; Min AA; Panchal AR

2013-01-01

42

nvestigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into English research articles (RAs) has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian) writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990) Create-A-Research-Space (CARS) model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategies between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational strategies. Second, non-native English writers need to acquire knowledge of commonly used formal generic structure, and more importantly, the knowledge of the nature of scientific writing in English to be able to gain wider readership. The implications for further research and the teaching of academic writing are discussed.

Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

2003-01-01

43

Glioblastoma research 2006-2010: pattern of citation and systematic review of highly cited articles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioblastoma has been performed between 2006 and 2010. Different measures of impact, visibility and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Articles were identified through systematic search of the abstract database PubMed followed by analyses of total number of citations and proportion of highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ?100, 50-99, and 25-49 citations, respectively (citation database Scopus). Overall 5831 scientific articles on the subject were published during this time period. 1.5% of all articles accumulated at least 100 citations, 3.2% were cited between 50 and 99 times, and 7.5% were cited between 25 and 49 times. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on genomic analyses, molecular subclasses of glioblastoma and/or stem cells. Overall, 18 randomized clinical trials were published between 2006 and 2010, including those with phase II design. Thirty-nine percent of them accumulated at least 50 citations and 72% were cited at least 25 times. In general, annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved at least 25 citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted.

Nieder C; Astner ST; Grosu AL

2012-11-01

44

[How to write a scientific article: how to get your research published].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Into a new and even more competitive profession, doing research and being able to publish it can make a difference. Having the bases for writing a good article, which can efficiently and clearly transmit your discoveries, is essential. We pretend to offer a general guide about what constitutes the content of a publication, and which are the most frequently committed errors. Knowing this can be the difference between being or not published.

Elizondo-Rivera RL; Bosques-Padilla FJ

2007-04-01

45

High-frequency collocations of nouns in research articles across eight disciplines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of the distribution of the high-frequency collocates of abstract nouns in 320 research articles across eight disciplines: Chemistry, Computer Science, Materials Science, Neuroscience, Economics, Language and Linguistics, Management, and Psychology. Disciplinary variation was also examined – very little previous research seems to have investigated this. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools. The 16 highest-frequency nouns across all eight disciplines were identified, followed by the highest-frequency collocates for each noun. Five disciplines showed over 50% variance from the overall results. Conclusions are that the differing patterns revealed are disciplinary norms and represent standard terminology within the disciplines arising from the topics discussed, research methods, and content of discussions. It is also concluded that the collocations are an important part of the meanings and functions of the nouns, and that this evidence of sharp discipline differences underlines the importance of discipline-specific collocation research.

Matthew Peacock

2012-01-01

46

Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research articles (30 articles in each language) in terms of sub-types of lexical cohesion. The study reveals that the order of occurrence in descending order of sub-types of lexical cohesion is ( Rep., Col., Syn., Gen.N., Mer., Hyp., and Ant.) in English data, while the order in Persian data is ( Rep., Syn., Col., Ant., Hyp., Mer., Gen.N.). In both data the most frequent sub-types are repetition, collocation, synonymy. In English data the general tendency is towards the use of repetition and collocation but Persian data show the general tendency towards the use of repetition and synonymy. This study might have implications for teachers and researchers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language because of the fact that teaching sub-types of lexical cohesion to foreign language learners will improve the quality of their reading and writing.

Fatemeh Mirzapour; Maryam Ahmadi

2011-01-01

47

Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

Leischow SJ; Ayo-Yusuf O; Backinger CL

2013-04-01

48

Analyzing research article introductions by Iranian and native English-speaking authors of Applied Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the role of academic writing in the dissemination of research findings among members of scientific communities, efforts have been made by language specialists to achieve a more detailed understanding of this register, with hopes that the derived features could then be used to teach researchers, writing in a second/foreign language, to more effectively communicate the results of their studies. This study sets out to achieve a similar goal through the analysis of research article introductions in terms of the frequency and function of their lexical bundles. To this end, a corpus of 200 research article introductions by published authors in the field of Applied Linguistics was compared to a similar corpus by Iranian, non-native writers of the same field. The findings reveal that Iranian authors use more 4-word lexical bundles in their writing compared to their native-speaker counterparts. Syntactic and functional differences between the two corpora are introduced and implications for academic writing instructors are discussed in detail.

Shahriari Ahmadi, Hesamoddin; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hosseini Fatemi, Azar

2013-01-01

49

Discoursive analysis and pragmatic metadiscourse in four sub-areas of Economics research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) are two disciplines whose importance has been growing lately. This is due to the ever-increasing interest in the language that describes the most recent developments in varying disciplines and the need to communicate in and understand that language. One of the means for the spreading of those new developments in the different technologies is through research articles inspecialised journals. These impose certain rules that must be fulfilled by all researchers who want to see their papers published. Much literature has been written about this, covering most linguistic areas (see, for instance, Bazerman, 1988; Bhatia, 1993; Dudley-Evans, 1994; Fortanet, 2002). Many articles contrast different genres but rarely distinguish different sub-areas within a genre (Bridgman & Carlson, 1984; Malcolm, 1987; Hyland, 1988; Neff Van Aertselaer, 2006). In the present case, we will consider texts within the discipline of Economics. The aim of this paper is to show a structural, grammatical and metatextual analysis of ten articles recently published in very prestigious specialised publications, covering the most important areas of study in Economics. We conclude by making a contrastive rhetorical analysis of the four sub-genres analysed here. These are: Applied Economy, Quantitative Economy, Financial Economy, and Management and Business.

Concepción Hernández Guerra; Juan M. Hernández Guerra

2008-01-01

50

ELABORACIÓN DE UN ARTÍCULO CIENTÍFICO DE INVESTIGACIÓN RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: KNOW HOW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo presenta la forma de redactar correctamente un artículo científico como reporte de una investigación, contempla cada una de las etapas que debe contener para su aprobación. Se sugiere la forma de redactar desde el título hasta la bibliografía, en un lenguaje comprensible y científico. Enfatiza en cómo deben ser presentados los resultados obtenidos para su mejor comprensión de la comunidad científica.This article introduces ways of writing correctly an article as a research report. It includes every step that has to be taken into account for its approval. The authors provide suggestions of the report writing going from the title to the references, both, in a comprehensive and scientific language. It emphasizes on how the results must be presented for a better understanding of the scientific community.

ELENA HENRÍQUEZ FIERRO; MARIA INÉS ZEPEDA GONZALEZ

2004-01-01

51

ELABORACIÓN DE UN ARTÍCULO CIENTÍFICO DE INVESTIGACIÓN/ RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: KNOW HOW  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El artículo presenta la forma de redactar correctamente un artículo científico como reporte de una investigación, contempla cada una de las etapas que debe contener para su aprobación. Se sugiere la forma de redactar desde el título hasta la bibliografía, en un lenguaje comprensible y científico. Enfatiza en cómo deben ser presentados los resultados obtenidos para su mejor comprensión de la comunidad científica. Abstract in english This article introduces ways of writing correctly an article as a research report. It includes every step that has to be taken into account for its approval. The authors provide suggestions of the report writing going from the title to the references, both, in a comprehensive and scientific language. It emphasizes on how the results must be presented for a better understanding of the scientific community.

HENRÍQUEZ FIERRO, ELENA; ZEPEDA GONZALEZ, MARIA INÉS

2004-06-01

52

Metadiscursive Distinction between Persian and English: An Analysis of Computer Engineering Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study tried to discover disciplinary distinctions between Persian and English in the academic genre. The focus was on the use of metadiscourse in the discipline of computer engineering research articles across the two languages. The selected corpus was analyzed through the model suggested by Hyland and Tse (2004). The results demonstrated that the two languages are distinct in their use of metadiscourse in the discipline studied. It was found that Persian, unlike English, relied on interactive resources more. The disciplinary distinction indicates that Persian computer engineering provides more textual elements while English language values a reader responsible trend.

Gholam Reza Zarei; Sara Mansoori

2011-01-01

53

Stylistic Features of Scientific English: A Study of Scientific Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study intends to explore what stylistic features characterize scientific English and make it different from any other language used in any other discipline. What are certain areas of language that are used more frequently in science than in non-science oriented language texts? This paper deals with the linguistic features concerning the application of vocabulary, grammar, discourse and style used in scientific English. A comparative analysis of literary and scientific language has been undertaken to make the nature and discourse of scientific English clearer. It was found that scientific use of English is marked with accuracy, precision and objective interpretation of facts and findings whereas literary language is subjective interpretation of life. Literary language contains literary impulse and represents the artist's inner self and his spontaneous overflow of feeling whereas scientific language represents universal truth and verifiable research findings. Scientific research papers drawn from Medical and Natural sciences were analyzed and it was found that frequent occurrence of Passive Voice in Method Section of scientific research articles makes scientific research findings impersonal and universal. Scientists use Passive Voice most often in order to get rid of personal whims and fancies. Many other features of scientific English such as nominalization and ‘interrogative gambit’ which occur frequently as unique discourse features in scientific research journals have also been taken into account in this study.

Jameel Ahmad

2012-01-01

54

25th Anniversary Article: A Decade of Organic/Polymeric Photovoltaic Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology has been developed and improved from a fancy concept with less than 1% power conversion efficiency (PCE) to over 10% PCE, particularly through the efforts in the last decade. The significant progress is the result of multidisciplinary research ranging from chemistry, material science, physics, and engineering. These efforts include the design and synthesis of novel compounds, understanding and controlling the film morphology, elucidating the device mechanisms, developing new device architectures, and improving large-scale manufacture. All of these achievements catalyzed the rapid growth of the OPV technology. This review article takes a retrospective look at the research and development of OPV, and focuses on recent advances of solution-processed materials and devices during the last decade, particular the polymer version of the materials and devices. The work in this field is exciting and OPV technology is a promising candidate for future thin film solar cells.

Dou L; You J; Hong Z; Xu Z; Li G; Street RA; Yang Y

2013-09-01

55

Analyses of Move Structure and Verb Tense of Research Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined 90 research article abstracts in three applied linguistics journals (i.e., TESOL Quarterly, Applied Linguistics, and Language Learning) from two dimensions: the move structure features and the verb tense of each move. The results showed that the abstracts analyzed tended to take a four-move structure instead of a five-move one as proposed in literature. In addition, since some publishers have word limits on abstract length, authors would usually follow the publisher’s guideline accordingly, thus there existing some differences concerning the move structure features among the abstracts in the three journals. In terms of the verb tense in each move, the preferred pattern was as follows: the present tense usually occurred in the first, second, and fifth move, while the past tense was often used in the third and fourth moves. It was also found that there were some variations between the abstracts written by native speakers and nonnative speakers of English. It is hoped that with detailed analyses of abstracts, the results of this study may serve as a complement to the guidelines for novice writers to construct a proper research article abstract in applied linguistics.

Fan-ping Tseng

2011-01-01

56

Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

Aphramor Lucy

2010-01-01

57

The Influence of Genre Constraints on Author Representation in Medical Research Articles. The French Indefinite Pronoun On in IMRAD Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific discourse is characterized by highly normative and strict genre constraints on language use, both on the macro (text) and micro (word) level. The purpose of this article is to study the distribution of the French indefinite pronoun on and its interpretative values across the sections of French-language medical articles (KIAP corpus) in the IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion). The main hypothesis is that the IMRAD structure entails a specific distribution of macro level textual structures (author roles, argumentation, rhetorical functions), and that this is reflected in the distribution of micro level linguistic markers, such as the pronoun on. Previous studies based on a more limited material (Gjesdal, 2008) indicate that the variation in the interpretative values of on seems to be influenced by the IMRAD format, and, furthermore, that the different values seem to correspond to different author roles. Particular emphasis will be put on the influence of the linear sequencing of text imposed by the IMRAD format and the distribution of author roles and speech acts across the text.Le discours scientifique se caractérise par des contraintes rigoureuses sur la production linguistique au niveau micro-linguistique (mot) aussi bien qu’au niveau macro-linguistique (texte). Cet article a pour objectif d’étudier la distribution du pronom on et ses valeurs interprétatives à travers les sections d’articles médicaux sous le format IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion) dans un corpus d’articles médicaux (le corpus KIAP). L’hypothèse principale est que la structure IMRAD impose une distribution spécifique de structures textuelles (rôles d’auteur, argumentation, fonctions rhétoriques) qui sera à son tour reflétée dans la distribution des marqueurs micro-linguistiques comme le pronom on.

Anje Müller Gjesdal

2013-01-01

58

El metadiscurso interpersonal en artículos de investigación/ Interpersonal metadiscourse in research articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presentan los resultados del análisis de una muestra de quince artículos de la Revista de Pedagogía con el objetivo de determinar la manera cómo los investigadores de la educación se interrelacionan con sus pares y comunican su posición y su compromiso con la disciplina. Para ello se identificaron las marcas metadiscursivas y su frecuencia de uso según las categorías de metadiscurso interpersonal propuestas por Hyland (1999a, 2000): mitigadore (more) s, enfatizadores, marcadores de actitud, marcadores relacionales y marcadores de persona. Los resultados revelan cierta variabilidad en el uso de las marcas interpersonales, la cual podría estar vinculada al tipo de investigación. La mitigación constituyó el rasgo más frecuente seguido por los marcadores relacionales y actitudinales. Se concluye que los investigadores de la educación tienen una tendencia a no imponer sus puntos de vista, muestran preocupación por proyectarse como persona y por persuadir a sus lectores para que estos acepten sus argumentos. Abstract in english This article reports on the results of the analysis of a sample of fifteen articles extracted from the journal Revista de Pedagogía in order to determine how education researchers interact with their peers and communicate their integrity and their compromise with the discipline. The analysis focused on the interpersonal metadiscourse category and its dimensions as proposed by Hyland (1999a, 2000): hedges, boosters, attitude markers, relational markers and person markers. (more) The results reveal that the variability in the use of interpersonal markers could be linked to the type of research. Hedging constituted the most frequent trait followed by relation and attitude markers. I conclude that education researchers have a tendency not to impose their point of views. They are concerned with personal stance and with assuring that their arguments are accepted by their readers.

Beke, Rebecca

2005-01-01

59

El metadiscurso interpersonal en artículos de investigación Interpersonal metadiscourse in research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados del análisis de una muestra de quince artículos de la Revista de Pedagogía con el objetivo de determinar la manera cómo los investigadores de la educación se interrelacionan con sus pares y comunican su posición y su compromiso con la disciplina. Para ello se identificaron las marcas metadiscursivas y su frecuencia de uso según las categorías de metadiscurso interpersonal propuestas por Hyland (1999a, 2000): mitigadores, enfatizadores, marcadores de actitud, marcadores relacionales y marcadores de persona. Los resultados revelan cierta variabilidad en el uso de las marcas interpersonales, la cual podría estar vinculada al tipo de investigación. La mitigación constituyó el rasgo más frecuente seguido por los marcadores relacionales y actitudinales. Se concluye que los investigadores de la educación tienen una tendencia a no imponer sus puntos de vista, muestran preocupación por proyectarse como persona y por persuadir a sus lectores para que estos acepten sus argumentos.This article reports on the results of the analysis of a sample of fifteen articles extracted from the journal Revista de Pedagogía in order to determine how education researchers interact with their peers and communicate their integrity and their compromise with the discipline. The analysis focused on the interpersonal metadiscourse category and its dimensions as proposed by Hyland (1999a, 2000): hedges, boosters, attitude markers, relational markers and person markers. The results reveal that the variability in the use of interpersonal markers could be linked to the type of research. Hedging constituted the most frequent trait followed by relation and attitude markers. I conclude that education researchers have a tendency not to impose their point of views. They are concerned with personal stance and with assuring that their arguments are accepted by their readers.

Rebecca Beke

2005-01-01

60

Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and applied linguistics by investigating 200 abstracts published between 2009-2012. Hyland’s (2000) model of five rhetorical moves was chosen as the analytical framework for the rhetorical structure. Findings indicated that there were three conventional moves in abstracts in linguistics, while there were four conventional moves in abstracts in applied linguistics. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for academic writing for novice writers in the two disciplines.

Watinee Suntara; Siriluck Usaha

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

RAVE: Research of Articles and Decisions in Public International Law and European Law  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponsored by the Ministry of Sciences and Research of the Land of Northrhine-Westphalia (Germany) and the Paul-Mikat-Foundation, Dusseldorf (Germany), this site contains bibliographic citations to over 4,000 pertinent articles and decisions. RAVE is composed of two main sections: Public International Law and European Law. Citations are available from the early 1990's and can be browsed or searched via an Excite engine. A systematic index is available for browsing, as is an alphabetical one (although the latter is unfortunately not hyperlinked). A list of periodicals and abbreviations is also provided. Users can opt to view the site in English, French, or German with citations given in the language of their origin. Hyperlinks to decisions or documents are provided when available.

1998-01-01

62

CRITICAL READING OF RESEARCH ARTICLES AS ORAL ACTIVATOR IN THE LANGUAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an experience carried out with second course students of the School of Aeronautical Engineers at the Polytechnic University of Madrid in the subject class Modern Technical Language. In the previous years the problem in that class had been the scarce participation of the students in the oral practices. They seemed to be lead and exclusively represented by a few students when it came to oral participation. The students proposed tackling recent research articles in which opinions could be discussed. The reading of these articles has risen new elements that work as language activators in the language classroom: critical reading and thinking have developed participation in the oral activities and produced a noticeable influence on their scientific and humanist thinking and behavior.From this, we may extract the consequence that the experience is not only related to scientific knowledge, since it has made them better speakers or speaking-counterparts and more class-participating and collaborative, which implies that the human, scientific and linguistic factors progress at the same time through the critical experience. This way, the exposition of their critical ideas has developed both their humanism and scientific mind. These two facets which seem to belong to far away fields become a bond in our experience: the process is scientific since it tries to be a systematic study of the knowledge fleshed in written texts and it is also humanist because it fulfils the students need to grow up as persons, that is absorbing knowledge and processing it in order to produce a new personal approach to the world.

Veronica VIVANCO

2012-01-01

63

Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

Zhao, Yang

2011-01-01

64

Artigos científicos como recurso didático no ensino superior de Química Research articles as a didatic tool in undergraduate chemistry teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemistry teachers increasingly use research articles in their undergraduate courses. This trend arises from current pedagogical emphasis on active learning and scientific process. In this paper, we describe some educational experiences on the use of research articles in chemistry higher education. Additionally, we present our own conclusions on the use of such methodology applied to a scientific communication course offered to undergraduate chemistry students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Luciana Massi; Gelson Ribeiro dos Santos; Jerino Queiroz Ferreira; Salete Linhares Queiroz

2009-01-01

65

Conducting an article critique for a quantitative research study: perspectives for doctoral students and other novice readers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David E Vance,1 Michele Talley,1 Andres Azuero,1 Patricia F Pearce,2 Becky J Christian1 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Loyola University School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: The ability to critically evaluate the merits of a quantitative design research article is a necessary skill for practitioners and researchers of all disciplines, including nursing, in order to judge the integrity and usefulness of the evidence and conclusions made in an article. In general, this skill is automatic for many practitioners and researchers who already possess a good working knowledge of research methodology, including: hypothesis development, sampling techniques, study design, testing procedures and instrumentation, data collection and data management, statistics, and interpretation of findings. For graduate students and junior faculty who have yet to master these skills, completing a formally written article critique can be a useful process to hone such skills. However, a fundamental knowledge of research methods is still needed in order to be successful. Because there are few published examples of critique examples, this article provides the practical points of conducting a formally written quantitative research article critique while providing a brief example to demonstrate the principles and form. Keywords: quantitative article critique, statistics, methodology, graduate students

Vance DE; Talley M; Azuero A; Pearce PF; Christian BJ

2013-01-01

66

Changes to English as an Additional Language Writers' Research Articles: From Spoken to Written Register  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…

Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon

2011-01-01

67

DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.

Pilar Mur Dueñas

2009-01-01

68

Citation and quantitative analysis for articles of scientific- research journal of “SALAMAT KAR- E- IRAN”, Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and aimsNowadays study on journals is a common work. Thus, for the first time scientific- research journal of “SALAMAT KAR- E- IRAN” has considered to be study.MethodsImportant qualitative indices in studying articles were selected at first (such as distribution of study type, number of studies and balance between subjects), then based on original documents of all volumes, they were analyzed (by Microsoft Excel 2010 software) and results were calculated via descriptive statistics methods. ResultsResults from survey and evaluation of 12 published volumes (106 articles) showed that the majority of articles were about ergonomics and safety issues. However, in some other subjects there was no article at all. Majority of them have cited the English references. Consensus was a method that has used more than the other sampling methods. Research articles conducted by Male authors were five times more than articles written by females and; Total team corporation coefficient was calculated to be 0.62. Conclusion it was concluded that there was no proper distribution between subjects of articles. English references have cited more than Persian references because of a lack in Persian references or infirmity of a comprehensive indexing system. Considering the methodological point of view the majority of studies were of observational. However, interventional and high level studies can be performed in this field, conditions and facilities must be provided in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of studies.

M. Aligol; A. Amanollahi; A.A. Farshad

2011-01-01

69

Research on Mathematics Education in China in the Last Decade: A Review of Journal Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics Instruction" were also…

Xu, Binyan

2010-01-01

70

Policy, Practice in Giftedness, and Research Methodologies: Response to Roland S. Persson's Article  

Science.gov (United States)

The author finds the target article "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge Economy" to be a thoughtful exploration of an important topic for all social scientists, certainly including those who study gifted development and education. Roland S. Persson (2012a) raises many questions about policy and practice in giftedness…

Matthews, Dona J.

2012-01-01

71

Elluminate Article: Research on Formal Virtual Learning Communities in Higher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this software.

Richard Schwier

2005-01-01

72

A Genre-based Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Linguistic Feature of Personal Pronouns for Financial Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…

Ning, Zhen-ye

2008-01-01

73

Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the different affected business areas which discusses the data mining algorithms by higher fraud coverage. It also highlights the important challenges and limitations involved with the data mining techniques for detecting fraudulent activities.

Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Dr. J. Jebamalar Tamilselvi

2013-01-01

74

Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

Ionin, Tania

2013-01-01

75

The History and Current Status of Otter Research within Canada based on Peer Reviewed Journal Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Canada, there are two species of otters, the river otter (Lontra canadensis) and the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). The river otter is considered to be plentiful and ranges throughout a large part of Canada. On the other hand, the sea otter is classified as of Special Concern and only small translocated colonies are found along the coastline of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The scientific literature was reviewed with respect to both river and sea otter research performed within Canada since 1970 to evaluate the number and topics of research papers that had been published dealing with these otter species. Since 1970, 25 papers have been published, most of the research concentrating on contaminants (mercury, organochlorines) in river otters (80%). There is only 1 scientific paper (1978) dealing with the sea otter (4%). Almost half of publications studying river otters were from or in combination from the province of Ontario (48%). Miscellaneous topics made up 16% of the publications. This paper reveals that in Canada very little scientific work has been published dealing with sea otters and that a huge number of the publications deal with river otters found within the province of Ontario. Thus since 1970, there has been a serious lack of research dealing with either otter species and that most of that work has had no structure or focus. It is hoped that government agencies, the scientific community, non government organizations, and interested groups can organize strategies and granting opportunities to increase the amount of scientific studies to further understand and protect future populations of these 2 species in Canada.

Michael Belanger; Nesime Askin; Luke Tan; Carin Wittnich

2010-01-01

76

Contributions from Alfred Schütz’s phenomenological sociology for nursing research - review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding the human being is a complex task, because it involves biological, psychological and social questions. Investigation of Cartesian procedure had suffered ruptures, mainly because of the criticism to objectivity, on dealing whit human questions. In the end of nineteen century, phenomenology is born as a philosophical-methodological option for research, in which Comprehensive Sociology, from Alfred Schütz, outstands. This study’s objective is discuss some of the possible contributions from Schütz’s Phenomenological Sociology for nursing research. The main concepts boarded were intentionality, intersubjectivity, determined biographical situation, human actions, typification and social relation. Phenomenological research seeks the meanings that people attribute to their own experience, which are revealed with these people’s descriptions. Alfred Scütz’s phenomenological sociology aims the subjective meaning of the human actions, trying to establish the ideal type by typification. These concepts can be used as a theoretical-methodological base to investigate about things lived in the social world, mainly when it is about a social world in which nursing professionals are part of.

Marcio Wagner Camatta; Cíntia Nasi; Diego Schaurich; Jacó Fernando Schneider

2008-01-01

77

El atributo de funcionalidad en el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación/ The functionality attribute in the cybergenre Research Article  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es describir y analizar el cibergénero científico-académico Artículo de Investigación desde el punto de vista de su funcionalidad y en consecuencia, el valor informativo de sus links. A tal fin, se seleccionaron 90 hiperartículos pertenecientes al campo de la Psicología, Matemática y Biología y se los analizó teniendo en cuenta los atributos de funcionalidad propuestos por M. Shepherd, C. Watters y A. Kennedy (2004). Los resultados (more) muestran que el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación presenta características funcionales que benefician ampliamente al lector-investigador y que marcan una diferencia significativa respecto a las posibilidades que ofrecen los Artículos de Investigación publicados en medios impresos. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to describe and analize the functionality attribute and the consequent informative value of the links of the cybergenre Research Article. 90 hyperarticles in the field of Psychology, Mathematicas and Biology were collected for this purpose and analized following M. Shepherd, C. Watters and A. Kennedy's (2004) categorization of the functionality attribute. Results show that the Research Article cybergenre has functional characteristics that greatly (more) benefit the reader-researcher and make an important difference regarding the possibilities offered by paper issued Research Articles.

Puebla, María Marcela; Puchmuller, Andrea

2011-01-01

78

El atributo de funcionalidad en el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación The functionality attribute in the cybergenre Research Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es describir y analizar el cibergénero científico-académico Artículo de Investigación desde el punto de vista de su funcionalidad y en consecuencia, el valor informativo de sus links. A tal fin, se seleccionaron 90 hiperartículos pertenecientes al campo de la Psicología, Matemática y Biología y se los analizó teniendo en cuenta los atributos de funcionalidad propuestos por M. Shepherd, C. Watters y A. Kennedy (2004). Los resultados muestran que el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación presenta características funcionales que benefician ampliamente al lector-investigador y que marcan una diferencia significativa respecto a las posibilidades que ofrecen los Artículos de Investigación publicados en medios impresos.The aim of this paper is to describe and analize the functionality attribute and the consequent informative value of the links of the cybergenre Research Article. 90 hyperarticles in the field of Psychology, Mathematicas and Biology were collected for this purpose and analized following M. Shepherd, C. Watters and A. Kennedy's (2004) categorization of the functionality attribute. Results show that the Research Article cybergenre has functional characteristics that greatly benefit the reader-researcher and make an important difference regarding the possibilities offered by paper issued Research Articles.

María Marcela Puebla; Andrea Puchmuller

2011-01-01

79

Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs) for publication in English (as L2) is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA) writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794) Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2). This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2) does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2) for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and pedagogy are discussed.

Ana I. Moreno; Jesús Rey-Rocha; Sally Burgess; Irene López-Navarro; Itesh Sachdev

2012-01-01

80

EDITORIAL ARTICLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It gives me an immense pleasure to bring out the Volume 2 (Issue 1) of Current Trends in Biotechnology & Chemical Research (CTBCR) to our scientific community with twelve articles including research, reviews and case-studies. CTBCR is a Half yearly Open Access journal that publishes papers related to the study and application of biotechnology related to (i) Medicine, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, (ii) Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology, and (iii) Environment and Biodiversity. CTBCR recognizes that Biotechnology also relies heavily on chemical research therefore CTBCR will present information on interdisciplinary aspects of chemical research in biotechnology. Also it will address various complexities associated with structure-function and application of chemistry and other tools and techniques applied in Biotechnology. CTBCR will appeal to scientists and engineers in both academia and industry focused on the safe and efficient application of Biotechnology to Medicine, chemistry, Agriculture , pharmacy and the environment. The current issue features articles on phytoremediation looking at the effect of industrial effluents on growth parameters of phytoremediators; predicting de-novo generated, iteratively optimized new lead molecules targeting HIV-1 protease; optimizing process parameters for decolorization of anaerobically digested Molasses Spent Wash using Aspergillus niger.  There are couple of excellent review articles on “Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy” and on “Aflatoxins”. The issue also features two case reports and other research articles on antibacterial potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract; synthesis and bioactivity of novel imidazoles; a simpler method to synthesize NiO nanoparticles; template formation by aluminium anodization processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials and lastly an article on formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of Cefpodoxime proxetil. The main focus of this issue of CTBCR has been on healthcare, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, chemistry, food and agriculture technologies.  The issue covers not only basic aspects but also applications and commercialization. Special attention has been given to papers and topics of the interdisciplinary intersections between the major disciplines i.e. medicine and nutrition or chemistry and environment, microorganisms and bio-molecules etc.  All the abstracts published in CTBCR do have a wide-reach fulfilling our primary aim for sharing of the knowledge and for contributing to the progress in the study area. While thanking all the editorial board members for their continued support and timely interactions, we reiterate our commitment for ethical, quality publications in all areas of Biotechnology and chemical research, and to continue to evolve progressively for the benefit of our contributors and readers. Together with the Board of Editors, we will seek to publish only scientifically sound information, wellwritten and informative news in Biotechnology and chemical research. I am very happy and proud to introduce an impeccable list of Editorial and Advisory Board Members. By doing this venture we hope to familiarize our authors and readers with their respective field of expertise. We would also invite our senior editorial board members and other experts from diverse areas to act as Guest Editors of special issues devoted to selected topics in the coming months. I hope that you will enjoy reading this issue of CTBCR.

Prof. Anil K. Sharma

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Research Notes: International Relations Theories, Article 95EC Legal Basis and the Delimitation of Competences Between the EU and the Member States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article has been written by a student participant of the ‘Legal Research Methodologies in European Union and International Law’ workshop series as detailed in the three Research Notes - 'Legal Research Methodologies in European Union and International Law', by Tamara Hervey, Rob Cryer, Bal Sokhi-Bulley . The article introduces the student’s PhD project and details some of the methodological research issues which the AHRC funded workshops have helped the student to address.

Anatole Abaquesne De Parfouru

2008-01-01

82

Text mining of full-text journal articles combined with gene expression analysis reveals a relationship between sphingosine-1-phosphate and invasiveness of a glioblastoma cell line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lysophospholipid, is involved in various cellular processes such as migration, proliferation, and survival. To date, the impact of S1P on human glioblastoma is not fully understood. Particularly, the concerted role played by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and S1P in aggressive tumor behavior and angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Results To gain new insights in the effect of S1P on angiogenesis and invasion of this type of malignant tumor, we used microarrays to investigate the gene expression in glioblastoma as a response to S1P administration in vitro. We compared the expression profiles for the same cell lines under the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF), an important growth factor. We found a set of 72 genes that are significantly differentially expressed as a unique response to S1P. Based on the result of mining full-text articles from 20 scientific journals in the field of cancer research published over a period of five years, we inferred gene-gene interaction networks for these 72 differentially expressed genes. Among the generated networks, we identified a particularly interesting one. It describes a cascading event, triggered by S1P, leading to the transactivation of MMP-9 via neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). This interaction network has the potential to shed new light on our understanding of the role played by MMP-9 in invasive glioblastomas. Conclusion Automated extraction of information from biological literature promises to play an increasingly important role in biological knowledge discovery. This is particularly true for high-throughput approaches, such as microarrays, and for combining and integrating data from different sources. Text mining may hold the key to unraveling previously unknown relationships between biological entities and could develop into an indispensable instrument in the process of formulating novel and potentially promising hypotheses.

Natarajan Jeyakumar; Berrar Daniel; Dubitzky Werner; Hack Catherine; Zhang Yonghong; DeSesa Catherine; Van Brocklyn James R; Bremer Eric G

2006-01-01

83

Bioterrorism Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) is offering free access to a large number of its previously published articles related to bioterrorism. Among the articles are five pieces by the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, which are focused on Anthrax, Smallpox, Plague, Botulinum Toxin, and Tularemia. The remainder of the articles are sorted by subject, including these diseases plus Ebola and Brucella, as well as Clinical Articles, Epidemiologic Investigations, articles on Preparedness, and a section devoted to Policy, Historical, and Editorial Perspectives. Articles are available in HTML or .pdf formats.

1995-01-01

84

Research on Express Logistics Competitiveness Based on Value Chain Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the view of value chain, the article analyzes the forming mechanism of logistics value chain, and the value of the various aspects of the express delivery. By that way, express enterprises can identify the value-added parts from the whole process of mails or goods from senders to receivers, and all these parts will lead to logistics value added. Based on value chain analysis, a model of logistics competitiveness is established. The model includes four aspects: location, network optimization / integration, value-added services / response and performance measures, which form the core competitiveness for express enterprises.

Xingjian Zhou; Shun Li; Li Kang; Xiaoyan Gong

2013-01-01

85

Estudio diacrónico de la evaluación en las introducciones de artículos científicos de medicina Diachronic study of evaluation on introductions of Medicine research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis diacrónico realizado en una muestra de artículos científicos del dominio de la medicina con el fin de determinar la variación en el tiempo de los recursos empleados para expresar la evaluación. Esta incluye, en un sentido amplio, la expresión de la actitud, el punto de vista o los sentimientos del hablante con respecto a las proposiciones o entidades de las que habla. La actitud se relaciona con la certeza, la obligación o cualquier sistema de valores. Incluye el afecto, el juicio y la apreciación, y los valores pueden ser positivos o negativos. A través del análisis de un corpus constituido por veinte artículos publicados en la revista Medicina (diez de 1940-1941 y diez de 2002-2003), determinamos que la ‘evaluación’ se lleva a cabo fundamentalmente por medio de recursos léxicos y, en particular, mediante cuantificadores. También poseen un rasgo evaluativo ciertos verbos, como ‘apreciar’ o ‘preferir’, y los verbos de medida, como ‘aumentar’ o ‘disminuir’, que indican una valoración vinculada al contexto. Entre ambos grupos de textos se observan diferencias en los esquemas de evaluación: en los de la primera etapa predominan las estructuras de obligación y la presencia del agente evaluador. Los de la segunda etapa, en cambio, muestran una menor evaluación explícita y baja presencia de los autores en el texto.This article reports a diachronic study carried out on a sample of medicine research articles in order to determine variations in evaluation resources. The attitude relates to certainty, obligation and other sets of values. It includes affect, judgement and appreciation and the evaluation can be positive or negative. Based on the analysis of twenty research articles of a medical journal, Medicina, (ten from 1941-1942, and ten from 2002-2003) the analysis shows that lexical items, specially quantifiers, are typically used to evaluate. Verbs as ‘appreciate’, ‘prefer’, are evaluative, like ‘increase’, ‘reduce’, which express evaluation related to the context. We have observed differences between the texts of the first group and the texts of the second one. In particular, the first group shows an important number of verbs of obligation, as well as the presence of the agent, responsible of the evaluation. The second group of texts shows lesser explicit evaluation and display strategies for hiding the author of the text.

