This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…
Manjari Manisha; Mahesh, G
Popular science magazines cover research articles published in scholarly journals that the magazines perceive as having news value. Despite thousands of research articles being published in research journals, a very few get identified for coverage in popular science magazines, general magazines, and newspapers. Do research articles published in journals that are covered in popular science magazines receive higher citations? We hypothesize that newsworthy articles should receive higher citatio...
Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.
Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…
Full Text Available Popular science magazines cover research articles published in scholarly journals that the magazines perceive as having news value. Despite thousands of research articles being published in research journals, a very few get identified for coverage in popular science magazines, general magazines, and newspapers. Do research articles published in journals that are covered in popular science magazines receive higher citations? We hypothesize that newsworthy articles should receive higher citations as the newsworthiness can be a reflection of higher research value of the articles and also because of the visibility received by the articles owing to its coverage in popular science magazine. To empirically study the citedness, we identified 193 research articles and that were reported in New Scientist magazine in 2001. The characteristics of these articles including the citations received following coverage in New Scientist in 2001 were looked at. It was found that average citations per paper of articles covered in New Scientist was higher than the journal average for the year 2001 for 19 out of the 24 journals identified here.
The behavior of researchers when self–archiving in an institutional repository has not been previously analyzed. This paper uses available information for three repositories analyzing when researchers (as authors) deposit their research articles. The three repositories have variants of a mandatory deposit policy. It is shown that it takes several years for a mandatory policy to be institutionalized and routinized, but that once it has been the deposit of articles takes place in a remarkab...
Presents a comprehensive picture of the shapers of a published nonnative speaker research article by including the language professionals and indicating how they fit into the pre-publication processing of a text. (Author/VWL)
Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…
This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…
Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek
This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…
ZHANG Xiao-mei; CHEN Ning; NIE Wen-xin
Objective: To investigate the distribution of academic conflicts, if any, in medical research articles. Methods: Twenty-seven and 25 medical research articles in the field of internal medicine were selected from English and Chinese respectable jour⁃nals, respectively. Then, the speech acts that reflected a conflict between a scientist’s knowledge claim and another scientist’s knowledge claim were manually searched and recorded in each paper. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Chi-test. Results:There were 123 academic conflicts recorded in the English corpus and 49 Academic Conflicts in the Chinese corpus. Significant difference was observed in the overall frequency of academic conflicts between the English and Chinese medical discourse (p=0.001). Besides, as for the distribution within research articles, introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Aca⁃demic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur in both corpra. Conclusion: The Chinese scholars are less likely to criticize peers. Introduction and discussion sections were the sections where Academic Conflict speech acts were most likely to occur. Our results are in agreement with previous results and confirmed the claim that highly different cultures vary in their discourse prefer⁃ences. Our findings are of pedagogical significance.
This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…
Tiew, Wai Sin; Sen, B. K.; Kaur, Kiran; Lee, Lily
Studies the number of keywords in the titles of library and information science textbooks and research articles. Results indicate that on an average the number of keywords in the titles of research articles and textbooks are 7.7 and 5 respectively and prove the hypothesis that the number of keywords in textbook titles is less than that of the research article titles
Barnes, Deborah; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings from 1980 to ...
A study of 15 popular scientific journal articles and 15 specialist medical-research articles indicates that in medical discourse hedging, the expression of tentativeness and possibility by epistemic devices, can be applied in less specialized English- for-Special-Purposes (ESP) texts such as popular scientific articles, but in different…
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Gillen, Christopher M.
Research articles are an excellent tool for promoting active learning about the scientific process. One difficulty in teaching research articles is that they address a professional audience and often seek to be persuasive as well as informative. This essay discusses pedagogical strategies that are intended to help students differentiate the purely…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…
Schou, Lone; Høstrup, Helle; Lyngsø, Elin Egholm;
schou l., høstrup h., lyngsø e.e., larsen s. & poulsen i. (2011) Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles. Journal of Advanced Nursing00(0), 000-000. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05898.x ABSTRACT: Aim. This paper presents the development and validation of a new...... assessment tool for qualitative research articles, which could assess trustworthiness of qualitative research articles as defined by Guba and at the same time aid clinicians in their assessment. Background. There are more than 100 sets of proposals for quality criteria for qualitative research. However, we...... are not aware of an assessment tool that is validated and applicable, not only for researchers but also for clinicians with different levels of training and experience in reading research articles. Method. In three phases from 2007 to 2009 we delevoped and tested such an assessment tool called VAKS...
Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan
This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…
De Waard, Anita; Kircz, Joost
We review over 10 years of research at Elsevier and various Dutch academic institutions on establishing a new format for the scientific research article. Our work rests on two main theoretical principles: the concept of modular documents, consisting of content elements that can exist and be publishe
Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer
Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…
Shi, Huimin; Wannaruk, Anchalee
Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural…
Full Text Available The editor of Brock Education offers tips for writing educational research articles that will appeal to him as a reader and as editor of Brock Education. First, capture his interest in the first few paragraphs. Second, convey your topic is of great interest or importance at the moment. Third, convey a sense of wonder and engagement about the topic and the research. Fourth, explain how your work relates to the larger field of study. Fifth, provide a thorough analysis of the research findings. Sixth, write well. He draws on the six articles in this issue to illustrate.
石慧敏; Anchalee Wannaruk
Currently, there has been a growing interest in the study of academic writing; focusing on the structural organization of academic text or specific linguistic features. However, very few studies have been done on the structural organization of the Methods and the linguistic features link to each move. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify rhetorical structure of the Methods of agricultural science research articles and to explore the linguistic features linked to each identified move, by analyzing thirty research articles based on Kanoksilapatham’s (2005) framework. Altogether, five moves were found in the Methods, showing that rhetorical structure of Methods in agricultural science has its own format. The moves and linguistic features realizing rhetorical functions may help novice researchers or learners write the Methods of science research articles effectively and professionally
The editor of Brock Education offers tips for writing educational research articles that will appeal to him as a reader and as editor of Brock Education. First, capture his interest in the first few paragraphs. Second, convey your topic is of great interest or importance at the moment. Third, convey a sense of wonder and engagement about the topic and the research. Fourth, explain how your work relates to the larger field of study. Fifth, provide a thorough analysis of the research findings....
Biswas, B; Ahmad, R
The concept of research bioethics arose and developed over the last three decades mainly in response to moral crisis created by rapidly advancing medical science and technology. Accordingly, reinterpretation of some fundamental principles of ethics is needed. At the heart of the ethical principle of respect for person, lies the informed consent process. Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration of World Medical Association (WMA), Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines etc. demonstrated the importance of informed consent in biomedical research involving human subjects. This article was planned to evaluate the reflection of informed consent in the published research articles. Fifty-two articles published in national and international journals were studied among which informed consent was found to be taken only in 21(40.4%) occasions and the same was not taken in 31(59.6%) occasions. Study showed that out of 38 articles published in national journals, informed consent was taken from only in 12(31.6%) situations, while out of 14 articles published in international journals, informed consent was taken in 9(64.3%) situations. Out of 36 observational studies, informed consent (both written and verbal) was taken from only 27.8% cases, whereas out of 16 interventional experiments, informed consent was taken in 68.8% situations. PMID:17867274
S. Sendhilkumar; Nachiyar S Nandhini; G.S. Mahalakshmi
In today’s world redundancy is the most vital probl em faced in almost all domains. Novelty detection is the identification of new or unknown d ata or signal that a machine learning system is not aware of during training. The problem become s more intense when it comes to “Research Articles”. A method of identifying novelty at each sections of the article is highly required for determining the novel idea proposed in the research ...
Sanjaya, I Nyoman Suka
The present cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary study was aimed at exploring the similarities and differences between English and Indonesian research articles from the disciplines of applied linguistics and chemistry in terms of frequency of usage of hedges (e.g. "perhaps," "may") and boosters (e.g. "clearly,"…
Wenk, Laura; Tronsky, Loel
Primary research articles discuss aspects of scientific inquiry that are important in understanding the nature of science. Yet, most introductory science courses use textbooks that ignore the scientific process; opportunities for explicit discussion of the nature of science are lost. In Hampshire College's science program, students read current…
Matthews, Sarah H.
This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research…
Full Text Available In today’s world redundancy is the most vital probl em faced in almost all domains. Novelty detection is the identification of new or unknown d ata or signal that a machine learning system is not aware of during training. The problem become s more intense when it comes to “Research Articles”. A method of identifying novelty at each sections of the article is highly required for determining the novel idea proposed in the research paper. Since research articles are semi- structured, detecting novelty of information from t hem requires more accurate systems. Topic model provides a useful means to process them and p rovides a simple way to analyze them. This work compares the most predominantly used topic mod el- Latent Dirichlet Allocation with the hierarchical Pachinko Allocation Model. The results obtained are promising towards hierarchical Pachinko Allocation Model when used fo r document retrieval.
While many authors believe that their work has a greater research impact if it is freely available, studies to demonstrate that impact are few. This study looks at articles in four disciplines at varying stages of adoption of open access—philosophy, political science, electrical and electronic engineering and mathematics—to see if they have a greater impact, as measured by citations in the ISI Web of Science database, if their authors make them freely available on the Internet. The finding ...
Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.
Nancy Emilce Carvajal Medina
Full Text Available Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students’ academic writing development in English as a foreign language at a Colombian university, following some specific writing stages. Field notes, students’ artifacts, and semi-structured interviews were the instruments used to gather information. The results showed that writing is achievable if students can follow stages and receive feedback from the teacher. Additionally, collaborative work allowed students to write research articles in an easy and dynamic way.
Bruno T. Saragiotto
Full Text Available Background : While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method : We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal, and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages. Results : A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%, followed by level III (29% and level I (10%. The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%, single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions : Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice.
Manca Noč; Maja Žumer
ABSTRACTThe article represents an overview of relevant Wikipedia studies, especially those concerning featured articles. Featured articles are those that rank among the best articles according to Wikipedia’s editors and should adhere both to Wikipedia’s guidelines and rules and all specific criteria for featured articles. Studies of Wikipedia’s featured articles are significant because they show their characteristics. The use of Wikipedia is growing among high school and university students w...
Over the past decade, a handful of key developments have caused scholars and researchers to rethink not only the way they conduct their work, but also the way in which they communicate it to others. The advent of the Internet has provided unprecedented opportunities for immediate, cost effective global connectivity, opening up new possibilities for collaboration and communication. This has resulted in scholarship increasingly being conducted in the online environment, and a vast amount of new digital information being generated and made widely available to those interested in using it. Additionally, the Internet is a dynamic environment, with new channels for producing and sharing information in a myriad of formats emerging frequently.In higher education, the momentum of the burgeoning movement towards "open" sharing of information of all kinds continues to gain traction. In particular, advancements in the areas of opening up access to articles and reserch data are increasingly visible. In both of these areas, academic and research libraries are playing important, central roles in promoting the awareness of the potential costs and benefits of a more open research environment, as well as defining new roles for libraries in this digital environment.As this push for grater openness continues, these fronts are intersecting in interesting and potentially transformative ways. The Open Access and Open Data movements share fundamental philosophical commonalities that make collaboration a natural outcome. Both movements place a premium on reducing barriers to discovering and accessing pertinent digital information. Perhaps even more significantly, both explicitly recognize that enabling productive use of digital information is key to unlocking its full value. As a result of these shared priorities, there are a wide variety of common strategies that libraries can take to help advance research, presenting new opportunities for deeper collaboration to take place.This talk will
Arsyad, Safnil; Wardhana, Dian Eka Chandra
The introductory part of a research article (RA) is very important because in this section writers must argue about the importance of their research topic and project so that they can attract their readers' attention to read the whole article. This study analyzes RA introductions written by Indonesian writers in social sciences and humanities…
It is in the interest of scholarly journals to publish important research and of researchers to publish in important journals. One key to making the case for the importance of research in a scholarly article is to incorporate value arguments. Yet there has been no rhetorical analysis of value arguments in the literature. In the context of…
Research articles and research theses constitute two key genres used by scientific communities for the dissemination and ratification of knowledge. Both genres are produced at advanced stages of individuals' enculturation in disciplinary communities present original research aim to persuade the academic community to accept new knowledge claims,…
Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza
The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…
Benko, G. (Editor)
This monograph presents an overview of Hungarian space research from 1981 to 1985. Topics discussed in the original report include the development of space research centers, the flight of the first Hungarian astronaut, Hungarian participation in international space programs such as the Vega/Halley's Comet mission and the BEALUCA materials science experiment, advances in astronomical research, and activities of the Cosmic Geodetic Observatory. Other topics discussed incude space biomedical studies, meteorological applications of space research, satellite communications, and satellite power supply systems.
