WorldWideScience
1

Glioma cell integrin expression and their interactions with integrin antagonists: Research Article  

OpenAIRE

A panel of human glioma cell explants was screened for integrin expression by flow cytometry using ???-specific antibodies. A lower percentage of the glioma cells were positive for the ???3 (mean % positive = 20.8%) integrin, whereas higher percentages were positive for the ???5 (mean % positive = 72.7%), VLA5? (mean % positive = 87%) and VLA?1 (mean % positive = 41.7%) integrins. A series of RGD peptides was designed, synthesized and tested for binding to integrin receptors. Based...

Mattern, Ralph-heiko; Read, Susana B.; Pierschbacher, Michael D.; Sze, Chun-i; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Kruse, Carol A.

2005-01-01

2

"The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

Cortes, Viviana

2013-01-01

3

The Writing of Research Article Introductions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines two leading journals from both physics and educational psychology to see whether the research article introductions typically include statements of principal findings. Indicates (1) a mismatch between descriptive practice and prescriptive advice and (2) a diversity in this rhetorical feature between the two fields. (JD)

Swales, John; Najjar, Hazem

1987-01-01

4

Adverbial stance marking in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research articles  

OpenAIRE

Although scientific research articles have traditionally been taken as examples of an objective style of writing that aims to minimise researchers’ voices in their texts (Gilbert and Mulkay, 1984:42), authors inevitably adopt stances towards the information presented and the target audience when writing their papers. This article explores authorial stance as expressed by adverbial markers in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research pa...

Heather Adams; Elena Quintana-Toledo

2013-01-01

5

Writing Research Articles for Publication in Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2013-01-01

6

Description of research design of articles published in four Brazilian physical therapy journals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Background : While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in [...] Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method : We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal), and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages). Results : A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%), followed by level III (29%) and level I (10%). The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%), single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions : Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice.

Bruno T., Saragiotto; Lucíola C. M., Costa; Ronaldo F., Oliveira; Alexandre D., Lopes; Anne M., Moseley; Leonardo O. P., Costa.

2014-03-01

7

Rhetorical Structure of Research Articles in Agricultural Science  

OpenAIRE

Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural science RAs, using Kanoksilapatham’s (2005) model as an analytical tool. A sixteen-move structure was identified, 3 for the Introduction section,...

Huimin Shi; Anchalee Wannaruk

2014-01-01

8

Adverbial stance marking in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although scientific research articles have traditionally been taken as examples of an objective style of writing that aims to minimise researchers’ voices in their texts (Gilbert and Mulkay, 1984:42, authors inevitably adopt stances towards the information presented and the target audience when writing their papers. This article explores authorial stance as expressed by adverbial markers in the introduction and conclusion sections of legal research papers. Following Biber et al. (1999, and Conrad and Biber (1999, our aim is to identify the most frequent adverbial markers of stance present in each section as indicators of (i epistemicity, (ii attitude, and (iii style. We will try to show whether or not there are functional differences in the use of adverbial stance markers, and whether or not these are derived from the different communicative purposes of these sections.

Heather Adams

2013-07-01

9

A Contrastive Study of Hedging in Environmental Sciences Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Academic writers resort to hedging as one of the interpersonal metadiscourse category not only to present their findings cautiously but also to minimize the effects of Face Threatening Acts (FTAs. The purpose of the present study was to compare and contrast the frequency and types of hedges in Discussion sections of Environmental Sciences Research Articles (RAs written by English Research Writers (ERWs, Iranian Research Writers (IRWs who write in English, and Iranian Research Writers (IRWs who write in Farsi. To this end, 60 RAs in the targeted field were selected from leading journals (20 for each group, and then the used hedges were analyzed based on Salager-Meyer (1994 taxonomy. With regard to the use of hedges in English, this study did not find any significant differences between English and Iranian authors’ writings. However, the findings revealed significant differences between English and Farsi written articles. This discrepancy can be attributed to the nature of Farsi language which might consider less hedged texts as highly validated ones. However, this is opposed to the credibility of using hedges in this field in the international academic discourse community.

Alireza Bonyadi

2012-11-01

10

Writing business research article abstracts: A genre approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.

Carmen Piqué-Noguera

2012-10-01

11

What do reviewers look for in an original research article?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article common errors committed by authors especially those, whose first language is not English, while writing an original research articleis described. Avoiding common errors and improving chances of publication has also been covered. This article may resemble instruction to the author. However, tips from reviewer's eyes has been given. The abstract is the section of the paper most commonly read and care should be taken while writing this section. Keywordsare usedto retrieve articles following searches and use of words from the MeSH database is recommended.The introduction describes work already conducted in the particular area and briefly mentions how the manuscript will add to the existing knowledge.The methods section describes how the study was conducted, is written in the past tense and is often the first part of the paper to be written. The results describe what was found in the study and is usually written after the methods section.The discussion compares the study with the literature and helps to put the study findings in context. The conclusions should be based on the results of the study. The references should be written strictly according to the journal format. Language should be simple, active voice should be used and jargon avoided. Avoid directly quoting from reference articles and paraphrase these in your own words to avoid plagiarism. PMID:23478739

Shankar, P R

2012-01-01

12

Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (1994 was employed. 80published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which40were written by native English writers and 40 by the non-natives. In the light of the guidelines on Experiential Metafunctions, the articles were analyzed. Then the Frequency of each common type of verb was computed. Having applied Chi-Square, the researchers found out that the native English speakers and non-native ones employ different types of verbs. According to the results, non-native English language researchers may introduce the types of the verbs based on their L1 norms. Finally it seems necessary for Language Teachers and ESP Materials developers to take into account such differences while teaching and adapting writing materials.

Nader Assadi

2014-06-01

13

The availability of research data declines rapidly with article age  

CERN Document Server

Policies ensuring that research data are available on public archives are increasingly being implemented at the government [1], funding agency [2-4], and journal [5,6] level. These policies are predicated on the idea that authors are poor stewards of their data, particularly over the long term [7], and indeed many studies have found that authors are often unable or unwilling to share their data [8-11]. However, there are no systematic estimates of how the availability of research data changes with time since publication. We therefore requested datasets from a relatively homogenous set of 516 articles published between 2 and 22 years ago, and found that availability of the data was strongly affected by article age. For papers where the authors gave the status of their data, the odds of a dataset being extant fell by 17% per year. In addition, the odds that we could find a working email address for the first, last or corresponding author fell by 7% per year. Our results reinforce the notion that, in the long te...

Vines, Timothy; Andrew, Rose; Debarré, Florence; Bock, Dan; Franklin, Michelle; Gilbert, Kimberley; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Renaut, Sébastien; Rennison, Diana J

2013-01-01

14

Research Article Introductions in Chinese and English: A Comparative Genre-Based Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language…

Loi, Chek Kim

2010-01-01

15

Interacting with the Reader: Politeness in Engineering Research Article Discussions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writer’s strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997. Myers’ studies (1989, 1992 on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness strategies in regularities of scientific style that are usually explained in terms of conventions. In the context of scientific communication, the researcher performs two basic tasks: presenting a claim and contradicting former theories or beliefs. Both actions could be interpreted as impolite behaviours and constitute what Brown and Levinson (1987 call face threatening acts (FTAs. In this study we explore the presence of face-redressive politeness strategies in the discussion sections of engineering research articles. The data are drawn from a corpus of 46 discussion sections in the fields of computing, telecommunications, nanotechnology and robotics.La estrategia del escritor de combinar la exposición de información factual a la vez que expresa sus opiniones personales y mantiene la interacción con el lector ya ha sido objeto de análisis (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour y Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997. Los estudios de Myers (1989, 1992, enfocados a la pragmática de la cortesía en artículos científicos, analizan las estrategias de cortesía presentes en las regularidades del discurso científico, que tienden a ser consideradas como convenciones del género. En el contexto de la comunicación científica, el investigador realiza dos tareas básicas: presentar una hipótesis o afirmación científica y contradecir teorías u opiniones asumidas por la comunidad científica. Ambas acciones son susceptibles de ser consideradas descorteses y constituyen lo que Brown y Levinson (1987 denominan ‘actos de amenaza de la imagen pública’ (face threatening acts en su denominación inglesa. En este estudio se describen las estrategias de cortesía destinadas a preservar la imagen en las secciones de discusión de 46 artículos científicos pertenecientes a los campos de la informática, las telecomunicaciones, la nanotecnología y la robótica.

Luz Gil-Salom

2009-12-01

16

Research on Dynamic Facial Expressions Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.

Xiaoning Peng

2009-04-01

17

Research on Express Logistics Competitiveness Based on Value Chain Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the view of value chain, the article analyzes the forming mechanism of logistics value chain, and the value of the various aspects of the express delivery. By that way, express enterprises can identify the value-added parts from the whole process of mails or goods from senders to receivers, and all these parts will lead to logistics value added. Based on value chain analysis, a model of logistics competitiveness is established. The model includes four aspects: location, network optimization / integration, value-added services / response and performance measures, which form the core competitiveness for express enterprises.

Xingjian Zhou

2013-01-01

18

Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which40were written by native English writers and 40 by the non-natives. In the light of the guidelines on Experiential Metafunctions, the articles were analyzed. Then the Frequen...