Laura Ferrari; Susana Gallardo

2006-01-01

86

Advances in recombinant protein expression for use in pharmaceutical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protein production for structural and biophysical studies, functional assays, biomarkers, mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo, but also for therapeutic applications in pharma, biotech and academia has evolved into a mature discipline in recent years. Due to the increased emphasis on biopharmaceuticals, the growing demand for proteins used for structural and biophysical studies, the impact of genomics technologies on the analysis of large sets of structurally diverse proteins, and the increasing complexity of disease targets, the interest in innovative approaches for the expression, purification and characterisation of recombinant proteins has steadily increased over the years. In this review, we summarise recent developments in the field of recombinant protein expression for research use in pharma, biotech and academia. We focus mostly on the latest developments for protein expression in the most widely used expression systems: Escherichia coli (E. coli), insect cell expression using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) and, finally, transient and stable expression of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells.

Assenberg R; Wan PT; Geisse S; Mayr LM

2013-06-01

87

An Empirical Research of Chinese Learners’ Acquisition of the English Article System — Based on Syntactic Misanalysis Account  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the field of applied linguistics, the English article is the acknowledged teaching and learning difficulty and receives lots of attention in second language acquisition (SLA). This paper, based on the Syntactic Misanalysis Account (SMA) advocated by Trenkic in which L2 articles are analyzed as adjectives by L2ers, proposes the English article is the functional category with null semantic meaning and its production is syntactic-driven. The English Proficiency Test and the Forced Choice Elicitation Task have been conducted with 41 freshmen, 41 sophomores and 41 juniors of English majors in Xi’an University of Science and Technology (XUST), which finds L2ers from L1 Chinese maybe relate referential meaning of definite to the perceptible referent but the meaning of indefinite to the non-recognizable referent and thus produce substitution errors in their English article choices.

Shi Jian

2013-01-01

88

A 10-year content analysis of original research articles published in Health Communication and Journal Of Health Communication (2000-2009).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents data from a content analysis of original research articles published in Health Communication and Journal of Health Communication from 2000 to 2009. The authors coded 776 articles using categories that identified health topics, theory, population characteristics, and methods used in each study. Distinctions between the published research in Health Communication and Journal of Health Communication are highlighted. Across both journals, findings demonstrated articles sometimes lack racial demographic information, primarily perform research in the United States, rely heavily on survey data, and often lack a theoretical framework. The top physical health topic addressed across both journals was cancer, and the top non-physical health topic addressed was the role of media in health. Journals displayed differences in several areas and those differences often mirrored each journal's stated objectives. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for expanding health communication research to be reflective of issues salient to public health within the United States and around the world.

Nazione S; Pace K; Russell J; Silk K

2013-01-01

89

Authoring Wikipedia Articles as an Information Literacy Assignment: Copy-Pasting or Expressing New Understanding in One's Own Words?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: We report on a pilot study of students' use of sources in authoring Wikipedia articles. The procedure is demonstrated by investigating how students processed texts from sources to compose their own texts. Method: Four groups of upper secondary school students (aged 17-18 years) participated in an eight-week geography course and seven…

Sormunen, Eero; Lehtio, Leeni

2011-01-01

90

Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part III: How to write a scientific paper.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this series we address key topics for clinicians who conduct research as part of their work in the ED. Analysis of research data does not represent the completion of a project as the findings need to be communicated to clinicians and other researchers in the field. In this section, we describe how to write up clinical research data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We also describe the editorial and peer-review process.

Davidson A; McD Taylor D; Babl FE

2012-08-01

91

Using the Web and computer corpora as language resources for the translation of complex noun phrases in medical research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Researchers in the field of automatic translation and natural language processing have been using the Web as a language resource for a number of years. Likewise, mastery of the advanced syntax of the Web's search engines, in order to retrieve the appropriate terminological and phraseological information, has now become an important element among the specialized translator's necessary skills, especially in the field of medicine, which is widely covered on the Web. In the case of noun phrases, checking the currency of the various word groupings that can be inferred when analyzing a syntactically ambiguous expression (whether on the Web or in digital corpora) yields interesting results for the improvement of existing computer applications. Yet, the use of annotated corpora to retrieve potentially ambiguous noun phrases also has pedagogical applications, both in terms of attracting students' attention to some common pitfalls and providing them with the tools that they need in order to solve the difficulties that such structures create. ---------------------------------------------------- Uso de la Web y de corpus informáticos para la traducción de grupos nominales complejos en artículos de investigación médica. Los investigadores dedicados a la traducción automática y el procesamiento del lenguaje natural han utilizado la Web como recurso lingüístico desde hace ya bastante tiempo. Del mismo modo, el conocimiento profundo de la sintaxis avanzada para recuperar la información terminológica y fraseológica correcta en los buscadores de la red se ha convertido en un conocimiento que los traductores especializados deben añadir a sus destrezas básicas, especialmente en el campo de la medicina, tan ampliamente cubierto en la red. En el caso de grupos nominales, la comprobación de la vigencia de los distintos grupos de palabras que pueden utilizarse para analizar una expresión ambigua desde el punto de vista sintáctico (en la red o en corpus digitales), rinde interesantes resultados para mejorar las aplicaciones informáticas existentes. Sin embargo, el uso de corpus anotados para recuperar frases nominales potencialmente ambiguas también tiene aplicaciones pedagógicas, tanto para atraer la atención de los estudiantes hacia algunos escollos comunes como para brindarles los instrumentos necesarios para resolver las dificultades derivadas de dichas estructuras.

François Maniez

2007-01-01

92

Superconductive articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An article of manufacture including a substrate, a patterned interlayer of magnesium oxide, barium-titanium oxide or barium-zirconium oxide, the patterned interlayer material overcoated with a secondary interlayer material of yttria-stabilized zirconia or magnesium-aluminum oxide, upon the surface of the substrate whereby an intermediate article with an exposed surface of both the overcoated patterned interlayer and the substrate is formed, a coating of a buffer layer selected from the group consisting of oxides of Ce, Y, Cm, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Gd, Ho, In, La, Mn, Lu, Nd, Pr, Pu, Sm, Tb, Tl, Tm, Y, and Yb over the entire exposed surface of the intermediate article, and, a ceramic superconductive material layer as an overcoat upon the buffer layer whereby the ceramic superconductive material situated directly above the substrate has a crystal structure substantially different than the ceramic superconductive material situated above the overcoated patterned interlayer.

Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

1991-12-31

93

Laminate article  

Science.gov (United States)

A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

94

Do open access working papers attract more citations compared to printed journal articles from the same research unit?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during five-year periode 2004-09 (February) by the two publication types, the citation distributions over the individual sample publications and observed years as well as over external, institutional and personal self-citations. The institute concerned is the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Copenhagen. The results demonstrate that the open access working papers publicy accessible through DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series show identical distinct patterns for the article in WoS and GS and working papers in GS, more than doubling the amount of citations received through the latter source.

Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita Bjerg

2011-01-01

95

WEARING ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A wearing article has a chassis and leg elastic members of a flat band shape that are attached to the chassis along leg side edges thereof. The chassis has regions each of which overlaps one of the leg elastic members and includes at least one series of depressions extending along the respective leg side edge.

OTSUBO TOSHIFUMI; HASHIMOTO TATSUYA; YAMASHITA MARIKO

96

ABSORBENT ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an absorbent article 1, an absorber 30 is arranged between a liquid-permeable topsheet 10 and a liquid-impermeable backsheet 20, and the absorber 30 includes electrolyte particles as a hygroscopic material 70. This enables exhibition of a sufficient hygroscopicity during wearing and more surely suppress a discomfort of a wearer due to sweatiness or tackiness.

NODA YUKI; WADA MITSUHIRO; SHIRAISHI TSUKASA

97

Tracing convergence and divergence in pairs of Spanish and English research article abstracts: The case of Ibérica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates patterns of rhetorical convergence and divergence in pairs of RA abstracts (English-Spanish and Spanish-English) published in the journal Ibérica. To that end, a total of 84 pairs of author-translated RA abstracts were analyzed. Based on the results of a pilot study, the following rhetorical patterns were analyzed in the corpus: text-referring expressions, degree of epistemic commitment, amplified attitude, self-mention, and periphrastic (e.g. multi-word) expressions. In addition, selected authorial input was requested to seek further explanations about the variation across these two languages. For text-referring expressions, broad cross-linguistic convergence was found in the expressions used and the degree to which the text is given agency. By contrast, the abstracts in Spanish were found to include greater degree of epistemic commitment, more amplified expressions of attitude, more self-mention, particularly in the plural first person, and periphrastic equivalents. Authorial input indicated that some of these diverging patterns were due to collocational differences but they were also influenced by beliefs about what is more natural in Spanish. Our results suggest that there may be specific lexical bundles performing intensifying functions in Spanish that deserve further investigation. These findings may have implications for ESP pedagogy and translation studies.

Moisés Perales-Escudero; John M. Swales

2011-01-01

98

??????????????????????? The Status Quo of Library and Information Science Research in Taiwan: A Meta-Analysis of Journal Articles and Dissertations/Theses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????20??1,746??????9??????????311????????????????????????????????8??????Excel?SPSS??????????????8????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20?????5????????????????????????????????????????This research uses wiki platform to collect 1,746 articles from 20 Library and Information Science-related journals and 311 theses and/or dissertations from 9 universities. According to Library Information Science Research Areas Classification Scheme, these articles can be divided into eight areas and analyzed statistically by applying Excel and SPSS. The result shows that the collected articles are distributed evenly in these eight research areas. However, the total amount of articles is decreasing. The research focus of theses and dissertations have mainly been on “Services to user populations”, “information systems and retrieval”, and “Organization of information”. By using cluster analysis, 20 journals can be separated into five groups and the similarities of the journals within the same group are very high. From the distribution of topics of the journals, theses and dissertations, the status quo of Library and Information Science research can be understood.

James C. Ouyang; Chung Kuan; Chiung-Huei Tung; Jr-Feng Shiue

2006-01-01

99

Laminate article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

100

ABSORBENT ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To provide an absorbent article capable of sufficiently fulfilling a function of preventing lateral leakage even when a force is applied in the width direction (transverse direction) during wearing. An absorbent article comprising a liquid-pervious surface sheet, a liquid-impervious leakage-preventive sheet, and a liquid-retentive absorption body disposed between the surface sheet and the leakage-preventive sheet, wherein the absorption body comprises at least two layers, at least one of the layers is a first absorption body layer composed of a hydrophilic sheet and a super-absorbent polymer, and in the longitudinal middle area of the absorbent article, the width of the first absorption body layer is larger than the width of other absorption body layer(s). In the first absorption body layer, a plurality of hydrophilic sheets are stacked, the super-absorbent polymer is disposed between hydrophilic sheets, and the hydrophilic sheets are joined in a region where the super-absorbent polymer is not spread.

SAKAI AKANE; KAWAKAMI YUSUKE; AKAHIRA AYAKO

 
 
 
 
101

Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8  

Science.gov (United States)

|The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords…

Aharony, Noa

2012-01-01

102

Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…

Aharony, Noa

2012-01-01

103

ABSORBENT ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An absorbent article having a topsheet having a first portion and a second portion. The topsheet has a longitudinal centerline and a transverse centerline. The topsheet has an area. The second portion can differ in structure from the first portion. The second portion can have a structurally modified zone. The structurally modified zone has a periphery, a length, and a long axis. The length is the maximum straight-line dimension between two points on the periphery. The long axis extends between two points on the periphery separated by the length. The long axis of the structurally modified zone can be asymmetric to the longitudinal centerline. The structurally modified zone can make up more than about 5% of the area of the topsheet. The topsheet can have a lotion zone, the long axis of which is asymmetric to the longitudinal centerline and the transverse centerline.

HAMMONS JOHN LEE; FUCHS SYBILLE; HOYING JODY LYNN; MULLANE TIMOTHY IAN; WALSH CASANDRE MAFFET; CAUDILL DONNA MARIE; NELSON NAOMI RUTH

104

Absorbent article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An absorbent article having a topsheet having a first portion and a second portion. The topsheet has a longitudinal centerline and a transverse centerline. The topsheet has an area. The second portion can differ in structure from the first portion. The second portion can have a structurally modified zone. The structurally modified zone has a periphery, a length, and a long axis. The length is the maximum straight-line dimension between two points on the periphery. The long axis extends between two points on the periphery separated by the length. The long axis of the structurally modified zone can be asymmetric to the longitudinal centerline. The structurally modified zone can make up more than about 5% of the area of the topsheet. The topsheet can have a lotion zone, the long axis of which is asymmetric to the longitudinal centerline and the transverse centerline.

HAMMONS JOHN LEE; FUCHS SYBILLE; HOYING JODY LYNN; MULLANE TIMOTHY IAN; WALSH CASANDRE MAFFETT; SAWIN PHILIP ANDREW; CAUDILL DONNA MARIE; NELSON NAOMI RUTH

105

Smoking articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A smoking article comprises a smoking material rod and, to one end thereof, a flow-impedance device comprising a rod-like element of foam or fibrous material which is or has been rendered impervious to the flow of smoke therethrough and one or more open-ended smoke-flow passages extending from one end to the other of the element, the pressure drop of the passage or passages being in the range from 40 to 200 mm, preferably 50 to 100 mm, water gauge and said device being enclosed in a wrapping permitting inward flow of ambient air into the device, which has air-conducting means whereby air flowing inwardly through the wrapping is conducted to the mouth end of the device, the device being effective to remove not more than 25%, preferably 20%, of the total particulate matter of the smoke. The passage or passages may be formed by a bore or bores in the material or by a capillary tube or tubes.

HORSEWELL HENRY G

106

Finding temporal gene expression patterns for translational research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Translational research of time-series of gene-expression microarray datasets makes use on gene expression profiles that have been obtained at different points in time. Our web-based multi-user program helps a researcher find temporal patterns like peaks in large pre-selected microarray data sets that include data from different but related studies in publicly available databases. If all studies use the same platform, data can be combined for a meta-analysis type approach. For combination of data from different platforms we allow only Affymetrix GeneChips, for which a method for pooling of information exists. To search for time patterns, the data are transformed into an abstract layer that is independent from the particular selection of time point in the individual studies.

Tusch G; Tolea O; Kutsumi Y; Sam VK; Mamidi L

2013-01-01

107

Asperger’s Disorder and Nonverbal Learning Disability: Similarity Between Cognitive Profile and Memory Functions Research Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a condition associated with prominent nonverbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, while the verbal abilities remain relatively intact. Some researchers have reported that there is a considerable overlap between cognitive and behavioral features of Asperger’s Disorder (AD) and NVLD. The present study aimed to assess the hypothesis of the presence of NVLD in AD using a neuropsychological battery, which primarily focused on memory, in a group of children and adolescents from the Turkish population. Methods: 21 individuals, aged 7-16 years, - who referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty Child Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed with AD according to DSM-IV criteria, and 18 age-, gender-, IQ- and education level-matched volunteer controls were evaluated. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s Version, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and The Benton Judgment of Line Orientation and Facial Recognition tests were administered to the participants.Results: The AD group performed similarly to the controls on verbal memory and verbal comprehension, but was significantly poorer in short- and long-term visual memory, perceptual organization and visuospatial constructional abilities. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the neuropsychological profile of the individuals with AD is closely similar to that of NVLD. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 140-6)

Ay?e K?l?nçaslan; Nahit Motavall? Mukaddes; Gökçe Sözen Küçükyaz?c?; Hakan Gürvit

2011-01-01

108

A Comparison Study on the Rhetorical Moves of Abstracts in Published Research Articles and Master’s Foreign-language Theses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master’s English theses and published research articles in applied linguistics, this study compares the practices of student writers and expert writers in fulfilling the rhetorical goal of abstracts to shed light on the degree to which students appropriate to the practices of their own discipline and to provide relevant ESP materials for both teachers and student writers of applied linguistics, especially those who write in English as a foreign language.

Hongwei Ren; Yuying Li

2011-01-01

109

Descubriendo algunos problemas en la redacción de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) de alumnos de postgrado Discovering some problems in graduate students' composition of research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hoy en día, la divulgación de la ciencia en la forma de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) en revistas indexadas ha dejado de ser una opción y se ha transformado en una necesidad para quien se inicia o ejerce la investigación. A pesar de ello, la formación de investigadores en Chile es reciente y quienes emprenden estudios de postgrado rara vez reciben instrucción formal en la escritura de AIC, menos aún en el conocimiento de los mecanismos de evaluación y de las potenciales revistas donde enviar sus trabajos. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es describir y clasificar una serie de errores que se identifican en los AIC de un grupo de sujetos, estudiantes de postgrado de la Universidad de La Serena, que participaron en una intervención, cuyo propósito fue el aprendizaje de la producción de este género científico especializado. La intervención, en forma de talleres, consistió en 20 sesiones de tres horas cada una, espaciadas por un lapso de una semana. Durante su desarrollo, los sujetos escribieron, editaron en conjunto, y reescribieron las partes estructurales de un artículo de investigación. Los resultados muestran que los sujetos presentan dos grandes tipos de errores: uno asociados a problemas generales de la escritura y otro vinculados más específicamente con la escritura del género en cuestión.Nowadays, the dissemination of science by means of research articles in indexed journals is no longer an option, and it has turned into a necessity for those who are beginning or are devoted to research. However, researcher training in Chile is just beginning, and those who pursue graduate studies seldom receive formal instruction on the writing of scientific research articles (SRA), on a peer review system, or on the prospective journals to which they might submit their manuscripts. Considering the above, the objective of this article is to describe and classify a series of errors detected in the composition of SRAs written by a group of Universidad de La Serena graduate students who participated in an intervention, the purpose of which was to look at how they produce this specialized scientific genre. The intervention took place in 20 three-hour weekly workshop sessions, where the participants wrote, edited collectively, and re-wrote the structural parts of a research article. It was found that the participants' compositions contain general writing errors and genre-specific errors.

Omar Sabaj

2009-01-01

110

Descubriendo algunos problemas en la redacción de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) de alumnos de postgrado/ Discovering some problems in graduate students' composition of research articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Hoy en día, la divulgación de la ciencia en la forma de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) en revistas indexadas ha dejado de ser una opción y se ha transformado en una necesidad para quien se inicia o ejerce la investigación. A pesar de ello, la formación de investigadores en Chile es reciente y quienes emprenden estudios de postgrado rara vez reciben instrucción formal en la escritura de AIC, menos aún en el conocimiento de los mecanismos de evaluaci? (more) ?n y de las potenciales revistas donde enviar sus trabajos. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es describir y clasificar una serie de errores que se identifican en los AIC de un grupo de sujetos, estudiantes de postgrado de la Universidad de La Serena, que participaron en una intervención, cuyo propósito fue el aprendizaje de la producción de este género científico especializado. La intervención, en forma de talleres, consistió en 20 sesiones de tres horas cada una, espaciadas por un lapso de una semana. Durante su desarrollo, los sujetos escribieron, editaron en conjunto, y reescribieron las partes estructurales de un artículo de investigación. Los resultados muestran que los sujetos presentan dos grandes tipos de errores: uno asociados a problemas generales de la escritura y otro vinculados más específicamente con la escritura del género en cuestión. Abstract in english Nowadays, the dissemination of science by means of research articles in indexed journals is no longer an option, and it has turned into a necessity for those who are beginning or are devoted to research. However, researcher training in Chile is just beginning, and those who pursue graduate studies seldom receive formal instruction on the writing of scientific research articles (SRA), on a peer review system, or on the prospective journals to which they might submit their (more) manuscripts. Considering the above, the objective of this article is to describe and classify a series of errors detected in the composition of SRAs written by a group of Universidad de La Serena graduate students who participated in an intervention, the purpose of which was to look at how they produce this specialized scientific genre. The intervention took place in 20 three-hour weekly workshop sessions, where the participants wrote, edited collectively, and re-wrote the structural parts of a research article. It was found that the participants' compositions contain general writing errors and genre-specific errors.

Sabaj, Omar

2009-01-01

111

El resumen del artículo científico de investigación y recomendaciones para su redacción/ The abstract of the scientific research article and some recommendations for writing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas recomendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un co (more) ntenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen. Abstract in english Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the basis of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abs (more) tract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.

Silva Hernández, Dania

2010-06-01

112

El resumen del artículo científico de investigación y recomendaciones para su redacción The abstract of the scientific research article and some recommendations for writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas recomendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen.Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the basis of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.

Dania Silva Hernández

2010-01-01

113

Research development of the relationship between thymidine phosphorylase expression and colorectal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme that contributes to the composition and decomposition of pyrimidine nucleotides. TP seems homologous to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and its effects on inducing vascularization and anti-apoptosis are closely related to growth and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. In addition, TP is a key enzyme that catalyzes the transformation from 5-fluorouracil (FU) prodrugs of 5?-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5?-DFUR) to 5-FU. The activity of TP is closely related to the sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to fluorouracil drugs and targeted therapy. Given the important functions of TP in growth, metastasis, tumor treatment, and prognosis, determining its expression mechanism is significant. This article summarizes the research development of TP expression in colorectal carcinoma, tumor neovascularization, cytotoxicity activation of 5?-DFUR, and colorectal carcinoma therapy.

Dian-Jun Ye; Ji-Min Zhang

2013-01-01

114

Research development of the relationship between thymidine phosphorylase expression and colorectal carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is a key enzyme that contributes to the composition and decomposition of pyrimidine nucleotides. TP seems homologous to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and its effects on inducing vascularization and anti-apoptosis are closely related to growth and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. In addition, TP is a key enzyme that catalyzes the transformation from 5-fluorouracil (FU) prodrugs of 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) to 5-FU. The activity of TP is closely related to the sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to fluorouracil drugs and targeted therapy. Given the important functions of TP in growth, metastasis, tumor treatment, and prognosis, determining its expression mechanism is significant. This article summarizes the research development of TP expression in colorectal carcinoma, tumor neovascularization, cytotoxicity activation of 5'-DFUR, and colorectal carcinoma therapy.

Ye DJ; Zhang JM

2013-03-01

115

Investigação em cancro gástrico: artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais por autores portugueses/ Gastric cancer research: articles published in national and international journals by portuguese authors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O cancro do estômago permanece um dos mais frequentes, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento, pelo que poderá tornar-se numa doença negligenciada no que respeita aos esforços de investigação. O Japão apresenta das mais elevadas taxas de incidência em todo o mundo e contribui actualmente para a maior parte das publicações científicas nesta área. Sendo Portugal um dos países com mais elevada frequência de cancro do estômago no mundo desen (more) volvido, o objectivo deste estudo foi caracterizar, quanto aos objectivos dos estudos e afiliação dos autores, as publicações sobre adenocarcinoma gástrico e/ou lesões pré-cancerosas do estômago publicadas por investigadores portugueses. Métodos: Pesquisámos as bases de dados MEDLINE® e Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas no período 19922003 e revimos os resumos dos artigos identificados. Excluíram-se os que não reportavam investigação original e os baseados exclusivamente no estudo de linhas celulares ou em experimentação animal. Obtivemos o número de citações dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais através da Web of Science®. Resultados: Identificaram-se 88 artigos em revistas internacionais e 53 em revistas nacionais. Os artigos de pendor clínico são mais frequentemente publicados em revistas portuguesas e a investigação dos factores de risco e da etiologia nas publicações internacionais. A genética/epidemiologia molecular foi o assunto mais estudado nos artigos de revistas internacionais, na sua maioria abordando mecanismos/etiologia/factores de risco (n=55, 89%). A maior parte (81%) dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais são de grupos de investigação do Porto, sendo também os mais citados (número mediano de citações até 2004 = 15). Conclusão: A publicação da investigação em cancro do estômago em revistas nacionais ou internacionais depende do objecto de estudo. A alta proporção de artigos no campo da genética contrasta com o reduzido número de publicações acerca do papel etiológico de exposições decorrentes dos estilos de vida. Abstract in english Background: Gastric cancer remains one of the most frequent worldwide, though it may become a neglected disease concerning the research efforts due to its lower frequency in the developed countries. Japan is responsible for most of the stomach cancer research all over the world, with an increasing trend in the study of genetic susceptibility and the use of molecular markers. Portugal, like Japan, presents one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in the developed w (more) orld, and our aim was to characterize articles addressing gastric adenocarcinoma or the respective precancerous lesions published by Portuguese researchers, according to the study subjects and authors? affiliation. Methods: MEDLINE® and Portuguese Medical Journals Index databases were searched within the period 1992-2003 and the abstracts of the identified articles were reviewed. We obtained the number of citations for articles published in international journals through the Web of Science®. Those not reporting original research and those based exclusively in the study of cell lines or animal experimentation, were excluded. Results: We identified 88 articles in international journals (70% addressed cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors) and 53 in national journals (87% reported therapy/clinical and pathological descriptions). Genetic/ molecular topics were the most studied in articles on cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors from international journals (n=55, 89%). Most articles (81%) published in international journals come from groups from Porto, and these were also the most cited (median number of citations until 2004 = 15). Conclusion: The study scope is a major determinant for publication of stomach cancer research by Portuguese authors in national or international journals. The high proportion of studies on genetics/molecular biology is in contrast with the scarce number of published works add

Lunet, Nuno; Carvalho, Rui; Barros, Henrique

2005-07-01

116

The Publication Culture of Nursing Science in Finland: analysis of Research Articles Published in the Journal of Nursing Science from 1989 to 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Nursing science has developed rapidly as an academic discipline and also as a scientific institutioninternationally in the past thirty years. Publishing policies in different disciplines can be used in analyzing theirdevelopment and scientific culture. The purpose of this paper is to describe publication profile of Finnish nursingresearch and the contents and methods used.Methods: The data consisted of 433 articles published in Journal of Nursing Science (in Finnish Hoitotiede) duringyears 1989-2008. The journal is the first national scientific journal founded for nurse researchers in 1989. The datawere analyzed using content analysis.Results: The publishing has developed from single author papers to group work. A total of 24 % of the papers weresingle authored. Most of the papers were published in research groups within the discipline (94 %). Only 24 papersincluded collaboration with other disciplines such as medicine, statistics and education. Half of the papers concentratedon nursing practice and rest mainly on methodological issues or education. Only a few papers focused on healthpromotion, leadership issues or health policy. The nature of the research studies was descriptive, focus more onqualitative studies and a few intervention studies were published. Data were mostly collected by surveys or interviewsand physiological methods were nearly non-existent.Conclusions: The focus in Finnish studies has been on patients but on minor scale. The future challenge is to produceknowledge thru research programmes to have impact on clinical practice and health policy. Further studies are neededin evaluation of the state of nursing research in Finland and the contents as well as outcomes of the field.

Katri Vehvilainen-Julkunen; Jarmo Saarti

2012-01-01

117

Investigating Frequency and Distribution of Transition Markers in English and Persian Research Articles in Applied Linguistics: Focusing on Their Introduction Sections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pressure to produce work in English and to publish internationally has increased over recent years. However, a large number of non-native writers may be excluded from the web of global scholarship due to defective rhetorical organizations and discourse structures of their works. This study aimed to investigate frequency and distribution of transition markers (TMs) in introduction sections of applied linguistics research articles (RAs) written by native writers of English (NE), non- native Persian writers of English (NNE), and native writers of Persian (NP). For this purpose, 45 RAs were functionally and manually analyzed and compared to find possible differences among their introduction sections in terms of frequency and distribution of TMs. The results showed that compared with English, Persian language makes more use of TMs. Moreover, it was revealed that NNE writers show a pattern of overuse of TMs when they write in English owing to the effects of their native language writing culture.

Leila Bahrami

2012-01-01

118

Descripción de las formas de justificación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación en español de seis áreas científicas (Description of the Justification Forms in Research Articles in Spanish in Six Scientific Areas)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La justificación de los objetivos de investigación es una parte consustancial de la producción científica. A pesar de ello, no existen descripciones detalladas de cómo esta práctica se realiza en distintas áreas de la ciencia. En este trabajo analizamos los extractos textuales de justificación de un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, correspondientes a seis áreas de la ciencia. Utilizando los lineamientos de la teoría fundada, los resultados del análisis muestran que la justificación no siempre se plasma en un movimiento retórico determinado en estos textos. Se puede establecer, además, que el ámbito de justificación puede corresponder a problemáticas o argumentos de distinto nivel, y que la forma más común de justificar una investigación se basa en los aportes, implicancias o aplicabilidad de los resultados. Por último, proponemos que las formas retóricas que adopta la justificación son sensibles a las variaciones determinadas por la naturaleza epistemológica, los objetos de estudio y los procedimientos metodológicos utilizados en cada una de las áreas de la ciencia. (The justification of research objectives is an inherent part of scientific production. However, there are not any detailed descriptions as to how this practice is carried out in different scientific areas. In this article, we analyzetextual extracts of justification from a representative corpus of 162 research articles, corresponding to six scientific disciplines. Using the guidelines of the Grounded Theory, the results of the analysis show that the justification is not always expressed as a determined rhetorical move in these texts. Furthermore, it can be established that the field of justification can correspond to problems and arguments of distinctive levels, and that the most common way to justify a research project is based on the contributions, implicationsor applicability of the results. Finally, we propose that the rhetoric forms that the justification takes are sensible to variations determined by the nature of epistemology, the objects of study and the methodological procedures used in each of the scientific areas.)

Omar Sabaj Meruane; Denisse Landea Balin

2012-01-01

119

O letramento acadêmico em inglês: dificuldades na confecção da seção introdução de artigos acadêmicos/ English academic literacy: difficulties in writing the introduction section of research articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora), comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2004) e de Samraj (2002) ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência d (more) o movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino. Abstract in english This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor) were compared with Swales' (2004) and Samraj' (2002) models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of (more) the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.

Ferreira, Marília Mendes

2012-01-01

120

Database citation in full text biomedical articles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services.

Kafkas ?; Kim JH; McEntyre JR

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Research of Emotion Recognition Based on Speech and Facial Expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper introduced the present status of speech emotion recognition. In order to improve the single-mode emotion recognition rate, the bimodal fusion method based on speech and facial expression was proposed. The emotional databases of Chinese speech and facial expressions were established with th...

Yutai Wang; Xinghai Yang; Jing Zou

122

Research of Emotion Recognition Based on Speech and Facial Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper introduced the present status of speech emotion recognition. In order to improve the single-mode emotion recognition rate, the bimodal fusion method based on speech and facial expression was proposed. The emotional databases of Chinese speech and facial expressions were established with the noise stimulus and movies evoking subjects' emtion. On the foundation, we analyzed the acoustic features of Chinese speech signals under different emotional states, and obtained the general laws of prosodic feature parameters. We discussed the single-mode speech emotion recognitions based on the prosodic features and the geometric features of facial expression. Then, the bimodal emotion recognition was obtained by the use of Gaussian Mixture Model. The experimental results showed that, the bimodal emotion recognition rate combined with facial expression was about 6% higher than the single-model recognition rate merely using prosodic features.

Yutai Wang; Xinghai Yang; Jing Zou

2013-01-01

123

Gene expression profiling in islet biology and diabetes research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the sequencing of most of the human and mouse genomes, the next task for physicians and scientists will be to assess the relative levels of expression of these genes during development, following exposure to various nutritional and pharmacological conditions, and in disease states such as diabetes and related metabolic disorders. This review provides an overview of the various methodologies available for monitoring global gene expression. Use of cDNA libraries, Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing projects and databases, differential display (DD), serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), subtractive cloning, and both cDNA and oligo microarrays are discussed, along with their merits and limitations. The Endocrine Pancreas Consortium http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/EPConDB/ has constructed mouse and human cDNA libraries from adult and various stages of embryonic development of endocrine pancreas. Over 100,000 ESTs have been deposited in public databases, and each clone is available through the IMAGE Consortium. A guide to Internet access is provided for future investigation. PMID:12592642

Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Cras-Méneur, Corentin; Ohsugi, Mitsuru; Permutt, M Alan

124

¿Explicitan los autores de la Revista Médica de Chile sus fuentes de financiamiento? Disclosure of financial sources and conflicts of interest among research articles published in Revista Médica de Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Financial relationships between the industry and researchers have raised concerns about the existence of conflicts of interest that could influence the scientific validity of the studies. Aim: To determine the financial sources of research articles published in the Revista Médica de Chile during a five-year period. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all articles classified as “research articles”, published in this journal between years 2001-2005, identifying the funding source and the existence of a declaration of conflicts of interest by the authors. Results: Two hundred seventeen out of 519 research articles published in the period (42%) had an explicit financial source disclosed. Of these, 28% were funded by internal sources, 36% by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico and 36% by other sources. Twenty-six studies (5%) received funding from the industry. In only five of these, the authors explicity declared the absence of conflict of interest. Among the studies that did not disclose any financial source, one third required some funding to be carried out. Conclusions: Forty two percent of research articles published in the last five years did not specify the financial source. Those that did specify a funding source were mainly supported by non-profit agencies including university centers and governmental funds. This is in contrast with international reports that evidence an important financial support from the industry. Only a minority of the authors sponsored by the industry declared absence of conflict of interest

William Romero G; Sofía P Salas

2007-01-01

125

¿Explicitan los autores de la Revista Médica de Chile sus fuentes de financiamiento?/ Disclosure of financial sources and conflicts of interest among research articles published in Revista Médica de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Financial relationships between the industry and researchers have raised concerns about the existence of conflicts of interest that could influence the scientific validity of the studies. Aim: To determine the financial sources of research articles published in the Revista Médica de Chile during a five-year period. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all articles classified as ?research articles?, published in this journal between years 2001-200 (more) 5, identifying the funding source and the existence of a declaration of conflicts of interest by the authors. Results: Two hundred seventeen out of 519 research articles published in the period (42%) had an explicit financial source disclosed. Of these, 28% were funded by internal sources, 36% by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico and 36% by other sources. Twenty-six studies (5%) received funding from the industry. In only five of these, the authors explicity declared the absence of conflict of interest. Among the studies that did not disclose any financial source, one third required some funding to be carried out. Conclusions: Forty two percent of research articles published in the last five years did not specify the financial source. Those that did specify a funding source were mainly supported by non-profit agencies including university centers and governmental funds. This is in contrast with international reports that evidence an important financial support from the industry. Only a minority of the authors sponsored by the industry declared absence of conflict of interest

Romero G, William; Salas, Sofía P

2007-04-01

126

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN AND OVARY AROMATASE ACTIVITY AND ISOFORM-SPECIFIC AROMATASE MRNA EXPRESSION IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) - JOURNAL ARTICLE  

Science.gov (United States)

There is growing evidence that some chemicals present in the environment have the capacity to inhibit, or potentially induce, aromatase activity. This study compared aromatase activities and isoform-specific mRNA expression in brain and ovary tissue from non-exposed fathead minn...

127

Comments on the article "relative h-index to compare the scientific performance of researchers" by L.A.S. Dias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative h-index, proposed by L.A.S. Dias, is not useful to compare the scientific performance of researchers. This is shown by examples. More adequate alternatives include the g-index and the R-index.

Egghe L

2013-01-01

128

COATING FOR LATEX ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to novel articles, particularly latex barrier articles, being coated with an antimicrobial coating useful to reduce the risk of cross-contamination and/or infection by harmful pathogenic microorganisms.

BESS WILLIAM; MACKLES LEONARD

129

Expression without boundaries: cell-free protein synthesis in pharmaceutical research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proteins are an increasingly important class of new drugs. Pharmaceutical proteins are usually expressed in cell based systems in the development phase and in production, and although cell free methods have recently emerged they have not been used widely for therapeutic protein development or production. Cell free expression methodology is well suited for pharmaceutical protein expression and engineering and will probably become more commonly used in the future. Cell free expression allows protein engineering in high throughput format, flexible strategies for glycosylation and chemical conjugation, and allows easy use of unnatural amino acids as building blocks of proteins. Thus, cell free expression can be used to modify protein solubility, stability, and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins. Likewise, it is potentially useful in protein development for biomaterial matrices, nanoparticles, and vaccines. This review illustrates the potential of cell free expression in pharmaceutical protein research and development while highlighting both advantages and limitations of the method.