Ritter, Sherri E.
The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…
@@ Neural Regeneration Research (NRR, ISSN 1675-5374, CN11-5422/R), an English language journal published in China every ten days, is dedicated to presenting peer-reviewed, evidenced based scholarly research in neuroregeneration, including neural stem cells, nerve tissue engineering, gene therapy, and traditional Chinese medicine.
Loi, Chek Kim
This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language…
Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith
This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research…
Dhanshree Dinkarrao Mohite,; Ashokkumar S. Karande
Researcher analyzed, research articles, research papers and research reports of financial literacy of Students and influence of Bank Saving Accounts on financial literacy of students. The review found twenty six articles that studied influence of Bank Saving Accounts on financial literacy of Minor Students. Most of researchers conclude to have significant relationship between having bank saving account and financial literacy of minor students.
De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: email@example.com [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy
World Expositions and the Shaping of the Chinese Concept of ＂State＂ during the Late Qing Dynasty;The Transformation of the Silk Weaving Industry in Jiangsu and Zhejiang around the 1911 Revolution;Xu Qian and Making the Judiciary an Arm of the Party Around the Time of the National Revolution;The Web of Interests Linking Business, Government and the Banks;
Chenail, Ronald J.
Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…
Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut; Todd, Richard Watson; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Hall, David
This study seeks to explore potential problems of English Language Teaching (ELT) academics in Thailand in getting their research published in international journals. Using content analysis, the study analyzes and compares 100 research articles published by ELT academics in Thailand with 100 research articles published in international journals.…
Mónica Chávez Muñoz
Full Text Available Academic writing has been recently defined as a social activity in disciplinary communities and cultures. As a result, there has been an increasing interest in the study of self as author, focusing on the way writers represent themselves in texts and how writers interact with readers. Additionally, authorial presence has been analysed across languages and across sections of the research article. This study explores the usage pattern of pronominal discourse functions across sections of 60 research articles in the fields of linguistics, psychology and educational research in English and Spanish. Drawing on a modified version of Tang and John’s (1999 taxonomy of pronouns, I explain the frequency and usage of pronouns in each section of the research articles. The analysis of items revealed some differences and similarities in terms of linguistic choices writers make in a specific section of the research article in both languages.Keywords: research articles, text analysis, personal pronouns, metadiscourse, contrastive linguistics
The first phase of Elsevier's Article of the Future article format was released on SciVerse ScienceDirect in January 2012. While this new format for online scholarly articles brings a significantly improved online presentation, it also enables further enhancements in terms of domain-specific content and contextualization of research results. Of particular interest to the Earth Sciences research community are the seamless integration of an interactive map viewer that displays author-submitted KML files inside the article, and real-time links to leading research data portals like Pangaea and Earthchem. These enhancements allow for a richer form of communication between authors and readers, and present researchers with valuable additional information in the context of the article. In this presentaion I will review these ongoing efforts to enhance online articles in the digital era.
Umut Al; İrem Soydal; Gülten Alir
The purpose of this article is to identify the bibliometric characteristics of research librarianship literature and to visualize relationships in research librarianship by means of social network analysis. It was found out that the majority (66%) of the articles had single authorship and College & Research Libraries is the prominent actor among the research librarianship journals. It was also observed that Peter Hernon is the most productive and cited author in the field. The findings of thi...
Ye, Li; Lewis, Scott E.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Oueini, Razanne
Evaluating the impact of Chemistry Education Research articles has historically centered on the impact factor of the publishing journal. With the advent of electronic journal indices, it is possible to determine the impact of individual research articles by the number of citations it has received. However, in a relatively new discipline, such as…
Reports findings from a bibliometric study of research articles published in the "Bulletin of the Medical Library Association," the "Journal of the Japan Medical Library Association," and the "Medical Information Services" from 1990 to 1992. Subject categories, length of articles, methods of research, and number of references are examined.…
This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…
This paper explores the degree of variability in the structure of research article introductions within a single discipline. It is an exploratory study based on the analysis of 20 research articles. The study investigates the differences between two subdisciplines of applied linguistics, namely second language acquisition and second language…
Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen
This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…
KVS Hari Kumar
Full Text Available Background: Details about research productivity in the infectious diseases specialty from India are lacking. Objective: To analyse publishing trends and research productivity of articles related to infectious diseases in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods : We carried out bibliometric analysis of articles related to infectious diseases specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal′s website and the articles were analysed for type (original article, case reports, etc., microorganism (bacterial, viral, etc. place of the research and timelines for publication. Results : Out of 2977 articles published in JAPI over last 12 years, 256 articles belong to infectious diseases subspecialty. Infectious diseases contributed 11-18% of the published articles per year in JAPI during the last decade. Original articles (31%, case reports (38% and correspondence (22% constitute the majority of article types, while remaining 9% was made up by images. Bacterial (22%, protozoal and helminthic (20%, HIV (15% and mycobacterial (16% diseases lead the type of microorganisms represented in the research articles. Mumbai (16%, Delhi (9% and Kolkata (7% are the top three places contributing to the articles, followed by Chandigarh and Chennai. Original articles and case reports took approximately 14 months for publication, as compared to 6 months for an image (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Infectious diseases specialty contributes about 15% of articles per annum in JAPI. HIV and tuberculosis together account for 30% of published litearture with fair representation from other organisms. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors towards research productivity in this specialty.
Disciplinary variation in academic writing has been explored for the most part by comparing a particular genre, such as the research article, across different disciplines. However, genre theorists have not systematically studied relationships among related genres. It is argued in this article that a study of relationships among related genres from…
Martinez, Iliana A.
This paper reports on the way article writers bring prior texts into biology research articles. It studies the functional moves in which citations occur and their formal features, providing a better understanding of the linguistic resources that are used to construct intertextuality in science. The results show the functions of citations were…
Kuteeva, Maria; McGrath, Lisa
Recent years have seen an interest in the generic structure of empirical research articles across a variety of disciplines. However, significantly less attention has been given to theoretical articles. This study aims to begin to address this imbalance by presenting the results of an investigation into the organizational and rhetorical structure…
Tao, Tianzhu; Xiaohong ZHAO; Lou, Jingsheng; Bo, Lulong; Wang, Fei; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming
Introduction The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the most highly cited clinical research articles published on sepsis. Methods A comprehensive list of citation classics in sepsis was generated by searching the database of Web of Science-Expanded (1970 to present) using keywords 'sepsis' or 'septic shock'. The top 50 cited clinical research papers were retrieved by reading the abstract or full text if needed. Each eligible article was reviewed for basic information, in...
King Jeng LU
Full Text Available We conducted a study to gauge trends and contributions to the broad field of securitization. This article reviews 365 academic articles on securitization that were published in 47 Social Sciences Citation Index journals from 1996 to June 2012. We identified keywords and searched and determined related articles in the ISI Web of Science database. Our findings included the number of publications per year, categories of article types, main academic journals and authors, and most-cited articles. The citation counts for authors, journals, and articles were also analyzed. Results indicated that the number of articles related to the keyword “securitization” increased from 1996 to 2012, which suggests an upward trend in the influence of securitization. We also determined that “securitization” research fascinated numerous scholars during the 16-year period. In particular, researchers from the USA, Europe, Canada, and Asia contributed most to this field. This literature review provides evidence that the “securitization” concept has attracted academic researchers, which results in significant contributions to the field of entrepreneurial research. The findings in this study can help authors in future development of securitization.
Zudilova-Seinstra, Elena; van Hensbergen, Kitty; Wacek, Bart
When researchers start to make plans for new experiments, this is the beginning of a whole cycle of work, including experimental designs, tweaking of existing methods, developing protocols, writing code, collecting and processing experimental data, etc. A large part of this very useful information rarely gets published, which makes experiments difficult to reproduce. The same holds for experimental data, which is not always provided in a reusable format and lacks descriptive information. Furthermore, many types of data, such as a replication data, negative datasets or data from "intermediate experiments" often don't get published because they have no place in a research journal. To address this concern, Elsevier launched a series of peer-reviewed journal titles grouped under the umbrella of Research Elements (https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/research-elements) that allow researchers to publish their data, software, materials and methods and other elements of the research cycle in a brief article format. To facilitate reproducibility, Research Elements have thoroughly thought out submission templates that include all necessary information and metadata as well as peer-review criteria defined per article type. Research Elements can be applicable to multiple research areas; for example, a number of multidisciplinary journals (Data in Brief, SoftwareX, MethodsX) welcome submissions from a large number of subject areas. At other times, these elements are better served within a single field; therefore, a number of domain-specific journals (e.g.: Genomics Data, Chemical Data Collections, Neurocomputing) support the new article formats, too. Upon publication, all Research Elements are assigned with persistent identifiers for direct citation and easy discoverability. Persistent identifiers are also used for interlinking Research Elements and relevant research papers published in traditional journals. Some Research Elements allow post-publication article updates
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…
This research compiled two corpora, one for English-medium textbooks for business core courses (totaling 7.2 million running words) and the other for business research articles (7.62 million tokens), to form a basis of analysis. The results show that knowledge of the most frequent 3500 word families and 5000 word families plus proper nouns would…
Research article introductions (RAIs) play a significant role in gaining publication, and therefore have been studied by many applied linguists. Research into RAIs published in Indonesia has begun to be developed (Adnan, 2009; Mirahayuni, 2001; Safnil, 2000), and generally conclude that Indonesian Humanities RAIs were structured differently from…
The central role of the propensity score analysis (PSA) in observational studies is for causal inference; as such, PSA is often used for making causal claims in research articles. However, there are still some issues for researchers to consider when making claims of causality using PSA results. This summary first briefly reviews PSA, followed by…
This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…
Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher
This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…
Full Text Available Reading research articles in English will be a special challenge for those students who speak English as a foreign language (EFL. EFL graduate students will require a specific method for helping them to cope with the articles they have to read. This study tries to offer a method for helping them to read, understand, and analyze English articles easier. This study employs evaluation and trialing. It is accompanied by pre and post surveys that will give information about the condition of the students before and after the method is implemented. This study involved graduate students majoring in Information Systems at Satya Wacana Christian University. It is expected that the method proposed will help the students to know exactly what they need to read and focus on when they read a research article so that they can use their time more efficiently and effectively.