Nader Assadi; Mojtaba Ghassemi; Alireza Madadi

2014-01-01

19

Modals in the construction of research articles: A cross-disciplinary perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a corpus-based analysis of variation in the distribution and function of modals and their role in the expression of “stance” in a corpus of 600 research articles (RAs across twelve disciplines. Stance is an expression of attitudes, judgments, or assessments towards the truth of propositions (Biber et al., 1999, and part of the important function of claiming and confirming membership of discourse communities and therefore in constructing identity. Three functional categories of modals perform a valuable role in the construction of stance: Possibility/Ability, Obligation/Necessity, and Prediction (Biber et al., 1999. However, very little research seems to have investigated variation across disciplines or their use in the RA. The corpus was analysed using WordSmith Tools (Scott, 2004, followed by manual checking of the function of every occurrence. Inter- and intra-rater agreement was also checked. Many statistically significant disciplinary differences were found, along with numerous marked differences with individual modals. Further examination of the corpus revealed considerable disciplinary variation in the patterns and verbs associated with the target modals, and a number of sub-functions of the topics covered by the modals. Conclusions are that modals perform an important role in the construction of stance.

Matthew Peacock

2014-03-01

20

Trends in Research Librarianship Literature: A Social Network Analysis of Articles  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to identify the bibliometric characteristics of research librarianship literature and to visualize relationships in research librarianship by means of social network analysis. It was found out that the majority (66%) of the articles had single authorship and College & Research Libraries is the prominent actor among the research librarianship journals. It was also observed that Peter Hernon is the most productive and cited author in the field. The findings of thi...

Umut Al; ?rem Soydal; Gülten Alir

2012-01-01

21

Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

Hirano, Eliana

2009-01-01

22

Quantifying the Burden of Writing Research Articles in a Second Language: Data from Mexican Scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides quantitative data to establish the relative, perceived burden of writing research articles in English as a second language. Previous qualitative research has shown that scientists writing English in a second language face difficulties but has not established parameters for the degree of this difficulty. A total of 141…

Hanauer, David I.; Englander, Karen

2011-01-01

23

[Expression between empiricism and speculation. A reply to Herman Schmitz' article "Understanding of expression as body communication" and also a contribution to the phenography of expression. I].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article tries to show, that the positions of H. Schmitz, advocated in his note "Ausdrucksverständnis als leibliche Kommunikation" (1972) are: 1. not new, 2. superfluous, 3. untenable, unserviceable, and therefore altogether worthless. In connection with the critical analysis of the author's statements we suggest a) the use of descriptive wording that is more exact, b) more clarification concerning the theory of expression. PMID:1231279

Kirchnoff, R

1975-01-01

24

ANALYSIS OF ARTICLES IN JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH IN LAST FIVE YEARS  

OpenAIRE

The Journal of Consumer Research is one of the oldest magazines, which combines psychology and marketing. Articles in journal aims at studying consumers and how they perceive, accept and behave in the market. The first magazine was published in 1974, where George Katona published his article about Psychology and Consumer Economics. George Katona was one of the first experts, who were researching field of influence of psychology in marketing. In our research we were limited on analysis of maga...

Vrbanec, Nina

2011-01-01

25

A Corpus-Based Syntactic Study of Medical Research Article Titles  

Science.gov (United States)

English titles of medical research articles (RAs) are of great importance, the quality of which can, to a certain degree, affect impact factors of the articles, because many readers will make a decision as to whether to read on after reading titles. However, the special genre has not been extensively studied to date. This paper is designed to…

Wang, Yan; Bai, Yongquan

2007-01-01

26

Contribution to Research on Securitization: Assessment of SCI and SSCI Articles from 1996 To 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted a study to gauge trends and contributions to the broad field of securitization. This article reviews 365 academic articles on securitization that were published in 47 Social Sciences Citation Index journals from 1996 to June 2012. We identified keywords and searched and determined related articles in the ISI Web of Science database. Our findings included the number of publications per year, categories of article types, main academic journals and authors, and most-cited articles. The citation counts for authors, journals, and articles were also analyzed. Results indicated that the number of articles related to the keyword “securitization” increased from 1996 to 2012, which suggests an upward trend in the influence of securitization. We also determined that “securitization” research fascinated numerous scholars during the 16-year period. In particular, researchers from the USA, Europe, Canada, and Asia contributed most to this field. This literature review provides evidence that the “securitization” concept has attracted academic researchers, which results in significant contributions to the field of entrepreneurial research. The findings in this study can help authors in future development of securitization.

King Jeng LU

2013-01-01

27

Invited review article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research.  

Science.gov (United States)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364

De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K

2014-10-01

28

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2014-10-15

29

Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy

30

Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

Spinner, Patti

2011-01-01

31

Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

2013-01-01

32

Analyzing research article introductions by Iranian and native English-speaking authors of Applied Linguistics  

OpenAIRE

Considering the role of academic writing in the dissemination of research findings among members of scientific communities, efforts have been made by language specialists to achieve a more detailed understanding of this register, with hopes that the derived features could then be used to teach researchers, writing in a second/foreign language, to more effectively communicate the results of their studies. This study sets out to achieve a similar goal through the analysis of research article in...

Shahriari Ahmadi, Hesamoddin; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hosseini Fatemi, Azar

2013-01-01

33

Research development of the relationship between thymidine phosphorylase expression and colorectal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thymidine phosphorylase (TP is a key enzyme that contributes to the composition and decomposition of pyrimidine nucleotides. TP seems homologous to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and its effects on inducing vascularization and anti-apoptosis are closely related to growth and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. In addition, TP is a key enzyme that catalyzes the transformation from 5-fluorouracil (FU prodrugs of 5?-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5?-DFUR to 5-FU. The activity of TP is closely related to the sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to fluorouracil drugs and targeted therapy. Given the important functions of TP in growth, metastasis, tumor treatment, and prognosis, determining its expression mechanism is significant. This article summarizes the research development of TP expression in colorectal carcinoma, tumor neovascularization, cytotoxicity activation of 5?-DFUR, and colorectal carcinoma therapy.

Ji-Min Zhang

2013-03-01

34

Adventures in semantic publishing: exemplar semantic enhancements of a research article.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific innovation depends on finding, integrating, and re-using the products of previous research. Here we explore how recent developments in Web technology, particularly those related to the publication of data and metadata, might assist that process by providing semantic enhancements to journal articles within the mainstream process of scholarly journal publishing. We exemplify this by describing semantic enhancements we have made to a recent biomedical research article taken from PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, providing enrichment to its content and increased access to datasets within it. These semantic enhancements include provision of live DOIs and hyperlinks; semantic markup of textual terms, with links to relevant third-party information resources; interactive figures; a re-orderable reference list; a document summary containing a study summary, a tag cloud, and a citation analysis; and two novel types of semantic enrichment: the first, a Supporting Claims Tooltip to permit "Citations in Context", and the second, Tag Trees that bring together semantically related terms. In addition, we have published downloadable spreadsheets containing data from within tables and figures, have enriched these with provenance information, and have demonstrated various types of data fusion (mashups) with results from other research articles and with Google Maps. We have also published machine-readable RDF metadata both about the article and about the references it cites, for which we developed a Citation Typing Ontology, CiTO (http://purl.org/net/cito/). The enhanced article, which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000228.x001, presents a compelling existence proof of the possibilities of semantic publication. We hope the showcase of examples and ideas it contains, described in this paper, will excite the imaginations of researchers and publishers, stimulating them to explore the possibilities of semantic publishing for their own research articles, and thereby break down present barriers to the discovery and re-use of information within traditional modes of scholarly communication. PMID:19381256

Shotton, David; Portwin, Katie; Klyne, Graham; Miles, Alistair

2009-04-01

35

Citation analysis as a measure of article quality, journal influence and individual researcher performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for ‘citation analysis’ are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines. This article uses ‘real world’ examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community. The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer ional qualitative review and peer assessment.

36

Investigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract. Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A­Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategics between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational

Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

2002-01-01

37

A Genre-Based Investigation of Discussion Sections of Research Articles in Dentistry and Disciplinary Variation  

Science.gov (United States)

Outwardly the rhetorical organisation of sections of research reports in different disciplines can appear similar. Close examination, however, may reveal subtle differences. Numerous studies have drawn on the genre-based approach developed by Swales (1990, 2004) to investigate the schematic structure of sections of articles in a range of…

Basturkmen, Helen

2012-01-01

38

Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers  

Science.gov (United States)

Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

Thomas, Margaret

2009-01-01

39

Personal and Impersonal Authorial References: A Contrastive Study of English and Italian Linguistics Research Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…

Molino, Alessandra

2010-01-01

40

A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach--based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory--means that we teach students to read research articles by…

Van Lacum, Edwin B.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.; Goedhart, Martin J.