Casteleijn MG; Urtti A; Sarkhel S

2013-01-01

130

Expression without boundaries: cell-free protein synthesis in pharmaceutical research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteins are an increasingly important class of new drugs. Pharmaceutical proteins are usually expressed in cell based systems in the development phase and in production, and although cell free methods have recently emerged they have not been used widely for therapeutic protein development or production. Cell free expression methodology is well suited for pharmaceutical protein expression and engineering and will probably become more commonly used in the future. Cell free expression allows protein engineering in high throughput format, flexible strategies for glycosylation and chemical conjugation, and allows easy use of unnatural amino acids as building blocks of proteins. Thus, cell free expression can be used to modify protein solubility, stability, and pharmacokinetics of therapeutic proteins. Likewise, it is potentially useful in protein development for biomaterial matrices, nanoparticles, and vaccines. This review illustrates the potential of cell free expression in pharmaceutical protein research and development while highlighting both advantages and limitations of the method. PMID:22521712

Casteleijn, Marco G; Urtti, Arto; Sarkhel, Sanjay

2012-04-11

131

Article Watch: September 2013  

Science.gov (United States)

This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, GRU-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606; Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

Slaughter, Clive A.

2013-01-01

132

Article watch: september 2013.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, GRU-UGA Medical Partnership, 1425 Prince Ave., Athens, GA 30606; Phone: 706-713-2216; Fax: 706-713-2221; E-mail: cslaught@uga.edu; or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer's opinions and not necessarily those of the association.

Slaughter CA

2013-09-01

133

Method of drying articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

134

Index of articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This newsletter presents the titles of the articles from Clean Coal Today issues 1-27 with the hope of assisting readers in identifying articles of interest in prior editions of Clean Coal Today. Page 2-8 present articles in alphabetical order by Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Project Title; pages 9-15 are in alphabetical order by Project Participant; and pages 16-20 present all the articles on topics other than the CCT projects, such as the CCT Conferences, general CCT and coal related issues, environmental, international, internet/information services R & D and state information.

NONE

1999-12-31

135

Microarray expression technology in clinical research of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, in genomocentric era accelerated research of the human genome coupled with advances is enabling the comprehensive molecular profiling of human tissue. Particularly, DNA microarrays are powerful tools for obtaining global view of human non-Hodgkin lymphomas gene expression. Complex information from lymphomas "expression profiling" studies can, in turn, be used to create molecular markers that have diagnostic or prognostic implications. The gene "expression profiling" is not of routine clinical oncology practice, but is used in genomic classification of clinically relevant subgroups of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The genomics biomarkers have been incorporated into current prognostic models which are based on IPI, R-IPI, and FLIPI. Molecular or pharmacogenomic profiling can be used as new therapeutic targets for patients who are refractory to current therapy. We discus the utility of DNA microarray-based lymphoma profiling in clinical oncology research, and identify future of research in lymphoma evolving fields.

Balti? Vladimir; Balti? Milan

2007-01-01

136

La similitud léxico-semántica en artículos de investigación científica en español: Una aproximación desde el Análisis Semántico Latente Lexical-semantic similarity in scientific research articles in Spanish: An approach to Latent Semantic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta investigación es un estudio comparativo de la relación de similitud léxico-semántica entre tres variables textuales (palabras clave, resumen y el contenido de artículos de investigación científica). Además, se comparan a partir de los valores de similitud léxico-semántica dos áreas científicas (ciencias biológicas y ciencias sociales). El estudio se realiza utilizando una muestra estratificada representativa correspondiente a 22 artículos de investigación científica de ambas áreas científicas, incluidos en un corpus de 675 artículos científicos. Para la determinación de la similitud léxico-semántica entre las variables, se utiliza un método estadístico-computacional denominado Análisis Semántico Latente. Los resultados nos permiten establecer, por una parte, que en la muestra investigada el resumen ‘macrosemantiza’ mejor el contenido semántico global del artículo que las palabras clave. Por otra parte, no se presentan diferencias significativas entre los promedios de similitud léxico-semántica entre las áreas científicas estudiadas. Estos resultados se explican en función de los complejos procesos de estandarización que tienden a homogeneizar la producción científicaThis research focuses on lexical-semantic similarities found in three text variables (key words, abstract, and content in scientific research articles). Two scientific areas (biological sciences and social sciences) from the values of lexical-semantic similarity are compared. The study employs a representative stratified sample of 22 scientific research articles in these two areas, which have been included in a corpus of 675 scientific articles. To determine lexical-semantic similarities among the variables, a computer-statistical method is employed, called Latent Semantic Analysis. The findings help assert, on the one hand, that the abstract ‘macro-semanticizes’ better the global semantic content of the article than do the key words. On the other hand, no meaningful differences among the averages of lexical-semantic similarity in the scientific areas studied are revealed. These findings are accounted for in terms of the generally complex standardization processes which tend to homogenize the production of this type of articles

René Venegas

2006-01-01

137

Nanotechnology Featured Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Three articles from each issue of the Institute of Physics Nanotechnology journal are freely available to all visitors. The selections from the journal are made based on the Editor's choice, or due to their topicality. As a result, the titles are subject to change. The articles are located at the bottom of the page.

138

Finding the needle in the haystack: a review of microarray gene expression research into schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With an estimated 80% heritability, molecular genetic research into schizophrenia has remained inconclusive. Recent large-scale, genome-wide association studies only identified a small number of susceptibility genes with individually very small effect sizes. However, the variable expression of the phenotype is not well captured in diagnosis-based research as well as when assuming a 'heterogenic risk model' (as apposed to a monogenic or polygenic model). Hence, the expression of susceptibility genes in response to environmental factors in concert with other disease-promoting or protecting genes has increasingly attracted attention. METHOD: The current review summarises findings of microarray gene expression research with relevance to schizophrenia as they emerged over the past decade. RESULTS: Most findings from post mortem, peripheral tissues and animal models to date have linked altered gene expression in schizophrenia to presynaptic function, signalling, myelination, neural migration, cellular immune mechanisms, and response to oxidative stress consistent with multiple small effects of many individual genes. However, the majority of results are difficult to interpret due to small sample sizes (i.e. potential type-2 errors), confounding factors (i.e. medication effects) or lack of plausible neurobiological theory. CONCLUSION: Nevertheless, microarray gene expression research is likely to play an important role in the future when investigating gene/gene and gene/environment interactions by adopting a neurobiologically sound theoretical framework.

Kumarasinghe N; Tooney PA; Schall U

2012-07-01

139

Análise linguístico-discursiva do genero introdução de artigo de pesquisa (para fins específicos): Teste ANPAD/ A linguistic-discursive analysis of the genre research article introduction (to specific purposes): ANPAD Test  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é um recorte de um estudo que analisou o gênero textual `introdução de artigo de pesquisa' sob a ótica retórico-discursiva. Os princípios teórico-metodológicos que orientaram esta pesquisa foram: inglês instrumental, leitura e gêneros textuais. A pesquisa realizada é de natureza descritiva focalizada (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), e o corpus utilizado é formado por introduções de artigo de pesquisa da prova de inglês do teste ANPAD. Neste artigo (more) , será apresentada uma análise linguístico-discursiva das introduções desse corpus. Os resultados mostraram que as evidências linguísticas nem sempre correspondem a um determinado movimento retórico (SWALES, 1990) presente nos textos das introduções analisadas. O estudo teve finalidade pedagógica, pois evidenciou os marcadores linguísticos e as estruturas verbais que realmente ocorrem nesse gênero. Abstract in english This article is part of a study which analyzed the textual genre `research article introduction' from the perspective of rhetorical-discursive analysis. The theoretical-methodological principles which guided this research were: English for specific purposes, reading and textual genre. This research was a focused description (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), and the corpususedwas composed by research article introductions from the ANPAD English test (ANPAD is a test for postgr (more) aduate courses). This article presents the linguistic-discursive analysis of the introductions that comprise the corpusused in the studyof the original study. The results showed that the linguistic evidence not always corresponded to a specific rhetorical movement (SWALES, 1990) in the introductions. The study had a pedagogical purpose because it highlighted the linguistic marks and the verbal structures that really occur in this genre.

Coelho, Juliana Guimarães Rodrigues

2011-01-01

140

Análise linguístico-discursiva do genero introdução de artigo de pesquisa (para fins específicos): Teste ANPAD A linguistic-discursive analysis of the genre research article introduction (to specific purposes): ANPAD Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo é um recorte de um estudo que analisou o gênero textual `introdução de artigo de pesquisa' sob a ótica retórico-discursiva. Os princípios teórico-metodológicos que orientaram esta pesquisa foram: inglês instrumental, leitura e gêneros textuais. A pesquisa realizada é de natureza descritiva focalizada (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), e o corpus utilizado é formado por introduções de artigo de pesquisa da prova de inglês do teste ANPAD. Neste artigo, será apresentada uma análise linguístico-discursiva das introduções desse corpus. Os resultados mostraram que as evidências linguísticas nem sempre correspondem a um determinado movimento retórico (SWALES, 1990) presente nos textos das introduções analisadas. O estudo teve finalidade pedagógica, pois evidenciou os marcadores linguísticos e as estruturas verbais que realmente ocorrem nesse gênero.This article is part of a study which analyzed the textual genre `research article introduction' from the perspective of rhetorical-discursive analysis. The theoretical-methodological principles which guided this research were: English for specific purposes, reading and textual genre. This research was a focused description (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), and the corpususedwas composed by research article introductions from the ANPAD English test (ANPAD is a test for postgraduate courses). This article presents the linguistic-discursive analysis of the introductions that comprise the corpusused in the studyof the original study. The results showed that the linguistic evidence not always corresponded to a specific rhetorical movement (SWALES, 1990) in the introductions. The study had a pedagogical purpose because it highlighted the linguistic marks and the verbal structures that really occur in this genre.

Juliana Guimarães Rodrigues Coelho

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. Combined criteria have been introduced dealing with the QRS areas and amplitudes, the waveshapes evaluated by steep slopes and sharp peaks, vectorcardiographic (VCG) loop descriptors, RR intervals irregularities. Algorithms have been designed for application on a single ECG lead, a synthesized lead derived by multichannel synchronous recordings, or simultaneous multilead analysis. Some approaches are based on templates matching, cross-correlation or rely on a continuous updating of adaptive thresholds. Various beat classification methods have been designed involving discriminant analysis, the K-th nearest neighbors, fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. The efficiency of the developed methods has been assessed using internationally recognized arrhythmia ECG databases with annotated beats and rhythm disturbances. In general, high values for specificity and sensitivity competitive to those reported in the literature have been achieved.

Ivaylo Christov; Irena Jekova; Vessela Krasteva; Ivan Dotsinsky; Todor Stoyanov

2009-01-01

142

Índice-H dos artigos citantes: uma contribuição para a avaliação da produção científica de pesquisadores experientes/ Index of articles H-citing: a contribution to the evaluation of scientific production of experienced researchers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Há um crescente interesse e necessidade em avaliar a qualidade da produção científica dos pesquisadores. Para tal, as métricas mais importantes são: número de citações, número médio de citações por artigo indexado e o índice-H. Contudo, essas métricas apresentam limitações na avaliação do potencial de impacto das publicações de um pesquisador, especialmente dentre aqueles mais produtivos. OBJETIVO: Propor e demonstrar a utilização de u (more) ma nova métrica científica - índice-H dos artigos citantes, que permite refinar a discriminação do impacto das publicações de pesquisadores experientes sobre o conhecimento existente em sua área. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados da Web of Science de 13 dentre os pesquisadores doutores brasileiros mais produtivos na área de exercício físico e esporte, incluindo: número de artigos publicados, número de citações, número médio de citações por artigos, índice-H e o índice-H dos artigos citantes, ou seja, o índice-H obtido a partir da ordenação decrescente dos artigos que citaram artigos publicados pelo pesquisador. Dados de quatro outros pesquisadores - brasileiros e estrangeiros - foram usados como marcos de referência para comparações. RESULTADOS: Os índice-H do pesquisador e o dos artigos citantes são associados (r = 0,92; p > 0,01), porém, quando são analisados os seis pesquisadores mais produtivos, com índices-H acima de 7, a associação entre os dois índices-H desaparece (r = 0,35; p = 0,49). CONCLUSÃO: O índice-H dos artigos citantes pode contribuir para diferenciar a produção científica de pesquisadores com um grande número de artigos publicados. Sugere-se a adoção de sua mensuração pelas agências brasileiras e estrangeiras de fomento e de avaliação da produção científica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: there has been an increasing interest and need in evaluating the quality of scientific papers written by researchers. Therefore, the most important measurements used are the number of citations, the average number of citations per article published in indexed journals and the H-index. Those bibliometric indicators present, however, limitations when assessing the potential impact of the publications of a given researcher, particularly among the most productive (more) ones. OBJECTIVE: To propose and to demonstrate the use of a new scienciometric strategy - the H-index of the citing articles-, that allow to better discriminate the impact of a given researcher to the body of knowledge in the respective research area. METHODS: Research data - Web of Science - from 13 of the most productive Brazilian PhD researchers in the field of exercise and sport sciences were analyzed, including: number of publications, number of citations, average number of citations per article, H-index and the proposed H-index of citing articles (the H-index extracted from the ranking of articles that cited the papers published by a given researcher). Data from four other researchers - Brazilian and foreign - were used as reference for comparisons. RESULTS: The researcher's H-index and the H-index of the citing articles were associated (r=.92; p>.01). However, when the six most productive authors were analyzed with H-index above 7, the association between the two indexes disappears (r=.35; p=.49). CONCLUSIONS: The H-index of the citing articles can be useful to discriminate the scientific production of authors with a high number of published papers. It is suggested that this algorithm should be adopted by Brazilian and foreign financing and scientific production evaluation agencies.

Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de; Sardinha, Aline

2011-10-01

143

ABSORBENT ARTICLE WITH LOTION.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention is directed to an absorbent article to be worn by a wearer comprising a skin- contacting sheet such as a topsheet, a backsheet, an absorbent core and a coloured hydrophilic lotion, that not only helps to reduce the adherence of the menses or feces to the skin, thereby improving the ease of menses or bowl movement (BM) clean up, but that also may serve as a wetness indicator. Preferred absorbent articles are infant (baby) diapers, including training pants, adult incontinence articles and the like.

ROE DONALD CARROLL; VEGA VICTOR NICHOLAS; WISE BRANDON ELLIS; THORNTON MARK ANDREW; MARTYNUS CORNELIA BEATE; PONOMARENKO EKATERINA ANATOLYEVNA

144

Emerald Engineering Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage from Emerald Publishing features a collection of recently published journals and articles pertaining to engineering technology, in particular, electronics, bio, chemical and medical. Of the 16 engineering journals published by Emerald, 14 are listed in ISI.

2010-11-15

145

Construcción de un modelo de "movidas retóricas" para el análisis de artículos de investigación en español (Construction of a model of "rhetorical moves" for the analysis of research articles in Spanish)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se describen las distintas etapas de la construcción de un modelo de Movidas Retóricas para el análisis de artículos de investigación en español. A partir de un análisis sistemático de la literatura en este ámbito, un estudio de casos y la síntesis y homologación de la información recabada, se constituyó un modelo compuesto de 37 Movidas Retóricas, asociadas a cada una de las secciones del artículo de investigación. Algunas de estas Movidas Retóricas pueden aparecer en más de una sección, generando ciclos al inicio o al final del Artículo de investigación. Así también, existen Movidas Retóricas que se encuentran en secciones específicas. El trabajo se presenta como un intento de sintetizar y abrir la discusión en este ámbito ,y contribuir a la enseñanza de la escritura científica en nuestra lengua. (This article describes the different stages of construction of a Model of Rhetorical Moves for the analysis of research articles in Spanish. Beginning with a systematical analysis of the literature in this area, a case study, and the synthesis and homologation of the gathered information, a model composed of 37 Rhetorical Moves was built up, and the moves were associated to each of the sections of the research article. Some of these Rhetorical Moves may appear in more than one section, generating determined cycles at the beginning or at the end of the research article. In this manner, there may be Rhetorical Moves that appear in specific sections. This work is an attempt to synthesize and to open the discussion in this area, and to contribute to the teaching of scientific writing in our mother tongue.)

Omar Sabaj Meruane; Paulina Toro Trengove; Miguel Fuentes Cortés

2011-01-01

146

Stripped article cutting brackets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a bar-shaped article cutting bracket device. The center wheel of the rotary disk of the bar-shaped article cutting bracket device is a fixing gear, the rotary disk is symmetrically provided with n groups of planetary gear transmission mechanisms which use the fixing gear as a central shaft, and two stages of the planetary gear transmission mechanisms are associated. The output shafts pf the transmitting mechanisms are provided with brackets, and the gears in the planetary gear transmitting mechanisms whose two stages are associated are provided with dual gears which comprise X<-1> and X<-2>. The dual gears are a pair of gears whose transmission parameters are identical, and the dual gears are installed in a coaxial and interlocking tooth mode. The bar-shaped article cutting bracket device adopts the planetary gear transmission mechanisms whose two stages are associated and the interlocking teeth of the gears to eliminate the transmission gaps and to cause the brackets to form an elliptical motion trace without the transmission gaps. When bar-shaped articles (tobacco bars, cigarette mouths, etc.) are cut, the brackets guides and holds the bar-shaped articles. The bar-shaped article cutting bracket device can solve the problems that the notches of cigarettes incline, the operation has noise, etc.

YANG QIUBO

147

Original research articles on the cardiopulmonary system recently appeared in Brazilian clinical and surgical journals/ Artigos originais sobre o sistema cardiopulmonar publicados recentemente em periódicos Brasileiros clínicos e cirúrgicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, houve um aumento considerável na qualidade dos artigos científicos publicados em periódicos médicos brasileiros. As razões para tal incremento são muitas, incluindo a iniciativa de open access da base SciELO, a adoção do inglês por vários periódicos e, a mais relevante, o aumento em número e qualidade dos pesquisadores brasileiros. Este artigo indica os melhores artigos sobre os sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório publicados recentemente (more) nesses periódicos. Será oferecido ao leitor um panorama dessas áreas e alguns artigos podem ser selecionados para maiores informações. Abstract in english In the last few years, a huge increment in the quality of scientific articles published in Brazilian Medical Journals has been observed. Several reasons were related to this feature including the SciELO free access initiative, the English language adopted by most journals, and, more importantly, the increase in the number and quality of Brazilian researchers. This article highlights, in the cardiovascular and respiratory areas, the best articles that have been published i (more) n these journals in the last few months. The reader will have a general overview of these areas and can select the original articles for deeper information.

Patel, Kavita Kirankumar; Caramelli, Bruno; Silva, Maurício Rocha e

2011-12-01

148

Secretion-monitoring article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A secretion-monitoring article for identifying a secreted biological fluid having a body with an absorbent material and least one pH determining member and a reagent associated with the absorbent material is disclosed. The article can be embodied as a swab, gauze, panty shield, hygienic napkin, diaper or interlabial absorbent structure and can be used to indicate the presence of amniotic fluid, or secretions associated with bacterial, parasite, fungal, or yeast infections without giving a false positive result upon exposure to urine. The present invention also teaches a pH indicator mixture and method of attaching the indicator to a substrate for use alone or integrated in an absorbent body and further teaches a method for monitoring the health condition of a person using the secretion-monitoring article.

KRITZMAN AMNON; NACHSHON NITSA G; YAEL BECHAR

149

Secretion-monitoring article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A secretion-monitoring article for identifying a secreted biological fluid. The article includes a body with an absorbent material for absorbing a biological fluid secreted from a person and an indicator system. The indicator system includes an indicator agent and an ion-balance reagent, wherein the indicator system provides an indication of physiological conditions associated with the pH or the buffer capacities of the biological fluid, which indication is stable for at least 48 and preferably at least 72 hours. The article can be embodied as a swab, gauze, shield, hygienic napkin, diaper or interlabial absorbent structure and can be used to indicate the presence of amniotic fluid, or secretions associated with bacterial vaginosis without giving a false positive result upon exposure to urine or after drying.

KRITZMAN AMNON; NACHSHON NITSA G; YAEL BECHAR; BEHAR YAEL

150

Colored wax articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are improved solid, colored wax-based article having longer color shelf-life. The invention comprises a synthetic wax, a colorant, and an effective amount of a compound of the formula (1) having symbols defined in the text. The preferred embodiments of the articles contain (1) that exhibits a UV absorptivity greater than or equal to 70 liters per gram-cm. at a wavelength of less than or equal to 400 nm, as measured in either methanol, toluene or chloroform, using a conventional UV spectrophotometer. The uses for the articles include candles, crayons, fertilizer coatings, rosebush coatings, plant grafting, sealants, sun-cracking protection of rubber and plastic products, paper coating, packaging food products, electrical insulation, waterproofing and cleaning compounds, carbon paper, and precision investment casting.

RUSSELL STEPHEN E; WEBSTER JOSEPH R

151

Research Quality and Newsworthiness of Published Articles are Partial Predictors of Journal Impact Factors. A Review of: Lokker, C., Haynes, R. B., Chu, R., McKibbon, K. A., Wilczynski, N. L., & Walter, S. D. (2012). How well are journal and clinical article characteristics associated with the journal impact factor?A retrospective cohort study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 100(1), 28-33. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.100.1.006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – Determine what characteristics ofa journal’s published articles can be used topredict the journal impact factor (JIF).Design – A retrospective cohort study.Setting – The researchers are located atMcMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario,Canada.Subjects – The sample consisted of 1,267clinical research articles from 103 evidencebased and clinical journals which werepublished in 2005 and indexed in theMcMaster University Premium LiteratUreService (PLUS) database and those samejournals’ JIF from 2007.Method – The articles were divided 60:40 intoa derivation set (760 articles and 99 journals)and a validation set (507 articles and 88journals). Ten variables which could influenceJIF were developed and a multiple linearregression was run on the derivation set andthen applied to the validation set.Main Results – The four variables found to besignificant were the number of databaseswhich indexed the journal, the number ofauthors, the quality of research, and the“newsworthiness” of the journal’s publishedarticles. Conclusion – The quality of research and newsworthiness at time of publication of a journal’s articles can predict the journal impact factor with 60% accuracy.

Jason Martin

2012-01-01

152

Subjetividad y discurso científico-académico: Acerca de algunas manifestaciones de la subjetividad en el artículo de investigación en español Subjectivity and academic scientific discourse: Some subjectivity marks in research articles in Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar algunas de las manifestaciones de la subjetividad presentes en el género artículo de investigación científica, escrito en español. En un corpus de artículos procedentes de cuatro disciplinas (Historia, Lingüística, Geología y Medicina), se relevan, así en primer lugar las marcas de persona, quizás la huella más evidente de la presencia del sujeto en el discurso. Se abordan luego los modos de referir la palabra ajena y las diferentes actitudes del locutor-autor frente a esas otras voces. En este marco, se analizan las comillas, marcas de la heterogeneidad "mostrada marcada", que permiten al locutor desdoblar su discurso para comentar las palabras que emplea, al mismo tiempo que las utiliza. Se concluye que el artículo científico contiene marcas de subjetividad y polifonía de diferente tipo, y que dichas marcas pueden correlacionarse con la configuración de ethos discursivos diferentes, según las disciplinasThe purpose of this paper is to study some marks of subjectivity in research articles in Spanish. In a corpus of research articles on History, Linguistics, Geology and Medicine, I focus first on person markers, the clearest trace of the author in discourse. Second I concentrate on the ways to refer to other people’s discourse and different attitudes facing those voices authors show. Within this frame, I analyse inverted commas, evident marks of heterogeneity in discourse, which allow the author to unfold her discourse and make a comment on words while using them. I conclude that, far from being objective, neutral and monological, the research article presents subjective and polyphonic marks of many kinds and that those marks can correlate with the constitution of diverse discursive ethos, according to disciplines

María Marta García Negroni

2008-01-01

153

Call for Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Brief: In the past, In the Library with the Lead Pipe has asked our readers what topics they would like to see covered. Today we share a list of the articles we dream of publishing. In addition to asking our readers, the Editorial Board at In the Library with the Lead Pipe often discusses [...

Editorial Board

2013-01-01

154

HIGHLY ABSORBENT SUBSTRATE ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A reusable highly absorbent article, for example a cloth or towel for mopping up household spillages, comprises a substrate carrying a pressure-sensitive polymeric material capable of absorbing, retaining, releasing and reabsorbing large volumes of water or electrolyte. The polymer is preferably the sulphonation product of a high-void-volume styrene polymer prepared by polymerisation of a high-internal-phase emulsion.

HAQ Zia; JOHNSON Richard Shaw

155

Article retraction notice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (retraction) The article 'Prognostic significance of acute bundle branch block in patients with acute myocardial infarction' by Mijailovi? V, Mrdovi? I, Ili? M, Ašanin M, Srdi? M, Raji? D was retracted at the request of the editors because the authors had infringed the normal professional and ethical codes by submitting the above article to the Vojnosnitetski pregled after an article with substantial overlap of its content (patients, methods,results and conclusions) had been accepted for publication and published in another journal, ABC - ?asopis urgentne medicine. (1) Mijailovi? V, Mrdovi? I, Ili? M, Ašanin M, Srdi? M, Raji? D. 'Prognostic significance of acute bundle branch block in patients with acute myocardial infarction' Vojnosanit Pregl 2008; 65(10): 733-7. (Serbian) (2) Mijailovi? V, Mrdovi? I, Ili? M, Peruni?i? J, Ašanin M, Lasica R, Savi? L, Srdi? M, Jozi? T, Raji? D, Terzi? B, Mati? D, Mati? M, Vasiljevi? Z. 'Prognostic significance of acute bundle branch block with patients suffering from myocardial infarction'. ABC - ?asopis urgentne medicine 2007; 7(2-3): 104-8. (Serbian) . Link to the retracted article 10.2298/VSP0810733M

Uredništvo

2009-01-01

156

Controversial article on geonomastics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to discuss, firstly, the substantiation of a new discipline within the applied onomastics with a short excursion into the historical domain, its relationship to other sub-disciplines, then its difference from toponymics, and finally to give an example of contemporary works at the intersection of geography, linguistics, onomastics, cartography, map semantics and others.

Evgeny Shokhenmayer

2010-01-01

157

Call for Articles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Brief: In the past, In the Library with the Lead Pipe has asked our readers what topics they would like to see covered. Today we share a list of the articles we dream of publishing. In addition to asking our readers, the Editorial Board at In the Library with the Lead Pipe often discusses [...

Editorial Board

158

Fluid Absorbent Articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to fluid-absorbent articles, comprising an upper liquid-pervious layer, a lower liquid-impervious layer and a fluid-absorbent core, wherein the fluid-absorbent core comprises a fibrous material and 10 to 95% by weight of spherical fluid-absorbent polymer particles having a moisture content of at least 8% by weight.

WEISMANTEL MATTHIAS; FUNK RUEDIGER; SCHROEDER ULRICH; KRUEGER MARCO; JOSEPH JOHN

159

[Microarrays and gene expression profiling for the diagnosis in leukemia. From research studies to routine application].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

So far, the diagnosis in leukemia is based on cytomorphology and cytochemistry, multiparameter flow cytometry, combined with cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This allows classification and definition of biologically defined and prognostically relevant subtypes in nearly all cases. It led also in same subgroups to targeted treatment approaches. Today, microarray technology enables us to quantify simultaneously the expression status of many ten thousands of genes in one single experiment. This novel tool seems able to renew the diagnosis and classification in leukemia and may even become essential for the molecular classification of leukemias in the near future. An ongoing international study (MILE study) is testing the accuracy, sensibility and specificity of gene expression profiling in leukemia diagnostics. First results and future directions will be given in the article.

Haferlach T; Bacher U; Kohlmann A; Schnittger S; Kern W; Haferlach C

2006-11-01

160

El discurso científico de la historia: Análisis estructural y retórico de los artículos de investigación en historia THE SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE OF HISTORY: A STRUCTURAL AND RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF HISTORY RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Al igual que en cualquier otra disciplina científica, el discurso general de la historia se transmite a través de distintos géneros, siendo el artículo de investigación (en adelante, AI), una manifestación que permite, en particular, analizar el discurso científico de la historia. En esta materia, el trabajo de Swales (1990, 2004) y su teoría de Movidas Retóricas (en adelante, MR) es un referente para el estudio específico de los artículos de investigación. Los estudios que siguen esta teoría son, en su mayoría, aplicables a trabajos escritos en la lengua inglesa y dan cuenta, de manera aislada, de las distintas secciones superestructurales, tales como la introducción o la conclusión. En este contexto, el objetivo de la presente investigación es describir, estructural y retóricamente, los artículos de investigación en historia. Para este efecto, se realizó un análisis de todas las secciones superestructurales presentes en los AiI de nuestro corpus. Además, se identificaron las MR prototípicas de los AI en historia, y se estableció el grado de similitud de las secciones superestructurales del corpus con los de otras disciplinas. Los resultados principales señalan que los artículos de investigación de historia se caracterizan, principalmente, por la narración e interpretación de hechos, en conjunto con la referencia literal a otras fuentes.As in all scientific disciplines, the general discourse of history is conveyed by means of different discourse genres. One of such genres is the research article (RA), which therefore enables the analysis of the scientific discourse of history. In this respect, the descriptive work of Swales (1990, 2004) and his theory of Rhetorical Moves (RM) is seminal to the study of scientific research articles. The studies based on this theory have been published mostly in English and involve the analysis of some of the distinctive super-structural sections, mainly the introduction and the conclusion, in a discrete approach. The aim of the present study is to describe, both structurally and rhetorically, research articles in the area of history written in Chilean Spanish. To this end, an analysis was carried out of the superstructures present in the RA's of our corpus. Additionally, the prototypical RM's in history RA's were identified and the degree of similarity between these super-structural sections in our corpus and those of other disciplines was established. The main results of this study demonstrate that research articles in the area of history are characterized, mainly, by the narration and interpretation of facts, together with the literal reference to other sources.

Miguel Fuentes Cortés

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Does anybody read "evidence-based" articles?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The electronic version of the British Medical Journal (eBMJ) has a unique feature in that it provides an electronic record of the number of times an article has been viewed ("hits") in the week after its publication. We sought to compare the relative popularity of primary research and "evidence-based" papers against that of narrative reviews and editorials. We surveyed four broad groupings of articles in 2001: Editorials, Clinical Reviews (which are narrative reviews), Education and Debate, and Papers (which are original research articles and systematic reviews). Clinical Reviews were the most frequently viewed articles, with an average of 4148 hits per article, while Papers were less popular (average of 1168 hits per article). Systematic reviews (23 articles, average of 1190 hits per article) were visited far less often than narrative reviews. Editorials (average of 2537 hits per article) were viewed much more frequently than Papers, even where the editorial was written as an accompanying piece with a direct link to the paper. Discussion Narrative reviews and editorials are accessed more frequently than primary research papers or systematic reviews in the first week after their publication. These findings may disappoint those who believe that it is important for readers to critically appraise the primary research data. Although the technical quality of journal articles may have been helped by recommendations on structured reporting, the readability of such articles has received little attention. Authors and journal editors must take steps to make research articles and systematic reviews more attractive to readers. This may involve using simpler language, as well as innovative use of web resources to produce shorter, snappier papers, with the methodological or technical details made available elsewhere. Conclusion Primary research and "evidence-based" papers seem to be less attractive to readers than narrative reviews and editorials in the first week after publication. Authors and editors should try to improve the early appeal of primary research papers.

Loke Yoon K; Derry Sheena

2003-01-01

162

Too Few Articles in the Journal Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries are Research?Based. A review of: Crawford, Gregory A., and Jessica Feldt. “An Analysis of the Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46.3 (Spr. 2007): 77?87.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To discover which journals publish a preponderance of the literature on instruction in academic libraries, and to further learn what topics are discussed in the literature and what methods of inquiry are used to explore those topics.Design – Comparative analysis.Setting – The ERIC database.Subjects – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002, found in the ERIC database via the descriptor ‘library instruction.’Methods – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002 were searched in the ERIC database using the term ‘library instruction,’ because the term has been used by ERIC since the inception of the database. Article characteristics such as year of publication, journal in which a given article was published, and types of articles were identified. After normalizing the identification of article types by comparing individual codifications of a random sample of articles from the results list, the researchers coded all of the articles according to the articles’ main topics. These article topics were then condensed into broader topics (e.g. articles coded initially as addressing the topics of instruction to “graduate students” or “high school students” were condensed under the heading “instruction of specific populations”). Those articles deemed to have a research component were further analyzed in terms of research methodology, scope, and use of statistics. The questions guiding the authors? study consisted of:• In which journals are articles on instruction in academic libraries published?• What are the topics of the articles that have been published?• How has the literature of instruction in academic libraries changed over the years?• What is the nature of research [authors? emphasis] articles on instruction in academic libraries?• For research articles, what are the research methods used and what types of statistics are utilized? (77?78).Main results – The search found 791 articles appearing in 90 journals. However, only six journals were responsible for publishing 60% of the articles on the results list. Based on the categorization into topics or types,five article types – “general essays,” articles on “instruction for searching online catalogs and databases,” “articles on course? or assignment?related instruction,” “programmatic and management issues,”and “specific institution instruction” –accounted for 54% of the total articles; eleven other topics are represented in the remaining articles. Only 24.5% of the articles could be considered “research?based.” While nine types of research methods were used, 62.3% of the research?based articles relied on surveys or questionnaires. However, taking into account what could be an expected decline in interest for studying instruction for microforms, and an increased interest in studying instruction for the Internet, the types of articles published each year between 1971 and 2002 remained generally static.Conclusion – The authors conclude that, unsurprisingly, a select few journals are responsible for publishing the majority of articles on instruction in academic libraries, and note that these journals are “closely associated with academic librarianship and instruction” (85). The authors’ findings concerning the types of articles published over the course of the date range examined, although interesting, are equally unsurprising. What is surprising and alarming, is that only a quarter of all articles published are research-based. Furthermore, those articles that were found to be research-based did not often employ sophisticated research methods, preferring for example, the use of descriptive statistics over inferential statistics. Ideally, this article will spur the development and publication of more, and more rigorous, research?based scholarship in addition to pointing authors both to the journals most likely to publish their research and to the topics that have been historically (since 1971) underrepresented in the literature.

Kurt Blythe

2008-01-01

163

ARTICLES TO BE WORN  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided are articles to be worn for which the occurrence of skin problems due to pressure-sensitive adhesive when the front and back parts are fastened to each other with fasteners, can be reduced. For said worn articles, because the side sheets, which are folded in the width direction, are fixed to the chassis with pressure-sensitive adhesive between non-skin-contacting surfaces of the chassis and non-skin-contacting surfaces of the side sheets, or are fixed to the chassis between skin-contacting surfaces of the chassis and non-skin-contacting surfaces of the side sheets with pressure-sensitive adhesive that separates with the side sheet from the chassis when separated, pressure-sensitive adhesive does not remain on the skin-contacting surfaces and skin problems for the wearer due to the effects of the pressure-sensitive adhesive can be reduced.