Masoud Khalili Sabet; Maryam Kazempouri
Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs) in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating ...
Robert Barr; Alice Henderson
The Journal of Writing Research is available via open access: http://jowr.org/ It is an international, on-line, peer reviewed journal. International audience This article presents the results of a pilot study examining the use of first-person pronouns, certain adjectives and grading adverbs in a corpus of 51 French psychology student papers written in English as a second language. These results were compared to a corpus of published psychology articles and to a sub-corpus of psychology ...
OBJECTIVES: English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. METHODS: In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. RESULTS: The most important disadvantages of publi...
Casado-Del-Río, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Fernández-Quijada, D. (David)
This paper provides a characterization of the bibliographicalreferences of Spanish scientific articles in the field ofcommunication policy using a bibliometric approach. Itanalyses 93 articles published by authors from Spanishinstitutions between 2002 and 2011 in major Spanish journalsincluded on the communication section of both the IN RECSindex and the Social Sciences Citation Index. The paperexamines the main references used by Spanish communicationpolicy researchers and the typology of th...
Full Text Available It is common knowledge that hedging devices as a rhetorical technique common in all persuasive writing are considerably important in scientific discourse, for they are tools which facilitate presenting claims or arguments in a polite, acceptable and respectful manner. In addition, they are discoursal resources available to a scientific writer’s propositions to express uncertainty, skepticism, and open-mindedness.Research articles are an important means of communication between different members of a discourse community, and will be convincing to a certain extent only when authors are able to employ rhetorical conventions, such as hedging devices, persuasively. However, hedging is a problematic aspect in EAP learning since rarely are the learners able to hedge their statements appropriately, engineering students not being an exception.Therefore, this article tends to linguistically analyze the function of rhetorical impact of using hedging devices in the results and discussion part of a civil engineering research article published in the Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building & Housing to conclude that a greater and more systematic attention should be given to hedging devices considering their importance in EAP. The implication is that students, especially the Non Native English Speakers, be taught how to recognize and effectively use hedging devices in their writing as they do not seem to be familiar with hedges and therefore find it particularly difficult to hedge their statements appropriately.Keywords: hedging devices, discourse community, linguostylistic analysis, Civil Engineering Research Articles
Kwan, Becky S. C.; Chan, Hang; Lam, Colin
Evaluations of prior scholarship play a crucial role in the literature review (LR) of a research article by showing how the boundary of an area of inquiry can be further advanced by the writer's work. Yet, many inexperienced writers find evaluating others' work a major challenge. Although the task has received some attention in research and…
Full Text Available Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/. The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own
The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for ‘citation analysis’ are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines. This article uses ‘real world’ examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community. The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment.
The paper presents a contrastive analysis focusing on the differences in the use of two selected metatext categories, previews and reviews, in English and Slovene research articles. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the use of the selected metatext categories is more restricted in Slovene academic writing than in English academic…
Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.
We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…
Suntara, Watinee; Usaha, Siriluck
The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and…
This study investigates the ways writers comment on the results of their research. Making claims in the form of Commenting on Results is a key move in discussion of results sections. Using data drawn from published journal articles and master dissertations in Language Teaching, the study investigates how published academics and students writing…
Mirzapour, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Maryam
The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research…
Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee
This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…
Bogucka, Roxanne; Wood, Emily
Undergraduate students are generally unfamiliar with scientific literature. Further, students experience frustration when they read research articles the way they read textbooks, from beginning to end. Using a team-based active learning exercise, an instruction librarian and colleagues at University of Texas at Austin introduce nutritional…
A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…
Burgess, Melissa L.; Benge, Cindy; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Mallette, Marla H.
Little is known about reading ability among doctoral students. Thus, we used a fully mixed concurrent equal status design (Leech & Onwuegbuzie, 2009) to examine 205 doctoral students in the College of Education and their reasons for reading research articles. A thematic analysis revealed 5 themes (subsumed by 2 meta-themes) explaining reasons…
Saeeaw, Supachai; Tangkiengsirisin, Supong
Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking…
Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen
This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…
Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…
Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…
Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly
This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…
This article presents research on female teachers exploring their perceptions and experiences of male teachers in the early years and it also examines the views of male teachers in relation to this environment. It considers the dominant UK public discourse calling for more men in primary teaching and it shows how this affects both male and female…
Ni Ketut Mirahayuni
Full Text Available Abstract. Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-AÂResearch-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategics between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational
Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume
To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free
Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship
Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patents
Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes
Background: Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Methods: Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as “Persian medicine”, “Persian traditional medicine”, “Iranian medicine”, and “Iranian traditional medicine”. All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. Results: A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in “Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine” and “Iranian Red Crescent Medicine” journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on “Basic concepts of Persian medicine”, “Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine”, and “Historical aspects”, by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. Conclusion: During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords “Iranian” or “Persian” medicine is
Full Text Available The massive growth of and access to information technology (IT has enabled the integration of technology into classrooms. One such integration is the use of WebQuests as an instructional tool in teaching targeted learning activities such as writing abstracts of research articles in English for English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. In the academic world, writing an abstract of a research paper or final project in English can be challenging for EFL students. This article presents an action research project on the process and outcomes of using a WebQuest designed to help 20 Indonesian university IT students write a research article’s abstract in English. Findings reveal that despite positive feedback, changes need to be made to make the WebQuest a more effective instructional tool for the purpose it was designed.
Nieder, Carsten; Astner, Sabrina T; Grosu, Anca L
High and continuously increasing research activity related to different aspects of pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of glioblastoma has been performed between 2006 and 2010. Different measures of impact, visibility and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this review, article citation rate was chosen. Articles were identified through systematic search of the abstract database PubMed followed by analyses of total number of citations and proportion of highly cited articles, arbitrarily defined as those with ≥100, 50-99, and 25-49 citations, respectively (citation database Scopus). Overall 5831 scientific articles on the subject were published during this time period. 1.5% of all articles accumulated at least 100 citations, 3.2% were cited between 50 and 99 times, and 7.5% were cited between 25 and 49 times. Among the 10 most cited articles, 7 reported on genomic analyses, molecular subclasses of glioblastoma and/or stem cells. Overall, 18 randomized clinical trials were published between 2006 and 2010, including those with phase II design. Thirty-nine percent of them accumulated at least 50 citations and 72% were cited at least 25 times. In general, annual citation rate appeared to gradually increase during the first 2-3 years after publication before reaching high levels. A large variety of preclinical and clinical topics achieved at least 25 citations. However, areas such as quality of life, side effects, and end-of-life care were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. PMID:22516416
Ni Ketut Mirahayuni
Full Text Available Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategies between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational strategies. Second, non-native English writers need to acquire knowledge of commonly used formal generic structure, and more importantly, the knowledge of the nature of scientific writing in English to be able to gain wider readership. The implications for further research and the teaching of academic writing are discussed.
Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.
Dan E. Wilson
Full Text Available Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of high quality established clinical trials in the field. Source articles (n=34 were systematically reviewed for lifestyle interventions including smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, physical activity and exercise, stress reduction, and moderate alcohol consumption. 54% of articles did not mention lifestyle modification; 46% contained nonspecific descriptions of interventions. We contend that hypertension management research trials (including drug studies need to elucidate the benefits and risks of drug-lifestyle interaction, to support the priority of lifestyle modification, and that lifestyle modification, rather than drugs, is seen by patients and the public as a priority for health professionals. The inclusion of lifestyle modification strategies in research designs for hypertension drug trials could enhance current research, from trial efficacy to clinical outcome effectiveness, and align hypertension best practices of a range of health professionals with evidence-based knowledge translation.
Shahriari Ahmadi, Hesamoddin
Full Text Available Considering the role of academic writing in the dissemination of research findings among members of scientific communities, efforts have been made by language specialists to achieve a more detailed understanding of this register, with hopes that the derived features could then be used to teach researchers, writing in a second/foreign language, to more effectively communicate the results of their studies. This study sets out to achieve a similar goal through the analysis of research article introductions in terms of the frequency and function of their lexical bundles. To this end, a corpus of 200 research article introductions by published authors in the field of Applied Linguistics was compared to a similar corpus by Iranian, non-native writers of the same field. The findings reveal that Iranian authors use more 4-word lexical bundles in their writing compared to their native-speaker counterparts. Syntactic and functional differences between the two corpora are introduced and implications for academic writing instructors are discussed in detail.
Aim: To analyse discourses of conceptions of man in scientific texts of diagnostic radiography and how these conceptions are constructed in texts. Background: In this article conception of man refers to assumptions researchers have when selecting targets for research, choosing methods and making hypotheses. Method: A discourse analysis is being applied in this article to find discourses in scientific texts on diagnostic radiography. The material consisted of 45 articles from the journal Radiography from February 2009 to August 2013. Findings: Four main discourses were found. They were named technology-centred, patient-centred, doubtful patient and invisible patient discourses. In the technology-centred discourse patients were usually seen as an anonymous group, and they were passive. In the patient-centred discourse patient experiences were often sought and researchers tried to understand patients' emotions, physical abilities and social context. Patients were seen as individuals and active agents. In the doubtful patient discourse patients are not always trusted. In this discourse health care professionals often know better what is for the good of the patient. In the invisible patient discourse patients are invisible to the radiographer/researcher. They are seen merely as body parts, symptoms or diseases
Concepción Hernández Guerra
Full Text Available English for Specific Purposes (ESP and English for Academic Purposes (EAP are two disciplines whose importance has been growing lately. This is due to the ever-increasing interest in the language that describes the most recent developments in varying disciplines and the need to communicate in and understand that language. One of the means for the spreading of those new developments in the different technologies is through research articles inspecialised journals. These impose certain rules that must be fulfilled by all researchers who want to see their papers published. Much literature has been written about this, covering most linguistic areas (see, for instance, Bazerman, 1988; Bhatia, 1993; Dudley-Evans, 1994; Fortanet, 2002. Many articles contrast different genres but rarely distinguish different sub-areas within a genre (Bridgman & Carlson, 1984; Malcolm, 1987; Hyland, 1988; Neff Van Aertselaer, 2006. In the present case, we will consider texts within the discipline of Economics. The aim of this paper is to show a structural, grammatical and metatextual analysis of ten articles recently published in very prestigious specialised publications, covering the most important areas of study in Economics. We conclude by making a contrastive rhetorical analysis of the four sub-genres analysed here. These are: Applied Economy, Quantitative Economy, Financial Economy, and Management and Business.
Lawrance, S.; Coetzee, F.; Flake, G.;
We analyze the persistence of information on the web, looking at the percentage of invalid URLs contained in academic articles within the CiteSeer (ResearchIndex) database. The number of URLs contained in the papers has increased from an average of 0.06 in 1993 to 1.6 in 1999. We found that a...... significant percentage of URLs are now invalid, ranging from 23% for 1999 articles, to 53% for 1994. We also found that for almost all of the invalid URLs, it was possible to locate the information (or highly related information) in an alternate location, primarily with the use of search engines. However, the...... ability to relocate missing information varied according to search experience and effort expended. Citation practices suggest that more information may be lost in the future unless these practices are improved. We discuss persistent URL standards and their usage, and give recommendations for citing URLs...
Van Lacum, Edwin B.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.; Goedhart, Martin J.