2014-01-01

41

The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

Cheryl Forchuk

2014-06-01

42

Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lisa R Stoneking, Kristi H Grall, Alice A Min, Ashish R PanchalDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USABackground: Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents.Methods: Participants answered three questions weekly on a discussion board: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed.Results: Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%. Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4% whereas 5/32 (15.6% participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%, difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%, and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%.Conclusion: Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.Keywords: online research, discussion board, knowledge translation, emergency medicine residency

Stoneking LR

2013-01-01

43

Longitudinal study on patent citations to academic research articles in nanotechnology (1976-2004)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patentsthe NSE-related patents

44

The developmental roots of narrative expression in therapy: Contributions from attachment theory and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

A central element in many forms of psychotherapy is the narrative articulation of client experience. From both theory, training, and practice, clinicians learn that structural aspects of client narratives may reveal important information about the client, but there is still limited research-based knowledge on this topic. This article explores and discusses the relevance of attachment theory and research to understanding structural and stylistic aspects of client narration in adult psychotherapy. Research into patterns of narrative expression identified by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) suggests that the emotional tone and structural organization of narratives are related to patterns of information processing and affect regulation originating in experiences in attachment relationships. Attachment research thus holds the potential of linking client in-session narration to findings in developmental psychology. Clinical implications of the AAI-related research are discussed in terms of the therapeutic significance of narrative coherence and the possible meaning of different kinds of narrative incoherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122722

Daniel, Sarah I F

2009-09-01

45

nvestigating Generic Structure of English Research Articles: Writing Strategy Differences between English and Indonesian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into English research articles (RAs has largely been focused on articles produced by native English writers. This paper reports a study aiming to investigate the textual structure of research articles written by non-native English (i.e. Indonesian writers, which may contribute to their acceptance for international publication. A comparison is made between RAs written by native English speakers, an Indonesian writers writing in English, all in the field of Language and Language Teaching. It explores the relation of text's generic structure. The thesis develops a framework for the generic structure analysis based on Swales' (1990 Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model of moves. The analysis focuses on two RA sections: Introduction and Discussion. The findings indicate significant differences in both forms and functions of organizing strategies between the native and non-native texts. The differences may partly be due to the influence of writing practices in the non-native writers' first language and partly to the writer's attempt to find an appropriate format in the absence of well-established research writing conventions in the first language. Consequently, non-native English texts may show organizing strategies unfamiliar to both the native English and native Indonesian texts. Findings from the research highlight two issues. First, formal and functional differences of generic structure elements and their realizations between the native and non-native English texts may disadvantage the non-native writers, particularly with regards to employment of unfamiliar organizational strategies. Second, non-native English writers need to acquire knowledge of commonly used formal generic structure, and more importantly, the knowledge of the nature of scientific writing in English to be able to gain wider readership. The implications for further research and the teaching of academic writing are discussed.

Ni Ketut Mirahayuni

2003-01-01

46

Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

Fatemeh Nooshinfard

2011-10-01

47

Gender- and authority-related writing performance in academic research articles  

OpenAIRE

This paper seeks to further existing knowledge of gender variation and of the role of the professional author status in academic discourse by analysing research articles by male and female authors with different levels of disciplinary authority within the domains of Applied Linguistics, Law and Economics. In this paper we compare the use of interactive resources (transitions, frame markers, endophoric markers, evidentials, code glosses, cf. Tse / Hyland 2006) and interactional resources (...

Sala, Michele; D Angelo, Larissa

2009-01-01

48

Rhetorical Variation across Research Article Abstracts in Environmental Science and Applied Linguistics  

OpenAIRE

Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking scholars. This study reports on the identification of moves and co-existing linguistic features commonly used in environmental science and applied li...

Supachai Saeeaw; Supong Tangkiengsirisin

2014-01-01

49

Research Article Abstracts in Two Related Disciplines: Rhetorical Variation between Linguistics and Applied Linguistics  

OpenAIRE

The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and applied linguistics by investigating 200 abstracts published between 2009-2012. Hyland’s (2000) model of five rhetorical moves was chosen as th...

Watinee Suntara; Siriluck Usaha

2013-01-01

50

Special article: Future directions in malignant hyperthermia research and patient care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States (MHAUS) recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care. PMID:21709147

Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

2011-11-01

51

Study on Lexical Cohesion in English and Persian Research Articles (A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research articles (30 articles in each language in terms of sub-types of lexical cohesion. The study reveals that the order of occurrence in descending order of sub-types of lexical cohesion is ( Rep., Col., Syn., Gen.N., Mer., Hyp., and Ant. in English data, while the order in Persian data is ( Rep., Syn., Col., Ant., Hyp., Mer., Gen.N.. In both data the most frequent sub-types are repetition, collocation, synonymy. In English data the general tendency is towards the use of repetition and collocation but Persian data show the general tendency towards the use of repetition and synonymy. This study might have implications for teachers and researchers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language because of the fact that teaching sub-types of lexical cohesion to foreign language learners will improve the quality of their reading and writing.

Fatemeh Mirzapour

2011-11-01

52

EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters  

Science.gov (United States)

To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free publication in the journal until the end of 2012. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full list of nominees can be found below (in alphabetical order). Nominees Achard F, DeFries R, Eva H, Hansen M, Mayaux P and Stibig H-J 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045022 Baccini A, Laporte N, Goetz S J, Sun M and Dong H 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011 Barona E, Ramankutty N, Hyman G and Coomes O T 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024002 Charpentier A D, Bergerson J A and MacLean H L 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014005 Chester M V and Horvath A 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024008 Cooley S R and Doney S C 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024007 Diffenbaugh N S, White M A, Jones G V and Ashfaq M 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 024024 Farrell A E and Brandt A R 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014004 Graham W M, Condon R H, Carmichael R H, D'Ambra I, Patterson H K, Linn L J and Hernandez F J Jr 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301 Hansen J E 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024002 Heinonen J and Junnila S 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Jackson R B et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 044006 Jiang M, Michael Griffin W, Hendrickson C, Jaramillo P, VanBriesen J and Venkatesh A 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034014 Koren I, Kaufman Y J, Washington R, Todd M C, Rudich Y, Martins J V and Rosenfeld D 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 Kummu M, Ward P J, de Moel H and Varis O 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 Lau W K M, Kim M-K, Kim K-M and Lee W-S 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 025204 Lindeboom H J et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 035101 Lowe J A, Huntingford C, Raper S C B, Jones C D, Liddicoat S K and Gohar L K 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 Möhler O, Benz S, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M, Wagner R, Schneider J, Walter S, Ebert V and Wagner S 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 025007 Menon S, Akbari H, Mahanama S, Sednev I and Levinson R 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 014005 Schneider A, Friedl M A and Potere D 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044003 Sloan T and Wolfendale A W 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 024001 Tedesco M, Fettweis X, van den Broeke M R, van de Wal R S W, Smeets C J P P, van de Berg W J, Serreze M C a

Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

2011-12-01

53

ELABORACIÓN DE UN ARTÍCULO CIENTÍFICO DE INVESTIGACIÓN RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: KNOW HOW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo presenta la forma de redactar correctamente un artículo científico como reporte de una investigación, contempla cada una de las etapas que debe contener para su aprobación. Se sugiere la forma de redactar desde el título hasta la bibliografía, en un lenguaje comprensible y científico. Enfatiza en cómo deben ser presentados los resultados obtenidos para su mejor comprensión de la comunidad científica.This article introduces ways of writing correctly an article as a research report. It includes every step that has to be taken into account for its approval. The authors provide suggestions of the report writing going from the title to the references, both, in a comprehensive and scientific language. It emphasizes on how the results must be presented for a better understanding of the scientific community.

ELENA HENRÍQUEZ FIERRO

2004-06-01

54

ELABORACIÓN DE UN ARTÍCULO CIENTÍFICO DE INVESTIGACIÓN / RESEARCH SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: KNOW HOW  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo presenta la forma de redactar correctamente un artículo científico como reporte de una investigación, contempla cada una de las etapas que debe contener para su aprobación. Se sugiere la forma de redactar desde el título hasta la bibliografía, en un lenguaje comprensible y científico. En [...] fatiza en cómo deben ser presentados los resultados obtenidos para su mejor comprensión de la comunidad científica. Abstract in english This article introduces ways of writing correctly an article as a research report. It includes every step that has to be taken into account for its approval. The authors provide suggestions of the report writing going from the title to the references, both, in a comprehensive and scientific language [...] . It emphasizes on how the results must be presented for a better understanding of the scientific community.

ELENA, HENRÍQUEZ FIERRO; MARIA INÉS, ZEPEDA GONZALEZ.

2004-06-01

55

Evidentiality in English Research Articles of Applied Linguistics: From the Perspective of Metadiscourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates, from the metadiscourse perspective, the linguistic phenomenon of evidentiality in English Research Articles (RAs of applied linguistics. Based on a corpus of 100 RAs, the study first presents its own classification of evidentiality and their specific lexicogrammatical realizations. Then, following Hyland’s metadiscourse model (2005, it examines in detail how different evidential types and linguistic realizations can function as various metadiscourse devices and what roles they can play in the construction and attainment of persuation. The study has shown the multiple metadiscourse functions of evidentiality. It provides a new perspective to understand evidentiality.