TAGAWA NOBUHIRO

164

Secretion-monitoring article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A secretion-monitoring article for identifying a secreted biological fluid comprising a body with an absorbent material for absorbing a biological fluid secreted from a person and an indicator system. The indicator system comprises an indicator agent and an ion-balance reagent, wherein the indicator system provides an indication of physiological conditions associated with the pH or the buffer capacities of the biological fluid, which indication is stable for at least 48 hours, preferably at least 72 hours. The article can be embodied as a swab, gauze, shield, hygienic napkin, diaper or interlabial absorbent structure and can be used to indicate the presence of amniotic fluid, or secretions associated with bacterial vaginosis without giving a false positive result upon exposure to urine or drying out.

KRITZMAN AMNON; NACHSHON NITSA G; YAEL BECHAR; BEHAR YAEL

165

Highly absorbent substrate article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A reusable highly absorbent article, for example a cloth or towel for mopping up household spillages, comprises a substrate carrying a pressure-sensitive polymeric material capable of absorbing, retaining, releasing and reabsorbing large volumes of of water or electrolyte. The polymer is preferably the sulphonation product of a high-void-volume styrene polymer prepared by polymerisation of a high-internal-phase emulsion.

Haq Zia; Johnson Richard Shaw

166

SECRETION-TESTING ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention teaches pH indicator polymer matrices and methods of using same for identifying vaginal secretions. A secretion-monitoring article for the identification of secreted biological fluids is disclosed having a substrate for absorbing a biological fluid secreted from a person, and biocompatible pH indicator polymer matrices comprising at least one pH determining reagent that reacts with biological fluids that have low buffer capacity differently than with bodily fluids that have normal buffer capacity.

KRITZMAN Amnon; NACHSHON Nitsa G.; BECHAR Yael

167

FLUID-ABSORBENT ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to fluid-absorbent articles, comprising an upper liquid-pervious layer, a lower liquid-impervious layer, a fluid-absorbent core, wherein the fluid-absorbent core comprises a fibrous material and 10 to 95% by weight of spherical fluid-absorbent polymer particles, and an acquisition distribution layer, wherein the acquisition distribution layer comprises a fibrous material and 0 to 20% by weight of spherical fluid-absorbent polymer particles.

WEISMANTEL MATTHIAS; FUNK RUEDIGER; SCHROEDER ULRICH; KRUEGER MARCO; LOUDEN JOHN JOSEPH

168

Rationality, emotional expression and control: psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire for research in psycho-oncology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In some studies rationality, anti-emotionality and the control of (negative) emotions were found to be psychological risk factors for cancer. In the present study instruments were developed in order to cross-validate the role of the 'rationality/anti-emotionality (RAE)'-concept and the 'emotional expression and control (EEC)'-concept. The psychometric characteristics of a RAE-scale and EEC-scales were investigated in 4302 healthy women attending a breast cancer screening programme in The Netherlands. Principal components analysis revealed three factors for the RAE-scale: (1) Rationality; (2) Emotionality; and (3) Understanding. The EEC-scales consist of three factors that indicate: (1) expression of emotions to oneself; (2) expression of emotions towards others; and (3) control of emotions. These RAE and EEC scales can be of importance in psycho-oncological research, especially when: (1) the more refined subscales are used; and (2) age of the subjects is taken into account.

Bleiker EM; van der Ploeg HM; Hendriks JH; Leer JW; Kleijn WC

1993-12-01

169

Dense ceramic articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is described for the manufacture of articles of substantially pure dense ceramic materials, for use in severe environments. Si N is very suitable for use in such environments, but suffers from the disadvantage that it is not amenable to sintering. Some disadvantages of the methods normally used for making articles of Si N are mentioned. The method described comprises mixing a powder of the substantially pure ceramic material with an additive that promotes densification, and which is capable of nuclear transmutation into a gas when exposed to radiation, and hot pressing the mixture to form a billet. The billet is then irradiated to convert the additive into a gas which is held captive in the billet, and it is then subjected to a hot forging operation, during which the captive gas escapes and an article of substantially pure dense ceramic material is forged. The method is intended primarily for use for Si N, but may be applied to other ceramic materials. The additive may be Li or Be or their compounds, to the extent of at least 5 ppm and not more than 5% by weight. Irradiation is effected by proton or neutron bombardment. (UK)

1976-01-01

170

DISPOSABLE WEAR ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a disposable wear article which comprises a relatively thin body-fluid absorber extending from the front and back waist regions to the crotch region, and, even when a detachable absorbent pad is disposed in the disposable wear article, the aesthetic appearance of the disposable wear article is not harmed and the user does not experience a stiff wearing sensation. At least one of the front and back end parts (12A, 12B) of a crotch main body (12) is attached to a non-skin facing surface of an elastic waist panel (11) by means of joining regions (55, 56) not including a central section in the transverse direction of the crotch main body (12). In addition, central space sections (67, 68) are formed between the elastic waist panel (11) and the crotch main body (12) in non-joining regions (63, 64) positioned in the central section of the crotch main body (12). The body fluid absorber (42) has a sheet shape formed by highly absorbent polymer particles being encapsulated with a liquid permeable sheet, and at least one of the front and back end edge sections (42a, 42b) of the body fluid absorber (42) is positioned in the central space sections (67, 68).

SASAYAMA KENICHI; ICHIKAWA MAKOTO; KATSURAGAWA KUNIHIKO

171

The 100 most cited articles in dentistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To identify the 100 most cited articles published in dental journals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was performed on the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science for the most cited articles in all the journals included in the Journal Citation Report (2010 edition) in the category of "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine". Each one of the 77 journals selected was analyzed using the Cited Reference Search tool of the ISI Web of Science database to identify the most cited articles up to June 2012. The following information was gathered from each article: names and number of authors, journal, year of publication, type of study, methodological design, and area of research. RESULTS: The number of citations of the 100 selected articles varied from 326 to 2050. All articles were published in 21 of the 77 journals in the category. The journals with the largest number of the cited articles were the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (20 articles), the Journal of Periodontology (18 articles), and the Journal of Dental Research (16 articles). There was a predominance of clinical research (66 %) over basic research (34 %). The most frequently named author was Socransky SS, with 9 of the top 100 articles, followed by Lindhe J with 7. The decades with most articles published of the 100 selected were 1980-1989 (26 articles) and 1990-1999 (25 articles). The most common type of article was the case series (22 %), followed by the narrative review/expert opinion (19 %). The most common area of study was periodontology (43 % of articles). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the top-cited articles in Dentistry. There is a predominance of clinical studies, particularly case series and narrative reviews/expert opinions, despite their low-evidence level. The focus of the articles has mainly been on periodontology and implantology, and the majority has been published in the highest impact factor dental journals. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The number of citations that an article receives does not necessarily reflect the quality of the research, but the present study gives some clues to the topics and authors contributing to major advances in Dentistry.

Feijoo JF; Limeres J; Fernández-Varela M; Ramos I; Diz P

2013-06-01

172

The 100 most cited articles in dentistry.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVES: To identify the 100 most cited articles published in dental journals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search was performed on the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science for the most cited articles in all the journals included in the Journal Citation Report (2010 edition) in the category of "Dentistry, Oral Surgery, and Medicine". Each one of the 77 journals selected was analyzed using the Cited Reference Search tool of the ISI Web of Science database to identify the most cited articles up to June 2012. The following information was gathered from each article: names and number of authors, journal, year of publication, type of study, methodological design, and area of research. RESULTS: The number of citations of the 100 selected articles varied from 326 to 2050. All articles were published in 21 of the 77 journals in the category. The journals with the largest number of the cited articles were the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (20 articles), the Journal of Periodontology (18 articles), and the Journal of Dental Research (16 articles). There was a predominance of clinical research (66 %) over basic research (34 %). The most frequently named author was Socransky SS, with 9 of the top 100 articles, followed by Lindhe J with 7. The decades with most articles published of the 100 selected were 1980-1989 (26 articles) and 1990-1999 (25 articles). The most common type of article was the case series (22 %), followed by the narrative review/expert opinion (19 %). The most common area of study was periodontology (43 % of articles). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of the top-cited articles in Dentistry. There is a predominance of clinical studies, particularly case series and narrative reviews/expert opinions, despite their low-evidence level. The focus of the articles has mainly been on periodontology and implantology, and the majority has been published in the highest impact factor dental journals. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The number of citations that an article receives does not necessarily reflect the quality of the research, but the present study gives some clues to the topics and authors contributing to major advances in Dentistry. PMID:23771182

Feijoo, Javier F; Limeres, Jacobo; Fernández-Varela, Marta; Ramos, Isabel; Diz, Pedro

2013-06-15

173

Highly absorbent substrate article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PCT No. PCT/GB84/00225 Sec. 371 Date Jan. 23, 1985 Sec. 102(e) Date Jan. 23, 1985 PCT Filed Jun. 25, 1984 PCT Pub. No. WO85/00111 PCT Pub. Date Jan. 17, 1985.A reusable highly absorbent article, for example a cloth or towel for mopping up household spillages, comprises a substrate carrying a pressure-sensitive polymeric material capable of absorbing, retaining, releasing and reabsorbing large volumes of water or electrolyte. The polymer is preferably the sulphonation product of a high-void-volume styrene polymer prepared by polymerization of a high-internal-phase emulsion.

HAQ ZIA; JOHNSON RICHARD S

174

SECRETION-TESTING ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention teaches pH indicator polymer matrices and methods of using same for identifying vaginal secretions. A secretion-monitoring articl e for the identification of secreted biological fluids is disclosed having a substrate for absorbing a biological fluid secreted from a person, and biocompatible pH indicator polymer matrices comprising at least one pH determining reagent that reacts with biological fluids that have low buffer capacity differently than with bodily fluids that have normal buffer capacit y.

NACHSHON NITSA G; BECHAR YAEL; KRITZMAN AMNON

175

Composite fuel article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composite fuel article is described, comprising: (a) a fuel element; (b) an outer covering layer of a solid phase igniter material on the fuel element; and (c) a spacing zone between the fuel element and the covering layer, the spacing zone being effective to promote generation of heat sufficient to sustain burning in the covering layer upon ignition of the covering layer, without immediate dissipation of the heat into the fuel element, followed by a transfer of heat, which is in excess of that required to sustain burning in the covering layer, from the covering layer to the fuel element.

Fay, J.E. III; Olszewski, J.

1989-03-07

176

THIN ABSORBENT ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is an absorbent article containing an absorbent body which is thin before absorption, and even after absorption does not inhibit super absorbent polymer (SAP) swelling and wherein deformation such as twisting is unlikely to occur. The disclosed absorbent article comprises a liquid-permeable front surface sheet, a liquid impermeable rear surface sheet, and an absorbent body which is located between the two sheets. The absorbent body is formed from a super absorbent polymer containing layer and a non-woven fabric layer, with the non-woven fabric layer having regions wherein the between-fibre void ratio is relatively large and regions wherein the between-fibre void ratio is relatively small. The tip sections of the fibres forming the non-woven fabric layer are greater in number in the regions wherein the between-fibre void ratio is relatively large than the regions wherein the between-fibre void ratio is relatively small, and the non-woven fabric layer has expansibility

NAKASHITA MASASHI; MITSUNO SATOSHI

177

Slime Mold Development: Article  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a video composed of a sequence of time lapse films created by John Tyler Bonner in the 1940s to show the life cycle of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. As only the second person to study slime molds, Bonner frequently encountered audiences who had never heard of, let alone seen, the unusual organism. He therefore decided to create a film to present at seminars in order to introduce his object of study. Bonner created the video for his senior thesis at Harvard University with the help of photographer Frank Smith. Bonner began to work at Princeton University in 1947, thus the mention of that university on the title screen of the film. It was digitized and narrated by developmental biologist Rachel Fink of Mount Holyoke College. Includes (approximate starting times given): Amoebae [00:02]; Aggregation [00:27]; Migrating Pseudoplasmodia [02:16]; Culmination [03:28]; Trisected Pseudoplasmodium [04:17].

Mary E. Sunderland (ASU Embryo Project Encyclopedia)

2011-11-28

178

CONFORMABLE DEPILATORY ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A depilatory article comprising a water impermeable substrate and a depilatory composition disposed on the water impermeable substrate, forming a coated region of the water impermeable substrate, wherein the water impermeable substrate has a thickness of from 80 [mu]m to 12 [mu]m, preferably 50 [mu]m to 15 [mu]m, more preferably 40 [mu]m to 16 [mu]m, even more preferably 30 [mu]m to 17 [mu]m, and wherein said water impermeable substrate comprises a material selected from polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyvinylchloride (PVC) polyamide (PA) polyurethane polychloropene polysulfone polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polyvinyl acetate (PVA) polystyrene polyphenylene oxide (PPO) acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) natural rubber, latex, nylon, nitrile, silicone and thermo plastic elastomers (TPE) or mixtures thereof, preferably a polyolefin or mixtures thereof and more preferably a polyethylene or mixtures thereof.

SMITH PAUL JAMES; SAGEL PAUL ALBERT; PASSI RAJEEV KUMAR; MITRA SHEKHAR; BROYLES NORMAN SCOTT

179

Conformable Depilatory Article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A depilatory article comprising a water impermeable substrate and a depilatory composition disposed on the water impermeable substrate, forming a coated region of the water impermeable substrate, wherein the water impermeable substrate has a thickness of from 80 [mu]m to 12 [mu]m, preferably 50 [mu]m to 15 [mu]m, more preferably 40 [mu]m to 16 [mu]m, even more preferably 30 [mu]m to 17 [mu]m, and wherein said water impermeable substrate comprises a material selected from polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyvinylchloride (PVC) polyamide (PA) polyurethane polychloropene polysulfone polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polyvinyl acetate (PVA) polystyrene polyphenylene oxide (PPO) acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) natural rubber, latex, nylon, nitrile, silicone and thermo plastic elastomers (TPE) or mixtures thereof, preferably a polyolefin or mixtures thereof and more preferably a polyethylene or mixtures thereof.

SMITH PAUL JAMES; SAGEL PAUL ALBERT; PASSI RAJEEV KUMAR; MITRA SHEKHAR

180

Conformable depilatory article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A depilatory article comprising a water impermeable substrate and a depilatory composition disposed on the water impermeable substrate, forming a coated region of the water impermeable substrate, wherein the water impermeable substrate has a thickness of from 80 [mu]m to 12 [mu]m, preferably 50 [mu]m to 15 [mu]m, more preferably 40 [mu]m to 16 [mu]m, even more preferably 30 [mu]m to 17 [mu]m, and wherein said water impermeable substrate comprises a material selected from polyolefins, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyvinylchloride (PVC) polyamide (PA) polyurethane polychloropene polysulfone polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polyvinyl acetate (PVA) polystyrene polyphenylene oxide (PPO) acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVA) natural rubber, latex, nylon, nitrile, silicone and thermo plastic elastomers (TPE) or mixtures thereof, preferably a polyolefin or mixtures thereof and more preferably a polyethylene or mixtures thereof.

SMITH PAUL JAMES; PASSI RAJEEV KUMAR; SAGEL PAUL ALBERT; MITRA SHEKHAR; BROYLES NORMAN SCOTT

 
 
 
 
181

Manufactured fuel article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A manufactured fuel article is described, comprising: (a) an inner core of a primary fuel element; and (b) a combustible covering layer, the composition of the covering layer differing substantially from the composition of the primary fuel element and comprising (i) about 50% to about 90% by weight of a thermoplastic composition comprising wax and a polymer, the ratio of wax/-polymer being between about 0.7/1 and 3/1, and (ii) about 50% to about 10% by weight pulp fiber, the wax comprising about 20% to about 50% by weight of the overall composition of the covering layer, the covering layer and the primary fuel element being in interfacial contact about a majority of the area of facing surfaces thereof.

Fay, J.E. III; Gierke, C.J.

1989-03-07

182

Suitability of commonly used housekeeping genes in gene expression studies for space radiation research  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the effects of ionizing radiation exposure involves the use of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for measuring changes in gene expression. Several variables need to be controlled for gene expression analysis, such as different amounts of starting material between the samples, variations in enzymatic efficiencies of the reverse transcription step, and differences in RNA integrity. Normalization of the obtained data to an invariant endogenous control gene (reference gene) is the elementary step in relative quantification strategy. There is a strong correlation between the quality of the normalized data and the stability of the reference gene itself. This is especially relevant when the samples have been obtained after exposure to radiation qualities inducing different amounts and kinds of damage, leading to effects on cell cycle delays or even on cell cycle blocks. In order to determine suitable reference genes as internal controls in qRT-PCR assays after exposure to ionizing radiation, we studied the gene expression levels of nine commonly used reference genes which are constitutively expressed in A549 lung cancer cells. Expression levels obtained for ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, PBGD, 18S rRNA, G6PDH, HPRT, UBC, TFRC and SDHA were determined after exposure to 2 and 6 Gy X-radiation. Gene expression data for Growth arrest and damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45?) and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21CIP1) were selected to elucidate the influence of normalization by using appropriate and inappropriate internal control genes. According to these results, we strongly recommend the use of a panel of reference genes instead of only one.

Arenz, A.; Stojicic, N.; Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

183

Suitability of Commonly Used Housekeeping Genes in Gene Expression Studies for Space Radiation Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the effects of ionizing radiation exposure involves the use of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction qRT-PCR for measuring changes in gene expression Several variables needs to be controlled for gene expression analysis -- different amounts of starting material between the samples variations in enzymatic efficiencies of the reverse transcription step and differences in RNA integrity Normalization of the obtained data to an invariant endogenous control gene reference gene is the elementary step in relative quantification strategy There is a strong correlation between the quality of the normalized data and the stability of the reference gene itself This is especially relevant when the samples have been obtained after exposure to radiation qualities inducing different amounts and kinds of damage leading to a cell cycle delay or even to a cell cycle block In order to determine suitable reference genes as internal controls in qRT-PCR assays after exposure to ionizing radiation we studied the gene expression levels of commonly used reference genes in A549 lung cancer cells Expression levels obtained for human beta actin ACTB human beta-2-microglobulin B2M human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GAPDH human porphobilinogen deaminase PBGD human 18S ribosomal RNA 18S rRNA human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PDH human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase HPRT human ubiquitin C UBC human transferrin TFRC

Arenz, A.; Hellweg, C. E.; Bogner, S.; Lau, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

184

Polymer article of manufacture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is an object of this invention to provide an article and its use to enhance the production of hydrocarbons from geologial reservoirs, more particularly from fractured formations. It has been an additional object to devise a composition for providing controlled release of a reagent downhole, in a pipeline, in other oil-containing environments or fluids. It has been discovered that it is possible to provide for the introduction of an additive reagent into a liquid hydrocarbon by providing solid polymeric bodies each comprising a polymeric matrix containing a substantially water insoluble reagent such as a wax crystal modifier, demulsifier, scale inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor, biocide, ashless dispersant, antioxidant and mixtures thereof. These bodies are, in use, positioned at a location where it is desired to release the reagent into the substantially hydrocarbon fluid and, upon contact with fluid in this location, active reagent is released into the fluid. Thus in accordance with this invention there is provided a solid polymeric body comprising a polymer matrix containing a substantially water-insoluble reagent leachable into a substantially hydrocarbon liquid environment. The object of this invention has been realized in specific form by beads comprising a copolymeric matrix of methylmethacrylate and methacrylic acid containing the behenyl half ester of a C/sub 24/-C/sub 28/ alkenyl succinic anhydride polymer and having a diameter ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Such beads, when introduced downhole in a hydraulic fracturing operation, were found to inhibit paraffin wax deposition.

Newlove, J.C.; McDougall, L.A.

1987-12-15

185

DISPOSABLE ARTICLE OF WEAR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a disposable article of wear adapted to prevent migration of an indicator to an absorbent structure and to cause the indicator to undergo a rapid change in color when a bodily fluid is excreted. A disposable diaper (1) has an inner sheet (11), an outer sheet (12), and an absorbent structure (20) situated between the inner and outer sheets (11, 12). An indicator (15) is formed on a first outer sheet (13) on a face thereof opposing the absorbent structure (20). The indicator (15) contains a heat-melting polymer, a chemical indicator that exhibits a color reaction, and a plasticizing oil. The absorbent structure (20) has an absorbent core (21), and a liquid-diffusing cover sheet (22) covering the core (21). A hydrophilic bottom sheet (40) is arranged between the bottom face (21b) of the core (21) and the bottom face area (24) of the cover sheet (22). The lengthwise dimension (W1) in a lateral direction (X) of the bottom sheet (40) is greater than the lengthwise dimension (W2) in the lateral direction (X) of an area (15a) where the indicator (15) is formed, but smaller than the dimension (W3) of the core (21).

ICHIHARA KEIKO; YAGO TOSHIYA; OHASHI NAOTO; SUEKANE MAKOTO; ISHIKAWA HIROKI

186

Tracking Theory Building and Use Trends in Selected LIS Journals: More Research is Needed. A review of: Kim, Sung?Jin, and Dong Y. Jeong. “An Analysis of the Development and Use of Theory in Library and Information Science Research Articles.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006): 548?62.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ? The authors measure theory incidents occurring in four LIS journals between 1984?2003 in order to examine their number and quality and to analyze them by topic. A third objective, only identified later in the text of the study, was to compare theory development and use between Korean and international journals. Research questions asked include whether LIS has its own theoretical base as a discipline, and what characteristics the theoretical framework has.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – Journal issues selected from four LIS journals for the time span from 1984 ? 2003.Subjects – Two international journals, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST) and Library and Information Science Research (LISR) were selected based on their high ranking in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) impact factors. Two Korean journals, Journal of the Korean Society for Information Management (JKSIM) and Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science (JKSLIS) were selected.Methods ? After having determined a definition of theory, and identifying different levels of theory, the authors set up rules for the identification of theory incidents, which are defined as “events in which the author contributed to the development or the use of theory in his/her own paper” (550). Content analysis of 1661 research articles was performed to measure theory incidents according to working definitions. Interrater reliability was ensured by conducting independent coding for “subfield classification, identification of theory incidents, and quality measurement” (555),using a sample of 199 articles (random selection not specified), achieving 94?97% interrater reliability. Incidents, once identified, were evaluated for quality using Dubin’s “efficiency of law” criteria, involving measures of relatedness, directionality, co?variation, rate of change, and “profundity,” defined as the depth to which theory is incorporated into the research study.Main Results ? 21.79% (n=362) of the articles contained theory incidents that were analyzed and evaluated. Trend measurement indicated an overall increase, although a slight decrease was shown in the year range 1993?2003. International journals accounted for 61.33% of theory incidents, compared to 38.67% for the Korean journals. T?testing showed that differences in means between Korean and international journals were not statistically significant. Topical theory areas were ranked by frequency. The top five areas were shown to be nearly identical between Korean and international journals. ANOVA was performed with significant results in the difference between efficiency ratings. Conclusion – The authors find that the overall proportion of theory incidents including both theory development and use increased through the 20?year time span examined, and that LIS has established its own theoretical framework based upon the frequency of incidents.

Carol Perryman

2007-01-01

187

Applications of Machine Learning to Music Research: Empirical Investigations into the Phenomenon of Musical Expression  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter describes an application of machine learning techniques to the studyof a fundamental phenomenon in tonal music. Learning algorithms are described thatinduce general rules of expressive music performance from example of real performancesby musicians. Motivated by the insight that general knowledge about music plays anessential role in the way humans learn this task, we present two alternative approaches toknowledge-based learning. In both cases, the domain knowledge provided to the learneris based on established theories of tonal music. Experimental results show that bothapproaches lead to a significant improvement of the learning results, compared to purelyinductive learning.However, this project is more than basic machine learning research. Due to its thoroughgrounding in music theory, the project can also be viewed as a contribution to thescientific field of music research or musicology; it has produced results that have foundtheir way also into the literatur...

Gerhard Widmer

188

Disposable article with serviceable indicia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A disposable absorbent article to be worn about the lower torso of a wearer that facilitates an easy, intuitive change is provided. The disposable article includes a serviceable indicium that facilitates fitting of the disposable absorbent article to the wearer. The serviceable indicium aids in aligning the disposable absorbent article to the wearer and provides guidance on how to grasp the disposable absorbent article during fitting of the disposable absorbent article to the wearer.

MC CUSKER HENRY WILLIAM III; ROE DONALD; FUCHS CHRISTOFER; KLINE MARK JAMES; TAUSCH JENNIFER LYN

189

Quality of scientific articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the difficulties in judging the quality of scientific manuscripts and describes some common pitfalls that should be avoided when preparing a paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Peer review is an imperfect system, with less than optimal reliability and uncertain validity. However, as it is likely that it will remain as the principal process of screening papers for publication, authors should avoid some common mistakes when preparing a report based on empirical findings of human research. Among these are: excessively long abstracts, extensive use of abbreviations, failure to report results of parsimonious data analyses, and misinterpretation of statistical associations identified in observational studies as causal. Another common problem in many manuscripts is their excessive length, which makes them more difficult to be evaluated or read by the intended readers, if published. The evaluation of papers after their publication with a view towards their inclusion in a systematic review is also discussed. The limitations of the impact factor as a criterion to judge the quality of a paper are reviewed.

Szklo Moyses

2006-01-01

190

Introducing article-processing charges and inviting "detailed methods sections" articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This editorial introduces the use of article-processing charges at Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations and reviews that advantages of publishing in an Open Access journal. In addition, it introduces a new type of article the journal hopes to publish, detailed reports of study design or data analysis methods that have been used in health science research. The new type of article is intended to supplement the woefully constrained methods sections in standard research report articles, providing information that better fulfills the goals of scientific publishing.

Phillips Carl V

2005-01-01

191

Índice de Palabras de Contenido (IPC) y Distribución Porcentual de Legomena (DPL) en artículos de investigación en español Index of Content Words (ICW) and Percent Distribution of Legomena (PDL) in Research Articles in Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de una revisión de los índices clásicos en estadística léxica (Leyes de Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), se proponen dos índices lingüísticos que buscan aportar nuevos datos en la descripción de textos especializados. Se presenta un caso de la aplicación de estos índices a un corpus representativo y multidisciplinar de artículos de investigación en español, que se contrasta con otros siete corpus a modo de control. Si bien desde un punto de vista general los índices tienen un comportamiento estable en los distintos registros, de forma específica, los índices permiten distinguir registros de alta y de baja especialización y dan cuenta de la variación disciplinar de los corpus analizados.Based on a review of classic indices in lexical statistics (Laws of Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), two linguistic indices are proposed in order to contribute new data in the description of specialized texts. A case is presented in which these indices are applied to a representative, multidisciplinary corpus of research articles in Spanish that is contrasted with seven other corpora serving as a control group. Although, from a general point of view the proposed indices present stable behaviour in different registers, implemented specifically, the proposed indices allow the distinction between high and low specialized registers and reveal the disciplinary variation of the corpora analyzed.

Ken Matsuda; Scott Sadowsky; Omar Sabaj

2012-01-01

192

Índice de Palabras de Contenido (IPC) y Distribución Porcentual de Legomena (DPL) en artículos de investigación en español/ Index of Content Words (ICW) and Percent Distribution of Legomena (PDL) in Research Articles in Spanish  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión de los índices clásicos en estadística léxica (Leyes de Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), se proponen dos índices lingüísticos que buscan aportar nuevos datos en la descripción de textos especializados. Se presenta un caso de la aplicación de estos índices a un corpus representativo y multidisciplinar de artículos de investigación en español, que se contrasta con otros siete corpus a modo de control. Si bien desde un punto de vista general lo (more) s índices tienen un comportamiento estable en los distintos registros, de forma específica, los índices permiten distinguir registros de alta y de baja especialización y dan cuenta de la variación disciplinar de los corpus analizados. Abstract in english Based on a review of classic indices in lexical statistics (Laws of Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), two linguistic indices are proposed in order to contribute new data in the description of specialized texts. A case is presented in which these indices are applied to a representative, multidisciplinary corpus of research articles in Spanish that is contrasted with seven other corpora serving as a control group. Although, from a general point of view the proposed indices present s (more) table behaviour in different registers, implemented specifically, the proposed indices allow the distinction between high and low specialized registers and reveal the disciplinary variation of the corpora analyzed.

Matsuda, Ken; Sadowsky, Scott; Sabaj, Omar

2012-03-01

193

Research on Logistics Value Chain Analysis and Competitiveness Construction for Express Enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through analyzing the value of the activities in the process of express delivery, the model of logistics value chain analysis (LVCA) of express enterprises is constructed. Using the model, the express enterprises can identify the key activities from the whole...

Xingjian Zhou

194

Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A neutron absorbing article is described which comprises boron carbide particles and an irreversibly-cured phenol aldehyde condensation polymer cured to a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles. Such an article may be used in spent fuel storage racks. It can be manufactured by mixing together a curable phenolic resin with boron carbide particles, compacting the mixture to an article of desired shape, curing the resin at an elevated temperature, impregnating the cured article with curable phenolic resin in liquid state, and curing the article again

1981-01-01

195

METHOD FOR MARKING PHARMACEUTICAL ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for marking pharmaceutical articles is characterised by comprising marking the pharmaceutical articles with an ink that is invisible under normal light conditions and that is visible under specific light conditions, such as under UV light.

GREUTERT FABRICE; ANTHOINE BERNARD

196

Microwave sintering of multiple articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

197

Psychosocial explanations in research articles in Psychology: the Portuguese case and comments to Torres & Neves/ Explicações psicossociais em artigos de Psicologia: o caso português e comentários a Torres e Neves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apresenta-se aqui um comentário à intervenção de Torres e Neves sobre os temas de pesquisa em psicologia social no Brasil. Este comentário foca-se nas questões de análise intercultural referidas por aqueles autores e da sua importância no desenvolvimento da psicologia social. Procura também alimentar este debate com uma ilustração do que se passa no cenário português. Assim, apresenta-se uma análise aos conceitos, explicações ou análises psicossociais pre (more) sentes nos artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2012 em três revistas portuguesas (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). Os resultados mostram uma grande predominância dos "sistemas externos aos indivíduos", em especial daqueles que se relacionam com sistemas de categorizações e/ou de identidades sociais de grupos com diferente estatuto social (Doise, 2012). Estes dados são discutidos, de forma sintética, em articulação com a defesa da "tradução cultural" que Torres e Neves fazem. Abstract in english In the present paper we present a commentary on the talk given by Torres and Neves regarding the themes of research in Social Psychology in Brazil. This commentary focuses on issues of intercultural analyses referred to by these authors and their importance in the development of Social Psychology. We also aim to feed this debate with an illustration of the Portuguese scenario. Therefore, we present an analysis of the concepts, explanations and/or psychosocial analyses pre (more) sent in articles published between 2006 and 2012 in three Portuguese journals of Psychology (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). The results show a high predominance of the "systems external to individuals", especially the ones related to systems of categorization and/or social identities in groups of different social status (Doise, 2012). These results are discussed, synthetically, in articulation with the defence of "cultural translation" as proposed by Torres and Neves.

Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Forte, Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana

2013-03-01

198

Article retracted, but the message lives on.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The retraction of an original article aims to ensure that readers are alerted to the fact that the findings are not trustworthy. However, the present research suggests that individuals still believe in the findings of an article even though they were later told that the data were fabricated and that the article was retracted. Participants in a debriefing condition and a no-debriefing condition learned about the scientific finding of an empirical article, whereas participants in a control condition did not. Afterward, participants in the debriefing condition were told that the article had been retracted because of fabricated data. Results showed that participants in the debriefing condition were less likely to believe in the findings than participants in the no-debriefing condition but were more likely to believe in the findings than participants in the control condition, suggesting that individuals do adjust their beliefs in the perceived truth of a scientific finding after debriefing-but insufficiently. Mediational analyses revealed that the availability of generated causal arguments underlies belief perseverance. These results suggest that a retraction note of an empirical article in a scientific journal is not sufficient to ensure that readers of the original article no longer believe in the article's conclusions.

Greitemeyer T

2013-08-01

199

ClinData Express--a metadata driven clinical research data management system for secondary use of clinical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim to ease the secondary use of clinical data in clinical research, we introduce a metadata driven web-based clinical data management system named ClinData Express. ClinData Express is made up of two parts: 1) m-designer, a standalone software for metadata definition; 2) a web based data warehouse system for data management. With ClinData Express, what the researchers need to do is to define the metadata and data model in the m-designer. The web interface for data collection and specific database for data storage will be automatically generated. The standards used in the system and the data export modular make sure of the data reuse. The system has been tested on seven disease-data collection in Chinese and one form from dbGap. The flexibility of system makes its great potential usage in clinical research. The system is available at http://code.google.com/p/clindataexpress. PMID:23304327

Li, Zuofeng; Wen, Jingran; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunxiao; Li, Zuogao; Liu, Lei

2012-11-03

200

ClinData Express - A Metadata Driven Clinical Research Data Management System for Secondary Use of Clinical Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim to ease the secondary use of clinical data in clinical research, we introduce a metadata driven web-based clinical data management system named ClinData Express. ClinData Express is made up of two parts: 1) m-designer, a standalone software for metadata definition; 2) a web based data warehouse system for data management. With ClinData Express, what the researchers need to do is to define the metadata and data model in the m-designer. The web interface for data collection and specific database for data storage will be automatically generated. The standards used in the system and the data export modular make sure of the data reuse. The system has been tested on seven disease-data collection in Chinese and one form from dbGap. The flexibility of system makes its great potential usage in clinical research. The system is available at http://code.google.com/p/clindataexpress.

Li, Zuofeng; Wen, Jingran; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunxiao; Li, Zuogao; Liu, Lei

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Surface treatment of ceramic articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article.

Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); Wei, Bo (Daly City, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Bhatia, C. Singh (Morgan Hill, CA)

1998-01-01

202

Research on Logistics Value Chain Analysis and Competitiveness Construction for Express Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through analyzing the value of the activities in the process of express delivery, the model of logistics value chain analysis (LVCA) of express enterprises is constructed. Using the model, the express enterprises can identify the key activities from the whole process of express delivery from senders to receivers, and those key activities constitute the logistics competitiveness of express enterprises. Then a model of logistics competitiveness is established, which includes four aspects: strategic location, network optimization, value-added services and performance measures. Those four aspects form the core logistics competitiveness for express enterprises.

Xingjian Zhou

2013-01-01

203

Dielectric constant of refractory articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes the results of measurement of the dielectric constant obtained during nondestructive quality control of refractory articles. The experimental values of the real dielectric constant of refractory articles with different apparent densities are shown. On the basis of the measurement of the dielectric constant it is possible to obtain information on the material composition and structure of the articles, on-line and without destruction. The information can be used to monitor the quality of the product or for instrumental (objective) grading of articles according to their properties.

Sloushch, V.G.

1986-01-01

204

"Cool Posing" on Campus: A Qualitative Study of Masculinities and Gender Expression among Black Men at a Private Research Institution  

Science.gov (United States)

Using theories and concepts relating to the social construction of Black masculinity and male gender role conflict the authors explored contextualized meanings of masculinities and corresponding behavioral expressions among 22 Black men enrolled at a private research university. The concepts of toughness, aggressiveness, material wealth.…

Harris, Frank, III; Palmer, Robert T.; Struve, Laura E.

2011-01-01

205

Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008): 150-4.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS) publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150)) and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152) clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153) but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152) (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences), “searching” (132 occurrences), and “web sites” (115 occurrences)).