The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach--based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory--means that we teach students to read research articles by…
Villarreal, Victor; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; McCormick, Anita S.; Simek, Amber; Yoon, Hyunhee
This article reports on a content analysis of six school psychology journals spanning the years 2005-2009, with a particular focus on published intervention research. The analysis showed that (a) research articles were the most frequently published, with the largest category being descriptive research; (b) the percentage of intervention studies…
Research articles are acknowledged to be the most important form of scientific discourse. Abstracts are, apart from the title, the first meeting of readers with research articles. Independently of their traditional purpose to summarize research articles, abstracts have become crucial for readers in the decision process of reading the text further, especially nowadays due to the vast amount of scientific publications. The growing importance of abstracts in academia and the few existing researc...
Maier, Carmen Daniela
Drawing on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, we propose to examine multimodal texts from the academic genre set belonging to the field of presenting and discussing research results: the academic research article, the academic visual essay and the academic video essay. The data for this...... study has been collected from academic journals that belong to print medium and to multimedia. In order to articulate an analytical model for the description and interpretation of these subgenres, we depart from the understanding of genres as linguistic categories influenced by specific situations, and...... subgenres will also be facilitated by applying theoretical approaches focused on knowledge communication because the academic discourse in these subgenres is based on specific meaning-making structures. The fact that these structures are linked to the subgenres’ common communicative purpose of representing...
Masoud Khalili Sabet
Full Text Available Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. Applying Kanoksilapatham's (2007 model to the compiled corpus, it was found that contextualizing the study (Move 1 and consolidating results (Move 2 were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones. Related discussion of these findings prepares the researchers for publishing in international and Iranian ESP journals.Keywords: ESP, Discussion section, Move, Step, Author presence, Generic structure
Full Text Available A growing number of funding agencies and international scholarly organizations are requesting that research data be made more openly available to help validate and advance scientific research. Thus, this is an opportune moment for research data repositories to partner with journal editors and publishers in order to simplify and improve data curation and publishing practices. One practical example of this type of cooperation is currently being facilitated by a two year (2012-2014 one million dollar Sloan Foundation grant, integrating two well-established open source systems: the Public Knowledge Project’s (PKP Open Journal Systems (OJS, developed by Stanford University and Simon Fraser University; and Harvard University’s Dataverse Network web application, developed by the Institute for Quantitative Social Science (IQSS. To help make this interoperability possible, an OJS Dataverse plugin and Data Deposit API are being developed, which together will allow authors to submit their articles and datasets through an existing journal management interface, while the underlying data are seamlessly deposited into a research data repository, such as the Harvard Dataverse. This practice paper will provide an overview of the project, and a brief exploration of some of the specific challenges to and advantages of this integration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.
Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.
Ali Murat ALPARSLAN; OKTAR, Ömer Faruk
The aim of this study is conducting bibliometric content analysis on academic articles related leader-member exchange theory which published in Turkish literature. Thus, the contribution of Turkish literature to leader-member exchange theory will revealed. Moreover, this research will serve as an important assessment to who done research and will do research about this phenomenon. The scope of research, 20 published & accessible empiric article which in domestic literature until 2014 was revi...
Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada
The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…
Open Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact Than Articles Not Freely Available, A review of: Antelman, Kristin. “Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?” College & Research Libraries 65.5 (Sep. 2004): 372-82.
Suzanne P. Lewis
Objective – To ascertain whether open access articles have a greater research impact than articles not freely available, as measured by citations in the ISI Web of Science database. Design – Analysis of mean citation rates of a sample population of journal articles across four disciplines. Setting – Journal literature across the disciplines of philosophy, political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering. Subjects – A sample of 2,017 articles across the fo...
Andressa Iovine Martins; Belmiro Nascimento João; José Carlos Marion
The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base pla...
Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii
Full Text Available Differentiated cells can change to embryonic stem cells by reprograming. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has revolutionized the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. iPSCs can self-renew and differentiate into many cell types. iPSC cells offer a potentially unlimited source for targeted differentiation. Through the expression of a set of transcription factors, iPSCs can be generated from different kinds of embryonic and adult cells. This technology for the first time enabled the researchers to take differentiated cells from an individual, and convert them to another cell type of interest, which is particularly to that person. When the set of master transcription factors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is expressed ectopically in somatic cells, the transcriptional network is propelled to organize itself in such a way as to maintenance a pluripotent state. Since iPSCs are similar to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC, they can be considered as sources for modeling different diseases. iPSCs which are induced from somatic cells of patient can be useful for screening and drugs selection, and also introduce treatment via grafting the cells. Although this technology has been successful in different fields, the tumorigenesis of viral vectors during induction of reprogramming is a major challenge. Nevertheless, iPSCs are valuable for clinical applications and research. By discovery of these cells many challenges related to the safety, efficacy, and bioethics of ESCs are solved. Pluripotency is defined in two aspect of functional and molecular, by which functional regards the capacity of cell is generate three kinds of embryonic layers and germ line, and molecular aspect regards the identifying of molecules and genes that support functional features. Identification of these genes has been placed at the center of fields related to development and stem cell research. In this review, we discuss the process of generation of these
Ren, Hongwei; Li, Yuying
The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master's English theses and published research articles in applied…
Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent
This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…
Full Text Available David E Vance,1 Michele Talley,1 Andres Azuero,1 Patricia F Pearce,2 Becky J Christian1 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Loyola University School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: The ability to critically evaluate the merits of a quantitative design research article is a necessary skill for practitioners and researchers of all disciplines, including nursing, in order to judge the integrity and usefulness of the evidence and conclusions made in an article. In general, this skill is automatic for many practitioners and researchers who already possess a good working knowledge of research methodology, including: hypothesis development, sampling techniques, study design, testing procedures and instrumentation, data collection and data management, statistics, and interpretation of findings. For graduate students and junior faculty who have yet to master these skills, completing a formally written article critique can be a useful process to hone such skills. However, a fundamental knowledge of research methods is still needed in order to be successful. Because there are few published examples of critique examples, this article provides the practical points of conducting a formally written quantitative research article critique while providing a brief example to demonstrate the principles and form. Keywords: quantitative article critique, statistics, methodology, graduate students
Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon
The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…
Hornberger, George M.
Water Resources Research (WRR) is pleased to announce a new type of article, the data and analysis note, which will fill a gap in current AGU publications. The purpose of this new type of manuscript is to describe data sets, analysis procedures, and algorithms that are of interest and significance to a segment of the profession but are too specialized and extensive to publish in toto in WRR. The casual network that historically has permitted data to be shared on an informal basis among investigators in a particular subdiscipline of water resources is no longer a sufficient method of distributing data. The many investigators spread around the world, the large quantity of scientific data, the costs of maintaining and increasing the quality of the data, and the increasing use of a variety of data by nonspecialists have made it increasingly difficult to share data adequately on an informal basis. A wide variety of international, national, and program-oriented data centers have been organized over the past quarter century to archive data. Nonetheless, important data sets are often unknown or inaccessible to many potential users. Furthermore, many scientists expend considerable effort and resources to obtain and reduce data to usable form, but for a variety of reasons do not bring these data to a stage where the scientific results merit journal publication. Thus the scientist receives little or no recognition for producing a widely used data set. Similarly, geoscientists who develop well-documented algorithms, analysis procedures, and instrumentation often receive limited recognition for their efforts. The products resulting from the diligent efforts of these scientists may not be widely known and disseminated. To alleviate the problems outlined above, WRR is instituting a new type of manuscript called the "data and analysis note."
Víctor Patricio Díaz-Narváez; Aracelis Calzadilla Núñez
The aim of this paper is to describe different types of useful research and its importance in the formative research, research training and research itself in health sciences. It is stated that one of the sources of these rejections could be because the authors did not resolve correctly, from a methodological point of view, the concatenation between the research types, research designs, the type of problems inherent to these types and research designs; objectives and methods should be propose...
Open Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact Than Articles Not Freely Available, A review of: Antelman, Kristin. “Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?” College & Research Libraries 65.5 (Sep. 2004: 372-82.
Suzanne P. Lewis
Full Text Available Objective – To ascertain whether open access articles have a greater research impact than articles not freely available, as measured by citations in the ISI Web of Science database. Design – Analysis of mean citation rates of a sample population of journal articles across four disciplines. Setting – Journal literature across the disciplines of philosophy, political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering. Subjects – A sample of 2,017 articles across the four disciplines published between 2001 and 2002 (for political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering and between 1999 and 2000 (for philosophy. Methods – A systematic presample of articles for each of the disciplines was taken to calculate the necessary sample sizes. Based on this calculation, articles were sourced from ten leading journals in each discipline. The leading journals in political science, mathematics, and electrical and electronic engineering were defined by ISI’s Journal Citation Reports for 2002. The ten leading philosophy journals were selected using a combination of other methods. Once the sample population had been identified, each article title and the number of citations to each article (in the ISI Web of Science database were recorded. Then the article title was searched in Google and if any freely available full text version was found, the article was classified as open access. The mean citation rate for open access and non‐open access articles in each discipline was identified, and the percentage difference between the means was calculated. Main results – The four disciplines represented a range of open access uptake: 17% of articles in philosophy were open access, 29% in political science, 37% in electrical and electronic engineering, and 69% in mathematics. There was a significant difference in the mean citation rates for open access articles and non‐open access articles in all four disciplines. The
Caes, Line; Boerner, Katelynn E; Chambers, Christine T; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Stinson, Jennifer; Birnie, Kathryn A; Parker, Jennifer A; Huguet, Anna; Jordan, Abbie; MacLaren Chorney, Jill; Schinkel, Meghan; Dol, Justine
The field of pediatric pain research began in the mid-1970s and has undergone significant growth and development in recent years as evidenced by the variety of books, conferences, and journals on the topic and also the number of disciplines engaged in work in this area. Using categorical and bibliometric meta-trend analysis, this study offers a synthesis of research on pediatric pain published between 1975 and 2010 in peer-reviewed journals. Abstracts from 4256 articles, retrieved from Web of Science, were coded across 4 categories: article type, article topic, type and age of participants, and pain stimulus. The affiliation of the first author and number of citations were also gathered. The results suggest a significant increase in the number of publications over the time period investigated, with 96% of the included articles published since 1990 and most research being multiauthored publications in pain-focused journals. First authors were most often from the United States and affiliated with a medical department. Most studies were original research articles; the most frequent topics were pain characterization (39.86%), pain intervention (37.49%), and pain assessment (25.00%). Clinical samples were most frequent, with participants most often characterized as children (6-12 years) or adolescents (13-18 years) experiencing chronic or acute pain. The findings provide a comprehensive overview of contributions in the field of pediatric pain research over 35 years and offers recommendations for future research in the area. PMID:26529270
This study examines the discursive structures and linguistic features of research articles (RAs) written in Indonesian by Indonesian writers with the aim of exploring how Indonesian writers rhetorically describe their research methods in their RAs. The corpus for this study consists of 51 selected RAs published mainly in university-based social…
The role of interactional feedback has long been of interest to both second language acquisition researchers and teachers and has continued to be the object of intensive empirical and theoretical inquiry. In this article, I provide a synthesis and analysis of recent research and developments in this area and their contributions to second language…
Kumar, P.; Rafiq, MI; Imam, B
This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor revisions, major revisions and reject) were collected. A commonly practised peer-review approach in teaching was applied to analyse the data and to ident...
Salom, Luz Gil; Monreal, Carmen Soler
The writer's strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Myers' studies (1989, 1992) on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness…
Martinez, Iliana A.; Beck, Silvia C.; Panza, Carolina B.