Linxiu Yang

2014-05-01

56

Stylistic Features of Scientific English: A Study of Scientific Research Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study intends to explore what stylistic features characterize scientific English and make it different from any other language used in any other discipline. What are certain areas of language that are used more frequently in science than in non-science oriented language texts? This paper deals with the linguistic features concerning the application of vocabulary, grammar, discourse and style used in scientific English. A comparative analysis of literary and scientific language has been undertaken to make the nature and discourse of scientific English clearer. It was found that scientific use of English is marked with accuracy, precision and objective interpretation of facts and findings whereas literary language is subjective interpretation of life. Literary language contains literary impulse and represents the artist's inner self and his spontaneous overflow of feeling whereas scientific language represents universal truth and verifiable research findings. Scientific research papers drawn from Medical and Natural sciences were analyzed and it was found that frequent occurrence of Passive Voice in Method Section of scientific research articles makes scientific research findings impersonal and universal. Scientists use Passive Voice most often in order to get rid of personal whims and fancies. Many other features of scientific English such as nominalization and ‘interrogative gambit’ which occur frequently as unique discourse features in scientific research journals have also been taken into account in this study.

Jameel Ahmad

2012-02-01

57

Negotiation on the Assessment of Research Articles with Academic Reviewers: Application of Peer-Review Approach of Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…

Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent

2011-01-01

58

Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng  

OpenAIRE

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable S...

Dayong Ding; Shichao Liu; Kai Wang; Lihong Huang; Jisheng Zhao

2014-01-01

59

Artigos científicos como recurso didático no ensino superior de Química Research articles as a didatic tool in undergraduate chemistry teaching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemistry teachers increasingly use research articles in their undergraduate courses. This trend arises from current pedagogical emphasis on active learning and scientific process. In this paper, we describe some educational experiences on the use of research articles in chemistry higher education. Additionally, we present our own conclusions on the use of such methodology applied to a scientific communication course offered to undergraduate chemistry students at the University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Luciana Massi

2009-01-01

60

TRANSLATION AND MEDICAL DISCOURSE: THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE TRANSLATOR IN THE COMPOSITION PROCESS OF MEDICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation describes the role of the specialized translator in the process of the composition of medical research articles. The dissertation investigates the revisions of two specialized translators, respectively Italian and English native speakers, in five medical research articles written by Italian doctors in English and subsequently published in international specialised medical journals. An analysis of the revisions performed by the native and non-native speakers is undertaken usi...

Spano, Marcella

2010-01-01

61

Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

Aphramor Lucy

2010-07-01

62

Article expression, purification, and characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax ginseng.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD. PMID:24936711

Ding, Dayong; Liu, Shichao; Wang, Kai; Huang, Lihong; Zhao, Jisheng

2014-01-01

63

Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

Dayong Ding

2014-06-01

64

Accidentes del verbo en las secciones de artículos de investigación / Verbal Inflection in Research Article Sections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo, se describe la variación de los accidentes del verbo en las secciones de artículos de investigación en español. Para ello, se analizaron los accidentes del verbo de 42.086 formas verbales en un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, pertenecientes a 6 áreas de la [...] ciencia y obtenidos de la base SciELO-Chile. Los resultados generales muestran que los elementos no marcados son siempre más frecuentes, independientemente del área de la ciencia y de la sección. Además, las áreas de la ciencia no afectan los patrones de uso de los verbos. Por último, al analizar la variación por sección, el único accidente que varía sustancialmente es el tiempo verbal. Los resultados de esta investigación son de utilidad para aquellos interesados en la descripción del discurso científico y en la didáctica de la escritura científica. Abstract in english This article attempts to describe verbal inflection variation in research article sections written in Spanish. In order to depict these inflections, we analyzed a corpus of 42.086 verbal forms from 162 research papers. These papers are from six scientific areas and were obtained from the Chilean Sci [...] ELO index. General results show that unmarked elements are always more frequent regardless the scientific area or the section. Besides, we can state that verb patterns are not affected by the scientific area under analysis. Finally, when the sections of the papers were analyzed, we could find out that variation takes place only in tense. These results are useful for both scientific discourse description and the didactics of scientific writing.

Omar, Sabaj; Miguel, Fuentes; Ken, Matsuda.

2013-11-01

65

DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.

Pilar Mur Dueñas

2009-10-01

66

Negotiation on the assessment of research articles with academic reviewers: Application of peer-review approach of teaching  

OpenAIRE

This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor revisions, major revisions and reject) were collected. A commonly practised peer-review approach in teaching was applied to analyse the data and to ident...

Kumar, P.; Rafiq, Mi; Imam, B.

2011-01-01

67

From academic research articles to academic visual and video essays: Only a multimodal transition?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, we propose to examine multimodal texts from the academic genre set belonging to the field of presenting and discussing research results: the academic research article, the academic visual essay and the academic video essay. The data for this study has been collected from academic journals that belong to print medium and to multimedia. In order to articulate an analytical model for the description and interpretation of these subgenres, we depart from the understanding of genres as linguistic categories influenced by specific situations, and we take into consideration the influence of technological advances upon the development of multimodal genres and the variety of subgenres. Therefore, concepts like remediation and resemiotization that are related to a multimodal approach to genres will be employed. The exploration of these multimodal subgenres will also be facilitated by applying theoretical approaches focused on knowledge communication because the academic discourse in these subgenres is based on specific meaning-making structures. The fact that these structures are linked to the subgenres’ common communicative purpose of representing specific knowledge types implies that it is necessary to explore how the structures are influenced by the choice and interplay of several semiotic modes. We address the semiotic modes’ interaction and combination within the subgenres in order to identify the roles of the semiotic interplay in creating and multiplying meaning at various levels of the generic organization. This paper concludes that it is increasingly necessary to open up the analytical space for the study of new multimodal academic subgenres by integrating the multimodal perspective in the context of genre theory in order to highlight the newest developments in the contemporary realm of research genres.

Maier, Carmen Daniela

68

Induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy of diseases: review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Differentiated cells can change to embryonic stem cells by reprograming. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has revolutionized the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. iPSCs can self-renew and differentiate into many cell types. iPSC cells offer a potentially unlimited source for targeted differentiation. Through the expression of a set of transcription factors, iPSCs can be generated from different kinds of embryonic and adult cells. This technology for the first time enabled the researchers to take differentiated cells from an individual, and convert them to another cell type of interest, which is particularly to that person. When the set of master transcription factors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is expressed ectopically in somatic cells, the transcriptional network is propelled to organize itself in such a way as to maintenance a pluripotent state. Since iPSCs are similar to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC, they can be considered as sources for modeling different diseases. iPSCs which are induced from somatic cells of patient can be useful for screening and drugs selection, and also introduce treatment via grafting the cells. Although this technology has been successful in different fields, the tumorigenesis of viral vectors during induction of reprogramming is a major challenge. Nevertheless, iPSCs are valuable for clinical applications and research. By discovery of these cells many challenges related to the safety, efficacy, and bioethics of ESCs are solved. Pluripotency is defined in two aspect of functional and molecular, by which functional regards the capacity of cell is generate three kinds of embryonic layers and germ line, and molecular aspect regards the identifying of molecules and genes that support functional features. Identification of these genes has been placed at the center of fields related to development and stem cell research. In this review, we discuss the process of generation of these cells, as well as required genes and factors for pluripotency, and also current progress in generation of iPSCs utilizing tens of reliable and new studies.

Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii

2014-10-01

69

Genre Analysis: Structural and Linguistic Evolution of the English-Medium Medical Research Article (1985-2004)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a corpus-based genre analysis of the structural and linguistic evolution of medical research articles (RAs) written in English. Towards that end, we analyzed the frequency of occurrence of the 11 moves identified by Nwogu (1997), of the three most frequently used verb tenses (simple past, simple present and present perfect) and…

Li, Li-Juan; Ge, Guang-Chun

2009-01-01

70

A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

2007-01-01

71

A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

Chen, Jie

2010-01-01

72

Spanish researchers’ perceived difficulty writing research articles for English-medium journals: the impact of proficiency in English versus publication experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.

Ana I. Moreno

2012-10-01

73

Microarray expression technology in clinical research of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, in genomocentric era accelerated research of the human genome coupled with advances is enabling the comprehensive molecular profiling of human tissue. Particularly, DNA microarrays are powerful tools for obtaining global view of human non-Hodgkin lymphomas gene expression. Complex information from lymphomas "expression profiling" studies can, in turn, be used to create molecular markers that have diagnostic or prognostic implications. The gene "expression profiling" is not of routine clinical oncology practice, but is used in genomic classification of clinically relevant subgroups of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The genomics biomarkers have been incorporated into current prognostic models which are based on IPI, R-IPI, and FLIPI. Molecular or pharmacogenomic profiling can be used as new therapeutic targets for patients who are refractory to current therapy. We discus the utility of DNA microarray-based lymphoma profiling in clinical oncology research, and identify future of research in lymphoma evolving fields.