Carol Perryman

2009-01-01

206

How to write an article: Formal aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientific research and the publication of the results of the studies go hand in hand. Exquisite research methods can only be adequately reflected in formal publication with the optimum structure. To ensure the success of this process, it is necessary to follow orderly steps, including selecting the journal in which to publish and following the instructions to authors strictly as well as the guidelines elaborated by diverse societies of editors and other institutions. It is also necessary to structure the contents of the article in a logical and attractive way and to use an accurate, clear, and concise style of language. Although not all the authors are directly involved in the actual writing, elaborating a scientific article is a collective undertaking that does not finish until the article is published. This article provides practical advice about formal and not-so-formal details to take into account when writing a scientific article as well as references that will help readers find more information in greater detail.

Corral de la Calle MA; Encinas de la Iglesia J

2013-03-01

207

Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)

1991-12-30

208

Bag for storing washing articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a washing article storing bag which comprises a bag body, a dehumidifying and deodorizing functional body which is communicated with airflows in the space of the bag and/or a material with a mildewproof and bacteriostatic function is arranged in the bag or the bag body, and the dehumidifying and deodorizing functional body is a sheet material with a dehumidifying and deodorizing function or a granular, fiber or sheet material which has a dehumidifying and deodorizing function and is packed by ventilating materials. The utility model can carry out bacteriostasis, dehumidification, deodorization and off-flavor resistance for air and articles in the bag, solves the problem that damp washing articles are easy to stank and generate bacteria when being stored in the bag, and the bag is convenient for travelers to use, is beneficial for ensuring the health of the travelers, and can also be used for storing other articles, such as a swimsuit, and the like.

ZHENGYU WANG

209

Colored antimicrobial vulcanized rubber articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certain non-silicone vulcanized rubber articles made from at least a majority by weight of ethylene-propylene-diene modified (terpolymer) rubber (such as, without limitation, EPDM and/or NBR) that include silver-based compounds to provide highly desirable long-term antimicrobial characteristics within the cured rubber articles, at least a portion of which exhibits a color other than black, are provided. Such articles are in either solid or blown (foam or sponge) state (or combinations of both in multilayered forms, either all colored or individual layers colored) that can be utilized in a variety of different applications. As silver-based compounds are deleteriously affected by utilization of standard curing agents and curing accelerators, such as sulfur-based compounds and/or systems, the ability to provide such an effective antimicrobial vulcanized rubber article is rather difficult. However, this invention encompasses the presence of different non-sulfur-based curing systems and agents, such as peroxides, as one example, that permit vulcanization and do not irreversibly bind silver ions thereto, thereby resulting in long-term antimicrobial performance of the ultimate rubber article itself. The rubber articles must also comprise fillers and may also include plasticizers to provide desired characteristics of dimensional stability, stiffness, flexural modulus, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, elongation, and the like, for the ultimate rubber article, while simultaneously and surprisingly both enhancing the control of antimicrobial efficacy of the rubber article and not deleteriously binding to the available silver to permit coloring of the target rubber as well.

PATEL BHAWAN; MORRIS DAVID L; HAAS GEOFFREY; BURKE WILLIAM O

210

Tandem Recombineering by SLIC Cloning and Cre-LoxP Fusion to Generate Multigene Expression Constructs for Protein Complex Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A robust protocol to generate recombinant DNA containing multigene expression cassettes by using sequence and ligation independent cloning (SLIC) followed by multiplasmid Cre-LoxP recombination in tandem for multiprotein complex research is described. The protocol includes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the desired genes, seamless insertion into the target vector via SLIC, and Cre-LoxP recombination of specific donor and acceptor plasmid molecules, optionally in a robotic setup. This procedure, called tandem recombineering, has been implemented for multiprotein expression in E. coli and mammalian cells, and also for insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus.

Haffke M; Viola C; Nie Y; Berger I

2013-01-01

211

Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010). A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3), 221-228.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1) the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2) strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3) use of personalized information services; 4) determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5) personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007) in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC), which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing done)was sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity) were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225).The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226). Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available). Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to

Christina E. Carter

2010-01-01

212

Expressions of Excellence and the Assessment of Applied and Practice-Based Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Critics of education research in the recent years have pointed the finger at what they saw as its low quality, impact, and "value for money." In the context of the Research Assessment Exercise, particular concerns have been raised about applied and practice-based educational research and how best to assess its quality. This contribution refines…

Oancea, Alis; Furlong, John

2007-01-01

213

Article Review: Advanced Change Theory Revisited: An Article Critique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of life in 21st century society requires new models for leadingand managing change. With that in mind, this paper revisits the model for AdvancedChange Theory (ACT) as presented by Quinn, Spreitzer, and Brown in their article,“Changing Others Through Changing Ourselves: The Transformation of HumanSystems” (2000). The authors present ACT as a potential model for facilitating change incomplex organizations. This paper presents a critique of the article and summarizesopportunities for further exploring the model in the light of current trends indevelopmental and integral theory.

R. Scott Pochron

2008-01-01

214

Research strategy and programs about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (by right of the article L542 of the environment law and belonging to the December 30, 1991 law)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document has been prepared by the French public organizations on charge of the researches about the management of radioactive wastes in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991. It was presented at the national commission of evaluation on March 6, 2002. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1 - the methodology, structuration and implementation of researches: main goals; products of the back-end of the fuel cycle and evaluation of fluxes; technical structuration of programs; researches consistency, complementarity and priority; criteria of appreciation of researches relevance; 2 - the main results after 10 years of researches in the framework of the 1991 law: abatement of wastes noxiousness; wastes conditioning; long-term storage; studies on geological disposal; 3 - the main steps towards 2006: separation and transmutation; underground disposal; conditioning and long-term behaviour; 4 - presentation and analysis of research programs: separation-transmutation; feasibility of a deep geologic disposal (clay, granite); conditioning and storage (containers, storage and long-term behaviour); 5 - coordination: authorities, share of data, research programs; 6 - international collaborations; appendixes. (J.S.)

215

Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A neutron absorbing article, preferably in long, thin, flat form , suitable for but not necessarily limited to use in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel at locations between volumes of such stored fuel, to absorb neutrons from said spent fuel and prevent uncontrolled nuclear reaction of the spent fuel material, is composed of finely divided boron carbide particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer, forming a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles, in such proportions that at least 6% of b10 from the boron carbide content is present therein. The described articles withstand thermal cycling from repeated spent fuel insertions and removals, withstand radiation from said spent nuclear fuel over long periods of time without losing desirable neutron absorbing and physical properties, are sufficiently chemically inert to water so as to retain neutron absorbing properties if brought into contact with it, are not galvanically corrodible and are sufficiently flexible so as to withstand operational basis earthquake and safe shutdown earthquake seismic events, without loss of neutron absorbing capability and other desirable properties, when installed in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel. The disclosure also relates to a plurality of such neutron absorbing articles in a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel and to a method for the manufacture of the articles

1980-01-01

216

Article box for bacteriological monitoring  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to medical appliance, in particular to an article box for bacteriological monitoring, which comprises a rectangular box body and a rectangular box cover and is characterized in that the box cover is connected with the box body via hinges, a handle is arranged on the box cover, a locking slot and a locking latch are arranged at the corresponding parts of the box cover and the box body, a steel plate in the shape of an inverted L is fixed along the inner side of the box body in the lengthwise direction, a plurality of round holes are formed on the horizontal plane of the steel plate, the width of the horizontal plane of the steel plate is smaller than that of the box body, the height of the vertical plane of the steel plate is smaller than that of the box body, and the remaining space inside the box body is divided by partition plates into a lattice structure. Due to the technical scheme adopted by the utility model, the article box is capable of conveniently carrying a sampling article during the bacteriological monitoring conducted by a department, and protecting the sampling article from contamination and overflow and the article box made of stainless steel is convenient for sterilization treatment before and after use, thereby ensuring the accuracy of sampling results.

ZHAO JUN

217

Retrieval of articles in personal computer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although many useful articles appear in the journals published in Korea, they are not always cited by researchers mainly due to absence of efficient searching system. The authors made a program with 6 predefined filtering forms to detect published articles rapidly and accurately. The programs was coded using database management system CA-Clipper Version 5.2 (Computer Associates International, Inc.) through preliminary work for 1 year. We used 486 DX II (8 Mbyte RAM, VGA, 200 Mbyte Hard Disk). Ink-jet Printer (Hewlett Packard Company), and MS-DOS Version 5.0 (Microsoft Co). We inputted total of 1986 articles published in the Journal of Korea Radiological Society from 1981 to 1993. The searching time was 10 to 15 seconds for each use. We had very flexible user interfaces and simplified searching methods, but more complicated filtering could also be performed. Although the previous version have had some bugs, this upgrade version resolved the problems and fitted in searching articles. The program would be valuable for radiologist in searching articles published not only in the Journal of the Korean Radiological Society, but also in the Journal of the Korean Society of Medicine Ultrasound and the Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

Choi, Byung Gil; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Sung Hoon; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Cathoric University Medicine College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1994-05-15

218

Research progress in allele-specific expression and its regulatory mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the majority of genes are expressed equally from both alleles, some genes are differentially expressed. Organisms possess characteristics to preferentially express a particular allele under regulatory factors, which is termed allele-specific expression (ASE). It is one of the important genetic factors that lead to phenotypic variation and can be used to identify the variance of gene regulation factors. ASE indicates mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs function. Here, we review a broad survey of progress in ASE studies, and what this simple yet very effective approach can offer in functional genomics, and possible implications toward our better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. PMID:23609142

Gaur, Uma; Li, Kui; Mei, Shuqi; Liu, Guisheng

2013-04-23

219

The effect of public deposit of scientific articles on readership.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A longitudinal cohort analysis of 3,499 articles published in 12 physiology journals reveals a 14% reduction in full text article downloads when they are made publicly available from the PubMed Central archive. The loss of article readership from the journal website may weaken the ability of the publisher to build communities of interest around the research article, impede the communication of news and events with society members and reduce the perceived value of the journal to institutional subscribers.

Davis PM

2012-10-01

220

La difusión de las investigaciones y el formato IMRYD: Una pesquisa a propósito de la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos The dissemination of research and the IMRYD format: a screennig apropos of the critical reading of the scientific articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudia la importancia del formato IMRYD -Introducción, Métodos, Resultados y Discusión- para la organización del artículo científico entre los investigadores y profesores de mercadeo y organización de empresas. Con vistas a identificar qué aspectos consideran más importantes en esta estructura, se interrogó a 143 catedráticos de las áreas referidas. Una vez informatizados los datos recogidos, se aplicó el modelo de Rasch para determinar los aspectos considerados como los más importantes por el grupo de expertos consultados. Los especialistas consultados señalaron un total de 20 aspectos como los más relevantes para evaluar la calidad de un artículo científico. Finalmente, a partir de lo indicado por los expertos consultados, se conformó una guía para la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos en las áreas del mercadeo y la organización empresarial.The importance of the format IMRYD -Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion- for the organization of the scientific article among the investigators and professors of marketing and businesses organization is studied. 143 professors of the referred areas were interviewed in order to know which are the aspects considered by them as the most important in this structure. Once the collected data were computerized, Rasch's model was applied to determine the aspects chosen as the most significant by the group of experts consulted. These specialists indicated a total of 20 aspects as the most relevant to evaluate the quality of a scientific article. Finally, from the aspects mentioned by the experts consulted, a guide for the critical reading of the scientific articles in the areas of marketing and business organization was made.

Julio García del Junco; Mario Castellanos Verdugo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

La difusión de las investigaciones y el formato IMRYD: Una pesquisa a propósito de la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos/ The dissemination of research and the IMRYD format: a screennig apropos of the critical reading of the scientific articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudia la importancia del formato IMRYD -Introducción, Métodos, Resultados y Discusión- para la organización del artículo científico entre los investigadores y profesores de mercadeo y organización de empresas. Con vistas a identificar qué aspectos consideran más importantes en esta estructura, se interrogó a 143 catedráticos de las áreas referidas. Una vez informatizados los datos recogidos, se aplicó el modelo de Rasch para determinar los aspectos consi (more) derados como los más importantes por el grupo de expertos consultados. Los especialistas consultados señalaron un total de 20 aspectos como los más relevantes para evaluar la calidad de un artículo científico. Finalmente, a partir de lo indicado por los expertos consultados, se conformó una guía para la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos en las áreas del mercadeo y la organización empresarial. Abstract in english The importance of the format IMRYD -Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion- for the organization of the scientific article among the investigators and professors of marketing and businesses organization is studied. 143 professors of the referred areas were interviewed in order to know which are the aspects considered by them as the most important in this structure. Once the collected data were computerized, Rasch's model was applied to determine the aspects chosen (more) as the most significant by the group of experts consulted. These specialists indicated a total of 20 aspects as the most relevant to evaluate the quality of a scientific article. Finally, from the aspects mentioned by the experts consulted, a guide for the critical reading of the scientific articles in the areas of marketing and business organization was made.

García del Junco, Julio; Castellanos Verdugo, Mario

2007-01-01

222

Radiation cured silicone rubber articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed.

1984-01-01

223

Radiation cured silicone rubber articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed.

DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

1984-12-25

224

Education in the South and Central Pacific: Comparative and General Studies, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Books, Government Documents, Research Reports, Theses and Dissertations, Chapters of Essays, and Journal Articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Thousands of social scientists and educators have visited the islands of the South and Central Pacific, studied or taught the people, and returned to their own Western nations where many of them have written about their experiences and observations. Much of the research was never sent to the region's own educational centers and libraries. This…

Sperry, Robert

225

Telegraph: World War II Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The seventieth anniversary of the beginning of World War II is being commemorated across the world this year, and a number of media organizations are drawing on their own historic archives to offer a bit of perspective on that moment in world history. The Telegraph is one such organization, and they have created this fine collection of essays, video clips, photo galleries, and original articles from the fall of 1939. In the "As It Happened" area, visitors can view the original articles from the Telegraph and offer their own comments on these events. On the right-hand side of the page, a video player offers clips from newsreels of the day which document subjects like air raids and the movement of important cultural items away from potential bombing sites. The homepage also contains a "WW2 In Focus" area which features commentaries from former soldiers, evacuees, and reporters revisiting key sites around Europe for a bit of perspective on these events.

226

Non-linear optical article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non-linear optical article is constituted of a derivative of benzalacetophenone represented by the following general formula (I) of: wherein A and B each represent the same or different atom or group and stand for a hydrogen atom, an alkoxy group having 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, an amino group or a dialkylamino group having 1 to 2 carbon atoms.

MIYATA SEIZO; WATANABE TOSHIYUKI; GOTO YOSHITAKA; NAKAYAMA MASAHARU

227

Articles about MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... low health literacy: findings from the Colonias project. Journal of Medical Internet Research [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Mar ... information retrieval in a quality-controlled gateway. International Journal of Medical Informatics [Internet]. 2005 Mar [cited 2005 Mar 1]; ...

228

Research Report EMP CRI A/307/ Using Algebraic Transformations to Optimize Expression Evaluation in Scientific Codes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Algebraic properties such as associativity or distributivity allow the manipulation of a set ofmathematically equivalent expressions. However, the cost of evaluating such expressions on acomputer is not constant within this domain. We suggest the use of algebraic transformationsto improve the performances of computationally intensive applications on modern architecturecomputers. We claim that taking into account instruction level parallelism and new capabilitiesof processors when applying these transformations leads to large run-time improvements. Dueto a combinatorial explosion, associative-commutative pattern-matching techniques cannot systematicallybe used in that context. Thus, we introduce two performance enhancing algorithmsproviding factorization and multiply-add extraction heuristic and choice criteria. This paper describesour approach and a first implementation. Experiments on real codes, including a SPECFP95 excerpt, are very promising as we automatically obtain the...

Julien Zory; Fabien Coelho

229

[Expression and application research of ochratoxin A mimotope by filamentous phage pVIII display system].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Traditional ochratoxin A(OTA) competitive antigen are high toxicity, high price and difficult preparation. Non-toxic and easy prepared OTA competitive antigen substitutes were expressed by recombinant filamentous phage which have OTA mimotope displayed on its p VI surface. METHODS: Recombinant phagemid pC89-COTA which contain OTA mimotope nucleotide sequence was constructed. Moreover, to increase the binding rate of OTA mimotope with antibody, Enterokinase cleavage sits were led into 5' terminal of OTA mimotope nucleotide sequence. The pC89-COTA was transformed into E. coli XL1-blue. The E. coli XL1-blue were infected by wild KM13 phage and recombinant phage with OTA mimotope displayed generated. RESULTS: OTA mimotope phage was successful expressed and OTA mimotope phage which digested by Enterokinase had significantly higher binding rate with antibody than phage which not digested by Enterokinase. Non-toxic OTA competitive ELISA was established by using this digested OTA mimotope phage, the detecting limitation was 100 microg/ml, the linear range of the inhibition curves was between 250 pg/ml and 1000 pg/ml. Spiked recoveries of the farina tritici blank samples, the recovery rate of OTA were 99.8% 112.3% and coefficients of variation were 8.19% 11.64%, then 16 commercially available samples were tested and the positive rate was 31.25%. CONCLUSION: OTA mimotope phage were successfully expressed and non-toxic OTA competitive ELISA was established.

Chen X; Xu L; Liu R; Qiu X; Zhu L

2012-09-01

230

Method for manufacturing superconducting article  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is provided for manufacturing a superconducting article consisting of a superconducting film formed upon the surface of a substrate. According to the invention, a first layer is formed comprising a mixture of LnBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (compound 1) and Ln{sub 2}BaCuO{sub x} (compound 2) on the surface of a substrate, Ln being a rare earth element other than yttrium. The content ratio of compound 2 is within 5-80% of the total amount of compounds 1 and 2. A second layer is then formed on the surface of the first layer. The second layer comprises a mixture of at least CuO and BaCuO{sub 2} and has a melting point within the 800-1,000{degree}C range. The mixture in the second layer is melted and kept in the molten state for 1 minute to 4 hours in an oxygen-containing atmosphere in order to cause the resultant melt to diffusion-react with compound 2 in the first layer, thereby converting the first and second layers into a film of a superconducting substance comprising compound 1. The film thus produced is cooled to room temperature. The process of the invention prevents the occurrence of cracks in the film of the superconducting substance, and allows manufacture of a superconducting article having excellent superconducting properties. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 5 figs.

Tachikawa, Kyoji; Shinbo, Yukio; Ono, Moriaki; Kosuge, Shigeyoshi; Kabasawa, Makoto.

1990-09-15

231

Article Impact Means Journal Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These days there is a lot of misunderstanding of scientometrics and we often see a confusion of the research with its indicators. Science ministries and university administrators try to push their country's or institution's "research impact" by telling researchers to increase numeric figures that were invented as proxies for later assessment. In obvious juxtaposition to common sense this even leads to direct orders to postdocs "to only publish in high impact journals" and not to engage in other important activities scientists of well-rounded stature will routinely perform, like publication in medium impact journals of their immediate field, in startup journals, in conference proceedings, of book chapters, as grey literature or intended for dissemination to the general public, reviewing, editing, writing blogs etc.

Ulf-Dietrich Reips; Uwe Matzat

2013-01-01

232

William H. Calvin Books and Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The full-text of several books authored by University of Washington professor William H. Calvin are available online. His newest book A Brain for All Seasons (A Scientific American book of the month) is about "what sudden climate flips did to human evolution over the last 2.5 million years." Most of his other books also focus on the subjects of the brain and human evolution. The hyperlinked table of contents makes browsing these texts more manageable. This Web page also includes other information about Calvin, including research, lectures, and shorter articles.

2002-01-01

233

Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes. PMID:23607746

Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

2013-05-17

234

Quantitative analyses of CD133 expression facilitate researches on tumor stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CD133 is regarded as a marker of tumor initiating cells in many tumors, including colorectal cancer. O'Brien and Ricci et al. have proved that in primary colorectal tumors there are colorectal tumor stem cells (initiating cells) which are marked by CD133 antigen. Using a genetic knockin lacZ reporter mouse model, Shmelkov et al. challenged this increasingly influential viewpoint and drew two important conclusions that challenge former opinions. First, CD133 is widely distributed throughout the full range of tumor epithelial cells in the colon as opposed to being limited to a few cells. Second, CD133 negative cells of colon tumors are also tumorigenic, and are more inclined to metastasize. Based on these two opinions, we hypothesize that the expression of CD133 is different among tumor cells, and that quantitative but not qualitative analyses of CD133 abundance are necessary to determine the relationship between CD133 expression and tumor stem cell characteristics. To verify this hypothesis, colorectal cancer cell line SW620 was cultured and sorted into CD133(Hi), CD133(Mid) and CD133(Low) subgroups using magnetic microbeads to compare their xenograft biological characteristics. The results showed that the CD133(Hi) subgroup of SW620 is more close to the tumor initiating cells in terms of biological characteristics than CD133(Mid) and CD133(low) subgroups, but the CD133(low) subgroup still maintains the ability of tumorigenicity. It supported that tumor initiating cells are more correlated to the abundance of CD133.

Liao Y; Hu X; Huang X; He C

2010-01-01

235

Un Modelo para la Homogeneización de las Clases Textuales de la Biblioteca Electrónica Scielo-Chile: la Variabilidad del Artículo de Investigación en Diversas Disciplinas A Model for the Homogenization of Textual Classes in the Scientific Library Scielo-Chile: The Variability of Research Articles in Different Disciplines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un modelo formal y se aplican diversos índices cienciométricos que permiten analizar la variación de las clases textuales contenidas en los artículos de investigación publicados en las revistas de la biblioteca electrónica Scielo-Chile (http://www.scielo.cl). Para ello, se generó una matriz de 33 criterios formales para clasificar la variada gama de clases textuales que aparecen en las revistas de la biblioteca. Los resultados muestran que existen al menos tres tipos de artículos de investigación, y que su ocurrencia depende de la revista y de la disciplina a la que pertenece: de investigación científica, de investigación o estudio y de investigación teórica. Además, se establece que en algunas revistas la denominación de las clases textuales, por parte de los autores y editores no concuerda con la denominación derivada de la aplicación de los criterios formales. Por último, se estima que los artículos de investigación, en promedio, representan un 70% de todos los registros de Scielo-Chile.A formal model is presented and various science measurement indexes are applied for determining the variation in the textual classes included in research articles published in journals available in the electronic library Scielo-Chile (http://www.scielo.cl). To this end, a matrix of 33 formal criteria was generated to categorize the wide spectrum of textual classes that appear in the scientific journals of the library. The results show that there exist at least three types of research articles and that the presence of each type depends on the scientific journal and the discipline to which it belongs: scientific research, research and study, and theoretical research. In addition to that, it is established that, in some scientific journals, the designation of textual classes by authors and editors does not agree with the designation derived from the application of the formal categorization. Finally, it is estimated that research articles represent 70% of all registered material included in Scielo-Chile.

Omar Sabaj; Ken I Matsuda; Miguel A Fuentes

2010-01-01

236

EXOTHERMAL COMPOSITION, EXOTHERMAL ARTICLE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING EXOTHERMAL ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An exothermal composition, which comprises an iron powder, a carbon component,a reaction accelerating agent, a hydrogen generation inhibiting agent and water,characterized in that the iron powder contains 20 to 100 wt % of an active iron powder,at least a part of the surface of the active iron powder is coated with an oxidizediron film, the oxidized iron film has a thickness of 3 nm or more, and the activeiron powder is at least either of an active iron powder having a region of an ironcomponent containing no oxygen in at least one region selected from a centralregion of the active iron powder and a region under the oxidized iron film and anactive iron powder having a wustite content of 2 to 50 wt%, as determined by theratio of its X-ray peak intensity to that of iron; an exothermal article comprisingthe exothermal composition; and methods for producing them. The above exothermalcomposition exhibits excellent characteristics in the start and initial riseof heat generation, and can retain a heat generation for a long period of time.

DODO Toshihiro

237

Auxiliary device of sentiment articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an auxiliary device of a sentiment articles, which comprises a main body, a rotating disc and a foot rest wherein an annular base in arranged on the main body, a through hole is arranged on the annular base and a plurality of holes are arranged on the circumference with a specific radius, ball bearings are positioned in the holes the rotating disc adopts an annular disc with a track, a through hole bearing an inclined plane is arranged on the rotating disc, and the track is correspondingly superimposed on the ball bearings of the annular base and the foot rest is arranged at four corners at the bottom of the main body. In the sexual behavior between the male and the female, the effects of the gyration and the torsion are generated, to promote the sentiment in the process of the sexual behavior.

HANGZHENG CHEN

238

Review article: perioperative checklist methodologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Checklists are increasingly being used by surgical teams in the perioperative period to improve clinical care and increase patient safety. In this article, we review some of the mechanisms by which checklists work and evaluate evidence supporting their use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There is a growing body of evidence showing the importance of team-based checklists in clinical care. In multiple complex clinical environments, from the operating room to the intensive care unit, checklists can help ensure adherence to known standards of care and improve communication amongst team members. In addition, the efficacy of checklists is being shown in both developed and developing settings. CONCLUSION: Checklists can aid clinicians involved in complex processes and multidisciplinary team interactions to improve the quality and safety of care by prompting dialogue and exchange of information.

Weiser TG; Berry WR

2013-02-01

239

Estrategias académicas de inserción científica: una propuesta metodológica para el estudio de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en los artículos de investigación/ Academic Strategies for Scientific Insertion: A Methodological Proposal to Study Epistemic Claims Found in Research Articles/ Stratégies Universitaires d'Insertion Scientifique: Une Proposition Méthodologique pour l'étude des Revendications épistémiques dans les Articles de Recherche/ Estratégias acadêmicas de inserção científica: uma proposta metodológica para o estudio das reivindicações epistêmicas nos artígos de pesquisas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As reivindicações epistêmicas são atos graças aos que os responsáveis encaminham socialmente o saber ora ativado. No mundo acadêmico, as reivindicações epistêmicas associam-se com conteúdos específicos que um autor desfralda após escrever um artigo de investigação. Se bem existem métodos diversos para analisar a construção coletiva do conhecimento, não existem propostas específicas que permitam uma descrição do modo como essas reivindicações são s (more) ocialmente inseridas numa comunidade científica. é nesse âmbito que este artigo apresenta um método interdisciplinar para estudar a forma em que os autores de artigos científicos incluem, utilizando citações, as suas reivindicações epistêmicas na comunidade científica. Apresentaremos uma tipologia das reivindicações epistêmicas, onde diferenciamos em função do tipo de conteúdo que as mesmas promovem as reivindicações teóricas, metodológicas e performativas. Os resultados mostram que o tipo de reivindicação epistêmica associa-se à estratégia de citação. O método que oferecemos contribui ao estudo da construção coletiva do conhecimento, já que permite diferenciar as estratégias acadêmicas que os autores ativam e o tipo de conhecimento reivindicado. Abstract in spanish Las reivindicaciones epistémicas son actos a través de los cuales los actores sitúan socialmente el saber que movilizan. En el mundo académico, las reivindicaciones epistémicas se asocian a los contenidos específicos que un autor despliega al escribir un artículo de investigación. Si bien existen métodos diversos para analizar la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, no existen propuestas específicas que permitan describir el modo en que estas reivindicacion (more) es se insertan socialmente en una comunidad científica. En este contexto, este artículo presenta un método interdisciplinario para estudiar la manera en que los autores de artículos científicos inscriben, a través del uso de las citaciones, sus reivindicaciones epistémicas en una comunidad científica. Proponemos una tipología de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en la que distinguimos, en función del tipo de contenido que éstas promueven, las reivindicaciones teóricas, metodológicas y performativas. Los resultados muestran que el tipo de reivindicación epistémica está asociado a la estrategia de citación. El método que proponemos contribuye al estudio de la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, pues permite diferenciar las estrategias académicas que los autores movilizan y el tipo de conocimiento reivindicado. Abstract in english Epistemic claims are actions in which the actors apply their knowledge socially. In the academic world, epistemic claims are associated with specific contents that an author makes when writing a research article. While there are diverse methods for analyzing the collective construction of knowledge, there are no specific proposals to describe how these claims are socially inserted in the scientific community. In this context, the article presents an interdisciplinary meth (more) od for studying how authors of scientific articles use their epistemic claims in order to insert themselves into a scientific community. We propose a typology of epistemic claims in which, based on the type of content they promote, we distinguish the theoretical and performance claims. The results show that the type of epistemic claim is associated with the citation strategy. The method that we propose contributes to the study of collective construction of knowledge, in that it makes it possible to differentiate the academic strategies used by authors and the type of knowledge claimed.

Pina-Stranger, Álvaro; Sabaj Meruane, Omar; Toro Tengrove, Paulina; Matsuda Oteíza, Ken

2013-04-01

240

Satellite power systems (SPS). LSST systems and integration task for SPS flight test article. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research activity emphasizes the systems definition and resulting structural requirements for the primary structure of two potential SPS large space structure test articles. These test articles represent potential steps in the SPS research and technology development.

Greenberg, H.S.

1981-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Data Sharing Effect on Article Citation Rate in Paleoceanography  

Science.gov (United States)

The validation of scientific results requires reproducible methods and data. Often, however, data sets supporting research articles are not openly accessible and interlinked. This analysis tests whether open sharing and linking of supporting data through the PANGAEA° data library measurably increases the citation rate of articles published between 1993 and 2010 in the journal Paleoceanography as reported in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science database. The 12.85% (171) of articles with publicly available supporting data sets received 19.94% (8,056) of the aggregate citations (40,409). Publicly available data were thus significantly (p=0.007, 95% confidence interval) associated with about 35% more citations per article than the average of all articles sampled over the 18-year study period (1,331), and the increase is fairly consistent over time (14 of 18 years). This relationship between openly available, curated data and increased citation rate may incentivize researchers to share their data.

Sears, J. R.

2011-12-01

242

ABSORBENT ARTICLES OF PERSONAL HYGIENE WITH THERAPEUTIC EFFECT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention refers to the medical industry and more particularly to articles of personal hygiene, including panty liners and absorbing sanitary towels used for medical and prophylactic purposes. The absorbing hygienic article with antimicrobial compound contains an antimicrobial compound such as Catamin and/or Furazidin, with the following ratios between components expressed in weight %: Catamin - 0.35-0.5; Furazidin - 0-0.15

KOZINDA Zinaida Julianovna; SUVOROVA Elena Grigorievna; STRUKOV Mikhail Vasilievich

243

Patient rights in Iran: a review article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A significant development for conducting research on patient rights has been made in Iran over the past decade. This study is conducted in order to review and analyze the previous studies that have been made, so far, concerning patient rights in Iran. This is a comprehensive review study conducted by searching the Iranian databases, Scientific Information Database, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology, Iran Medex and Google using the Persian equivalent of keywords for 'awareness', 'attitude', and 'patient rights'. For pertinent Iranian papers published in English, scientific databases PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched using the keyword 'patient rights' and 'Iran'. A total of 41 Persian and five English articles were found for these keywords, only 26 of which fulfilled the objective of our study. The increasing number of papers published indicates that from 1999 onwards, this subject has begun to draw the attention of Iranian researchers in a progressive fashion and Iranian papers in English have also been compiled and published in international sources.

Joolaee S; Hajibabaee F

2012-01-01

244

The closterovirus-derived gene expression and RNA interference vectors as tools for research and plant biotechnology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing. Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These features provided immense opportunities for using closterovirus vectors for the functional genomics studies and pathogen control in economically valuable crops. This review briefly summarizes advances in closterovirus research during the last decade, explores the relationships between virus biology and vector design, and outlines the most promising directions for future application of closterovirus vectors.

Dolja VV; Koonin EV

2013-01-01

245

Un Modelo para la Homogeneización de las Clases Textuales de la Biblioteca Electrónica Scielo-Chile: la Variabilidad del Artículo de Investigación en Diversas Disciplinas/ A Model for the Homogenization of Textual Classes in the Scientific Library Scielo-Chile: The Variability of Research Articles in Different Disciplines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se presenta un modelo formal y se aplican diversos índices cienciométricos que permiten analizar la variación de las clases textuales contenidas en los artículos de investigación publicados en las revistas de la biblioteca electrónica Scielo-Chile (http://www.scielo.cl). Para ello, se generó una matriz de 33 criterios formales para clasificar la variada gama de clases textuales que aparecen en las revistas de la biblioteca. Los resultados muestran q (more) ue existen al menos tres tipos de artículos de investigación, y que su ocurrencia depende de la revista y de la disciplina a la que pertenece: de investigación científica, de investigación o estudio y de investigación teórica. Además, se establece que en algunas revistas la denominación de las clases textuales, por parte de los autores y editores no concuerda con la denominación derivada de la aplicación de los criterios formales. Por último, se estima que los artículos de investigación, en promedio, representan un 70% de todos los registros de Scielo-Chile. Abstract in english A formal model is presented and various science measurement indexes are applied for determining the variation in the textual classes included in research articles published in journals available in the electronic library Scielo-Chile (http://www.scielo.cl). To this end, a matrix of 33 formal criteria was generated to categorize the wide spectrum of textual classes that appear in the scientific journals of the library. The results show that there exist at least three types (more) of research articles and that the presence of each type depends on the scientific journal and the discipline to which it belongs: scientific research, research and study, and theoretical research. In addition to that, it is established that, in some scientific journals, the designation of textual classes by authors and editors does not agree with the designation derived from the application of the formal categorization. Finally, it is estimated that research articles represent 70% of all registered material included in Scielo-Chile.

Sabaj, Omar; Matsuda, Ken I; Fuentes, Miguel A

2010-01-01

246

[Types, structure, and function of scientific articles].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To define the importance of the scientific article as a source of original information. METHODS: To describe the fundamental contents of the scientific article and its three different formats: original scientific article, review article and case reports. CONCLUSIONS: The contents and structure of the different documents vary depending on the type of article considered as a result of the goal pursued with its publication.

Garrido Díaz I; López Rodríguez L; Seda Diestro J; Aparcero Bernet L; Chacartegui Martínez I

2002-10-01

247

How Newspaper-Article-Events, Other Stock Market Indices, and the Foreign Currency Rate Affect the Philippine Stock Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eugene Fama in his “Efficient Market Hypothesis” introduced the term newspaper-article-event. The aim of this paper is to find out if newspaper-article-events which are presented and discussed in newspaper articles and which could collage to create an atmosphere of investment, together with the indices of other stock markets (treated as other events) and the performance of the Philippine Peso against the US Dollar (considered as another event) could affect the closing Philippine Stock Market Indices (Phisix) during the 2004 Election Campaign in the Philippines and the 2005 Impeachment Controversy against the Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Expressivity rating was conceived to measure the expressivity of newspaper articles and, in turn, represent the degree of positiveness, neutralness or negativeness of newspaper-article-events. This research found significant correlations between the closing Forex rate the day before and the present closing Phisix for the two cases. Significant models were also derived incorporating several types of newspaper articles, other stock market indices and the previous Forex rate for the two cases.

Percival S. Gabriel

2013-01-01

248

Extracting structured information from Wikipedia articles to populate infoboxes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roughly every third Wikipedia article contains an infobox - a table that displays important facts about the subject in attribute-value form. The schema of an infobox, i.e., the attributes that can be expressed for a concept, is defined by an infobox template. Often, authors do not specify all templa...