Recent critical views on the usefulness of a general academic vocabulary have heightened the relevance of developing discipline specific academic wordlists to meet the needs of non-native English writers who must read and publish articles in English. Using Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List, we set out to identify the academic words in a corpus…
Afros, Elena; Schryer, Catherine F.
It is now widely recognized that self-promotion in academic discourse varies across disciplines. Whereas most analysts focus on publicization techniques in natural and social sciences, the humanities have received much less attention. This article investigates the strategies associated with promotional (meta)discourse in the humanities. In…
This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics Instruction" were also…
P R Chandy; Thomas G E Williams
In this paper we use citational analysis to examine the influence of individuals and disciplines on international business research. We collected citational data over the ten-year period 1984 to 1993 from every issue of the Journal of International Business Studies. We found that management, economics, marketing, and finance disciplines have had significant influence on international business research and identified researchers such as Dunning, Porter, Vernon, Casson, Rugman, and Hofstede as ...
Adams, Lyndall; Kueh, Christopher; Newman-Storen, Renee; Ryan, John
This is Not a Seminar (TINAS) is a multidisciplinary forum established in 2012 at Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Australia to support practice-led and practice-based Higher Degree by Research students. The Faculty of Education and Arts at ECU includes cohorts of postgraduate research students in, for example, performance, design, writing and…
McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria
Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…
H. Russell Searight
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine the current status as well as benefits and barriers to online research in the social sciences. With the rapid development of internet technology in the past decade, there has been growing interest in the application of on-line technologies to social science research. While there are a number of on-line sites for survey completion and centralized data sets for studying psychological, health, political and sociological issues, collaborative on-line research communities have not developed at the same pace as these other innovations. The few exploratory studies of e-research collaboration conducted to date suggest that while there are potential benefits, there are a number of social, ethical and professional barriers to its development in the social sciences. A recent curricular innovation, in which undergraduate students from different institutions work collaboratively on an on-line research project, suggests that with specific training, a number of these obstacles can be overcome. However, at this point, there appears to be more potential for collaborative online research than is being realized. Issues such as trust, ownership, and quality assurance will need to be addressed before collaborative on-line research in social science becomes a common practice.
Srikanth; Niveditha; Shireen Rana; Banti Brahma
There are no specific criteria to measure a journals quality, but indexation of a journal in a reputed database such as PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, EMBASE etc, and whether the journal is having an impact factor produced by Thomson Reuters are looked upon. Many more indexation database have come up recently, and authors are publishing more articles than before. This questionnaire based study was conducted in November 2012 in two medical colleges in south India with the aim to know the opinion of h...
Velterop, Johannes JM; Weedon, David
Faculty of 1000 is a new reviewing, evaluation and rating system of primary scientific papers in the area of biology, produced by Biology Reports Limited and published by BioMed Central Limited (www.biomedcentral.com). Both companies are part of The Current Science Group. The service will identify the current most interesting and most important research papers in biology, picked by a group of over 1000 leading international researchers from any journal, and provide reasons why these articles ...
Vance DE; Talley M; Azuero A; Pearce PF; Christian BJ
David E Vance,1 Michele Talley,1 Andres Azuero,1 Patricia F Pearce,2 Becky J Christian1 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Loyola University School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: The ability to critically evaluate the merits of a quantitative design research article is a necessary skill for practitioners and researchers of all disciplines, including nursing, in order to judge the integrity and usefulness of the evidence and conclusions m...
David E Vance,1 Michele Talley,1 Andres Azuero,1 Patricia F Pearce,2 Becky J Christian1 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Loyola University School of Nursing, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: The ability to critically evaluate the merits of a quantitative design research article is a necessary skill for practitioners and researchers of all disciplines, including nursing, in order to judge the integrity and usefulness of the evidence and conclusions ...
Li, Li-Juan; Ge, Guang-Chun
This paper reports a corpus-based genre analysis of the structural and linguistic evolution of medical research articles (RAs) written in English. Towards that end, we analyzed the frequency of occurrence of the 11 moves identified by Nwogu (1997), of the three most frequently used verb tenses (simple past, simple present and present perfect) and…
This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…
Gholami, Javad; Ilghami, Roghayeh
Metadiscourse markers (MDMs) are lexical resources that writers employ to organize their discourse and state their stance towards the content or the reader. This study investigated the frequency with which interactive and interactional MDMs were employed in biological research articles (RAs). It also explored the possible relationship between the…
Objectives To determine whether free access to research articles on bmj.com is an important factor in authors' decisions on whether to submit to the BMJ, whether the introduction of access controls to part of the BMJ's content has influenced authors' perceptions of the journal, and whether the introduction of further access controls would influence authors' perceptions.
This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…
Yussen, Steven R.
The commentary considers when it is acceptable to make prescriptive statements in educational research articles. It begins with a consensus view, agreeing with the analysis offered by Marley and Levin (Educational Psychology Review, 2011), that experimental evidence is necessary. Other forms of evidence are considered (e.g., observational,…
Li, Qian; Pramoolsook, Issra
The importance of RA abstracts lies in their influence on the readers' decision about whether the accompanying article is worth reading. A number of studies have investigated the move structure of abstracts and have generated several influential models. However, little research has been conducted on subdisciplinary variations in move structure of…
Andressa Iovine Martins
Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.
Šarolta Godnič Vičič
Full Text Available Variation in the genre of research articles has been extensively studied across different disciplines and languages; however, diachronic change and intradisciplinary variation in this academic genre have received less attention. Therefore this paper aims to shed light on change and variation in research articles within a multidisciplinary field of research by focusing on the use of that-complement clause constructions which are known to mark stance. The corpus-based study uses tourism studies as an example, and covers the time span from 1995 to 2010. Diachronic change in the use of that-complement clause constructions was found in instances when they are marked by a verb as well as in the kinds of stance meanings conveyed. Significant intradisciplinary variation was also found across the journals.
Lim, Jason Miin Hwa
Notwithstanding the voluminous literature devoted to research genres, more investigation needs to be conducted to demonstrate the pedagogical significance of studying linguistic features in relation to communicative functions. Motivated by a concern for the pedagogical applicability of genre analysis, this paper investigates the extent to which…
"The Journal of Applied Research in the Community College" (JARCC) actively seeks scholarly submissions on community colleges that originate from doctoral dissertations. Understanding the scope and complexity of community and junior colleges nationally requires multiple vantage points. Newly minted doctorates and doctoral candidates can provide a…
Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua
There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…
The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…
Carrie L. Iwema
Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.
Solomon, David; Björk, Bo-Christer
Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD
Full Text Available In Canada, there are two species of otters, the river otter (Lontra canadensis and the sea otter (Enhydra lutris. The river otter is considered to be plentiful and ranges throughout a large part of Canada. On the other hand, the sea otter is classified as of Special Concern and only small translocated colonies are found along the coastline of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The scientific literature was reviewed with respect to both river and sea otter research performed within Canada since 1970 to evaluate the number and topics of research papers that had been published dealing with these otter species. Since 1970, 25 papers have been published, most of the research concentrating on contaminants (mercury, organochlorines in river otters (80%. There is only 1 scientific paper (1978 dealing with the sea otter (4%. Almost half of publications studying river otters were from or in combination from the province of Ontario (48%. Miscellaneous topics made up 16% of the publications. This paper reveals that in Canada very little scientific work has been published dealing with sea otters and that a huge number of the publications deal with river otters found within the province of Ontario. Thus since 1970, there has been a serious lack of research dealing with either otter species and that most of that work has had no structure or focus. It is hoped that government agencies, the scientific community, non government organizations, and interested groups can organize strategies and granting opportunities to increase the amount of scientific studies to further understand and protect future populations of these 2 species in Canada.
Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)
Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.
Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants
King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.
Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.
Brassell, S. C.
"Records of Global Climate Change" enables students to fulfill the science component of an undergraduate distribution requirement in "Critical Approaches" at IU Bloomington. The course draws students from all disciplines with varying levels of understanding of scientific approaches and often limited familiarity with climate issues. Its discussion sessions seek to foster scientific literacy via an alternating series of assignments focused on a combination of exercises that involve either examination and interpretation of on-line climate data or consideration and assessment of the scientific basis of new discoveries about climate change contained in recently published media articles. The final assignment linked to the discussion sessions requires students to review and summarize the topics discussed during the semester. Their answers provide direct evidence of newly acquired abilities to assimilate and evaluate scientific information on a range of topics related to climate change. In addition, student responses to an end-of-semester survey confirm that the vast majority considers that their knowledge and understanding of climate change was enhanced, and unsolicited comments note that the discussion sessions contributed greatly to this advancement. Many students remarked that the course's emphasis on examination of paleoclimate records helped their comprehension of the unprecedented nature of present-day climate trends. Others reported that their views on the significance of climate change had been transformed, and some commented that they now felt well equipped to engage in discussions about climate change because they were better informed about its scientific basis and facts.
Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita
This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science research institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal...... access working papers publicly accessible through the DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series...... articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during the five-year period 2004-09 (February) by the two...
Bagian, Tandi (Compiler)
As part of the Flight Crew Support Division at NASA, the Crew Interface Analysis Section is dedicated to the study of human factors in the manned space program. It assumes a specialized role that focuses on answering operational questions pertaining to NASA's Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom Programs. One of the section's key contributions is to provide knowledge and information about human capabilities and limitations that promote optimal spacecraft and habitat design and use to enhance crew safety and productivity. The section provides human factors engineering for the ongoing missions as well as proposed missions that aim to put human settlements on the Moon and Mars. Research providing solutions to operational issues is the primary objective of the Crew Interface Analysis Section. The studies represent such subdisciplines as ergonomics, space habitability, man-computer interaction, and remote operator interaction.
Full Text Available In recent years, genre studies have attracted the attention of many researchers. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of abstract written by English native and non-native (Iranian students in two disciplines of mathematics and applied linguistics. To this end, twenty native English students’ abstract texts from each discipline and the same number of non-native (Iranian ones were selected. In this study, Hyland’s (2000 five‐move model was used to identify the rhetorical structure of the four sets of texts. After analyzing each text, the main moves were extracted and the frequencies of each one were calculated and compared. The cross-disciplinary and cross‐linguistic analyses reveal that linguistics abstracts follow a conventional scheme, but mathematics abstracts in these two languages do not exhibit the usual norms in terms of moves. Besides, greater difference in move structure is seen across languages in mathematics. The findings of the study have some pedagogical implications for academic writing courses for graduate students, especially students from non-English backgrounds in order to facilitate their successful acculturation into these disciplinary communities.Keywords: Genre Analysis, mathematics, applied linguistics
The genre of the research article has attracted the attention of researchers, particularly after the research conducted by Swales (1981). In 1990, Swales introduced the Create a Research Space (CARS) model which consists of three rhetorical moves (i.e. units): Move 1: creating a research territory, Move 2: establishing a niche, and Move 3:…
Sormunen, Eero; Lehtio, Leeni
Introduction: We report on a pilot study of students' use of sources in authoring Wikipedia articles. The procedure is demonstrated by investigating how students processed texts from sources to compose their own texts. Method: Four groups of upper secondary school students (aged 17-18 years) participated in an eight-week geography course and seven…
Rubio, M. Milagros del Saz
Using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) Create-A-Research-Space model (CARS) as an investigative tool and Hyland's (2005) model of metadiscourse, this article reports on a pragmatic two-level rhetorical analysis of the constituent moves and steps of research article introductions and focuses on the identification and mapping of the metadiscoursal…
Vadali, Srinivas R.; Carter, Michael T.