Balti? Vladimir

2007-01-01

74

A review and methodologic critique of the literature supporting 'chronic whiplash injury': part I - research articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of a 'chronic whiplash injury' has been a source of debate in the medical literature for many years. Some authors have published articles suggesting that chronic whiplash syndrome is the result of chronic pathology (injury), and that this injury may occur at any collision speed; others have stated that any psychological factors are secondary rather than primary (etiologic) to the problem of chronic pain, or that secondary gain is a rare or uncommon phenomenon. These articles contradict scientific measures and efforts which show that for Quebec Task Force Grade 1 and 2 whiplash-associated disorders, the highly prevalent problem of chronic pain may be a culturally and psychosocially determined phenomenon, in which confounding psychosocial variables determine the behaviour and outcome following an otherwise benign acute injury. The authors of the current literature critique reviewed the biomedical and engineering literature relating to whiplash syndrome, searching for articles that supported the construct of 'chronic whiplash injuries'. Thirty seven articles containing fourteen distinct statements supporting the construct of 'chronic whiplash injuries' were found that fit the inclusion criteria. The methodology described in these articles was evaluated critically to determine if the authors' conclusions regarding 'chronic whiplash injuries' were scientifically sound. The authors of the current critique found that all of the articles contained significant methodologic errors relative to their respective authors' statements regarding chronic whiplash. The most frequent concerns reside with sampling, experimental design and interpretation of data. PMID:12942047

Kwan, O; Friel, J

2003-08-01

75

El atributo de funcionalidad en el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación / The functionality attribute in the cybergenre Research Article  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este trabajo es describir y analizar el cibergénero científico-académico Artículo de Investigación desde el punto de vista de su funcionalidad y en consecuencia, el valor informativo de sus links. A tal fin, se seleccionaron 90 hiperartículos pertenecientes al campo de la Psicología, [...] Matemática y Biología y se los analizó teniendo en cuenta los atributos de funcionalidad propuestos por M. Shepherd, C. Watters y A. Kennedy (2004). Los resultados muestran que el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación presenta características funcionales que benefician ampliamente al lector-investigador y que marcan una diferencia significativa respecto a las posibilidades que ofrecen los Artículos de Investigación publicados en medios impresos. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to describe and analize the functionality attribute and the consequent informative value of the links of the cybergenre Research Article. 90 hyperarticles in the field of Psychology, Mathematicas and Biology were collected for this purpose and analized following M. Shepherd, [...] C. Watters and A. Kennedy's (2004) categorization of the functionality attribute. Results show that the Research Article cybergenre has functional characteristics that greatly benefit the reader-researcher and make an important difference regarding the possibilities offered by paper issued Research Articles.

María Marcela, Puebla; Andrea, Puchmuller.

76

Comparing indicators of authorial stance in psychology students' writing and published research articles  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the results of a pilot study examining the use of first-person pronouns, certain adjectives and grading adverbs in a corpus of 51 French psychology student papers written in English as a second language. These results were compared to a corpus of published psychology articles and to a sub-corpus of psychology student texts from the British Academic Written English corpus (BAWE). Strategic use of pairs of evaluative words was found in the students’ texts but not in the ...

Robert Barr; Alice Henderson

2010-01-01

77

Czech Republic : general : various research materials (articles, excerpts, maps, reports, papers etc.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Materials form the personal collection of Dr. Franz J. Dahlkamp donated to the IAEA Library by his son, Jürgen Dahlkamp. The collection includes drafts, notes, worksheets, manuscripts, figures, maps, articles, proofs and other materials associated with the production of a not yet published (2014) scientific work: Uranium Deposits of the World, Australia/Oceania, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America.

78

Opinion of Health Care Professionals Towards Submitting a Research Article to a Journal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are no specific criteria to measure a journals quality, but indexation of a journal in a reputed database such as PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, EMBASE etc, and whether the journal is having an impact factor produced by Thomson Reuters are looked upon. Many more indexation database have come up recently, and authors are publishing more articles than before.

Srikanth

2013-08-01

79

Games as Learning Environments: Research stratElluminate Article ~ Strategies and issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this software.

Jim Bizzocchi

2005-07-01

80

LAS CONCLUSIONES DE LOS ARTÍCULOS DE INVESTIGACIÓN EN HISTORIA / THE CONCLUSION SECTION IN THE HISTORY RESEARCH ARTICLES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de los numerosos estudios de Movidas Retóricas en Artículos de Investigación, existen escasos estudios sobre la sección conclusiones en la disciplina de la historia. En este contexto, el objetivo de nuestra investigación es analizar las conclusiones de los Artículos de Investigación en histo [...] ria en un corpus de revistas de categoría ISI en Suramérica. Los resultados permiten comprobar que la sección conclusiones no es una sección que se presenta en un 100% en historia, y, además, que la Movida Retórica más típica de esta sección es interpretar resultados. Nuestro objeto de estudio sirve de soporte para la comprensión de este género en historia, además de ser una herramienta para la enseñanza de la escritura científica. Abstract in english Despite the numerous studies of Rhetorical Moves in Research Articles, there are few studies on the conclusions section in the discipline of history. In this context, the aim of our research is to analyze the conclusions section of Research Articles in history in a corpus of ISI category journals in [...] South America. The results allow us to prove that the conclusions section does not appear in a 100% in history, and also that the most typical rhetoric move in this section is to interpret results. Our object of study supports the understanding of this genre in history, besides being a tool for teaching scientific writing.

Miguel, Fuentes Cortés.

81

Assessment of Fraud Pretentious Business Region Research Articles Using Data Mining Approaches  

OpenAIRE

In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the dif...

Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Jebamalar Tamilselvi, Dr J.

2013-01-01

82

Article for "diversity stories in community research and action" facing resistance in waking up to privilege.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies a challenge brought to us while facilitating a diversity workshop with adults in a school work setting. Our program involved using the video The Color of Fear as a centerpiece of a training to school district staff where the goals were to raise awareness and understanding of race, gender and class issues, increase understanding of power and privilege, and build alliances between people from diverse backgrounds. The challenge came from a white, male participant and involved issues of privilege, the intersections of race, class, and gender, and resistance to addressing diversity matters. Reflections of what worked and didn't work are offered as well as recommendations to other facilitators who will face similar challenges. PMID:16786415

Vasquez, Hugh

2006-06-01

83

Review Article: Recent Publications on Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…

Ionin, Tania

2013-01-01

84

A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

2011-01-01

85

Authoring Wikipedia Articles as an Information Literacy Assignment: Copy-Pasting or Expressing New Understanding in One's Own Words?  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: We report on a pilot study of students' use of sources in authoring Wikipedia articles. The procedure is demonstrated by investigating how students processed texts from sources to compose their own texts. Method: Four groups of upper secondary school students (aged 17-18 years) participated in an eight-week geography course and seven…

Sormunen, Eero; Lehtio, Leeni

2011-01-01

86

Contributions from Alfred Schütz’s phenomenological sociology for nursing research - review article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding the human being is a complex task, because it involves biological, psychological and social questions. Investigation of Cartesian procedure had suffered ruptures, mainly because of the criticism to objectivity, on dealing whit human questions. In the end of nineteen century, phenomenology is born as a philosophical-methodological option for research, in which Comprehensive Sociology, from Alfred Schütz, outstands. This study’s objective is discuss some of the possible contributions from Schütz’s Phenomenological Sociology for nursing research. The main concepts boarded were intentionality, intersubjectivity, determined biographical situation, human actions, typification and social relation. Phenomenological research seeks the meanings that people attribute to their own experience, which are revealed with these people’s descriptions. Alfred Scütz’s phenomenological sociology aims the subjective meaning of the human actions, trying to establish the ideal type by typification. These concepts can be used as a theoretical-methodological base to investigate about things lived in the social world, mainly when it is about a social world in which nursing professionals are part of.

Marcio Wagner Camatta

2008-08-01

87

Suitability of commonly used housekeeping genes in gene expression studies for space radiation research  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the effects of ionizing radiation exposure involves the use of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for measuring changes in gene expression. Several variables need to be controlled for gene expression analysis, such as different amounts of starting material between the samples, variations in enzymatic efficiencies of the reverse transcription step, and differences in RNA integrity. Normalization of the obtained data to an invariant endogenous control gene (reference gene) is the elementary step in relative quantification strategy. There is a strong correlation between the quality of the normalized data and the stability of the reference gene itself. This is especially relevant when the samples have been obtained after exposure to radiation qualities inducing different amounts and kinds of damage, leading to effects on cell cycle delays or even on cell cycle blocks. In order to determine suitable reference genes as internal controls in qRT-PCR assays after exposure to ionizing radiation, we studied the gene expression levels of nine commonly used reference genes which are constitutively expressed in A549 lung cancer cells. Expression levels obtained for ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, PBGD, 18S rRNA, G6PDH, HPRT, UBC, TFRC and SDHA were determined after exposure to 2 and 6 Gy X-radiation. Gene expression data for Growth arrest and damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45?) and Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21CIP1) were selected to elucidate the influence of normalization by using appropriate and inappropriate internal control genes. According to these results, we strongly recommend the use of a panel of reference genes instead of only one.

Arenz, A.; Stojicic, N.; Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.