Lange, Dustin; Böhm, Christoph; Naumann, Felix

249

Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / research and development of a reverse engineering system for local industrial articles (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the research on the application of local industrial article use reverse engineering (RE, it had been regarded as imitation and reproduction technology, but has recently been as a part of the production information integration). With the actual local industrial article as standard, which has features in design and was added with local traditionality, such as glass having 3D free-form surface, 3D shape information modeling technology RE is developed, and a system for direct automatic metal mold processing is established, aiming at shortening of delivery date, cost reduction and higher grade. The target of the research is Okinawa prefecture. In fiscal 1997, study was made of the speeding-up of the non-contact 3D shape information inputting (multi-point simultaneous inputting by CCD of the laser reflected light of the actual model) and the data storage technology. Cast iron was selected as molding materials, judging from reactivity/machinability with heat resistant glass. Also studied was the blend of glass materials suitable for press forming. Further, studies were proceeded with of development of intellectual cutting tools into which sensor function is integrated and of virtual reality for facilitating/accelerating the design up to metal mold manufacturing. 39 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

250

EXPRESS--Examining Pediatric Resuscitation Education Using Simulation and Scripting. The birth of an international pediatric simulation research collaborative--from concept to reality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decade, medical simulation has evolved into an essential component of pediatric resuscitation education and team training. Evidence to support its value as an adjunct to traditional methods of education is expanding; however, large multicenter studies are very rare. Simulation-based researchers currently face many challenges related to small sample sizes, poor generalizability, and paucity of clinically proven and relevant outcome measures. The Examining Pediatric Resuscitation Education Using Simulation and Scripting (EXPRESS) pediatric simulation research collaborative was formed in an attempt to directly address and overcome these challenges. The primary mission of the EXPRESS collaborative is to improve the delivery of medical care to critically ill children by answering important research questions pertaining to pediatric resuscitation and education and is focused on using simulation either as a key intervention of interest or as the outcome measurement tool. Going forward, the collaborative aims to expand its membership internationally and collectively identify pediatric resuscitation and simulation-based research priorities and use these to guide future projects. Ultimately, we hope that with innovative and high-quality research, the EXPRESS pediatric simulation research collaborative will help to build momentum for simulation-based research on an international level.

Cheng A; Hunt EA; Donoghue A; Nelson K; Leflore J; Anderson J; Eppich W; Simon R; Rudolph J; Nadkarni V

2011-02-01

251

Safe operation of offshore production installations - Conference articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents six articles published at international conferences within the research program Risk Analysis and Safety Management - Safe Operation of Offshore Production Installation. The articles discuss the operators' role in handling of abnormal situations from the control room. Furthermore, an overview of alarm and shutdown frequencies on production installations in the North Sea is given. Finally, reliability, availability and maintainability aspects of computerized safety systems are presented.

Bodsberg, L.; Hokstad, P.; Ingstad, O.; Onshus, T.; Sten, T.; Ulleberg, T.

1989-08-01

252

Art of reading a journal article: Methodically and effectively.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Reading scientific literature is mandatory for researchers and clinicians. With an overflow of medical and dental journals, it is essential to develop a method to choose and read the right articles. OBJECTIVE: To outline a logical and orderly approach to reading a scientific manuscript. By breaking down the task into smaller, step-by-step components, one should be able to attain the skills to read a scientific article with ease. METHODS: The reader should begin by reading the title, abstract and conclusions first. If a decision is made to read the entire article, the key elements of the article can be perused in a systematic manner effectively and efficiently. A cogent and organized method is presented to read articles published in scientific journals. CONCLUSION: One can read and appreciate a scientific manuscript if a systematic approach is followed in a simple and logical manner.

Subramanyam R

2013-01-01

253

Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives; Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991). Acquis et perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

254

Method of nitriding refractory metal articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG); Young, Albert C. (Flushing, NY)

1994-01-01

255

Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

2007-09-24

256

"Adultspan" Publication Patterns: Author and Article Characteristics from 1999 to 2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Publication patterns of articles in "Adultspan" from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. Author characteristics and article content were analyzed to determine trends over time. Research articles were analyzed specifically for type of research design, classification, sampling method, types of participants, sample size, types of statistics used, and…

Erford, Bradley T.; Clark, Kelly H.; Erford, Breann M.

2011-01-01

257

The influence of contextual factors on tic expression in Tourette's syndrome: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Symptoms of Tourette's syndrome vary in frequency and intensity. Although such variability may be the result of deficits in the underlying neurological system, tic expression can also be systematically impacted by contextual factors. This article reviews research on the impact of several contextual factors on tic expression and discusses implications for future research and treatment development.

Conelea CA; Woods DW

2008-11-01

258

Publishing an Article: A Main Goal for a Graduate Course  

CERN Document Server

This essay discusses the effectiveness of a graduate course for physics students, with a course goal to write a publishable article on a modern research topic (graphene). I analyze the tools used to this end, which included Web 2.0 methods, in-class discussions and presentation, as well as extensive peer-review. In addition to producing a published article, this course led students to not only advance their mastery of a modern research topic but also to significantly improve their writing, discussion and presentation skills.

Hilke, Michael

2012-01-01

259

ABSORBENT ARTICLE SATURATION INDICATION SYSTEM AND METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An absorbent article includes an absorbent body in contact with a moisture activatable shrinking yarn in the form of a metering string. The metering string includes a hanging portion that is at least initially visible to a user when the absorbent article is in use. By observing the change in length of the hanging portion, a user wearing the absorbent article can determine how saturated the absorbent article has become. The metering string may be used with absorbent articles such as tampons and diapers.

KIM JAEHO; MACDONALD JOHN GAVIN

260

Absorbent article saturation indication system and method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An absorbent article includes an absorbent body in contact with a moisture activatable shrinking yarn in the form of a metering string. The metering string includes a hanging portion that is at least initially visible to a user when the absorbent article is in use. By observing the change in length of the hanging portion, a user wearing the absorbent article can determine how saturated the absorbent article has become. The metering string may be used with absorbent articles such as tampons and diapers.

KIM JAEHO; MACDONALD JOHN GAVIN

 
 
 
 
261

Research strategy and programs about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (by right of the article L542 of the environment law and belonging to the December 30, 1991 law); Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991) 2002-2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document has been prepared by the French public organizations on charge of the researches about the management of radioactive wastes in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991. It was presented at the national commission of evaluation on March 6, 2002. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1 - the methodology, structuration and implementation of researches: main goals; products of the back-end of the fuel cycle and evaluation of fluxes; technical structuration of programs; researches consistency, complementarity and priority; criteria of appreciation of researches relevance; 2 - the main results after 10 years of researches in the framework of the 1991 law: abatement of wastes noxiousness; wastes conditioning; long-term storage; studies on geological disposal; 3 - the main steps towards 2006: separation and transmutation; underground disposal; conditioning and long-term behaviour; 4 - presentation and analysis of research programs: separation-transmutation; feasibility of a deep geologic disposal (clay, granite); conditioning and storage (containers, storage and long-term behaviour); 5 - coordination: authorities, share of data, research programs; 6 - international collaborations; appendixes. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-07-01

262

APPROACHES AND ACTIVITIES FOR ENGLISH ARTICLE USE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article system of English can be difficult for students to understand and even forteachers to articulate. Some theorists believe that article pedagogy should focus on form. Others, most notably Pica (1983), believe that article pedagogy should focus on a communicative approach. Both approaches have valid claims. Although, there is no single or particular schema or method for teaching articles, a variety of options for conceptualizing article pedagogy and usage found in the literature will be presented. The effectiveness of teaching activities and exercises rely upon the proficiency levels, cultures, and ages of the students being taught. Learners can also be encouraged to foster their own learning of the article system by keeping a tally of their article errors, thus becoming ethnographers of their own learning process.

JABER MASLAMANI

2008-01-01

263

Nutritional Factors and Osteoarthritis: A Review Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease according to TNS Arogya survey 2007. Although OA was previously thought to be a progressive degenerative disorder, it is now known that spontaneous arrest or reversal of disease can occur. Conventional medications are often effective for symptomatic relief but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of disease. Though the role of nutritional factors in OA has been suggested as early as 700 BC, it was first established in the 1960s. Several nutritional factors are helpful in relieving the symptoms of OA and they might positively affect the progression of the disease without any side effects. Preliminary evidences suggest several of these may have a role in influencing the course of OA. Studies have proven the role of these factors and experiment based results have established their therapeutic role. Research is ongoing on the beneficial properties of plant derived extracts for OA and nutraceuticals industries are accordingly making firm contribution to this sector. This article focuses the role of nutrients to slow down the progression of OA and their future aspects.

Ms. Divya Sanghi; Dr. Sachin Avasthi; Prof. R N Srivastava; Dr. Ajai Singh

2009-01-01

264

The 100 top-cited articles published in psychiatric journals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An examination of top-cited articles is a tool that can be used to identify and monitor outstanding scientific research. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of the 100 top-cited articles published in international journals dedicated to psychiatry. The Science Citation Index Expanded provided by the Thomson Reuters Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge was searched in December, 2011, and 128 journals were identified in the subject category "Psychiatry." Each journal was searched on the Web of Science under "Publication Name" and the results were sorted by category "Times Cited." The 100 top-cited articles were recorded, and the list was analyzed with regard to journals, number of citations, authors, year, institution, and country of origin. The original research articles of the 100 top-cited articles were classified into one of five categories: scale/measurement, descriptive/epidemiology, mechanism, management, and imaging. The 100 top-cited articles were cited between 26,578 and 781 times; they were published between 1957 and 2005, with the largest number (35) published in the 1990s. The articles appeared in 24 journals, with more than half published in the Archives of General Psychiatry (56), followed by the American Journal of Psychiatry (6), and Psychological Medicine (6). Articles that dealt with the development, application, or validity of measurements led the list of top-cited psychiatric publications (43) and had a significantly higher number of citations compared with the rest of the articles. The time and language of publication, field of study, country of origin, and journal in which the paper appeared are possible determinants of the likelihood of citation and impact. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2013;19:327-338).

Mazhari S

2013-07-01

265

Research strategy and programmes on the management of long-lived high-level radioactive waste (pursuant to article L542 of the environmental code taken from the law of December 30, 1991); Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is made of two parts: the first part is a status report which highlights the main achievements of all research activities conducted in 2001 in the global context of national and international efforts on nuclear waste management (partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations, conditioning and storage, national and international collaborations, report no 7 of the national review board (CNE), the Global 201 conference and the year 2001 highlights). The second part is the executive summary of the 2002 edition of the 'Research strategy and programmes' document. The new edition has ben reorganized according to previous editions in an effort to make it more concise, clearer and more comprehensive. Chapter 1 now focusses entirely on the methodology followed by all research partners and stakeholders in structuring and implementing research programmes. Chapter 2 is new and provides a summary of the major research results 10 years after the 1991 law became effective. Chapter 3 is also new and highlights the major milestones yet ahead and identified in terms of both objectives to be attained and key steps leading up to 2006. Chapter 4 contains a detailed description and analysis of the programmes envisaged and the last 2 chapters discuss very broadly the coordination of research activities and the way they are being implemented both at national (chapter 5) and international (chapter 6) levels. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-07-01

266

Collaboration range: Effects of geographical proximity on article impact  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial scientometrics studies how geography influences knowledge creation. In the recent years there has been a surge in this kind of studies, due to the increase of international collaborations. Most of the work in this field has been focused on the geographical distribution of researchers, whilst few have considered how proximity between coauthors influences research quality. In this work we leverage a dataset of geolocalized articles to assess the effect of geographical distance on article impact. More precisely, the dataset, provided by the Observatory of Science and Technology (O.S.T.), consists of roughly 106 scientific articles, gathering all European articles written in 2000 and 2007, spanning 9 disciplines. We evaluate under which geographical extent coauthorships have higher probability of resulting in high impact articles ("high impact" is here approximated by "being in the top 10% most cited articles of its discipline"). We also describe spatial distribution of coauthorship, delineating geographical areas where the production is proportionally higher. The distribution is evaluated both in term of km (as the crow flies), and in terms of administrative partitions (authors' cities, regions, countries).

Apolloni, Andrea; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Jensen, Pablo

2013-09-01

267

Method of producing silicon carbide articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

Milewski, J.V.

1985-04-23

268

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

269

Open access and article processing charges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Substance Abuse, Treatment, Prevention, and Policy uses a medium that provides the broadest possible worldwide readership. Anyone in the world can read articles without charge. Since the articles published here will hopefully help inform policy this is exactly the right target – free and unlimited access. Beginning July 2006, article-processing charges will be applied to papers published in this journal.

Arndt Stephan

2006-01-01

270

Distribution of Articles in Malaysian Secondary School English Language Textbooks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on English grammar articles presented in the Malaysian Form 1 to Form 5 English Language textbooks. The study aimed to find out the distribution patterns of the articles and the distributions of their colligation patterns in the secondary school English Language textbooks. The findings showed that all the three articles (a, an, the) are presented in all the five English Language textbooks and that their frequency of occurrences has an increasing trend from Form 1 to Form 5. However, the distributions of the colligation patterns of the articles showed inconsistency from one form to another. Some colligation patterns were over-emphasized while others were neglected in the English language textbooks. This study indicates that a textbook corpus can be useful in analyzing the presentation of grammatical structures (articles, in the case of this research). The findings can provide guidance to teachers to improve their pedagogical practices in the teaching of articles and to cater to the weaknesses of the presentation of articles in the textbooks.

Jayakaran Mukundan; Amelia Leong Chiew Har; Vahid Nimehchisalem

2012-01-01

271

Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

Trusty, Jerry

2011-01-01

272

Understanding English Non-Count Nouns and Indefinite Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The fact that English non-count abstract nouns such as knowledge are compatible with the indefinite article a/an is not only perplexing for second language (L2) learners of English but also troublesome for both native and non-native English teachers. This paper does research on this curious phenomenon of English grammar to clarify its mechanism…

Tsuchida, Takehiro

2010-01-01

273

The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

Tscherne H

2013-09-01

274

Mifepristone (Mifeprex) Article and Journal References  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mifepristone (Mifeprex) Article and Journal References. List of References. Abortion Pill Used for Tumor Treatment. The Associated Press. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

275

Review article: Preventive analgesia: quo vadimus?  

Science.gov (United States)

The classic definition of preemptive analgesia requires 2 groups of patients to receive identical treatment before or after incision or surgery. The only difference between the 2 groups is the timing of administration of the drug relative to incision. The constraint to include a postincision or postsurgical treatment group is methodologically appealing, because in the presence of a positive result, it provides a window of time within which the observed effect occurred, and thus points to possible mechanisms underlying the effect: the classic view assumes that the intraoperative nociceptive barrage contributes to a greater extent to postoperative pain than does the postoperative nociceptive barrage. However, this view is too restrictive and narrow, in part because we know that sensitization is induced by factors other than the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with incision and subsequent noxious intraoperative events. A broader approach to the prevention of postoperative pain has evolved that aims to minimize the deleterious immediate and long-term effects of noxious perioperative afferent input. The focus of preventive analgesia is not on the relative timing of analgesic or anesthetic interventions, but on attenuating the impact of the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with noxious preoperative, intraoperative, and/or postoperative stimuli. These stimuli induce peripheral and central sensitization, which increase postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirements. Preventing sensitization will reduce pain and analgesic requirements. Preventive analgesia is demonstrated when postoperative pain and/or analgesic use are reduced beyond the duration of action of the target drug, which we have defined as 5.5 half-lives of the target drug. This requirement ensures that the observed effects are not direct analgesic effects. In this article, we briefly review the history of preemptive analgesia and relate it to the broader concept of preventive analgesia. We highlight clinical trial designs and examples from the literature that distinguish preventive analgesia from preemptive analgesia and conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:21965352

Katz, Joel; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Ze'ev

2011-09-30

276

Review article: Preventive analgesia: quo vadimus?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The classic definition of preemptive analgesia requires 2 groups of patients to receive identical treatment before or after incision or surgery. The only difference between the 2 groups is the timing of administration of the drug relative to incision. The constraint to include a postincision or postsurgical treatment group is methodologically appealing, because in the presence of a positive result, it provides a window of time within which the observed effect occurred, and thus points to possible mechanisms underlying the effect: the classic view assumes that the intraoperative nociceptive barrage contributes to a greater extent to postoperative pain than does the postoperative nociceptive barrage. However, this view is too restrictive and narrow, in part because we know that sensitization is induced by factors other than the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with incision and subsequent noxious intraoperative events. A broader approach to the prevention of postoperative pain has evolved that aims to minimize the deleterious immediate and long-term effects of noxious perioperative afferent input. The focus of preventive analgesia is not on the relative timing of analgesic or anesthetic interventions, but on attenuating the impact of the peripheral nociceptive barrage associated with noxious preoperative, intraoperative, and/or postoperative stimuli. These stimuli induce peripheral and central sensitization, which increase postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirements. Preventing sensitization will reduce pain and analgesic requirements. Preventive analgesia is demonstrated when postoperative pain and/or analgesic use are reduced beyond the duration of action of the target drug, which we have defined as 5.5 half-lives of the target drug. This requirement ensures that the observed effects are not direct analgesic effects. In this article, we briefly review the history of preemptive analgesia and relate it to the broader concept of preventive analgesia. We highlight clinical trial designs and examples from the literature that distinguish preventive analgesia from preemptive analgesia and conclude with suggestions for future research.

Katz J; Clarke H; Seltzer Z

2011-11-01

277

Action Research:Applied Research, Intervention Research, Collaborative Research, Practitioner Research, or Praxis Research?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article relates common ways of conceptualising action research as “intervention”, “collaboration”, “interactive research”, “applied research”, and “practitioner research” to a number of different ways of knowing, extracted from the works of Aristotle. The purpose is not to disavow any of these ...

Eikeland, Olav

278

Uso de movidas retóricas y patrones léxico-gramaticales en artículos de investigación en español: Implicancias para la enseñanza de la escritura científica/ THE USE OF RHETORICAL MOVES AND LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL PATTERNS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES WRITTEN IN CHILEAN SPANISH: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión crítica de distintos enfoques que se centran en la descripción de las estructuras retóricas y de sus rasgos lingüísticos en artículos de investigación, en el presente trabajo proponemos un nuevo método para describir este fenómeno en artículos de investigación en español. Para ello, se etiquetó, con movidas retóricas, un corpus de 162 artículos que es representativo de la producción científica chilena entre los años 2000 y 2008. (more) A los 11.000 o más registros derivados del análisis, se aplicó técnicas estadísticas que permiten dar cuenta de cuáles son las movidas retóricas (MR) prototípicas y describir los patrones léxico-gramaticales asociados a ellas en este tipo de textos especializados. Los resultados muestran, en primer lugar, cuáles son las MR prototípicas en este tipo de textos y, en segundo lugar, que a ellas se asocian patrones léxico-gramaticales específicos. Los resultados de esta investigación se constituyen en valiosa evidencia empírica tanto para los interesados en el análisis del discurso científico como para aquellos enfocados en el ámbito de la didáctica y el aprendizaje de la escritura científica. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a new method for the description of rhetorical structures and their corresponding linguistic features in research articles in Spanish. The method is based on a critical review of different approaches focusing on this phenomenon. To this effect, we labelled a 162-research-article corpus using rhetorical moves. The corpus is representative of Chilean scientific production between 2000 and 2008. We applied statistical techniques to over the 11,000 r (more) ecords to account for the prototypical rhetorical moves and describe the lexico-grammatical patterns associated to them in this type of specialist texts. The results of the study demonstrate the operation of particular 'prototypical' rhetorical moves in such texts as well as the lexico-grammatical patterns which formalize the former. The research done provides valuable empirical evidence both for those aiming at the analysis of scientific discourse and those focusing on the teaching and learning of scientific writing.

Sabaj Meruane, Omar

2012-01-01

279

Uso de movidas retóricas y patrones léxico-gramaticales en artículos de investigación en español: Implicancias para la enseñanza de la escritura científica THE USE OF RHETORICAL MOVES AND LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL PATTERNS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES WRITTEN IN CHILEAN SPANISH: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de una revisión crítica de distintos enfoques que se centran en la descripción de las estructuras retóricas y de sus rasgos lingüísticos en artículos de investigación, en el presente trabajo proponemos un nuevo método para describir este fenómeno en artículos de investigación en español. Para ello, se etiquetó, con movidas retóricas, un corpus de 162 artículos que es representativo de la producción científica chilena entre los años 2000 y 2008. A los 11.000 o más registros derivados del análisis, se aplicó técnicas estadísticas que permiten dar cuenta de cuáles son las movidas retóricas (MR) prototípicas y describir los patrones léxico-gramaticales asociados a ellas en este tipo de textos especializados. Los resultados muestran, en primer lugar, cuáles son las MR prototípicas en este tipo de textos y, en segundo lugar, que a ellas se asocian patrones léxico-gramaticales específicos. Los resultados de esta investigación se constituyen en valiosa evidencia empírica tanto para los interesados en el análisis del discurso científico como para aquellos enfocados en el ámbito de la didáctica y el aprendizaje de la escritura científica.In this paper, we propose a new method for the description of rhetorical structures and their corresponding linguistic features in research articles in Spanish. The method is based on a critical review of different approaches focusing on this phenomenon. To this effect, we labelled a 162-research-article corpus using rhetorical moves. The corpus is representative of Chilean scientific production between 2000 and 2008. We applied statistical techniques to over the 11,000 records to account for the prototypical rhetorical moves and describe the lexico-grammatical patterns associated to them in this type of specialist texts. The results of the study demonstrate the operation of particular 'prototypical' rhetorical moves in such texts as well as the lexico-grammatical patterns which formalize the former. The research done provides valuable empirical evidence both for those aiming at the analysis of scientific discourse and those focusing on the teaching and learning of scientific writing.

Omar Sabaj Meruane

2012-01-01

280

Contact lens articles in the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We searched the ophthalmic literature of the past 5 years looking for patterns in the publication of contact lens articles. Contact lens articles constituted 2.59% of all ophthalmology articles. We found that a substantial percentage of the articles published in The CLAO Journal and selected optometric journals concerned contact lenses; this, however, was not the case with the major ophthalmology journals (American Journal of Ophthalmology [AJO], Ophthalmology, and Archives of Ophthalmology [Archives]). One recent contact lens development, disposable lenses, was covered by both The CLAO Journal and the major ophthalmology journals, but the coverage differed in that the orientation of the articles in the major ophthalmology journals was essentially negative. Articles about another recent development (rigid gas permeable contact lenses for extended wear), although found in The CLAO Journal, could not be found in the other ophthalmology journals. Finally, when the abstracts of all contact lens articles were reviewed, we found a negative slant to articles published in AJO and Archives. We believe that the major ophthalmology journals present a rather negative view of contact lenses; this, we think, impedes unbiased dissemination of information about new contact lens developments.

Kastl PR; Dell SJ

1992-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Wikipedia’s internal quality control mechanism, the “featured article” process, which assesses articles against a stringent set of criteria. To this end, scholars were asked to evaluate the quality and accuracy of Wikipedia featured art...

David Lindsey

282

Gene expression analysis in biomarker research and early drug development using function tested reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The identification of new biomarkers is essential in the implementation of personalized health care strategies that offer new therapeutic approaches with optimized and individualized treatment. In support of hypothesis generation and testing in the course of our biomarker research an online portal and respective function-tested reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR assays (RT-qPCR) facilitated the selection of relevant biomarker genes. We have established workflows applicable for convenient high throughput gene expression analysis in biomarker research with cell lines (in vitro studies) and xenograft mouse models (in vivo studies) as well as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) sections from various human research and clinical tumor samples. Out of 92 putative biomarker candidate genes selected in silico, 35 were shown to exhibit differential expression in various tumor cell lines. These were further analysed by in vivo xenograft mouse models, which identified 13 candidate genes including potential response prediction biomarkers and a potential pharmacodynamic biomarker. Six of these candidate genes were selected for further evaluation in FFPET samples, where optimized RNA isolation, reverse transcription and qPCR assays provided reliable determination of relative expression levels as precondition for differential gene expression analysis of FFPET samples derived from projected clinical studies. Thus, we successfully applied function tested RT-qPCR assays in our biomarker research for hypothesis generation with in vitro and in vivo models as well as for hypothesis testing with human FFPET samples. Hence, appropriate function-tested RT-qPCR assays are available in biomarker research accompanying the different stages of drug development, starting from target identification up to early clinical development. The workflow presented here supports the identification and validation of new biomarkers and may lead to advances in efforts to achieve the goal of personalized health care.

Lohmann S; Herold A; Bergauer T; Belousov A; Betzl G; Demario M; Dietrich M; Luistro L; Poignée-Heger M; Schostack K; Simcox M; Walch H; Yin X; Zhong H; Weisser M

2013-01-01

283

Method for fabricating boron carbide articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is directed to the fabrication of boron carbide articles having length-to-diameter or width ratios greater than 2 to 1. The process of the present invention is practiced by the steps comprising hot pressing boron carbide powder into article segments or portions in which the segments have a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5, aligning a plurality of the initially hot-pressed segments in a hot-pressing die with the end surfaces of the segments placed in intimate contact with one another, and then hot pressing the aligned segments into an article of the desired configuration. The resulting article exhibits essentially uniform density throughout the structure with the bonds between the segments being equivalent in hardness, strength, and density to the remainder of the article.

Ardary, Zane L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Reynolds, Carl D. (Clinton, TN)

1980-01-01

284

Title, abstract, key words and references in biomedical articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientists frequently communicate the results of their work in research reports. When writing scientific articles, authors must follow instructions and requirements of standard article format. A scientific paper should have in proper order, a Title, Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Literature. A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper. It should attract researchers' attention in order to be included in their investigation. An abstract is a short summary of the article. It concisely summarizes results and conclusion so that essential details of the paper can be understood in 100 - 250 words. The most commonly used are structured abstracts. Key words are provided below the abstract and describe the medical concepts characteristic for the whole article. Assign at least one and an average of 5 to 10 key words. Indexing in biomedicine means using the Thesaurus of the American National Library of Medicine: Medical Subject Headings. It provides easy and fast access to precise information using key words assigned to each document. Reference citation is obligatory and integral part of scientific articles. It provides communication among the authors and binds scientific papers as well as whole scientific knowledge in certain fields.

Brki? Silvija; Vu?enovi? Marija; ?oki? Zorica

2003-01-01

285

Research on the effects of expressions of MMP1,TIMP1 in lacrimal gland of ovariectomized rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study the effects of estrogen on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1(MMP-1)and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1(TIMP-1)in lacrimal gland of ovariectomized rat. METHODS:A total of 60 female rats were examined for the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 protein in lacrimal gland through S?t measurement together with Western- blot and RT-PCR methods.RESULTS:There was significant reduction in S?t and increase in the protein expression of MMP1, TIMP1 and mRNA after ovariectomy conducted on rats(PPCONCLUSION: Estrogen must be applied cautiously to treat xerophthalmia following menopause because estrogen can up regulate the expressions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 and can aggravate the decrease of lacrimal secretion.

Tao Wang; Tao Liu; Hong-Ya Wu; Yang Liu; Jian-Kang Chen

2013-01-01

286

Production of super-smooth articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

Duchane, D.V.

1981-05-29

287

Method for manufacture of neutron absorbing articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A one-step curing method for the manufacture of a neutron-absorbing article comprises irreversibly curing, in desired article form, a form-retaining mixture of boron carbide particles, curable phenolic resin in solid state and in particulate form, and a minor proportion of a liquid which boils below 2000C, at an elevated temperature so as to obtain bonding of the polymer of the boron carbide particles. The liquid may be water. Such articles are particularly useful as neutron absorbers in spent fuel racks

1981-01-01

288

Method for manufacture of neutron absorbing articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A one-step curing method for the manufacture of a neutron absorbing article which comprises irreversibly curing, in desired article form, a form-retaining mixture of boron carbide particles, curable phenolic resin in solid state and in particula te form and a minor proportion of a liquid medium, which boils at a temperature below 200*c., at an elevated temperature so as to obtain bonding of the irreversibly cured phenolic polymer resulting to the boron carbide particles and production of the neutron absorbing article in desired form.

Owens, D.

1980-07-22

289

Production of super-smooth articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01

290

Sensing article for a home automation network  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a sensing system for use in conjunction with a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home, the system including a transmitter adapted to be used with an absorbent article having a sensor, wherein the transmitter is adapted to communicate with the sensor and directly with the home automation network. Also provided is a physiological event notification system including an absorbent article including a physiological event sensor; a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home; and a transmitter associable with the absorbent article and in signal communication with the physiological event sensor and with the home automation network.

SULLIVAN SHAWN J; CLEMENT GARY A; RANGANATHAN SRIDHAR; ALES THOMAS M; LONG ANDREW M

291

SENSING ARTICLE FOR A HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a sensing system for use in conjunction with a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home, the system including a transmitter adapted to be used with an absorbent article having a sensor, wherein the transmitter is adapted to communicate with the sensor and directly with the home automation network. Also provided is a physiological event notification system including an absorbent article including a physiological event sensor; a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home; and a transmitter associable with the absorbent article and in signal communication with the physiological event sensor and with the home automation network.

SULLIVAN SHAWN J; CLEMENT GARY A; RANGANATHAN SRIDHAR; ALES III THOMAS M; LONG ANDREW M

292

SENSING ARTICLE FOR A HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a sensing system for use in conjunction with a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home, the system including a transmitter adapted to be used with an absorbent article having a sensor, wherein the transmitter is adapted to communicate with the sensor and directly with the home automation network. Also provided is a physiological event notification system including an absorbent article including a physiological event sensor a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home and a transmitter associable with the absorbent article and in signal communication with the physiological event sensor and with the home automation network.

RANGANATHAN SRIDHAR; LONG ANDREW M; CLEMENT GARY A; ALES THOMAS M III; SULLIVAN SHAWN J

293

SENSING ARTICLE FOR A HOME AUTOMATION NETWORK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a sensing system for use in conjunction with a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home, the system including a transmitter adapted to be used with an absorbent article having a sensor, wherein the transmitter is adapted to communicate with the sensor and directly with the home automation network. Also provided is a physiological event notification system including an absorbent article including a physiological event sensor a home automation network controlling an environmental variable in a home and a transmitter associable with the absorbent article and in signal communication with the physiological event sensor and with the home automation network.

SULLIVAN SHAWN J; CLEMENT GARY A; RANGANATHAN SRIDHAR; ALES III THOMAS M; LONG ANDREW M

294

AN ADJUSTABLE ABSORBENT ARTICLE FOR IMPROVED FIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparatus and methods of manufacturing absorbent articles suitable for use as training pants or other hygiene products are provided. The absorbent article includes a chassis having a front section, a rear section, and a crotch section extending between the front section and the rear section. The front section is connected to the rear section to define a waist opening, leg openings, and a belly region positioned between the waist opening and the leg openings. The absorbent article also includes an absorbent core coupled to the crotch section of the chassis. An adjustable tensioner is coupled to the chassis and is positioned for snugging the chassis against a wearer of the absorbent article. The tensioner is configured to be adjusted by the wearer from a first tension to a second, selected tension.

NONNENMANN HEATHER R; BERGIN THOMAS

295

ADJUSTABLE ABSORBENT ARTICLE FOR IMPROVED FIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparatus and methods of manufacturing absorbent articles suitable for use as training pants or other hygiene products are provided. The absorbent article includes a chassis having a front section, a rear section, and a crotch section extending between the front section and the rear section. The front section is connected to the rear section to define a waist opening, leg openings, and a belly region positioned between the waist opening and the leg openings. The absorbent article also includes an absorbent core coupled to the crotch section of the chassis. An adjustable tensioner is coupled to the chassis and is positioned for snugging the chassis against a wearer of the absorbent article. The tensioner is configured to be adjusted by the wearer from a first tension to a second, selected tension.

NONNENMANN HEATHER R; BERGIN THOMAS

296

Controlled delivery smoking article and method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A smoking article (10) having a controlled yield of wet particulate matter and a method of making a smoking article with predetermined total and per puff yields of wet particulate matter. The smoking article comprises a tobacco rod (12) connected to an air ventilated compound filter having two abutted filter segments, a rod end segment (20) with a passage (26) therethrough and a mouth end segment (22). The pressure drop of the abutment interface (25) between the segments is selected to be in a range of from about 10 mm to about 100 mm water gauge. The total pressure drop of the filter including the interface and the amount of air dilution can be selected to provide a smoking article with a level per puff yield or a decreasing per puff yield.

Gentry Thomas Leeroy; Barnes Russell Dean; Blakley Richard Lee; Ashcraft Charles Ray; Gwyn Juanilla Moore; Pryor James Willard; Ridings Henry Thomas; Wong Milly Mee Lee

297

Biaxially textured articles formed by plastic deformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of preparing a biaxially textured article comprises the steps of providing a metal preform, coating or laminating the preform with a metal layer, deforming the layer to a sufficient degree, and rapidly recrystallizing the layer to produce a biaxial texture. A superconducting epitaxial layer may then be deposited on the biaxial texture. In some embodiments the article further comprises buffer layers, electromagnetic devices or electro-optical devices.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

298

System for forming an absorbent article  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention discloses a system for forming an absorbent article (1) of pad type or all-in-one type to be attached around the waist of a user. The absorbent article (1) comprises a chassis (10) having a front portion (18a) and a back portion (18c) and a longitudinal extension from a front end (16) of the front portion (18a) towards a back end (17) of the back portion (18c), the chassis (10) further comprising a crotch portion (18b) connecting the front portion (18a) to the back portion (18c), the front portion (18a) having left and right front side edges (14a, 14b), the back portion (18c) having left and right back side edges (15a, 15b). An absorbent core (13) is arranged between a top sheet (11) and a back sheet (12) of the chassis. The system further comprises at least one first add-on means (30, 32) adapted to be attached to the chassis to form an absorbent article (1) that is attachable around the waist of a user. The system is arranged such that the chassis (10) is adapted to be used for forming absorbent articles both by combining a chassis with a first add-on means (30, 32) to form an absorbent article that is attachable around the waist of a user, and by using the chassis as a pad type absorbent article.

GUSTAFSSON IDA; LINDQVIST ARNE; HAAKANSSON MIKAEL; RAGNARSSON MARIA

299

Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

2007-02-15

300

Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

2008-01-03

 
 
 
 
301

Padronização da terminologia dos centros médicos universitários e de pesquisa biomédica, no idioma inglês, para envio de artigo de revista/ Standardization of the terminology of the academic medical centers and biomedical research centers, in the English language, for journal article sending  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor uma padronização, no idioma inglês, na formatação da citação da sede da pesquisa. MÉTODOS: A partir das três publicações mais recentes dos 20 primeiros periódicos disponíveis no Portal Brasileiro de Informação Científica - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), com maior fator de impacto durante a ano de 2004, segundo levantamento na base de dados ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports no biênio 20 (more) 04-2005, extraíram-se os formatos das citações das sedes de pesquisa. Realizou-se uma analogia ao escalonamento hierárquico institucional da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), e os formatos mais freqüentes, no idioma inglês, foram adotados como padrão a ser sugerido para citar as sedes de pesquisa ao envio dos artigos. RESULTADOS: Em relação à citação "Departamento", padronizou-se "Department of ..." (sendo "..." o nome em inglês do Departamento), à citação "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group", "Setor" "Section of ...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit" "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." e "Grupo" "Group of ...". Abstract in english PURPOSE: To suggest a standardization, in the English language, the formatting of the citation of the research centers. METHODS: From three more recent publications of the first 20 journals available in Brazilian Portal of Scientific Information - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), with bigger factor of impact during the year of 2004, according of information in ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports database in biennium 2004-2 (more) 005, had extracted the formats of citations of the research centers. An analogy to the institutional hierarchie step of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) was carried out, and the formats most frequent, in the English language, had been adopted as standard to be suggested to cite the research centers for sending articles. RESULTS: In relation to the citation "Departamento", was standardized "Department of ..." (being "..." the name in English of the Department), to the citation "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group ", "Setor" "Section of...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit ", "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." and "Grupo" "Group of ...".