The Phillips Laboratory at the Edwards Air Force Base has developed the Advanced Space Structures Technology Research Experiment (ASTREX) facility to serve as a testbed for demonstrating the applicability of proven theories to the challenges of spacecraft maneuvers and structural control. This report describes the work performed on the ASTREX test article by Texas A&M University under contract NAS119373 as a part of the Control-Structure Interaction (CSI) Guest Investigator Program. The focus of this work is on maneuvering the ASTREX test article with compressed air thrusters that can be throttled, while attenuating structural excitation. The theoretical foundation for designing the near minimum-time thrust commands is based on the generation of smooth, parameterized optimal open-loop control profiles, and the determination of control laws for final position regulation and tracking using Lyapunov stability theory. Details of the theory, mathematical modeling, model updating, and compensation for the presence of 'real world' effects are described and the experimental results are presented. The results show an excellent match between theory and experiments.
Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit
We present design guidelines for using Adapted Primary Literature (APL) as part of current interdisciplinary topics to introductory physics students. APL is a text genre that allows students to comprehend a scientific article, while maintaining the core features of the communication among scientists, thus representing an authentic scientific discourse. We describe the adaptation of a research paper by Nobel Laureate Paul Flory on phase equilibrium in polymer-solvent mixtures that was presented to high school students in a project-based unit on soft matter. The adaptation followed two design strategies: a) Making explicit the interplay between the theory and experiment. b) Re-structuring the text to map the theory onto the students' prior knowledge. Specifically, we map the theory of polymer-solvent systems onto a model for binary mixtures of small molecules of equal size that was already studied in class.
It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright
Full Text Available To determine the issue of whether there were any significant differences between the groups including Iran ISI, Iran non- ISI, and native authors in binary comparisons as for employing interactional markers, the present study was conducted. To collect the data, 90 'method sections' of English medical research articles within Iranian ISI, Iranian non- ISI, and native ISI journals written by Iranian and native authors published between 2005 and 2010, were examined. As the model of analysis, Hyland's (2005 taxonomy of metadiscourse markers was used. After performing quantitative and qualitative analyses of the interactional markers, Chi- Square tests were run. The results of the study at p= 0.05 revealed significant differences in binary comparisons made up of native / Iran ISI, native / Iran non- ISI, and Iran ISI/ Iran non-ISI as for employing self-mentions. The findings also demonstrated a significant difference between Native and Iran ISI groups for using boosters. These differences may be influenced by the writers' mother tongue, culture and also by their lack or limited awareness of the rhetorical conventions of English medical academic research writing which are needed to be taken into consideration.
Mary Ellen Kerans
Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.
Full Text Available The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English and Persian journals between 2000 and 2012 were selected. The RAs were textually analyzed to determine the distribution of directives. Findings revealed a significant difference between Persian hard and soft science RAs in the employment of directives, with soft science writers employing directives more frequently in discussion and conclusion sections in comparison with hard science writers. However, no significant difference was found in the distribution of directives across discussion and conclusion sections of English soft and hard RAs. Moreover, findings did not show a significant difference across Persian and English RAs. Overall, results suggest that Persian and English academic writers tend to follow a similar generic and discursive trend in the employment of directives in their discussion and conclusion sections pointing to the universal nature of directives as persuasive strategies employed by academic writers in canonical branches of science. The findings of the present study might raise learners' awareness of the conventions and lexico-grammatical features of academic writing in Persian and/or English RAs.
Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.
This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…
Bliss, Stacy L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Hautau, Briana; Carroll, Erin E.
Using an experimenter-developed system, articles from four school psychology journals for the years 2000-2005 (n = 929) were classified. Results showed that 40% of the articles were narrative, 29% correlational, 16% descriptive, 8% causal-experimental, 4% causal-comparative, and 2% were meta-analytic. Further analysis of the causal-experimental…
Full Text Available Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analysis can provide insights into the genetic regulation of gene expression at a genomic level and this information is proving extremely useful in many different areas of research. As a consequence of the role of the liver in drug metabolism and disposition, the study of eQTLs in primary human liver tissue could provide a foundation for pharmacogenomics. Thus far, four genome-wide eQTL studies have been performed using human livers. Many liver eQTLs have been found to be reproducible and a proportion of these may be specific to the liver. Already these data have been used to interpret and inform clinic genome-wide association studies, providing potential mechanistic evidence for clinical associations and identifying genes which may impact on clinical phenotypes. However, the utility of liver eQTL data has not yet been fully explored or realized in pharmacogenomics. As further liver eQTL research is undertaken, the genetic regulation of gene expression will become much better characterized and this knowledge will create a rational basis for the prospective pharmacogenomic study of many drugs.
Arsyad, Safnil; Arono
Rhetorical style transfer from first language to a foreign language can be serious problems in academic writing, such as Research Articles (RAs). This study is aimed at analyzing the rhetorical style of Indonesian RA introductions in multiple disciplines written by Indonesian authors and published in Indonesian research journals especially on the…
Koya, Kushwanth; Chowdhury, Gobinda
This is the publicly available dataset for our article titled "What’s the worth of your research output? Disciplinary differences, income estimates and journal impact factors: a lesson from the UK’s Research Excellence Framework 2014".
Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland
A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.
Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J M B;
facilitate improved drug development. The aim of this article was to review the serological biomarkers that may assist in early diagnosis of patients, separate fast from slow- or nonprogressors, and possibly assist in drug development for fibroproliferative diseases, exemplified by liver fibrosis. The lack...... of success of biochemical markers and the possible reasons for this is discussed in the context of other fields with biomarker success. METHOD: This is a personal opinion review article. RESULTS: Biochemical markers, originating from the fibrotic structure, may have increased specificity and...
Baydik, Olga D; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri
The detection of plagiarism in scholarly articles is a complex process. It requires not just quantitative analysis with the similarity recording by anti-plagiarism software but also assessment of the readers' opinion, pointing to the theft of ideas, methodologies, and graphics. In this article we describe a blatant case of plagiarism by Chinese authors, who copied a Russian article from a non-indexed and not widely visible Russian journal, and published their own report in English in an open-access journal indexed by Scopus and Web of Science and archived in PubMed Central. The details of copying in the translated English article were presented by the Russian author to the chief editor of the index journal, consultants from Scopus, anti-plagiarism experts, and the administrator of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The correspondents from Scopus and COPE pointed to the decisive role of the editors' of the English journal who may consider further actions if plagiarism is confirmed. After all, the chief editor of the English journal retracted the article on grounds of plagiarism and published a retraction note, although no details of the complexity of the case were reported. The case points to the need for combining anti-plagiarism efforts and actively seeking opinion of non-native English-speaking authors and readers who may spot intellectual theft which is not always detected by software. PMID:27550475
Full Text Available Researchers in the field of automatic translation and natural language processing have been using the Web as a language resource for a number of years. Likewise, mastery of the advanced syntax of the Web's search engines, in order to retrieve the appropriate terminological and phraseological information, has now become an important element among the specialized translator's necessary skills, especially in the field of medicine, which is widely covered on the Web. In the case of noun phrases, checking the currency of the various word groupings that can be inferred when analyzing a syntactically ambiguous expression (whether on the Web or in digital corpora yields interesting results for the improvement of existing computer applications. Yet, the use of annotated corpora to retrieve potentially ambiguous noun phrases also has pedagogical applications, both in terms of attracting students' attention to some common pitfalls and providing them with the tools that they need in order to solve the difficulties that such structures create. ---------------------------------------------------- Uso de la Web y de corpus informáticos para la traducción de grupos nominales complejos en artículos de investigación médica. Los investigadores dedicados a la traducción automática y el procesamiento del lenguaje natural han utilizado la Web como recurso lingüístico desde hace ya bastante tiempo. Del mismo modo, el conocimiento profundo de la sintaxis avanzada para recuperar la información terminológica y fraseológica correcta en los buscadores de la red se ha convertido en un conocimiento que los traductores especializados deben añadir a sus destrezas básicas, especialmente en el campo de la medicina, tan ampliamente cubierto en la red. En el caso de grupos nominales, la comprobación de la vigencia de los distintos grupos de palabras que pueden utilizarse para analizar una expresión ambigua desde el punto de vista sintáctico (en la red o en corpus
Gray, Norma; Oré de Boehm, Christina; Farnsworth, Angela; Wolf, Denise
Involvement in creative expression has the potential of engaging individuals in personal and community level change through reflection, empowerment, and the facilitation of connectedness. It is a process that can be a powerful component of community based participatory research as it can facilitate and support the principles of co-learning, egalitarian relationships, and respect for non-academic knowledge. It is also a valuable means of appreciating culture and strengthening identity, which enhances health. This article reviews and discusses methods and benefits of incorporating creative expression into health promotion programs and community based participatory research with Native Americans. PMID:20531099
Characteristics and use of grey literature in scientific journals articles of Algerian researchers: Case study of University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene (Physics, Chemistry and computer sciences)
Chalabi, Lydia (CERIST); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
This paper examines grey literature in research articles of Algerian teachers-researchers across the STM(Physics, Chemistry & Computer science) sciences at Algerian University of Science and Technology "USTHB". Each of these disciplines is respectively high ranked according to the report of Algerian general directorate of scientific research and technological development about Top emerged disciplines in Algeria. The purpose of the study is to reports the important and use of electronic resour...
Køppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and Development of statistical methods used in articles...... published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical...
The study examined the trends of marketing articles published in Journal of the School of Business Administration, Istanbul University using content analysis method. The main objective of the study was to identify marketing and marketing research articles published in Journal of the School of Business Administration between years 1972-2007 and to assess publications' contents in order to determine the marketing trends. The trends and development in marketing were documented by the help ...
Kheradparvar Najmeh; Shokrpour Nasrin
This study focused on the “text histories,” peer reviewers' comments, and authors' responses of 20 medical research articles published in ISI indexed journals. To identify the types of comments peer reviewers frequently make on submitted articles to shape suitable texts for publication in medical ISI indexed journals, 368 comments are categorized into four groups. The results revealed that peer reviewers' comments can be categorized into four different classes: Comments made with regard to sc...
Davidson, Andrew; McD Taylor, David; Babl, Franz E
In this series we address key topics for clinicians who conduct research as part of their work in the ED. Analysis of research data does not represent the completion of a project as the findings need to be communicated to clinicians and other researchers in the field. In this section, we describe how to write up clinical research data for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. We also describe the editorial and peer-review process. PMID:22862751
Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…
Full Text Available This paper investigates patterns of rhetorical convergence and divergence in pairs of RA abstracts (English-Spanish and Spanish-English published in the journal Ibérica. To that end, a total of 84 pairs of author-translated RA abstracts were analyzed. Based on the results of a pilot study, the following rhetorical patterns were analyzed in the corpus: text-referring expressions, degree of epistemic commitment, amplified attitude, self-mention, and periphrastic (e.g. multi-word expressions. In addition, selected authorial input was requested to seek further explanations about the variation across these two languages. For text-referring expressions, broad cross-linguistic convergence was found in the expressions used and the degree to which the text is given agency. By contrast, the abstracts in Spanish were found to include greater degree of epistemic commitment, more amplified expressions of attitude, more self-mention, particularly in the plural first person, and periphrastic equivalents. Authorial input indicated that some of these diverging patterns were due to collocational differences but they were also influenced by beliefs about what is more natural in Spanish. Our results suggest that there may be specific lexical bundles performing intensifying functions in Spanish that deserve further investigation. These findings may have implications for ESP pedagogy and translation studies.