88

Volume 8, Issue2 (April/June 2005)Articles in the Current Issue:Research ArticleBeyond NIMBYism: towards an integrated framework for understanding public perceptions of wind energy  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright

Devine-Wright, Patrick

2005-04-01

89

Research Article Abstracts in Two Subdisciplines of Business—Move Structure and Hedging between Management and Marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of RA abstracts lies in their influence on the readers’ decision about whether the accompanying article is worth reading. A number of studies have investigated the move structure of abstracts and have generated several influential models. However, little research has been conducted on subdisciplinary variations in move structure of abstracts. Additionally, previous studies have investigated independently either the move structure or the hedging use of academic writings. The attempt of the integration of the both have been lacking yet. Therefore, this study reports the analysis of move structure and hedging use in Management and Marketing abstracts. Comparative analysis was also conducted to investigate sudisciplinary variations in both move structure and hedging use between the two subdisciplines in the field of Business. In total, sixty-four research articles abstracts published in 2012 were randomly selected form eight leading journals in two subdisciplines. Hyland’s model (2000 was adopted as analytical framework for move structure analysis, and Wordsmith Tool was used to search hedging in the corpus. Results showed that the move structure of I-P-Pr (Introduction-Purpose-Product is the most dominant sequences in both Management and Marketing. Regarding the use of hedging, all the five types occurred in both subdisciplines of Business. The findings of this study have also demonstrated the existence of variations in terms of both move structure and the use of hedging in the abstracts between the two subdisciplines. Therefore, pedagogical implications can be proposed that teaching practices should address the variations so as to meet the specific expectations from different particular discourse communities.

Qian Li

2014-12-01

90

Research status on p53 pathway-associated genes expression as radiation biodosimeter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation biodosimeter plays a vitally important role in estimating the absorbed doses of radiation victims and in the research on radiation biological effects. The 'golden' biodosimeter, chromosome aberration analysis, is not suit for fast and high-throughout dose estimation. Developing a new fast and simple biodosimeter became the hotspot in radiation biodosimetry. Some studies showed that ionizing radiation could induce the gene expression changes (GEC) in the network of transcriptional regulation pathway, and GEC had the potential to be a biodosimeter. Many studies focused on p53 pathway-associated genes, including mdm2, Cyclin, G, CDKN1A, GADD45, PIG3, Fhl2, ISG 20L1, PCNA and GDF15. (authors)

91

A cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural study of directives in discussions and conclusions of research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English and Persian journals between 2000 and 2012 were selected. The RAs were textually analyzed to determine the distribution of directives. Findings revealed a significant difference between Persian hard and soft science RAs in the employment of directives, with soft science writers employing directives more frequently in discussion and conclusion sections in comparison with hard science writers. However, no significant difference was found in the distribution of directives across discussion and conclusion sections of English soft and hard RAs. Moreover, findings did not show a significant difference across Persian and English RAs. Overall, results suggest that Persian and English academic writers tend to follow a similar generic and discursive trend in the employment of directives in their discussion and conclusion sections pointing to the universal nature of directives as persuasive strategies employed by academic writers in canonical branches of science. The findings of the present study might raise learners' awareness of the conventions and lexico-grammatical features of academic writing in Persian and/or English RAs.

Alireza Jalilifar

2014-01-01

92

Making a Difference in Research and Practice: A Commentary on "Consulting to Facilitate Planned Organizational Change in Schools," an Article by Joseph E. Zins and Robert J. Illback  

Science.gov (United States)

Zins and Illback observed in 1995 that planned organizational change processes were neglected in practice, training, and research. In the decade following publication of their article, implementation of processes and structures of planned organizational change increased dramatically. Schools and school districts continue to face increased…

Flaspohler, Paul D.

2007-01-01

93

ClinData Express--a metadata driven clinical research data management system for secondary use of clinical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim to ease the secondary use of clinical data in clinical research, we introduce a metadata driven web-based clinical data management system named ClinData Express. ClinData Express is made up of two parts: 1) m-designer, a standalone software for metadata definition; 2) a web based data warehouse system for data management. With ClinData Express, what the researchers need to do is to define the metadata and data model in the m-designer. The web interface for data collection and specific database for data storage will be automatically generated. The standards used in the system and the data export modular make sure of the data reuse. The system has been tested on seven disease-data collection in Chinese and one form from dbGap. The flexibility of system makes its great potential usage in clinical research. The system is available at http://code.google.com/p/clindataexpress. PMID:23304327

Li, Zuofeng; Wen, Jingran; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wu, Chunxiao; Li, Zuogao; Liu, Lei

2012-01-01

94

Research on Logistics Value Chain Analysis and Competitiveness Construction for Express Enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through analyzing the value of the activities in the process of express delivery, the model of logistics value chain analysis (LVCA of express enterprises is constructed. Using the model, the express enterprises can identify the key activities from the whole process of express delivery from senders to receivers, and those key activities constitute the logistics competitiveness of express enterprises. Then a model of logistics competitiveness is established, which includes four aspects: strategic location, network optimization, value-added services and performance measures. Those four aspects form the core logistics competitiveness for express enterprises.

Xingjian Zhou

2013-04-01

95

A Comparison Study on the Rhetorical Moves of Abstracts in Published Research Articles and Master’s Foreign-language Theses  

OpenAIRE

The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master’s English theses and published research articles in applied linguistics, this study compares the practices of student writers and expert writers in fulfilling the rhetorical goal of abstracts to shed light on the degr...

Hongwei Ren; Yuying Li

2011-01-01

96

Autoriaus pozicijos švelninimas: tarpdalykiniai ir tarpkalbiniai raiškos priemoni? ypatumai. Hedging in Lithuanian and English research articles: a cross – disciplinary and cross – linguistic study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hedging is a linguistic strategy frequently employed in scientific writing to diminish the author‘s commitment to the accompanying proposition and to mitigate claims, thus presenting a proposition as a possibility or probability rather than a fact. This article describes the results of a pilot study on the frequency and variety of hedging devices in Lithuanian and English research articles in two different disciplines (linguistics and medicine. The study is limited to lexical hedges only. The results of a cross – disciplinary study demonstrate that in the field of medicine, researchers tend to hedge less and hence are much more determined in their claims than linguists in both languages. The cross – linguistic study shows that English speaking researchers seem to use significantly more hedging devices than their Li­thuanian speaking colleagues in both disciplines. The variety of hedges used in English was also wider than in Lithuanian. Most frequently used hedges in both languages in linguistic articles were adverbs, whereas in medical articles it was modal verbs.

Jolanta Šink?nien?

2008-01-01

97

Comparative Study on Anchorage in Reinforced Concrete Using Codes of Practice and Expressions by Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The evaluations of anchorage strength of bars in reinforced concrete are varied in codes of practice and equations by researchers on the base of their approaches and philosophies. This paper (Part I aims to have a comparative study between the predictions by codes of practice of BS8110 and EC2 and those equations by Darwin et al, Morita and Fuji, Batayneh and Nielsen and results of 164 tests from literature. In this part the case of straight anchorage bars without transverse pressure is considered. Some major parameters including compressive strength, and in terms of ratio of concrete cover to bar diameter and ratio of anchorage length to bar diameter , are addressed in detail. Although various parameters are involved in anchorage design equations, it is observed that every code has merit over the other codes in some aspect. The presented discussion highlights the major areas of differences which need attentions in the future for more investigations. The main conclusion has been presented in part II to include the study of straight anchorages with transverse pressure. The conclusions should cover the both cases to obtain the fair assessments for bond strength by those expressions used in this study

Rizgar Amin Agha

2014-08-01

98

EDITORIAL ARTICLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It gives me an immense pleasure to bring out the Volume 2 (Issue 1 of Current Trends in Biotechnology & Chemical Research (CTBCR to our scientific community with twelve articles including research, reviews and case-studies. CTBCR is a Half yearly Open Access journal that publishes papers related to the study and application of biotechnology related to (i Medicine, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, (ii Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology, and (iii Environment and Biodiversity. CTBCR recognizes that Biotechnology also relies heavily on chemical research therefore CTBCR will present information on interdisciplinary aspects of chemical research in biotechnology. Also it will address various complexities associated with structure-function and application of chemistry and other tools and techniques applied in Biotechnology. CTBCR will appeal to scientists and engineers in both academia and industry focused on the safe and efficient application of Biotechnology to Medicine, chemistry, Agriculture , pharmacy and the environment. The current issue features articles on phytoremediation looking at the effect of industrial effluents on growth parameters of phytoremediators; predicting de-novo generated, iteratively optimized new lead molecules targeting HIV-1 protease; optimizing process parameters for decolorization of anaerobically digested Molasses Spent Wash using Aspergillus niger.  There are couple of excellent review articles on “Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy” and on “Aflatoxins”. The issue also features two case reports and other research articles on antibacterial potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract; synthesis and bioactivity of novel imidazoles; a simpler method to synthesize NiO nanoparticles; template formation by aluminium anodization processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials and lastly an article on formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of Cefpodoxime proxetil. The main focus of this issue of CTBCR has been on healthcare, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, chemistry, food and agriculture technologies.  The issue covers not only basic aspects but also applications and commercialization. Special attention has been given to papers and topics of the interdisciplinary intersections between the major disciplines i.e. medicine and nutrition or chemistry and environment, microorganisms and bio-molecules etc.  All the abstracts published in CTBCR do have a wide-reach fulfilling our primary aim for sharing of the knowledge and for contributing to the progress in the study area. While thanking all the editorial board members for their continued support and timely interactions, we reiterate our commitment for ethical, quality publications in all areas of Biotechnology and chemical research, and to continue to evolve progressively for the benefit of our contributors and readers. Together with the Board of Editors, we will seek to publish only scientifically sound information, wellwritten and informative news in Biotechnology and chemical research. I am very happy and proud to introduce an impeccable list of Editorial and Advisory Board Members. By doing this venture we hope to familiarize our authors and readers with their respective field of expertise. We would also invite our senior editorial board members and other experts from diverse areas to act as Guest Editors of special issues devoted to selected topics in the coming months. I hope that you will enjoy reading this issue of CTBCR.