Hochman, Bernardo; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Oliveira, Ricardo Leão de; Goldenberg, Saul; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

2006-10-01

302

Padronização da terminologia dos centros médicos universitários e de pesquisa biomédica, no idioma inglês, para envio de artigo de revista Standardization of the terminology of the academic medical centers and biomedical research centers, in the English language, for journal article sending  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor uma padronização, no idioma inglês, na formatação da citação da sede da pesquisa. MÉTODOS: A partir das três publicações mais recentes dos 20 primeiros periódicos disponíveis no Portal Brasileiro de Informação Científica - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), com maior fator de impacto durante a ano de 2004, segundo levantamento na base de dados ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports no biênio 2004-2005, extraíram-se os formatos das citações das sedes de pesquisa. Realizou-se uma analogia ao escalonamento hierárquico institucional da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), e os formatos mais freqüentes, no idioma inglês, foram adotados como padrão a ser sugerido para citar as sedes de pesquisa ao envio dos artigos. RESULTADOS: Em relação à citação "Departamento", padronizou-se "Department of ..." (sendo "..." o nome em inglês do Departamento), à citação "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group", "Setor" "Section of ...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit" "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." e "Grupo" "Group of ...".PURPOSE: To suggest a standardization, in the English language, the formatting of the citation of the research centers. METHODS: From three more recent publications of the first 20 journals available in Brazilian Portal of Scientific Information - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), with bigger factor of impact during the year of 2004, according of information in ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports database in biennium 2004-2005, had extracted the formats of citations of the research centers. An analogy to the institutional hierarchie step of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) was carried out, and the formats most frequent, in the English language, had been adopted as standard to be suggested to cite the research centers for sending articles. RESULTS: In relation to the citation "Departamento", was standardized "Department of ..." (being "..." the name in English of the Department), to the citation "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group ", "Setor" "Section of...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit ", "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." and "Grupo" "Group of ...".

Bernardo Hochman; Rafael Fagionato Locali; Renato Santos de Oliveira Filho; Ricardo Leão de Oliveira; Saul Goldenberg; Lydia Masako Ferreira

2006-01-01

303

Research of amino acid range of heme oxygenase allowing stable expression as soluble proteins in {\\sl E. coli}  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We confirmed the range of amino acids under which N-terminal and c-terminal amino acid sequences in RHO-1 and HHO-2 had no effect on their stable expression and catalytic function by comparing catalytic activity between mutant and wild enzyme. There were no significant differences between deleting 8-amino acid N-terminal and 70-amino acid C-terminal mutants of RHO-1 in terms of soluble proteins in E. coli with wild RHO-1. No significant differences were found between deleting 20-amino acid N-terminal and 77-amino acid C-terminal mutants of HHO-2 in terms of soluble proteins expressed in E. coli with wild HHO-2, but deleting 9-amino acid N-terminal and 75-amino acid C-terminal mutants of RHO-1 were expressed as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Our study demonstrated that RHO-1 and HHO-2 deleting partial N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences have no effect on their catalytic function, and they are stably expressed as soluble proteins in E. coli.

Wang Xiuhong; Teng Yueqiu; Wang Zhigang; Liu Ming; Zhou Hong

2004-01-01

304

Photovoltaics. Basic research and technologies. Photovoltaik. Grundlagenforschung und Technologien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This annual report of the Research Association for Solar Energy gives a thorough survey on the work of the Research Association by articles on themes, which were introduced at a Seminar. The Seminar took place on the theme of 'The structure of solar research in Germany - is it the optimum ' The introductory article gives a short survey of the most important points of view expressed in the discussion. A survey of future research areas is also given. There are special abstracts for the 8 individual lectures. (BWI).

1992-03-01

305

SOLID, SHAPED AND COLORED WAX ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are improved solid, colored wax-based articles having longer color shelf-life. The invention comprises a natural and/or synthetic wax, a colorant, and an effective amount of a compound of formula (1) having symbols defined in the text. The preferred embodiments of the articles contain formula (1) that exhibits a UV absorptivity greater than or equal to 70 liters per gram-cm at a wavelength of less than or equal to 400 nm, as measured in either methanol, toluene or chloroform, using a conventional UV spectrophotometer. The uses for the articles include candles, crayons, fertilizer coatings, rosebush coatings, plant grafting, sealants, sun-cracking protection of rubber and plastic products, paper coating, packaging food products, electrical insulation, waterproofing, and precision investment casting.

RUSSELL Stephen E.; WEBSTER Joseph R.

306

Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This patent describes a method for preparing an article of beryllium oxide by hot pressing comprising the steps of forming a homogeneous mixture of about 98.5 to 99.5 weight percent of beryllium oxide particulates and sufficient lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution to provide about 0.25 to 1.5 weight percent equivalent of lithium oxide, contacting the mixture with carbon dioxide for a sufficient duration to convert in situ essentially all the lithium hydroxide to lithium carbonate, and thereafter hot pressing the mixture into an article of desired configuration of near theoretical density. The hot pressing step being characterized by the lithium carbonate being uniformly dispersed throughout the mixture and affixed to the beryllium oxide particulates and converting to lithium oxide during the hot pressing step to provide essentially uniform sintering of the beryllium oxide particulates for providing the article with essentially uniform density

1988-01-01

307

Method for hot press forming articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This disclosure relates to an improved method for achieving the best bond strength and for minimizing distortion and cracking of hot pressed articles. In particular, in a method for hot press forming both an outer facing circumferential surface of and an inner portion of a hub, and of bonding that so-formed outer facing circumferential surface to an inner facing circumferential surface of a pre-formed ring thereby to form an article, the following improvement is made. Normally, in this method, the outside ring is restrained by a restraining sleeve of ring-shaped cross-section having an inside diameter. A die member, used to hot press form the hub, is so-formed as to have an outside diameter sized to engage the inside diameter of the restraining sleeve in a manner permitting relative movement therebetween. The improved method is one in which several pairs of matched restraining sleeve and die member are formed with each matched pair having a predetermined diameter. The predetermined diameter of each matched pair is different from another matched pair by stepped increments. The largest inside diameter of a restraining sleeve is equal to the diameter of the outer facing circumferential surface of the hub. Each pair of the matched restraining sleeve and die member is used to form an article in which an inside hub is bonded to an outside ring. The several samples so-formed are evaluated to determine which sample has the best bond formed between the hub and the ring with the least or no cracking or distortion in the ring portion of the article. Thereafter, the matched restraining sleeve and die member which form the article having the best bonding characteristics and least distortion cracking is then used for repeated formations of articles.

Baker, Robert R. (Livonia, MI); Hartsock, Dale L. (Livonia, MI)

1982-01-01

308

Radiation stress relieving of polymer articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A method of rapidly relieving stress in an extruded or molded polymer article is disclosed. The method can be used in the preparation of printed circuit boards. An article comprised of the polymer is exposed to electromagnetic radiation, for a time period sufficient to absorb enough energy to stress relieve the polymer against stress cracking therein. Exposure occurs at one or more ranges of frequencies which are capable of being absorbed by the polymer and which are effective for stress relieving without or substantially without causing heat induced softening or flowing of the polymer. The electromagnetic radiation is selected from the ranges of infrared, microwave or ultraviolet radiation

1982-05-21

309

Laser production of articles from powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Nemec, Ronald B. (White Rock, NM); Barbe, Michael R. (White Rock, NM)

1998-01-01

310

Fluid casting of particle-based articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

311

Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A microcellular low density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) which is particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 .mu.m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given; and the yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

Young, Ainslie T. (Los Alamos, NM); Marsters, Robert G. (Jemez Springs, NM); Moreno, Dawn K. (Espanola, NM)

1984-01-01

312

Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles  

CERN Document Server

The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

2010-01-01

313

Finance journals: characteristics of the main periodicals, important authors, and most cited articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterize the Finance journals available in CAPES’s Basis and to know the most important authors in this Area. After eliminating the publications that did not meet the proposed criterion, a total of 72 journals that contained the expression finance and financial in their titles have been analyzed. Main findings are: Journal of Finance has the highest impact factor (2,549); the great majority of journals are North-American (70,83%) and published four times a year; 51% of them charge a submission fee that varies from US$ 40 to US$ 450; most part takes around six months to publish a paper once it gets accepted; Research in International Business and Finance has the most internationalized editorial board; the most cited article has been published in the Journal of Finance in the year of 1997; and Andrei Shleifer is the author of the three most cited papers in Scopus.

Flávia Cruz de Souza; José Alonso Borba; Newton Carneiro Affonso da Costa Jr.; Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

2008-01-01

314

Articles containing a cubic perovskite crystal structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes an article. It comprises a monocrystalline substrate capable of supporting the epitaxial deposition of a superconductive R1A2C3 orthorhombic perovskite crystal phase and a layer comprised of a cubic perovskite crystal structure satisfying the unit cell formula: R0.33+z A0.67 C1-y O3-x.

1990-06-04

315

Ceramic compositions and articles prepared therefrom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An article of manufacture comprising a high density polycrystalline body substantially transparent to visible light, said body consisting essentially of a compound having a pervoskite structure and formula: AbO/sub 3/ wherein A is selected from the group consisting of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and mixture thereof and B is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, scandium, lutetcium and mixture thereof.

Buhrer, C.

1980-07-08

316

Review article : Jesus' resurrection in Joseph's garden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is a lengthy review of the book Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden by P.J.W. (Flip) Schutte. The book represents a quest to trace the relationship between Jesus’ resurrection, myth and canon. Schutte finds the origin of events underlying the biblical canon in proclamation. His focus ...

Dannhauser, Estelle Henrietta

317

ABSORBENT ARTICLE COMPRISING A COMPOSITE MATERIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an absorbent article comprising a freeze dried composite material. The freeze dried composite material comprises cellulosic pulp (e.g. CTMP) and an absorbent material. The absorbent material comprises microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a specified content of carboxylate groups.

THELIANDER HANS; WERNERSSON FREDRIK; HANSON CHARLOTTA; GUSTAFSON INGRID; FALK TORGNY

318

Writing a Wikipedia Genetic Disease Article  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing a Wikipedia article about a genetic disease is a good culminating activity for a genetics course or module, as it requires synthesizing and interpreting a wide range of genetic information. This assignment also includes a potential service component, which is normally very difficult in genetics.

Bell, Jeff

319

Transcriptome analysis and gene expression atlas for Panicum hallii var. filipes, a diploid model for biofuel research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Panicum hallii is an emerging model for genetic studies of agronomic traits in Panicum, presenting a tractable diploid alternative study system to the tetra- or octaploid biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). To characterize the gene complement in P. hallii var. filipes and enable gene expression analysis in this system we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome. Over 300?Mb of normalized cDNA prepared from multiple tissues and treatments was sequenced using 454-Titanium, producing an annotated assembly including 15?422 unique gene names. Comparison with other grass genomes identified putative P. hallii homologs for >14?000 previously characterized genes. We also developed an atlas of gene expression across tissues and stages using RNA-Seq (the quantitative analysis of short cDNA reads). SOLiD sequencing and quantitative analysis of more than 40?million cDNA tags identified substantial variation in expression profiles among tissues, consistent with known functional differences. Putative homologs were found for all enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis, including genes with known effects on biomass conversion efficiency. The resources developed here will enable studies of the genes underlying variation in cell wall composition, drought tolerance, and biomass production in Panicum.

Meyer E; Logan TL; Juenger TE

2012-06-01

320

A critical review of Dr. Charles S. Greene's article titled "Managing the Care of Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders: a new Guideline for Care" and a revision of the American Association for Dental Research's 1996 policy statement on temporomandibular disorders, approved by the AADR Council in March 2010, published in the Journal of the American Dental Association September 2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dr. Charles Greene's article, "Managing the Care of Patients with TMDs A New Guideline for Care," and the American Association for Dental Research's (AADR) 2010 Policy Statement on Temporomandibular Disorders, published in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) September 2010, are reviewed in detail. The concept that all temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) should be lumped into one policy statement for care is inappropriate. TMDs are a collection of disorders that are treated differently, and the concept that TMDs must only be managed within a biopsychosocial model of care is inappropriate. TMDs are usually a musculoskeletal orthopedic disorder, as defined by the AADR. TMD orthopedic care that is peer-reviewed and evidence-based is available and appropriate for some TMDs. Organized dentistry, including the American Dental Association, and mainstream texts on TMDs, support the use of orthopedics in the treatment of some TMDs. TMDs are not psychological or social disorders. Informed consent requires that alternative care is discussed with patients. Standard of care is a legal concept that is usually decided by a court of law and not decided by a policy statement, position paper, guidelines or parameters of care handed down by professional organizations. The 2010 AADR Policy Statement on TMD is not the standard of care in the United States. Whether a patient needs care for a TMD is not decided by a diagnostic test, but by whether the patient has significant pain, dysfunction and/or a negative change in quality of life from a TMD and they want care. Some TMDs need timely invasive and irreversible care.

Simmons HC 3rd

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Your research: how to get it on paper and in print.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much worthwhile medical research is never accepted for publication or is ignored when published, often because it is poorly presented. The purpose of this article is to express in simple language how research is best presented in writing. Few actual data are given, though much experience is summarized. The result desired is greater ease, clarity, and effectiveness in communicating medical research. The principles presented here are intended to make medical research writing easier and clearer and to give the research itself more impact.

Griscom NT

1999-02-01

322

Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

2010-01-01

323

METHOD FOR ATTACHING MECHANICAL FASTENERS TO ABSORBENT ARTICLES AND THE RESULTING ABSORBENT ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to methods for attaching mechanical fasteners to absorbent articles using slow-crystallizing hot melt adhesives under conditions sufficient to result in a mechanical fastener/absorbent article bond static shear strength of at least about 50 min/kg. Preferred mechanical fasteners include hook-type fastener tabs. The present invention provides an efficient, reliable method for attaching mechanical fasteners to absorbent articles which is superior to previous techniques. The present invention also relates to absorbent articles produced by the described method.

JOHNSON Betsy

324

Method for attaching mechanical fasteners to absorbent articles and the resulting absorbent articles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to methods for attaching mechanical fasteners to absorbent articles using slow-crystallizing hot melt adhesives under conditions sufficient to result in a mechanical fastener/absorbent article bond static shear strength of at least about 50 min/kg. Preferred mechanical fasteners include hook-type fastener tabs. The present invention provides an efficient, reliable method for attaching mechanical fasteners to absorbent articles which is superior to previous techniques. The present invention also relates to absorbent articles produced by the described method.

JOHNSON BETSY

325

Sample Articles from the Electrochemical Society  

Science.gov (United States)

Sample articles that the Electrochemical Society deems particularly noteworthy from the Journal of the Electrochemical Society and Electrochemical Solid State Letters are available online in .pdf format. The Society describes the journals as follows: "Each issue of the Journal includes over 400 pages of over 60 original papers that are selected by a prestigious editorial board on topics covering both electrochemical and solid-state science and technology. Papers published in Letters represent the same kind of important scientific and technical breakthroughs featured in the past in the Letters-section of the Journal. Letters is a joint publication of The Electrochemical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Electron Devices Society (EDS)." Five articles, all very recent, are featured at the sample page.

2000-01-01

326

Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

2010-10-01

327

ABSORBENT ARTICLE COMPRISING AN ABSORBENT POROUS FOAM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an absorbent article in the form of an absorbent porous foam comprising freeze-dried microfibrillated cellulose. The foam exhibits improved absorption characteristics due to the presence of charged groups in an amount of 0.5-2.2 mmol/g of MFC. The invention also relates to a method for the production of the foam, comprising oxidation of pulp (TEMPO-mediated), disintegration and freeze-drying.

THELIANDER HANS; WERNERSSON FREDRIK; HANSON CHARLOTTA; GUSTAFSON INGRID; FALK TORGNY

328

DETERMINE THE TYPOLOGY OF ARTICLES BYITS PUBLISHING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Typology of documents is part of bibliographic description of articles and component parts. So, we use the recommendations of the Standard COMARC/B Format for bibliographic dates F.6 which includes “Typology of documents/works for bibliography management in COBISS”, published on the Web site on 11-th of November 2011. We pay attention on the first part of the typology, àrticles and other component parts and we give explanations and suggestions for its implementation.

Natasha Bundovska; Valentina Dojchinovska-Ilioska; Sofche ??rkovikj

2012-01-01

329

RELATIONSHIP MARKETING RESEARCH TAILORED TO SUPPORT SALES MANAGEMENT. CASE STUDY: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS LOGISTICS COMPANY IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within current economy context, complexities and particularities most companies are constantly seeking to maximize effectiveness and efficiency of their business. As sales force represents for most organizations their “spearheds”and direct contact with the market, its management can be a source for customer satisfaction and overall efficiency. Relationship marketing research with all its particularities and dimensions, if tailored appropriately can explicitly pinpoint major sources of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Focus of contemporary relationship marketing is the customer viewed across lifetime as a profit source and partner rather than on short term for singular transactions. Research findings help the organization better manage its sales force and generate customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty and maximize profits while achieving superior efficiency.

Pop Nicolae Alexandru; Mihoc Florin; Fotea Ioan Stefan

2010-01-01

330

When is a research question not a research question?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. RESULTS: The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. CONCLUSION: Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

Mayo NE; Asano M; Barbic SP

2013-06-01

331

Elluminate Article: Revisiting Mega-Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2006, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ (Elluminate Support) for details on how to download this FREE software. * Revisiting Mega-Universities Gene Rubin and Claudine SchWeber University of Maryland University College

Eugene Rubin; Claudine SchWeber

2006-01-01

332

Development and validation of a multiple choice examination assessing cognitive and behavioural knowledge of pediatric resuscitation: a report from the EXPRESS pediatric research collaborative.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Assessing the knowledge of Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) based learning objectives of medical trainees is an important evaluation component for both residency programs and for research studies. In this study, a multiple-choice question (MCQ) examination was developed and validated for use in a larger pediatric simulation resuscitation study (EXPRESS study). METHODS: Experts in pediatric resuscitation developed two MCQ exams using a set of pre-determined learning objectives. After a single center pilot, the exam was used as an assessment of cognitive skills in the EXPRESS study, a multicenter trial examining the use of scripted debriefing and high-fidelity simulation in pediatric resuscitation education. Results from the MCQ in the pre-intervention phase of the EXPRESS study were used to assess the reliability and validity of the MCQ examination. In addition, an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried to assess the underlying structure of the PALS-based learning objectives. RESULTS: 435 health care professionals completed the MCQ examination with an average score of 69.3%. Significantly higher examination results were seen in physicians vs. non-physicians, senior vs. junior physicians and participants with up-to-date PALS certification. The EFA results indicated four distinct categories of items were assessed. CONCLUSION: This short MCQ examination demonstrated reasonable reliability and construct validity. It may be useful to assess pediatric resuscitation knowledge in future studies or courses.

Duff JP; Cheng A; Bahry LM; Hopkins J; Richard M; Schexnayder SM; Carbonaro M

2013-03-01

333

Conducting research: getting started.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents issues to be considered when planning to conduct research, specifically ways to avoid critical errors in writing the research proposal. It concludes with an outline for writing research proposals.

Giuffre M

1996-04-01

334

Journal of Lightning Research ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Journal of Lightning Research is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, and letters in all areas of lightning research including, thunderstorms and thunderstorm electrification, physics and effects of lightning flashes, lightning chemistry and its impact on...

335

ACTIVE IRON POWDER AND EXOTHERMAL ARTICLE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An active iron powder to be contained in an exothermal composition generatingheat upon contact with air, characterized in that the content of wustite in theiron powder is 5.01 to 50 wt %, as determined by the ratio of the X-ray peak intensitythereof to that of iron. The active iron powder is suitable as a material for anexothermal article, can provide an exothermal composition exhibiting excellentcharacteristics in the start and initial rise of heat generation, and can be producedat a low cost.

DODO Toshihiro

336

Abrasion resistant silicon nitride based articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A composite article and cutting tool are prepared by densification to form a body consisting essentially of particles of hard refractory material uniformly distributed in a matrix consisting essentially of a first phase and a second phase, said first phase consisting essentially of crystalline silicon nitride and said second phase being an intergranular refractory phase comprising silicon nitride and a suitable densification aid selected from the group consisting of yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, hafnium oxide and the lanthanade rare earth oxides and mixture thereof.

Sarin, V.K.; Buijan, S.T.; Penty, R.A.

1984-02-28

337

Procedure for coating articles with pyrolytic carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method to coat articles with pyrolytic carbon is described which is particularly suitable for small nuclear fuel particles as one obtains a very homogeneous layer. The pyrolytic carbon is produced according to the invention by decomposing a hydrocarbon gas mixture composed of an inert gas share (20-65 Vol%) and a mixture of acetylene and propylene. It is favourable to have the hydrocarbon mixture contain between 50 and 55 Vol% acetylene. Variations on the known procedure are given. The coating of spherical thorium dioxide particles is mentioned as an example. (UWI)

1976-01-01

338

Kids in the Hall of Biodiversity: Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

This two-part article is part of the museum's Kids in Our Halls program, which was created by high school interns at the Museum. "Why are coral reefs important to all life?" is an overview of these "rain forests of the sea," examining how they are home to millions of aquatic species, why they are at risk, and what can be done to help preserve them. "Ever wonder where chocolate comes from?" takes a look at where chocolate comes from, how cacao beans are prepared using a 300-year-old process invented by the Aztecs, and the reasons why cacao trees are potentially endangered.

339

Appel d'articles 9.1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A la suite d’un atelier dirigé par Lucie Hotte de l’Université d’Ottawa lors de la conférence biennale de l’ACQS (American Council for Quebec Studies) en novembre 2010, Voix plurielles vous invite à soumettre un tapuscrit sur le thème « Enjeux actuels des littératures francophones du Canada ». Votre article portera sur un aspect, une œuvre ou un-e auteur-e des littératures francophones de l’Ouest, de l’Ontario ou du Nouveau Brunswick. Rédigé en français, il sera conforme aux normes de la revue (accessible à partir du site de l’APFUCC). Veuillez soumettre votre texte à Voix plurielles avant le 31 décembre 2011, soit directement par soumission électronique à la revue, soit par courriel à Catherine Parayre (cparayre@brocku.ca). Les soumissions se feront sous Word 2003 ou en RTF. Les articles retenus paraîtront dans le numéro 9.1 (avril/mai 2012). Au plaisir de vous lire, merci.

Rédaction Voix plurielles

2011-01-01

340

Differential gene expression in C4 plants. Research proposal, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983. [Pea plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The topic of this research proposal is slightly different from that originally outlined. Specifically, instead of characterizing the genes encoding the small subunit of RuBP carboxylase and the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide from corn, these genes from pea are being characterized. The above polypeptides represent the major products of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in green leaves. CDNA clones encoding the above polypeptides were isolated and characterized. Both of these cDNA clones have now been sequenced, providing the amino acid sequences for the carboxylase small subunit and, for the first time, for the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide. Pea nuclear DNA was cloned into the lambda phage Charon 4, and cloned nuclear DNA sequences encoding the above polypeptides were isolated. Future work will be concerned with the structural and functional characterization of these nuclear genes.

Cashmore, A. R.

1981-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Scientific Collaboration and Coauthors in Life Science Journal Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is common to conduct collaborative research in science and technology. In particular, the development of big science, Internet, and globalization facilitated the scientific collaboration. This study used two databases, Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports as data sources. From the analysis of 320 papers in 16 journals in life sciences, the results showed that there is no significant correlation between the impact factor of journals and the number of authors. Moreover, there is no correlation of authors and the cited times, either. The number of authors and cited times in most papers are under 10 persons and 25 times, respectively.[Article content in Chinese

Ya-hsiu Fu

2002-01-01

342

Article 4 - Rugby culture, ethnicity and concussion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides the socio-historical background to a research project which includes the investigation of the relationship between school rugby culture, ethnicity and attitudes towards the reporting of a concussion. It examines rugby culture in relation to the reporting of concussion by senior secondary school rugby players. The concept of ‘Rugby culture' in the present research was defined as “the importance the school, staff, pupils and parents place on success in rugby” and is explored in-depth with respect to cultural, ethnic and historical parameters. In particula

Brendan Hokowhitu; S. John Sullivan; Les R. Tumoana Williams

2008-01-01

343

Writing software or writing scientific articles?  

CERN Multimedia

An analysis of publications related to high energy physics computing in refereed journals is presented. The distribution of papers associated to various fields of computing relevant to high energy physics is critically analyzed. The relative publication rate of software papers is evaluated in comparison to other closely related physics disciplines, such as nuclear physics, radiation protection and medical physics, and to hardware publications. The results hint to the fact that, in spite of the significant effort invested in high energy physics computing and its fundamental role in the experiments, this research area is underrepresented in scientific literature; nevertheless the analysis of citations highlights the significant impact of software publications in experimental research.

Basaglia, Tullio; Dressendorfer, P V; Larkin, A; Pia, M G

2008-01-01

344

Writing Software or Writing Scientific Articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of publications related to high energy physics computing in refereed journals is presented. The distribution of papers associated to various fields of computing relevant to high energy physics is critically analyzed. The relative publication rate of software papers is evaluated in comparison to other closely related physics disciplines, such as nuclear physics, radiation protection and medical physics, and to hardware publications. The results hint to the fact that, in spite of the significant effort invested in high energy physics computing and its fundamental role in the experiments, this research area is underrepresented in scientific literature; nevertheless the analysis of citations highlights the significant impact of software publications in experimental research.

Bell, Zane W [ORNL

2007-01-01

345

Research misconduct  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics

2003-01-01

346

Process of producing a ceramic matrix composite article and article formed thereby  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A CMC article and process for producing the article to have a layer on its surface that protects a reinforcement material within the article from damage. The method entails providing a body containing a ceramic reinforcement material in a matrix material that contains a precursor of a ceramic matrix material. A fraction of the reinforcement material is present and possibly exposed at a surface of the body. The body surface is then provided with a surface layer formed of a slurry containing a particulate material but lacking the reinforcement material of the body. The body and surface layer are heated to form the article by converting the precursor within the body to form the ceramic matrix material in which the reinforcement material is contained, and by converting the surface layer to form the protective layer that covers any fraction of the reinforcement material exposed at the body surface.

Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); McGuigan, Henry Charles (Duanesburg, NY); Brun, Milivoj Konstantin (Ballston Lake, NY)

2011-10-25

347

Review article: in vitro rearing of Mallophaga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From time to time, a number of attempts have been made by various workers to rear the mallophagan species in vitro. Some of the species have been successfully reared while some of them could be reared for shorter periods but others could not be reared at all. This may be on account of diverse temperature, humidity and nutritional requirements of various species. In the present article an attempt has been made to review the work done for in vitro rearing of Mallophaga. The different aspects like the temperature, humidity, nutritional requirements of mallophagan species, the methodology used by different workers, the optimum conditions for better rearing of mallophagan species and also some of the practical difficulties involved for their rearing, survival, egg laying, morphogenesis and hatching have been discussed.

Saxena AK; Agarwal GP

1983-08-01

348

MODULAR CONVERTING LINE FOR FABRICATING ABSORBENT ARTICLES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present disclosure relates to converting lines for manufacturing absorbent articles. The converting lines include a plurality of process equipment converting modules connected with each other along a machine direction (MD). Adjacent converting modules may be releasably connectable to each other with converting module couplers. The converting modules may also have substantially identical dimensions, wherein each converting module defines the same or substantially the same MD length, CD width, and height. The converting modules may also be sized to be received within a standard shipping container. The converting lines may includes a plurality of accessory service modules supported by respective converting modules and connected with each other along the machine directions. The accessory service modules may also be adapted to be received within standard shipping containers. Adjacent accessory service modules may be releasably connected to each other with accessory module couplers, which may include quick disconnect couplers.

HEALEY PATRICK JOHN; LOKAR STOYAN; AMUNDSON DANIEL JON; BENNER JAMES JAY; BERRIZBEITIA JOSE MAURICIO

349

The Art Of Writing Literary Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an interview to media, Shekhar Kapoor, a film producer, made a general comment about the distance caused by technology between your work and you. He said, 'the more I use computer, the more I realize, I'm not writing poetry any more. There was something more emotional about using a pen and paper'. Certain emotional insipidity and dryness about the use of technology, turns writing 'cut and paste' phenomenon. The second half of the quotation brings in the foreground the experience of writing and the pleasure associated with it as displaced from each other. Recently, people have stopped enjoy the activity of writing as computer has replaced pen and cut writing experience from pleasure it had. The present article considers the writing activity in the context of academic circles and intends to dispel fear.

Nangare Dinkar Ramchandra

2013-01-01

350

Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

Simpson, John T (Clinton, TN); Blue, Craig A (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-07-13

351

Method for manufacturing neutron absorbing article  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A neutron absorbing article, preferably in long, thin, flat form, suitable for but not necessarily limited to use in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel at locations between volumes of such stored fuel to absorb neutrons from said spent fuel and prevent uncontrolled nuclear reaction of the spent fuel material, is composed of finely divided boron carbide particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer forming a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles, in such proportions that at least 6% of b10 from the boron carbide content is present therein. The described structures possess a multiplicity of desirable properties for the use mentioned, including withstanding thermal cycling from repeated spent fuel insertions and removals, withstanding radiation from said spent nuclear fuel over long periods of time without losing desirable neutron absorbing and physical properties, being sufficiently chemically inert to water so as to retain neutron absorbing properties if brought into contact with it, not being galvanically corroding and being sufficiently flexible so as to withstand operational basis earthquake and safe shutdown earthquake seismic events without loss of neutron absorbing capability and other desirable properties when installed in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel. In preferred embodiments of the invention the phenolic polymer is a phenol formaldehyde type polymer, such as a trimethylol phenol formaldehyde type polymer, the boron carbide contains at least 12% of b10, the plate contains from 8.0 to 5% thereof, the plate density is 1.6 to 2.1 G./cc. And proportions of boron carbide (Which may be accompanied by limited amounts of certain impurities) and phenol formaldehyde type polymer (Preferably free of halogens, mercury, lead and sulfur) are from 20 to 35% of the former and 65 to 80% of the latter. The invention also relates to a plurality of such neutron absorbing articles in a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel and to a method for

1981-01-01

352

[Top 50 articles from Turkey contributing to cardiovascular medicine].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine and disclose publications from Turkey that have most contributed "genuinely" to cardiovascular medicine in the past 40 years. STUDY DESIGN: Based on data of Web of Science, 50 publications were identified, originating from Turkey's institutions and having received the greatest number of citations as of July 2011. Papers having more than a minor share by international authors were not considered. RESULTS: Thirty-eight primary authors generated 50 medical papers, each receiving ?37 citations (95% CI 37; 124). The herein cited articles corresponded in quality to the top one-fifth of global papers. Half of the articles were published in 1997-2003. Currently, the estimated number of such papers produced annually in Turkey is only 4-5, which represents only a global share of 1.0 per mille. The best period registered were the years 1995 to 2005, after which a rise is not anticipated to persist. Cardiology generated 29, cardiovascular surgery 19, and pediatric cardiology two articles. These publications originated from only 10 medical faculties, Gülhane Military Academy, three state and two private hospitals. CONCLUSION: Given its potential, the performance of Turkey's contribution to cardiovascular medicine has been unsatisfactory. A much larger concerted effort is required to form a milieu that will focus to enhance research having a potential to contribute to medicine.

Onat A

2012-01-01

353

Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

2008-01-01

354

Using Google Scholar to Estimate the Impact of Journal Articles in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the potential of Google Scholar as an alternative or complement to the Web of Science and Scopus for measuring the impact of journal articles in education. Three handbooks on research in science education, language education, and educational technology were used to identify a sample of 112 accomplished scholars. Google…

van Aalst, Jan

2010-01-01

355

Towards Greater Recognition of the Right to Play: An Analysis of Article 31 of the UNCRC  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's right to play is formally enshrined in Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). However, few research studies have explored children's experiences of play from an explicit rights-based perspective. Using children's views to illustrate the multi-dimensional relationship Article 31 holds with other…

Davey, Ciara; Lundy, Laura

2011-01-01

356

How to create a journal article from a thesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To identify strategies to assist in the publication of research arising from a postgraduate thesis or dissertation. BACKGROUND: There are many benefits to publishing a journal article from a completed thesis, including contributing knowledge to the writer's chosen field, career enhancement and personal satisfaction. However, there are also numerous obstacles for the newly graduated student in crafting an article fit for a specialist publication from a thesis. DATA SOURCES: The author conducted a search of the title, abstract and keywords of the Cinahl, Scopus and Proquest databases, from 1990 to 2010: The author searched for the words: 'journal article' or 'manuscript; 'thesis' or 'dissertation'. REVIEW METHODS: The author excluded papers if: they pertained to allocation of authorship to someone other than the academic adviser; related to undergraduate issues rather than graduate dissertations; were discussions of the merits of a PhD by 'publication' instead of 'by thesis'; were not published in a peer-reviewed journal; or were not in English. CONCLUSION: The relationship between adviser and student changes as the student becomes a graduate, and new roles for the student and adviser need to be negotiated. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Students need to realise that writing a paper from a thesis is usually going to be more difficult than they anticipate, but the application of strategies discussed in this paper should make the task manageable. Furthermore, universities might wish to consider alternatives in which published papers emerge before the examination of a thesis, such as requiring students to write a paper as part of their coursework.

Ahern K

2012-01-01

357

Mars Express  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the European Space Agency (ESA) features information about the Mars Express orbiter and its ongoing mission. Mars Express represents ESA's first visit to another planet in the solar system and will help answer fundamental questions about the geology, atmosphere, surface environment, history of water and potential for life on Mars. The site spotlights information about the mission, the spacecraft and its instrumentation, background science about Mars, images and scientific results gathered so far, recent publications, images and animations, plus updated special features and news articles.

Agency, European S.

358

Research on Inhibitory Effect of Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol on Vascular Endothelial Intercellular Adhesion Molecular-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA Abnormal Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study held a research on the anti-oxidative damage effect and mechanism of Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol from gene level. Method: it tested the influence of Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol to human umbilical veins blood vessel endothelial cell strain (CRL-1730) ICAM-1 mRNA cellular expression caused by oxidative damage with RT-PCR method. Result: the experimental result indicated that the luminance and area values of electrophoretic band of 4, 5, and 6 with different doses of Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol for protection were all lower than positive control group, while higher than normal control group, furthermore, it presented a state that be increasing with the augment of Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol dose. The degree of protection of the three dose groups, high, medium and low, were separately 91.1, 82.7 and 37.3%, respectively after making a comparison in each group. Conclusion: Momordica charantia L. Polyphenol can inhibit cell adhesion molecular-1 expression and make a protective effect to vascular endothelial cell damage.