Flaspohler, Paul D.
Zins and Illback observed in 1995 that planned organizational change processes were neglected in practice, training, and research. In the decade following publication of their article, implementation of processes and structures of planned organizational change increased dramatically. Schools and school districts continue to face increased…
This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...
Romanov, Volodymyr; Sherer, Volodimyr; Galelyuka, Igor; Sarakhan, Yevgeniya; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra
In the Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine the smart portable fluorometer for express-diagnostics of photosynthesis was designed. The device allows easy to estimate the level of influence of natural environment and pollutions to alive plants. The device is based on real time processing of the curve of chlorophyll fluorescent induction. The principles of operation and results of experimental researches of device are described in the article.
The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…
The notion that academic writing is not only a conventional entity but also carries the representation of the writer has been supported by several researchers. Few studies have explored identity representation in language across two written cultures, such as English and Spanish, although Spanish might be a language of interest for non-native…
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
Introduction: Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). Methods: A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Results: Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. Conclusion: A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up. PMID:23042986
Trends in software development for applied econometrics emerge from an analysis of the research articles and software reviews of the Journal of Applied Econometrics, appearing since 1986. The data and code archive of the journal provides more specific information on software use for applied econometrics since 1995. GAUSS, Stata, MATLAB and Ox have been the most important softwares after 2001. I compare these higher level programming languages and R in somewhat more detail. An increasing numbe...
Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.
Krumhuber, Eva G; Tamarit, Lucas; Roesch, Etienne B; Scherer, Klaus R
In this article, we present FACSGen 2.0, new animation software for creating static and dynamic three-dimensional facial expressions on the basis of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACSGen permits total control over the action units (AUs), which can be animated at all levels of intensity and applied alone or in combination to an infinite number of faces. In two studies, we tested the validity of the software for the AU appearance defined in the FACS manual and the conveyed emotionality of FACSGen expressions. In Experiment 1, four FACS-certified coders evaluated the complete set of 35 single AUs and 54 AU combinations for AU presence or absence, appearance quality, intensity, and asymmetry. In Experiment 2, lay participants performed a recognition task on emotional expressions created with FACSGen software and rated the similarity of expressions displayed by human and FACSGen faces. Results showed good to excellent classification levels for all AUs by the four FACS coders, suggesting that the AUs are valid exemplars of FACS specifications. Lay participants' recognition rates for nine emotions were high, and comparisons of human and FACSGen expressions were very similar. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the software in producing reliable and emotionally valid expressions, and suggest its application in numerous scientific areas, including perception, emotion, and clinical and neuroscience research. PMID:22251045
I am grateful to the Editor for giving me excuse to delve into the fossil record. I confidently hope that my article was written before most of The Australian Library Journal's present readership was born. I am happy to stay with my pragmatic attempt at a definition of research as an intensified search undertaken with the hope of finding something…
Articles selected by Faculty of 1000 Biology: genetically identical SNPs; detailed histone modification mapping; plant gene-expression diversity; photosynthesis gene evolution; ε-Proteobacteria diversity.
A selection of evaluations from Faculty of 1000 Biology covering genetically identical SNPs; detailed histone modification mapping; plant gene-expression diversity; photosynthesis gene evolution; ε-Proteobacteria diversity
Liu, Zhihai; Zeng, Qingliang; Wang, Chenglong; Lu, Qing
The barcode technology has become an important way in the field of information input and identify automatically. With the outstanding features of big storage capacity, secure, rich encoding character set and fast decoding, the two-dimensional(2D) QRcode(Quick Response Barcode) has become an important choice of commerce barcode. The development of wireless communications technology and the popularization and application of mobile device has set the foundation of 2D barcode used in business. In this paper, the characteristics and the compositions of 2D QRcode are described, the secure validation workflows and contents of QRcode in goods express delivery are discussed, the encoding process of QRcode is showed, and the system framework is analyzed and established. At last, the system compositions and functions of each part are discussed.
语境框架语在科研论文中的语篇功能研究，旨在帮助语言学科研论文撰写者更好地了解语言学实证性科研论文各个部分语境框架语选择的规律，更加有效地阅读和撰写科研论文。通过研究我们认为：在整体上，起对照或让步功能的语境框架语使用的百分比最高，其次是表真实条件的；在实证性语言学科研论文的各个语轮中，各语境框架语的选择因其各自功能的不同所占比例也不同。%This paper attempts to explore the frequency and discourse functions of context frames , which helps to express the meaning of rhetorical moves in linguistic research articles (RAs) .Both quanti-tative and qualitative investigations are made .The relative percentages of GS and CF in each RA section show that the frequency of occurrence of context frames (CFs)a in methodology is comparatively lowers . With regard to CFs in the RA as a whole ,the percentage of contrast/concession is the largest ,followed by real condition CFs and location in time-RWE .It is hoped that this research can help more linguistic learn-ers understand theme choice strategies of this genre ,and pedagogically enhance academic writing teaching and help EFL learners write effective English research articles in a way that meets the scientific communi-ty’s expectations .
Kafkas, Şenay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R
Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services. PMID:23734176
Genuine interest, research zeal, and visual art expressiveness which are typical of the pre-school period can pose a challenge to every teacher, at the same time, guide them when planning different contents for children to explore and discover. As one of the primary expressing media and an important support when forming concepts, visual art plays an indispensable role in the pre-school period. The following thesis is based on an action research whose key tendencies were focused on establishin...
@@ To the editor:With great interest,we read the recent article by Zhao et al,1 in which the authors performed a genome-wide screen for genes that are associated with multi-drug resistance development.The authors concluded that construction of a chemoresistance prediction rule,based on gene expression patterns,is practical and that their results may be useful for the detection and treatment of MDR in pancreatic cancer patients.
Park, Yu Rang; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ju Han
Systematic integration of gene expression profiling with clinical information may facilitate cancer genomics research. MAGE-OM (MicroArray Gene Expression Object Model) defines standard objects for genomic but not for clinical data. HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) is a document model for clinical information, describing syntax but not semantics. We designed a document template and common data elements in XML Schema with additional constraints for CDA to define conte...
Park, Yu Rang; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ju Han
Systematic integration of genomic-scale expression profiles with clinical information may facilitate cancer genomics research. MAGE-OM (Microarray Gene Expression Object Model) defines standard objects for genomic but not for clinical data. HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) is a document model for clinical information, describing syntax (generic structure) but not semantics. We designed a document template in XML Schema with additional constraints for CDA to define content semantics, enabling data model-level integration of MAGE-OM and CDA for cancer genomics research. PMID:16779360
Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.
This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…
Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcolm
In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project. We are exploring how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins. A DNA fragment encoding all or part of the guanylate monokinase (gmk) sequence is cloned into pSP73 and expressed in E. coli. A monoclonal antibody is made to gmk. The expression level of gmk is determined by SDS gel elctrophoresis, a Western blot, and an ELISA assay. Over four years, an increase in enrollment in the course from 9 to 34 students, the 85% of majors pursuing advanced degrees, and course evaluations all support the conclusion that involving students in research during undergraduate courses encourages them to pursue careers in science.
Farkas, D.F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs a
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…
This article is based on a review of the article, "Thought Field Therapy-Soothing the Bad Moments of Kosovo," (Johnson, Shala, Sejdijaj, Odell, & Dabishevici ). As it is assumed that it is the intention of the reviewed article to prove the effectiveness of TFT, the information given is evaluated in terms of how well this goal is attained. However, as a sample description is not provided and minimal methodological standards, such as some kind of standardized diagnostical procedure, are not met, it is not possible to appraise issues central to any empirical study. Furthermore the design of the study is not in accordance with the goal of the study, as any control for expectancy effects, natural remission, or even a comparison with other successful psychotherapeutic procedures is missing. The study provides very limited evidence for the effectiveness of TFT. PMID:11526611
Carvajal Medina, Nancy Emilce; Roberto Flórez, Eliana Edith
Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students' academic writing development in English as a foreign…
In the present study, we express the quality, function, and characteristics of architecture to help people comprehensively understand what architecture is. We also reveal the problems and conflict found in population, land, water resources, pollution, energy, and the organization systems in construction. China’s economy is transforming. We should focus on the cities, architectural environment, energy conservation, emission-reduction, and low-carbon output that will result in successful green development. We should macroscopically and microscopically analyze the development, from the natural environment to the artificial environment; from the relationship between human beings and nature to the combination of social ecology in cities, and farmlands. We must learn to develop and control them harmoniously and scientifically to provide a foundation for the methods used in architecture research.
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Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan
In cognitive science and neuroscience, there have been two leading models describing how humans perceive and classify facial expressions of emotion-the continuous and the categorical model. The continuous model defines each facial expression of emotion as a feature vector in a face space. This model explains, for example, how expressions of emotion can be seen at different intensities. In contrast, the categorical model consists of C classifiers, each tuned to a specific emotion category. This model explains, among other findings, why the images in a morphing sequence between a happy and a surprise face are perceived as either happy or surprise but not something in between. While the continuous model has a more difficult time justifying this latter finding, the categorical model is not as good when it comes to explaining how expressions are recognized at different intensities or modes. Most importantly, both models have problems explaining how one can recognize combinations of emotion categories such as happily surprised versus angrily surprised versus surprise. To resolve these issues, in the past several years, we have worked on a revised model that justifies the results reported in the cognitive science and neuroscience literature. This model consists of C distinct continuous spaces. Multiple (compound) emotion categories can be recognized by linearly combining these C face spaces. The dimensions of these spaces are shown to be mostly configural. According to this model, the major task for the classification of facial expressions of emotion is precise, detailed detection of facial landmarks rather than recognition. We provide an overview of the literature justifying the model, show how the resulting model can be employed to build algorithms for the recognition of facial expression of emotion, and propose research directions in machine learning and computer vision researchers to keep pushing the state of the art in these areas. We also discuss how the model can
Brief descriptions of the following express methods of irradiated rod carbide fuel pins research were provided: the method of fuel pins bunch swirl angle evaluation in heating section, the method of fuel pin small-scale bending detection, the method of surface crack detection in fuel pin, the method of fuel pin swelling X-ray detection and the method of fuel carbide microhardness measuring in case of structure high porosity. Appliance boundaries of each developed method are pointed out. (author)
Farideh Osareh; Esmaeel Mostafavi
The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS) during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via We...
Moore, Thomas C., Sr.
The character of force and strain measurement testing at LaRC is such that the types of strain gauge installations, the materials upon which the strain gauges are applied, and the test environments encountered, require many varied approaches. In 1997, a NASA Technical Memorandum (NASA TM 110327) was generated to provide the strain gauge application specialist with a listing of recommended procedures for strain gauging various transducers and test articles at LaRC. The technical memorandum offered here is an effort to keep the strain gauge user informed of new technological enhancements in strain-gauging methodology while preserving the strain-gauging guidelines set forth in the 1997 TM. This document provides detailed recommendations for strain gauging LaRC-designed balances and custom transducers, composite materials, cryogenic and high-temperature test articles, and selected non-typical or unique materials or test conditions. Additionally, one section offers details for installing Bragg-Grating type fiber-optic strain sensors for non-typical test scenarios.
Farkas, D. F.; Swart, Henriëtte de
We discuss two groups of languages where article use contrasts in generic plural sentences but is otherwise essentially similar. The languages in the first group (English and Dutch) use bare plurals in the expression of kind reference (‘Dinosaurs are extinct’) and in generic generalizations (‘Dogs are intelligent’). The languages in the second group (French, Italian, Hungarian) use definite plurals in both cases (‘Les dinosaures ont disparu’, ‘Les chiens sont intelligents’ in French). We acco...
Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.
Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.
This publication indexes 41 specific business education publications and those related to business education, especially journals that are essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. The index contains 1,935 citations. All entries have the title, author(s), publication, volume and number, inclusive pages, and date.…
English articles can be divided into three categories:indefinite article, definite article as well as zero article, which find themselves appearing in both oral and written English at a relatively high frequency as functional words. For Chinese English learners of the beginning stage, English articles are usually taught in the first several lessons. Although English articles are seeming-ly easy in terms of their semantic meanings, few Chinese learners can really arrive at the level where they can use them proficient-ly and grasp their usage in their entirety. Some researchers hold that the negative transfer of Chinese can account for that problem because the Chinese language doesn’t have an article system which is equivalent to that of English, while others strongly criticize this viewpoint. The paper is aimed at verifying the mother tongue interference on the acquisition of English articles by advanced Chinese English learners, especially at how the differences in generic expressions between Chinese and English give rise to those problems concerning the acquisition of English articles. Owing to the limitation of the length and depth of this paper, a hypothe-sis that Chinese English learners generally consider the English indefinite article“a/an”as being equal to“一个”in their mother tongue is put forward as a premise. To prove this hypothesis, two mini tests were carried out among 47 senior English majors in two classes respectively in BLCU and the results of the tests conform to the hypothesis positively. It can be safely asserted that due to the negative transfer of Chinese on the acquisition of English articles, even advanced Chinese English learners display their cog-nitive inadequacies of English generic references performed by English articles and inappropriate omission of English indefinite ar-ticles.
Dowell, Robin D.
Meta-analysis of human and mouse microarray data reveals conservation of patterns of gene expression that will help to better characterize the evolution of gene expression. See research article: http://genomebiology.com/2010/11/12/R124
Becker, Markus C.; Esslinger, Hans Ulrich; Hedtke, Ulrich; Knudsen, Thorbjørn
The present article introduces Development, a new, unpublished and hitherto unknown article written by Joseph A. Schumpeter. It was originally written in 1932 and titled Entwicklung. Development is remarkable since it helps understand the unity of Schumpeter’s work and significantly adds to Schumpeter’s known works on a number of issues that were central to his theory of economic development. Development shows that Schumpeter considered the explanation of novelty as the most im...
Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z
This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.
Su Zhe, who is one of the Eight Masters of Ancient Literature, created many famous poems and articles. Among his articles, the narration articles developed from simple natural aesthetics to integration of natural, reasoning and lyrical narra-tion,which has high research value. This development greatly improved the content, the information amount and social educational function of the narration article. In term of its artistic technique, the narrative, descriptive, lyrical content were alternatively used, which broke the previous mode of “narrative- descriptive-lyrical”.%苏辙是唐宋八大家之一，他创作了许多诗文，最有成就的是散文。苏辙的记体文有很高的研究价值，他的记体文由单纯的自然审美型向兼重议论抒情说理的复合型方向发展，大大地扩充了记体文的内容，提高了记体文的信息涵纳量和社会教化功能。在艺术手法上，打破了前人先叙事、后写景、再抒情的三段论模式，将记叙、描写、抒情穿插运用。
This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand whether the probability of receiving positive peer reviews is influenced by having published in an independently assessed, high-ranking journal: we eventually interpret a positive relationship among peer evaluation and journal ranking as evidence that journal ratings are good predictors of article quality. The analysis is based on a large dataset of over 11,500 research articles published in Italy in the period 2004-2010 in the areas of architecture, arts and humanities, history and philosophy, law, sociology and political sciences. These articles received a score by a large number of externally appointed referees in the context of the Italian research assessment exercise (VQR; similarly, journal scores were assigned in a panel-based independent assessment, which involved all academic journals in which Italian scholars have published, carried out under a different procedure. The score of an article is compared with that of the journal it is published in: more specifically, we first estimate an ordered probit model, assessing the probability for a paper of receiving a higher score, the higher the score of the journal; in a second step, we concentrate on the top papers, evaluating the probability of a paper receiving an excellent score having been published in a top-rated journal. In doing so, we control for a number of characteristics of the paper and its author, including the language of publication, the scientific field and its size, the age of the author and the academic status. We add to the literature on journal classification by providing for the first time a large scale test of the robustness of expert-based classification.
Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.
Minton, Sandra, Comp.
This bibliography presents listings in the following areas: assessment in dance education; attitudinal studies in dance education; dance certification, standards, status; dance curricula; dance education history; dance education and technology; dance education theory; dance teacher behaviors; dance teacher preparation; descriptions of dance…
It is now recognised that inclusive schools must recognise and respond to the needs of learners regardless of any difficulties they may have. Similarly, the South African Constitution (1996) requires education to be "transformed and democratised in accordance with the values of human dignity, equity, human rights and freedom, non-racism and…
The explosion of information about Ebola requires rapid publication, transparent verification and unrestricted access. I urge everyone involved in all aspects of the Ebola epidemic to openly and rapidly report their experiences and findings.
With the advent of smart phones, tablets and other mobile devices - and fueled by anonymity - teenagers today have ample opportunities to engage in malicious behavior on the Internet. Cyberbullying is perhaps the most notorious of such behaviors, and this problem is becoming more prevalent. Cyberbullying takes a number of forms and tactics; examples include communications that seek to intimidate, control, manipulate, disparage, falsely discredit, or humiliate the recipient. The actions are de...
Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.
of the paper. 3.2.2 Unit of discourse One reader expectation concerns the unit of discourse, which could be a sentence, a paragraph, or a 2 section. ?Each unit of discourse, no matter what the size, is expected to serve a single function, to make a...: ?Readers expect a unit of discourse to be a story about whoever shows up first.? In the sentence about the stream (Section 3.2.4), the first form tells us about the winding stream, the second about the middle of the valley. ?When the new information...
Gülpınar, Ömer; Güçlü, Adil Güçal
In the medical sciences, the importance of review articles is rising. When clinicians want to update their knowledge and generate guidelines about a topic, they frequently use reviews as a starting point. The value of a review is associated with what has been done, what has been found and how these findings are presented. Before asking 'how,' the question of 'why' is more important when starting to write a review. The main and fundamental purpose of writing a review is to create a readable synthesis of the best resources available in the literature for an important research question or a current area of research. Although the idea of writing a review is attractive, it is important to spend time identifying the important questions. Good review methods are critical because they provide an unbiased point of view for the reader regarding the current literature. There is a consensus that a review should be written in a systematic fashion, a notion that is usually followed. In a systematic review with a focused question, the research methods must be clearly described. A 'methodological filter' is the best method for identifying the best working style for a research question, and this method reduces the workload when surveying the literature. An essential part of the review process is differentiating good research from bad and leaning on the results of the better studies. The ideal way to synthesize studies is to perform a meta-analysis. In conclusion, when writing a review, it is best to clearly focus on fixed ideas, to use a procedural and critical approach to the literature and to express your findings in an attractive way. PMID:26328136
Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.
EXPRESS Racks provide capability for payload access to ISS resources. The successful on-orbit operations and versatility of the EXPRESS Rack has facilitated the operations of many scientific areas, with the promise of continued payload support for years to come. EXPRESS Racks are currently deployed in the US Lab, Columbus and JEM. Process improvements and enhancements continue to improve the accommodations and make the integration and operations process more efficient. Payload Integration Managers serve as the primary interface between the ISS Program and EXPRESS Payload Developers. EXPRESS Project coordinates across multiple functional areas and organizations to ensure integrated EXPRESS Rack and subrack products and hardware are complete, accurate, on time, safe, and certified for flight. NASA is planning to expand the EXPRESS payload capacity by developing new Basic Express Racks expected to be on ISS in 2018.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via Web of Science during 1986-2009; that were stored in 500 records files and added to "ISI.exe" software for analysis to be performed. Then, the required output of this software was saved in Excel. There were 19150 articles in the computer science field (by 45713 authors and 958 articles in artificial intelligence field (by 2487 authors. Then for final counting and analyzing, the data converted to “Excel” spreadsheet software. Lotka and Pao’s laws were tested using both Lotka’s formula: (for Lotka’s Law; also for testing Pao’s law the values of the exponent n and the constant c are computed and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were applied. The results suggested that author productivity distribution predicted in “Lotka's generalized inverse square law” was not applicable to computer science and artificial intelligence; but Pao’s law was applicable to these subject areas. Survey both literature and original examining of Lotka and Pao’s Laws witnessed some aspects should be considered. The main elements involved in fitting in a bibliometrics method have been identified: using Lotka or Pao’s law, subject area, period of time, measurement of authors, and a criterion for assessing goodness-of-fit.
Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten
left periphery of the nominal has received much less attention. One of the more challenging areas of research within the nominal is the analysis of elements that can occur before the indefinite article, e.g. "such (a book)" and "so interesting (a book)". Another recently studied phenomenon, often taken......One approach to research into the syntax of nominals focuses on parallels between nominals and clauses. Within the generative tradition, the structure of the left periphery of the clause has been well documented as a position for e.g. wh-words and topic and focus (see e.g Rizzi 1997), whereas the...... to be linked to this, is indefinite determiner doubling, i.e. nominal expressions which appear to contain two instances of the indefinite article....
Wackym, P A; Popper, P; Ward, P H; Micevych, P E
In situ hybridization histochemistry technology was developed for future application to neuro-otologic research. This method allowed the detection of cellular mRNA in tissue sections from the temporal bone or brainstem after cRNA/mRNA hybridization. To produce specific cRNA, single-stranded 35S-labeled cRNA (complimentary to target mRNA) is transcribed from commercially available plasmid vectors. These vectors contain promotor sequences for specific synthesis of RNA, and polylinker regions that will accept cloned DNA inserts for virtually any target nucleic acid sequence of interest. The protocol used in this research was optimized for studies that included concomitant immunohistochemical evaluation. The combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry provides the only method to correlate molecular information (gene expression) with biochemical or molecular markers, such as peptides or proteins (mRNA translation products) on individual cells in the temporal bone or brainstem. Using these techniques, we examined the distribution of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat temporal bone and brainstem sections using calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antisera and CGRP cRNA probes. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry with a cRNA probe complementary to the 3'-end noncoding sequence of the alpha CGRP mRNA and immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody to the (TYR)CGRP23-37 to study the distribution of CGRP mRNA and CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the central and peripheral facial nerve. Numerous motoneuron cell bodies in the facial nucleus and accessory seventh nucleus and cell bodies in the gustatory geniculate ganglion were found to contain CGRP mRNA and the CGRP peptide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1701043
He Shunguo, World History： Marx＇s Concept and Ideologies Achievements and Limitations of Global History of the West A Discussion of the The development of global history of the West has posed a great challenge to the teaching, research and compilation of
Marx formulated the dual logic of his early critical philosophy by criticizing religion and achieved the historical turn of research paradigm: the unity of the critique of political economy and the critique of speculative philosophy. It meant that there was intrinsic relevance of philosophy to history rather than philosophy became history itself. Philosophy got rid of the purely speculative nature and turned to historically research on the human existence. History was built on the foundation of philosophical study and became an important part of it. Beyond all previous theories about human history, Marx constructed a new historical interpretation scheme which unified the historical facts, the logic of history and historic human existence: a generative mode of historical interpretation scheme.