Prof. Anil K. Sharma

2012-10-01

99

Education Resourcing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: The Impact of Finance Equity Reforms in Public Schooling: Research Article  

Science.gov (United States)

Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…

Motala, Shireen

2006-01-01

100

Tracing convergence and divergence in pairs of Spanish and English research article abstracts: The case of Ibérica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates patterns of rhetorical convergence and divergence in pairs of RA abstracts (English-Spanish and Spanish-English published in the journal Ibérica. To that end, a total of 84 pairs of author-translated RA abstracts were analyzed. Based on the results of a pilot study, the following rhetorical patterns were analyzed in the corpus: text-referring expressions, degree of epistemic commitment, amplified attitude, self-mention, and periphrastic (e.g. multi-word expressions. In addition, selected authorial input was requested to seek further explanations about the variation across these two languages. For text-referring expressions, broad cross-linguistic convergence was found in the expressions used and the degree to which the text is given agency. By contrast, the abstracts in Spanish were found to include greater degree of epistemic commitment, more amplified expressions of attitude, more self-mention, particularly in the plural first person, and periphrastic equivalents. Authorial input indicated that some of these diverging patterns were due to collocational differences but they were also influenced by beliefs about what is more natural in Spanish. Our results suggest that there may be specific lexical bundles performing intensifying functions in Spanish that deserve further investigation. These findings may have implications for ESP pedagogy and translation studies.

Moisés Perales-Escudero

2011-04-01

101

Descripción de las formas de justificación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación en español de seis áreas científicas (Description of the Justification Forms in Research Articles in Spanish in Six Scientific Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La justificación de los objetivos de investigación es una parte consustancial de la producción científica. A pesar de ello, no existen descripciones detalladas de cómo esta práctica se realiza en distintas áreas de la ciencia. En este trabajo analizamos los extractos textuales de justificación de un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, correspondientes a seis áreas de la ciencia. Utilizando los lineamientos de la teoría fundada, los resultados del análisis muestran que la justificación no siempre se plasma en un movimiento retórico determinado en estos textos. Se puede establecer, además, que el ámbito de justificación puede corresponder a problemáticas o argumentos de distinto nivel, y que la forma más común de justificar una investigación se basa en los aportes, implicancias o aplicabilidad de los resultados. Por último, proponemos que las formas retóricas que adopta la justificación son sensibles a las variaciones determinadas por la naturaleza epistemológica, los objetos de estudio y los procedimientos metodológicos utilizados en cada una de las áreas de la ciencia. (The justification of research objectives is an inherent part of scientific production. However, there are not any detailed descriptions as to how this practice is carried out in different scientific areas. In this article, we analyzetextual extracts of justification from a representative corpus of 162 research articles, corresponding to six scientific disciplines. Using the guidelines of the Grounded Theory, the results of the analysis show that the justification is not always expressed as a determined rhetorical move in these texts. Furthermore, it can be established that the field of justification can correspond to problems and arguments of distinctive levels, and that the most common way to justify a research project is based on the contributions, implicationsor applicability of the results. Finally, we propose that the rhetoric forms that the justification takes are sensible to variations determined by the nature of epistemology, the objects of study and the methodological procedures used in each of the scientific areas.

Omar Sabaj Meruane

2012-06-01

102

Stromal proteome expression profile and muscle-invasive bladder cancer research  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background To globally characterize the cancer stroma expression profile of muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma and to discuss the cancer biology as well as biomarker discovery from stroma. Laser capture micro dissection was used to harvest purified muscle-invasive bladder cancer stromal cells and normal urothelial stromal cells from 4 paired samples. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the proteome expression p...

Niu Haitao; Jiang Haiping; Cheng Bo; Li Xinhui; Dong Qian; Shao Leping; Liu Shiguo; Wang Xinsheng

2012-01-01

103

A Comparison Study on the Rhetorical Moves of Abstracts in Published Research Articles and Master’s Foreign-language Theses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master’s English theses and published research articles in applied linguistics, this study compares the practices of student writers and expert writers in fulfilling the rhetorical goal of abstracts to shed light on the degree to which students appropriate to the practices of their own discipline and to provide relevant ESP materials for both teachers and student writers of applied linguistics, especially those who write in English as a foreign language.

Hongwei Ren

2011-02-01

104

Descubriendo algunos problemas en la redacción de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) de alumnos de postgrado / Discovering some problems in graduate students' composition of research articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hoy en día, la divulgación de la ciencia en la forma de Artículos de Investigación Científica (AIC) en revistas indexadas ha dejado de ser una opción y se ha transformado en una necesidad para quien se inicia o ejerce la investigación. A pesar de ello, la formación de investigadores en Chile es reci [...] ente y quienes emprenden estudios de postgrado rara vez reciben instrucción formal en la escritura de AIC, menos aún en el conocimiento de los mecanismos de evaluación y de las potenciales revistas donde enviar sus trabajos. En este contexto, el objetivo de este artículo es describir y clasificar una serie de errores que se identifican en los AIC de un grupo de sujetos, estudiantes de postgrado de la Universidad de La Serena, que participaron en una intervención, cuyo propósito fue el aprendizaje de la producción de este género científico especializado. La intervención, en forma de talleres, consistió en 20 sesiones de tres horas cada una, espaciadas por un lapso de una semana. Durante su desarrollo, los sujetos escribieron, editaron en conjunto, y reescribieron las partes estructurales de un artículo de investigación. Los resultados muestran que los sujetos presentan dos grandes tipos de errores: uno asociados a problemas generales de la escritura y otro vinculados más específicamente con la escritura del género en cuestión. Abstract in english Nowadays, the dissemination of science by means of research articles in indexed journals is no longer an option, and it has turned into a necessity for those who are beginning or are devoted to research. However, researcher training in Chile is just beginning, and those who pursue graduate studies s [...] eldom receive formal instruction on the writing of scientific research articles (SRA), on a peer review system, or on the prospective journals to which they might submit their manuscripts. Considering the above, the objective of this article is to describe and classify a series of errors detected in the composition of SRAs written by a group of Universidad de La Serena graduate students who participated in an intervention, the purpose of which was to look at how they produce this specialized scientific genre. The intervention took place in 20 three-hour weekly workshop sessions, where the participants wrote, edited collectively, and re-wrote the structural parts of a research article. It was found that the participants' compositions contain general writing errors and genre-specific errors.

Omar, Sabaj.

105

El resumen del artículo científico de investigación y recomendaciones para su redacción The abstract of the scientific research article and some recommendations for writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas recomendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen.Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the basis of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.

Dania Silva Hernández

2010-06-01

106

El resumen del artículo científico de investigación y recomendaciones para su redacción / The abstract of the scientific research article and some recommendations for writing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas rec [...] omendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen. Abstract in english Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the bas [...] is of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.

Dania, Silva Hernández.

2010-06-01

107

El resumen del artículo científico de investigación y recomendaciones para su redacción / The abstract of the scientific research article and some recommendations for writing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas rec [...] omendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen. Abstract in english Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the bas [...] is of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.

Dania, Silva Hernández.

2010-06-01

108

Genome-wide analysis of growth phase-dependent translational and transcriptional regulation in halophilic archaea : research article  

OpenAIRE

Background Differential expression of genes can be regulated on many different levels. Most global studies of gene regulation concentrate on transcript level regulation, and very few global analyses of differential translational efficiencies exist. The studies have revealed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and human cell lines translational regulation plays a significant role. Additional species have not been investigated yet. Particularly, until now no global study of ...

Lange, Christian; Zaigler, Alexander; Hammelmann, Mathias; Twellmeyer, Jens; Raddatz, Gu?nter; Schuster, Stephan C.; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Soppa, Jo?rg

2008-01-01

109

Erratum to research development of the relationship between thymidine phosphorylase expression and colorectal carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erratum to: Cancer Biol Med 2013;10:10-15. doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2013.01.002In the published article1, an error appeared on page 10. The footnote about corresponding author should have read as follows:Correspondence to: Ji-Min ZhangEmail: jimin0820@163.comThe authors and the journal apologize for the error and for any confusion it may have caused.