Xuezheng Huang; Miaochao Chen; Peilong Xu

2013-01-01

359

Review article: Burnout in emergency medicine physicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Training and the practice of emergency medicine are stressful endeavours, placing emergency medicine physicians at risk of burnout. Burnout syndrome is associated with negative outcomes for patients, institutions and the physician. The aim of this review is to summarise the available literature on burnout among emergency medicine physicians and provide recommendations for future work in this field. A search of MEDLINE (1946-present) (search terms: 'Burnout, Professional' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Stress, Psychological' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') and EMBASE (1988-present) (search terms: 'Burnout' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians'; 'Mental Stress' AND 'Emergency Medicine' AND 'Physicians') was performed. The authors focused on articles that assessed burnout among emergency medicine physicians. Most studies used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to quantify burnout, allowing for cross-study (and cross-country) comparisons. Emergency medicine has burnout levels in excess of 60% compared with physicians in general (38%). Despite this, most emergency medicine physicians (>60%) are satisfied with their jobs. Both work-related (hours of work, years of practice, professional development activities, non-clinical duties etc.) and non-work-related factors (age, sex, lifestyle factors etc.) are associated with burnout. Despite the heavy burnout rates among emergency medicine physicians, little work has been performed in this field. Factors responsible for burnout among various emergency medicine populations should be determined, and appropriate interventions designed to reduce burnout.

Arora M; Asha S; Chinnappa J; Diwan AD

2013-10-01

360

'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus), the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis) the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta), a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

P.D. Van Helden; S.D.C. Parsons; N.C. Gey van Pittius

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Context Specific Event Model For News Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a new context based event indexing and event ranking model for News Articles. The context event clusters formed from the UNL Graphs uses the modified scoring scheme for segmenting events which is followed by clustering of events. From the context clusters obtained three models are developed- Identification of Main and Sub events; Event Indexing and Event Ranking. Based on the properties considered from the UNL Graphs for the modified scoring main events and sub events associated with main-events are identified. The temporal details obtained from the context cluster are stored using hashmap data structure. The temporal details are place-where the event took; person-who involved in that event; time-when the event took place. Based on the information collected from the context clusters three indices are generated- Time index, Person index, and Place index. This index gives complete details about every event obtained from context clusters. A new scoring scheme is introduced for ranking the events. The scoring scheme for event ranking gives weight-age based on the priority level of the events. The priority level includes the occurrence of the event in the title of the document, event frequency, and inverse document frequency of the events.

Kowcika A; Uma Maheswari; Geetha T V

2013-01-01

362

Bariatric surgery: a best practice article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bariatric surgery can effectively reduce body weight and treat obesity associated metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. There are also benefits for an individual's functional status and psychological health. A multi-disciplinary evaluation should be offered to the individual as the first essential step in considering bariatric surgery as a treatment. This evaluation should include a thorough medical assessment, as well as psychological and dietetic assessments. In this best practice article, we outline the current recommendations for referral for bariatric surgery. We also present the data for pre-operative assessment before bariatric surgery, with particular reference to cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnoea. We describe the literature on outcomes after bariatric surgery, including the results for mortality, weight loss, remission of diabetes and associated endocrine disorders such as hypogonadism. Within this review, we will illustrate the impact of bariatric surgery on self-image, psychological health and perceived health and functional status. Finally, we briefly detail the potential complications of bariatric surgery, and offer advice on post-operative care and surveillance.

Neff KJ; le Roux CW

2013-02-01

363

Discussion Article: Disciplinary Boundaries for Creativity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Creativity is a very topical issue and indeed a political one. For example, the very notion of ‘little c creativity’ seems to be a reflection of the requirements of what could be described as a ‘Post-Fordist’ economy. However, the call to develop creativity in education is largely based on the idea of creativity as the production of novel ideas. The central argument of this article is that creativity cannot be seen purely in terms of novel ideas but that it is intrinsically bound with the teaching of the academic disciplines. It is within the context of creativity in the sense of transforming the disciplines that two paradoxes are discussed. The first paradox is that the truly creative act is not the preserve of the genius but the potential for the whole of humanity. Secondly, creativity involves both thinking within the constraints of the discipline and challenging those constraints. This implies the need for students to engage in meta-discourse, involving the nature and history of the subject-matter taught.

Stuart Rowlands

2011-01-01

364

Review Article: Herbal Approach for Obesity Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity, a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Usage of herbs for the management of obesity in the recent times is attracting attention. A web and manual based literature survey was conducted to assess the amount of information available on the herbal products for weight management. Traditional literature, PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar databases were screened up to February 2012. The search words were “obesity", "herbal medicine/products/extracts”, "medicinal plants", "traditional medicine", "Ayurvedic medicine" without narrowing/limiting searching words or elements. Publications only with abstracts/full articles and books were reviewed in the search. Based on the available literature, for many of the herbal and weight loss products, there is little published information and there have been no clinical trials or the level of evidence is limited. Our literature survey also indicated that these herbal products fall under an acceptable level of evidence or with no scientific background at all, or they have a scientific rational but not to an acceptance level. Attempts were made in the review to define the features of possible herbal weight loss product. An ideal herbal anti obesity product should reduce the weight by 10% over placebo of treatment by showing an evidence of improvement of bio markers like blood pressure, lipids and glycemia without any side effects.

C. V. Chandrasekaran; M. A. Vijayalakshmi; K. Prakash; V. S. Bansal; J. Meenakshi; A. Amit

2012-01-01

365

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING CELLULOSIC SHAPED ARTICLES, CELLULOSIC SHAPED ARTICLES AND THE USE THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a process for producing cellulosic shaped articles with stabilized inclusions in a microfine dispersion of nonpolar organic compounds and mixtures by a dry-wet extrusion process. The shaped articles produced in this way exhibit by comparison with unmodified cellulose fibers a substantially increased storage capacity for heat and/or nonpolar active substances. They are suitable in particular for use in textiles for clothing, industrial textiles, leisure, medicine and cosmetics. Potential functional effects imparted include the physical effect of heat storage and/or the uniform and finely meterable storage and release of nonpolar active substances and plant extracts from the interior of the fibers of the shaped articles. It is possible through a suitable choice of the nonpolar portion to produce by this process also fibers capable of absorbing liquid or gaseous nonpolar substances.

KOLBE AXEL; MARKWITZ HARDY; RIEDE SABINE; KRIEG MARCUS

366

Method For Manufacturing Articles For High Temperature Use, And Articles Made Therewith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing an article for use in a high-temperature environment, and an article for use in such an environment, are presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; selecting a desired vertical crack density for a protective coating to be deposited on the substrate; providing a powder, wherein the powder has a size range selected to provide a coating having the desired vertical crack density; and applying a thermal-sprayed coating to the substrate, the coating having the desired vertical crack density, wherein the powder is used as a raw material for the coating.

Wang, Hongyu (Hockessin, DE); Mitchell, David Joseph (Niskayuna, NY); Lau, Yuk-Chiu (Ballston Lake, NY); Henry, Arnold Thomas (Gloversville, NY)

2005-03-15

367

Method For Manufacturing Articles For High Temperature Use, And Articles Made Therewith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for manufacturing an article for use in a high-temperature environment, and an article for use in such an environment, are presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; selecting a desired vertical crack density for a protective coating to be deposited on the substrate; providing a powder, wherein the powder has a size range selected to provide a coating having the desired vertical crack density; and applying a thermal-sprayed coating to the substrate, the coating having the desired vertical crack density, wherein the powder is used as a raw material for the coating.

Wang, Hongyu (Hockessin, DE); Mitchell, David Joseph (Niskayuna, NY); Lau, Yuk-Chiu (Ballston Lake, NY); Henry, Arnold Thomas (Gloversville, NY)

2006-02-28

368

Novel wrapping for smoking articles and smoking articles comprising this wrapping  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to wrappings for smoking articles. Its subject is a strip of wrappings in which to wrap the tobacco of the article, this strip comprising perforations grouped in zones Z which are regularly distributed along the length of the strip in such a way that each individual wrapping E obtained after the strip B has been cut up has a zone Z of perforations in a region close to one end of the wrapping and in such a way that each perforated zone Z exhibits air permeability such as to ensure a correct profile of dilution during the smoking. The invention applies to cigarettes and cigars.

BASKEVITCH NICOLAS; MARAIS JACQUES

369

Parathyroid scintigraphy in hyperparathyroidism (review article)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Once the diagnosis of primary hyperthyroidism (PHPTH) has been established with lab measurement then successful removal of all hyper functioning parathyroid tissue with permanent relief of PHPTH is accomplished in 85% to 95%, so accurate localization of hyper functioning gland (adenoma) is best way to treat the patient. As we knew hyperparathyroidism arise 85% to 90 % due to adenoma, 9% to 15% due to hyperplasia & < 1% due to carcinoma, one of reliable method for localization of parathyroid adenoma is radionuclide procedures. Using radionuclide techniques has been attempted for more than 2 decade (cesium 131, gallium 67, Selenomethionine - 75 with variable success). For many years, thallium-201/technetium-99m subtraction was the scintigraphic method used for parathyroid imaging, having been introduced by Ferlin in 1983. 201Tl planar scintigraphy and SPET were also considered to be successful procedures for localizing ectopic parathyroid adenomas (e.g. in the mediastinum) prior to reoperation following surgical failure. Since the introduction of cationic complexes which were developed for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, an increasing number of reports have dealt with these substances as tracers for oncology. In 1989, the use of 99mTc-sestamibi for parathyroid imaging was reported by Coakley et al. for the first time. Several authors subsequently presented different techniques and imaging protocols for 99mTcsestamib parathyroid imaging, including subtraction scintigraphy with iodine-123 or 99mTc-pertechnetate and dual-phase scintigraphy with early and delayed imaging. To complicate the situation for the routine user still further, over the last decade new cationic complexes, such as 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-furifosmin, have been introduced which show similar but not identical behavior with respect to cellular uptake. The question still arises as to which tracer, which technique and which protocol should be used. In this review article we briefly discuss about these questions.

B. Rashidi

2006-01-01

370

Production of scientific articles on health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 41 238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil). The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was three, which was less than half the number received per article in the ISI database (7.78). Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96%) dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international institutions and had a citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the proper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies.

Pellegrini Filho Alberto; Goldbaum Moisés; Silvi John

1997-01-01

371

Lymphangiosarcoma of dogs : a review : review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma in dogs, an extremely rare tumour with only 16 cases reported in the literature, is reviewed. Lymphangiosarcoma in humans, also very rare, and known in post-mastectomy, chronically-lymphoedematous patients as 'Stewart-Treves' syndrome, is briefly outlined, as well as the various other causes of lymphoedema, both primary and secondary, which usually precede malignancy. Comparisons between human and canine lymphoedema are made when such references were found. The genetic links to primary lymphoedema and the manifestation thereof in humans are mentioned. Lymphangiosarcoma in the majority of human and canine patients is an aggressively malignant tumour with few patients surviving despite various attempted treatments. The tumour most commonly arises in the subcutaneous tissues and rapidly invades underlying tissues and may spread widely internally via haematogenous and lymphatic routes, with frequent pleural and chest involvement. The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. Methods of diagnosis, with the variations encountered, including routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, tissue culture characteristics and endothelial expression of glycocongugates, are discussed.

J.H. Williams

2012-01-01

372

A study on retrieval of article and making database in radio technology with personal computer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although many useful articles appear in journals published in Korea, they are not always cited by researchers mainly due to absence of efficient searching system. The author made a program with 4 predefined filtering forms to detect published articles rapidly and accurately. The program was coded using database management system CA-Clipper VER 5.2. I used 486DX-II(8 Mbyte Ram, VGA, 560 Mbyte Hard Disk), desk-jet printer(HP-560k), and MS-DOS VER 5.0. I inputed twenty articles in the journal of Korean Society Radio technological Technology, And this program test for retrieve article and made database.

Kim, Sung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

373

Understanding quantitative research: part 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article, which is the second in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Understanding statistical analysis will ensure that nurses can assess the credibility and significance of the evidence reported. This article focuses on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

Hoare Z; Hoe J

2013-01-01

374

Expert System-A Review Article .  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the largest area of applications of artificial intelligence is in expert systems, or knowledge based systems as they are often known. This type of system seeks to exploit the specialised skills or information held by group of people on specific areas. It can be thought of as a computerised consulting service. It can also be called an information guidance system. Such systems are used for prospecting medical diagnosis or as educational aids. They are also used in engineering and manufacture in the control of robots where they inter-relate with vision systems. In this paper Ihave discussed the number of researches carried out in the area of expert system. It also describes the future of expert system.

Mrudula Pandit

2013-01-01

375

A REVIEW ARTICLE OF CLOUD COMPUTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a significant technology trend, and many experts expect it to reshape information-technology processes and the IT marketplace during the next five years.This keynote paper: presents a 21st century vision of computing; identifies various computing paradigms promising to deliver the vision of computing utilities; defines Cloud computing and provides the architecture for creating market-oriented Clouds by leveraging technologies such as VMs; provides thoughts on market-based resource management strategies that encompass both customer-driven service management and computational risk management to sustain SLA oriented resource allocation; presents some representative Cloud platforms especially those developed in industries along with our current work towards realising market-oriented resource allocation of Clouds by leveraging the 3rd generation Aneka enterprise Grid technology; reveals our early thoughts on interconnecting Clouds for dynamically creating an atmospheric computing environment along with pointers to future community research; and concludes with the need for convergence of competing IT paradigms for delivering our 21st century vision.

Mandeep Kaur; Amandeep Kaur; Mandeep kaur

2013-01-01

376

Target article with commentaries: developmental niche construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Niche construction is the modification of components of the environment through an organism's activities. Humans modify their environments mainly through ontogenetic and cultural processes, and it is this reliance on learning, plasticity and culture that lends human niche construction a special potency. In this paper we aim to facilitate discussion between researchers interested in niche construction and those interested in human cognitive development by highlighting some of the related processes. We discuss the transmission of culturally relevant information, how the human mind is a symbol-generating and artefact-devising system, and how these processes are bi-directional, with infants and children both being directed, and directing, their own development. We reflect on these in the light of four approaches: natural pedagogy, activity theory, distributed cognition and situated learning. Throughout, we highlight pertinent examples in non-humans that parallel or further explicate the processes discussed. Finally we offer three future directions; two involving the use of new techniques in the realms of neuroscience and modelling, and the third suggesting exploration of changes in the effects of niche construction across the lifespan.

Flynn EG; Laland KN; Kendal RL; Kendal JR

2013-03-01

377

Review article: Fabrication of nanofluidic devices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thanks to its unique features at the nanoscale, nanofluidics, the study and application of fluid flow in nanochannels/nanopores with at least one characteristic size smaller than 100?nm, has enabled the occurrence of many interesting transport phenomena and has shown great potential in both bio- and energy-related fields. The unprecedented growth of this research field is apparently attributed to the rapid development of micro/nanofabrication techniques. In this review, we summarize recent activities and achievements of nanofabrication for nanofluidic devices, especially those reported in the past four years. Three major nanofabrication strategies, including nanolithography, microelectromechanical system based techniques, and methods using various nanomaterials, are introduced with specific fabrication approaches. Other unconventional fabrication attempts which utilize special polymer properties, various microfabrication failure mechanisms, and macro/microscale machining techniques are also presented. Based on these fabrication techniques, an inclusive guideline for materials and processes selection in the preparation of nanofluidic devices is provided. Finally, technical challenges along with possible opportunities in the present nanofabrication for nanofluidic study are discussed.

Duan C; Wang W; Xie Q

2013-03-01

378

Which Fields and Articles Contributed Most to Medicine from Turkey?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine and disclose publications from Turkey that have contributed most “genuinely” to medicine in the past 40 years.Method: Based on data from the Web of Science, 100 publications originating from Turkey’s institutions were identified as having received by June, 2011, the greatest number of citations. Papers having more than a minor share by international authors were excluded.Results: Eighty-three primary authors generated 100 medical papers, each receiving>82 (95% GA 83; 230) citations. These articles, cited herein, were in the top 1% to 6% papers in the world. Half of the articles were published in 1994-2002. An estimated 10-12 such highly cited papers are produced currently in Turkey annually which represent only a global share of 0.5 per mille. The rate of rise registered in the period 1995-2005 may be anticipated not to persist later. Internal medicine, led by rheumatology, hematology and cardiology, and neurosciences were represented above the average. Health issues encountered more widely than in other populations, headed by Behçet’s disease, were the most frequent topics.Conclusion: Results are unsatisfactory compared with the potential of Turkey. A concerted and much greater effort is needed to rebuild an environment that focuses on promoting research with a potential for contributing to medicine. (Marmara Medical Journal 2011;24:156-61)

Altan ONAT

2011-01-01

379

Readers' opinion about English original articles in Ugeskrift for Laeger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Association performed a survey together with TNS Gallup Denmark among the readers of Ugeskrift for Laeger (Journal of the Danish Medical Association). The main motivation for the questionnaire was to evaluate the acceptability of changing the publication language in original articles from Danish into English. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as an on-line questionnaire among the members of the DMA. A systematic sample was drawn from the Danish Medical Association's member database. The sample comprised a total of 1,970 e-mail addresses. Among these, 1,952 were valid, and 1,952 physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. RESULTS: The response rate (1,046/1,952) was 54%. Among the participants, 43% were specialists, 36% were junior doctors and 20% general practitioners. Overall, 45% of the respondents publish scientific articles, and particularly specialists and junior doctors did not object to the shift from Danish to English language. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed that the readers and authors were willing to accept a shift from Danish into English publication language for original research papers

Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr

2010-01-01

380

Erythropoietin in cancer treatment: considerations about Henke's article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concurrent use of erythropoietin beta (EPO)and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients has been reported by Henke et al (Lancet 2003;362:1255-60) to correct anemia and impair cancer control. Due to the potential impact in daily clinical practice of this information a systematic critical review of the mentioned article was performed. Authors selected 10 arguments to question the contents regarding methodological and statistical aspects of the trial, and added 14 comments of controversy in more basic scientific concepts mentioned in the text as published. The panel including epidemiologist and radiation oncologists with expertise in clinical research concluded with 5 additional remarks recommending caution in interpretation of these results in terms of changes in daily practice of anemic patients support, and advising not to use EPO at experimental doses or after reaching physiological concentrations of hemoglobin.

Biete Sola A; Calvo Manuel FA; Clavo Varas B; Fernández Pérez C; Porto Vázquez C; de la Torre Tomás A; Zapatero Laborda A

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

A REVIEW ARTICLE ON MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: As an alternative to injection pharmaceutical researcher and scientist are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal route over the last few years. To overcome the deficiency associated with the other route of administration buccal region of oral cavity is an alternative target for the administration of choice of drug. The disadvantages relative with the oral drug delivery is the extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic medium as a result inadequate absorption of the drugs. However parental route may overcome the drawback related with the oral route but these formulations have high cost, supervision is required and least patient compliance. By the buccal route the drug are directly pass through into systemic circulation, less hepatic metabolism and high bioavailability. The aim of the review article is an overview of buccal drug delivery, anatomy of oral mucosa, mechanism of drug penetration and their in-vitro and in-vivo mucoadhesion testing method.

Jasvir Singh* and Pawan Deep

2013-01-01

382

Analysis of status of citation of articles published in the Medical Journal of Chinese PLA from 2000 to 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ?Based on the status of citation of articles published in Medical Journal of Chinese PLA, to analyze the academic value of the Medical Journal of Chinese PLA, and provide information for assessing dominant medical disciplines and major groups of contributors, and for appraisal of outstanding articles. Methods ?The journal citation data were obtained from the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database(CAJD). The individual citation data of the scientific articles published in Medical Journal of Chinese PLAfrom 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from CAJD. Articles with citation frequency equal to or higher than 30 times were collected for analysis, and they were defined as highly cited articles. Based on these highly cited articles, we analyzed the authors' institutions, research discipline distribution and types of research projects. We also made a vertical comparison of average citation frequency in every year. Results ?The total number of articles with citation frequency equal to or higher than 30 times was 50. The yearly average citation frequency increased year by year, from 0.05 times in the year 2000 to 4.46 times in the year 2009. Distribution of authors and institutions was as follows: authors of 11 articles were working in General Hospital of Chinese PLA and 302 Hospital of PLA respectively, authors of 6 articles were working in the Second Military Medical University, 5 in the First Military Medical University and Third Military Medical University, respectively, 4 in 304 Hospital of Chinese PLA. The articles from these 6 institutions accounted for 84% of all highly cited articles. Research fields distribution were as follows: 12 articles in infectious diseases, 7 in field surgery, 6 in trauma and burns. The articles in these 3 fields accounted for 50% of all highly cited articles. Research types were as follows: 20 articles of experimental research, 11 clinical research, 9 literature review, 8 expert forums and 2 dealing with clinical pathology. Conclusions ?Since 2000, the citation rate of articles published in the Medical Journal of Chinese PLAimproves significantly. The authors of these highly cited articles were mainly distributed in military medical universities and headquarter hospitals. The articles dealing with infectious diseases, field surgery, trauma and burns had higher citation frequency. The articles of experimental research, clinical research and literature review were the main forms of highly cited articles.

Xiao-yan ZHANG; Kui XIE; Xiao-ru YANG; Fang-wei LI; Liang YIN; Jin CHENG

2012-01-01

383

Mixed Method Research: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed method research. Lastly, the article describes the process of mixed method research.

Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

2012-01-01

384

Animal research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind of compromise where adherents of each view compromise on some points. The ethical basis for the mainstream view of the use of animals in research is analyzed in this light. In the second part of the article, scientific information about the use of animals in research (and in particular the harm and benefit of such use) is analyzed in the light of ethical questions that seem to be pertinent against the background of a mainstream compromise view.

Olsson, I.A.S.; SandØe, Peter

2012-01-01

385

Policy of national physical education journals on review articles/systematic reviews  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The large amount of scientific information that is produced and available in different areas, including physical education, requires the summary of contents. Different synthesis/review methods that lead to different answers are available. The objective of this study was to analyze the policy of national physical education journals on review articles, to quantify the reviews, and to classify them as systematic and narrative reviews based on established criteria. All journals (n=13) offer the possibility to publish review articles, but do not have specific standards/methods for this type of article. The production of review articles was high (n=429), with the publication of 371 (86%) narrative reviews and 58 (14%) systematic reviews. A priori, narrative reviews are used for the production of knowledge by internationally renowned scientific researchers. However, the volume of production of this type of review, as diverse as the issues in physical education are, does not seem to be proportional to the number of recognized researchers. This fact can lead to lower quality of the scientific production and rejection of these articles, as observed for journals in other areas. In view of the criteria and method employed, systematic reviews seem to be more valuable in situations in which no renowned researchers wants to produce review articles, avoiding a poor outcome. This type of review is characterized by more scientific rigor, whose production follows specific steps and standards, and also seems to be more appreciated by journal editors, with these reviews sometimes even being classified as original articles.

Gustavo Ricardo Schutz; Antônio Sérgio Santos Sant’Ana; Saray Giovana dos Santos

2011-01-01

386

Mètodes i tècniques de recerca en els articles de documentació periodística a Espanya (1997-2002)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Es presenta la relació dels articles sobre documentació periodística publicats en revistes i actes de congressos a l?Estat espanyol durant el període 1997-2002 i una relació dels que han seguit un procés de recerca científica. Es presenten i comenten els resultats de l?anàlisi de contingut dels articles seleccionats en funció de diversos paràmetres: proporció d?articles de recerca, mètodes i tècniques de recerca seguits, autoria, lloc de treball dels autors, tipologia de publicacions i distribució per anys. Finalment, s?anoten unes conclusions sobre la recerca en documentació periodística en el període estudiat.This article analyses articles and papers related to journalistic documentation that have been published in journals and in conference proceedings in Spain over the period 1997-2002. There is a listing of all articles as well as a summary of those that have followed scientific research processes. The results of the analysis of the articles' content are explored, according to different parameters: proportion of research, methods and research techniques articles studied, authorship, authors' place of work, type of publication and distribution by year. The article closes with some conclusions about research on journalistic documentation in the period studied.Se presenta la relación de los artículos sobre documentación periodística publicados en revistas y actas de congresos en el Estado español durante el periodo 1997-2002 y una relació de los que han seguido un proceso de investigación científica. Se presentan y comentan los resultados del análisis de contenido de los artículos seleccionados en función de diversos parámetros: proporción de artículos de investigación, métodos y técnicas de investigación seguidos, autoría, centro de trabajo de los autores, tipología de publicaciones y distribución por años. Finalmente, se anotan unas conclusiones sobre la investigación en documentación periodística en el periodo estudiado.

Guallar Delgado, Javier

2003-01-01

387

Pain related articles published in Thailand in the last 20 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Thai Association for the Study of Pain was established 20 years ago with the aim of educating the members and health care providers for pain management and pain research. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the progression of pain research by literature survey on Thai journals, since the beginning of TASP MATERIAL AND METHOD: Pain related original articles, except for the abstracts, proceedings, case reports, and review articles, published in eight Thai journals between 1990 and 2009 were searched RESULTS: The number of pain related articles was 233. The number of articles slowly but gradually increased during 1990 to 2002, drastically increased during 2004 and 2005, and then slightly decreased until 2009. About 75% of the papers were published in Thai language except for those published in one journal that has been published in English. The most common content of articles was related to the acute pain (75%) contributed by anesthesiologists. CONCLUSION: Pain research has been significantly increasing since the TASP was founded, especially in the last 10 years. The most common area of research is in the field of acute pain. The majority of the articles were published in Thai language.

Paiboonworachat S; Thienthong S; Nimmaanrat S; Supranee NM; Wichai I; Ploypetch T

2013-08-01

388

Analysis of Medical Sciences Articles Structure Quality During 2002-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Quality of printed papers in 4 four medical journals affiliated to one of the universities of medical sciences in Iran was assessed based on methodological and statistical methods.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study conducted in 2010, out of all articles published between the years 2002 to 2008 in one of the universities of medical sciences for affiliated journals that were equal to 1568, a sample of 162 articles were selected with Multi-stage stratified sampling method . For data collection, standard questionnaire was used to develop an information form. One sample t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare scores from different parts of article.Results: Cross sectional studies with 61.7% (100 papers) formed most of studies. Median of authors and number of references for each article were 3 and 19, respectively and 10% of articles had more than 35 references. Material and methods with 3.53 points from 4 points (88.2%) earned the mighest score which was of high quality and conclusion achieved the lowest score. Also p-value has been reported correctly in 102 articles (81.6%). In 95 articles (58.6%) results were not compare with the similar internal articles whereas only in 21 articles (13%) comparison was not made with similar external researches.Conclusion: The present study showed that the overall quality of the medical articles is not desirable. Hence, employing experts in research methods and statistics in various medical studies can improve the quality of articles in this branch of science.

Mahmood Reza Gohari; Masoud Salehi; Nasim Vahabi; Azam Bazrafshan

2012-01-01

389

Worldwide trends in quantity and quality of published articles in the field of infectious diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Trying to confront with the widespread burden of infectious diseases, the society worldwide invests considerably on research. We evaluated the contribution of different world regions in research production in Infectious Diseases. Methods Using the online Pubmed database we retrieved articles from 38 journals included in the "Infectious Diseases" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2002. The world was divided into 9 regions based on geographic, economic and scientific criteria. Using an elaborate retrieval system we obtained data on published articles from different world regions. In our evaluation we introduced an estimate of both quantity and quality of research produced from each world region per year using: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of publications, and (3) the product of the above two parameters. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 45,232 out of 45,922 retrieved articles (98.5 %). USA and Western Europe are by far the most productive regions concerning publications of research articles. However, the rate of increase in the production of articles was higher in Eastern Europe, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia during the study period. The mean impact factor is highest for articles originating in the USA (3.42), while it was 2.82 for Western Europe and 2.73 for the rest of the world (7 regions combined). Conclusion USA and Western Europe make up a striking 80% of the world's research production in Infectious Diseases in terms of both quantity and quality. However, all world regions achieved a gradual increase in the production of Infectious Diseases articles, with the regions ranking lower at present displaying the highest rate of increase.

Bliziotis Ioannis A; Paraschakis Konstantinos; Vergidis Paschalis I; Karavasiou Antonia I; Falagas Matthew E

2005-01-01

390

ANIMAL THERAPY SYSTEM AND RELATED ARTICLE AND METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An animal therapy system includes an animal therapy article and a scented article disposed therein. The animal therapy article includes a body defining an inner volume and an opening in communication with the inner volume. The body has a closure for releasably closing the opening and filling arranged in the inner volume. A pouch is also arranged in the inner volume and is at least partially removable from the body through the opening. The scented article is removably disposed within the pouch.; An animal therapy method includes scenting an article with a scent familiar to an animal, opening a closure on an animal therapy article having a pouch disposed internally thereto, at least partially withdrawing the pouch through the opened closure, inserting the scented article into the animal therapy article within the pouch, closing the closure, and placing the animal therapy article adjacent to the animal.

SUPINO WENDY

391

The 100 top-cited articles in orthodontics from 1975 to 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the 100 top-cited articles published in orthodontics journals and to analyze their characteristics to investigate the achievement and development of orthodontics research in past decades. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge Database and the 2011 Journal Citation Report Science Editions were used to retrieve the 100 top-cited articles published in orthodontics journals since 1975. Some basic information was collected by the Analyze Tool on the Web of Science, including citation time, publication title, journal name, publication year, and country and institution of origin. A further study was then performed to determine authorship, article type, field of study, study design, and level of evidence. RESULTS: The 100 target articles were retrieved from three journals: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (n ?=? 74), The Angle Orthodontist (n = 15), and European Journal of Orthodontics (n ?=? 11). Since 1975, the articles cited 89 to 545 times mainly originated from the United States, and the overwhelming majority of articles were clinical. The most common study design was case series; 40 articles were classified as level IV and 12 as level V evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The 100 top-cited articles in orthodontics are generally old articles, rarely possessing high-level evidence.

Hui J; Han Z; Geng G; Yan W; Shao P

2013-05-01

392

Evaluation of Articles from Turkey Published in Pathology Journals Indexed in International Indexes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate manuscripts from Turkey published in pathology journals indexed in the international databases.Material and Method: Journals indexed in the “Web of Science” and having a “pathology” topic in the “Journal Citation Report” were searched and sorted according to impact factor from the “Science Citation Index”. Publications were analyzed according to the journal, year, type, impact factor and institutions.Results: Sixty-six journals indexed in the SCI and 1399 publications from Turkey were identified between 1975 and 2009. “Meeting abstracts” made up 48.3% and “research articles-case reports” 41.1% of these articles. Ten universities produced 52.09% of the publications. The journals having frequently published articles from Turkey had impact factors less than 1,5. Thirty-nine of 278 publications in the 10 journals of highest impact factor were original articles and 33 of them had international co-authors. In 10 journals in which the most number of articles were published, the impact factor per publication and original article were 1,337 and 5,417 respectively.Conclusion: Research and case reports constituted 41.1% of the publications and are published mostly in journals with an impact factor less than 1.0. Fifty-six percent of the meeting abstracts are from the European Pathology Congress that was held in Istanbul in 2007. International meetings held in Turkey have a clear boosting effect on research. The number of citations per pathology articles published from Turkey are lower than the world average and articles emanating from other medical disciplines in Turkey. Research in the pathology field is not adequate quantitatively and qualitatively. Attempts are required to increase the quantity and quality of publications.

Alp USUBÜTÜN; Serdar BALCI; P?nar AL

2010-01-01

393

Investigating and Annotating the Role of Citation in Biomedical Full-Text Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Citations are ubiquitous in scientific articles and play important roles for representing the semantic content of a full-text biomedical article. In this work, we manually examined full-text biomedical articles to analyze the semantic content of citations in full-text biomedical articles. After developing a citation relation schema and annotation guideline, our pilot annotation results show an overall agreement of 0.71, and here we report on the research challenges and the lessons we've learned while trying to overcome them. Our work is a first step toward automatic citation classification in full-text biomedical articles, which may contribute to many text mining tasks, including information retrieval, extraction, summarization, and question answering.

Yu, Hong; Agarwal, Shashank; Frid, Nadya

2010-01-01

394

The Study of Framework of Subject Classification for Journal Articles in Library and Information Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes a task for construction of a subject classification framework under the background of analyses of the researches of Library and Information Science (LIS). The proposed framework covers the possible research issues including those influenced by the information technology and network techniques. We first investigate the existing classification systems like Dewey decimal classification, and Chinese classification systems and other classification systems proposed by different researchers. Secondly, we adopt top-down and bottom-up approaches to propose a subject classification framework. Thirdly, we carry out a series of pre-testing using 400 papers and tune the framework to meet the requirement of analyses of researches of LIS. We will investigate and analyze the research development and paradigm shift of LIS in the future using the proposed subject classification framework and other approaches. [Article content in Chinese

Szu-chia Lo; Kuang-hua Chen; Chun-Ju Lin

2001-01-01

395

Online Cancer News: Trends Regarding Article Types, Specific Cancers, and the Cancer Continuum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet is one of the fastest growing news sources for many worldwide ( Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2011 ), and cancer news is one frequently consumed form of online health information ( Google, Inc., 2007 ). This content analysis of online cancer news (n?=?862) retrieved from the four most frequented news websites describes trends regarding specific cancers, stages in the cancer continuum, and types of news articles. In general, treatment information received the most attention in online cancer news. Breast cancer received the most attention of each specific cancer, followed by digestive and genitourinary cancers. Research reports and profiles of people (more than 60% of which were about celebrities) were the most common article types. Risk, uncertainty, and clinical trials were also present across several types of cancer news articles. Implications of content trends are discussed as relevant to consumers, producers, health campaign designers, and researchers alike. PMID:23356571

Hurley, Ryan J; Riles, Julius Matthew; Sangalang, Angeline

2013-01-28

396

Online Cancer News: Trends Regarding Article Types, Specific Cancers, and the Cancer Continuum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Internet is one of the fastest growing news sources for many worldwide ( Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism, 2011 ), and cancer news is one frequently consumed form of online health information ( Google, Inc., 2007 ). This content analysis of online cancer news (n?=?862) retrieved from the four most frequented news websites describes trends regarding specific cancers, stages in the cancer continuum, and types of news articles. In general, treatment information received the most attention in online cancer news. Breast cancer received the most attention of each specific cancer, followed by digestive and genitourinary cancers. Research reports and profiles of people (more than 60% of which were about celebrities) were the most common article types. Risk, uncertainty, and clinical trials were also present across several types of cancer news articles. Implications of content trends are discussed as relevant to consumers, producers, health campaign designers, and researchers alike.

Hurley RJ; Riles JM; Sangalang A

2013-01-01

397

Artigo acadêmico: a construção de significados interpessoais Academic article: interpersonal meanings construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo central analisar como, na área de Linguística, os(as) autores(as) de exemplares do gênero textual artigo acadêmico constroem significados interpessoais de posicionamento avaliativo ao produzirem seus textos. Como delimitação desse objetivo central, esta pesquisa busca mapear e analisar os adjuntos modais (HALLIDAY, 1994) realizados por advérbios simples que, de forma mais relevante, constroem os significados interpessoais de posicionamento e avaliação do(a) pesquisador (a)-autor(a) na produção de exemplares do gênero artigo acadêmico na área de Linguística e, ainda, verificar comparativamente como esses adjuntos modais se apresentam em exemplares de artigos experimentais, artigos teóricos e artigos de revisão de literatura.The present article aims to analyze how the authors of academic textual genre article, in Linguistics field, construct interpersonal meanings of an evaluative positioning to produce their texts. As delimitation of this major goal, this research aims to outline and to analyze the modal adjuncts (HALLIDAY, 1994) performed by simple adverbs that, on a relevant way, build the interpersonal meanings of positioning and evaluation from author