Dian-Jun Ye

2013-06-01

110

Endogenous expression of ASLV viral proteins in specific pathogen free chicken embryos: relevance for the developmental biology research field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF eggs in combination with RCAS retrovirus, a member of the Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus (ASLV family, is of standard practice to study gene function and development. SPF eggs are certified free of infection by specific pathogen viruses of either exogenous or endogenous origin, including those belonging to the ASLV family. Based on this, SPF embryos are considered to be free of ASLV viral protein expression, and consequently in developmental research studies RCAS infected cells are routinely identified by immunohistochemistry against the ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Contrary to this generally accepted notion, observations in our laboratory suggested that certified SPF chicken embryos may endogenously express ASLV viral proteins p19 and p27. Since these observations may have significant implications for the developmental research field we further investigated this possibility. Results We demonstrate that certified SPF chicken embryos have transcriptionally active endogenous ASLV loci (ev loci capable of expressing ASLV viral proteins, such as p19 and p27, even when those loci are not capable of producing viral particles. We also show that the extent of viral protein expression in embryonic tissues varies not only among flocks but also between embryos of the same flock. In addition, our genetic screening revealed significant heterogeneity in ev loci composition even among embryos of the same flock. Conclusions These observations have critical implications for the developmental biology research field, since they strongly suggest that the current standard methodology used in experimental studies using the chick embryo and RCAS vectors may lead to inaccurate interpretation of results. Retrospectively, our observations suggest that studies in which infected cells have been identified simply by pan-ASLV viral protein expression may need to be considered with caution. For future studies, they point to a need for careful selection and screening of the chick SPF lines to be used in combination with RCAS constructs, as well as the methodology utilized for qualitative analysis of experimental results. A series of practical guidelines to ensure research quality animals and accuracy of the interpretation of results is recommended and discussed.

Canto-Soler M Valeria

2010-10-01

111

Investigação em cancro gástrico: artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais por autores portugueses / Gastric cancer research: articles published in national and international journals by portuguese authors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O cancro do estômago permanece um dos mais frequentes, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento, pelo que poderá tornar-se numa doença negligenciada no que respeita aos esforços de investigação. O Japão apresenta das mais elevadas taxas de incidência em todo o mundo e contribui actual [...] mente para a maior parte das publicações científicas nesta área. Sendo Portugal um dos países com mais elevada frequência de cancro do estômago no mundo desenvolvido, o objectivo deste estudo foi caracterizar, quanto aos objectivos dos estudos e afiliação dos autores, as publicações sobre adenocarcinoma gástrico e/ou lesões pré-cancerosas do estômago publicadas por investigadores portugueses. Métodos: Pesquisámos as bases de dados MEDLINE® e Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas no período 19922003 e revimos os resumos dos artigos identificados. Excluíram-se os que não reportavam investigação original e os baseados exclusivamente no estudo de linhas celulares ou em experimentação animal. Obtivemos o número de citações dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais através da Web of Science®. Resultados: Identificaram-se 88 artigos em revistas internacionais e 53 em revistas nacionais. Os artigos de pendor clínico são mais frequentemente publicados em revistas portuguesas e a investigação dos factores de risco e da etiologia nas publicações internacionais. A genética/epidemiologia molecular foi o assunto mais estudado nos artigos de revistas internacionais, na sua maioria abordando mecanismos/etiologia/factores de risco (n=55, 89%). A maior parte (81%) dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais são de grupos de investigação do Porto, sendo também os mais citados (número mediano de citações até 2004 = 15). Conclusão: A publicação da investigação em cancro do estômago em revistas nacionais ou internacionais depende do objecto de estudo. A alta proporção de artigos no campo da genética contrasta com o reduzido número de publicações acerca do papel etiológico de exposições decorrentes dos estilos de vida. Abstract in english Background: Gastric cancer remains one of the most frequent worldwide, though it may become a neglected disease concerning the research efforts due to its lower frequency in the developed countries. Japan is responsible for most of the stomach cancer research all over the world, with an increasing t [...] rend in the study of genetic susceptibility and the use of molecular markers. Portugal, like Japan, presents one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in the developed world, and our aim was to characterize articles addressing gastric adenocarcinoma or the respective precancerous lesions published by Portuguese researchers, according to the study subjects and authors’ affiliation. Methods: MEDLINE® and Portuguese Medical Journals Index databases were searched within the period 1992-2003 and the abstracts of the identified articles were reviewed. We obtained the number of citations for articles published in international journals through the Web of Science®. Those not reporting original research and those based exclusively in the study of cell lines or animal experimentation, were excluded. Results: We identified 88 articles in international journals (70% addressed cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors) and 53 in national journals (87% reported therapy/clinical and pathological descriptions). Genetic/ molecular topics were the most studied in articles on cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors from international journals (n=55, 89%). Most articles (81%) published in international journals come from groups from Porto, and these were also the most cited (median number of citations until 2004 = 15). Conclusion: The study scope is a major determinant for publication of stomach cancer research by Portuguese authors in national or international journals. The high proportion of studies on genetics/molecular biology is in contrast with th

Nuno, Lunet; Rui, Carvalho; Henrique, Barros.

2005-07-01

112

Articles selected by Faculty of 1000 Biology: genetically identical SNPs; detailed histone modification mapping; plant gene-expression diversity; photosynthesis gene evolution; ?-Proteobacteria diversity.  

OpenAIRE

A selection of evaluations from Faculty of 1000 Biology covering genetically identical SNPs; detailed histone modification mapping; plant gene-expression diversity; photosynthesis gene evolution; ?-Proteobacteria diversity

2005-01-01

113

Response to Wong's Article.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a paper on risk and resilience models in learning disabilities (LD) research, this article supports the author and suggests areas of research, especially identification of risk and protective factors in children with LD. Application to analysis of friendship strategies is described. Also noted is longitudinal research to identify…

Cosden, Merith

2003-01-01

114

Library and Information Science Research Areas: A Content Analysis of Articles from the Top 10 Journals 2007-8  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…

Aharony, Noa

2012-01-01

115

The communication problems of Spanish researchers to get research articles published in Applied Linguistics English-medium journals: proposal and analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...

Moreno, Ana I.

2012-01-01

116

Asperger’s Disorder and Nonverbal Learning Disability: Similarity Between Cognitive Profile and Memory Functions Research Article  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) is a condition associated with prominent nonverbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, while the verbal abilities remain relatively intact. Some researchers have reported that there is a considerable overlap between cognitive and behavioral features of Asperger’s Disorder (AD) and NVLD. The present study aimed to assess the hypothesis of the presence of NVLD in AD using a neuropsychological battery, which primarily focu...

Ay?e K?l?nçaslan; Nahit Motavall? Mukaddes; Gökçe Sözen Küçükyaz?c?; Hakan Gürvit

2011-01-01

117

Bioterrorism Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) is offering free access to a large number of its previously published articles related to bioterrorism. Among the articles are five pieces by the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, which are focused on Anthrax, Smallpox, Plague, Botulinum Toxin, and Tularemia. The remainder of the articles are sorted by subject, including these diseases plus Ebola and Brucella, as well as Clinical Articles, Epidemiologic Investigations, articles on Preparedness, and a section devoted to Policy, Historical, and Editorial Perspectives. Articles are available in HTML or .pdf formats.

118

Aberrant expression of the neuronal transcription factor FOXP2 in neoplastic plasma cells: Research paper  

OpenAIRE

FOXP2 mutation causes a severe inherited speech and language defect, while the related transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP3 and FOXP4 are implicated in cancer. FOXP2 mRNA and protein expression were characterised in normal human tissues, haematological cell lines and multiple myeloma (MM) patients' samples. FOXP2 mRNA and protein were absent in mononuclear cells from different anatomical sites, lineages and stages of differentiation. However, FOXP2 mRNA and protein was detected in several lymph...

Campbell, Aj; Lyne, L.; Brown, Pj; Launchbury, Rj; Bignone, P.; Chi, J.; Roncador, G.; Lawrie, Ch; Gatter, Kc; Kusec, R.; Banham, Ah

2010-01-01

119

Producción de artículos latinoamericanos de investigación en enfermería indexados en Medline / The Production of Medline Indexed Articles on Nursing Research in Latin America  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la producción de artículos de enfermería provenientes de Latinoamérica publicados en revistas internacionales, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos de enfermería en PubMed entre 1997 y 2006. Se encontraron 1.246 artículos latinoamericanos publicados en revist [...] as indexadas en Medline; el 46% (575/1.246) provenían de una Escuela o Departamento de Enfermería y el resto eran de otro origen. Brasil y México contribuyeron con el 76% de las publicaciones. Los tipos de artículos y prioridades incluyeron estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos controlados (39%), salud pública (34%), cuidados de enfermería (14%) y recursos humanos (13%). El 44% de los artículos se publicaron en revistas de enfermería y el resto en otras revistas biomédicas. En conclusión, esta evaluación de la producción científica latinoamericana en enfermería, basada en la cantidad de artículos publicados en revistas indexadas en Medline, arrojó un producto que muestra fuertes diferencias entre los países de la región, con Brasil y México con el mayor número (76%) de las publicaciones. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the production of articles on nursing research from Latin American countries published in international journals. A bibliographic search of nursing research articles was carried out in PubMed during the period 1997-2006. A total of 1246 articles from Latin Am [...] erican countries were published in Medline indexed journals; 46% (575/1246) came from a Nursing School or Department and the rest from other sources. Brazil and Mexico contributed with 76% of publications. Types of studies and priorities included observational and controlled clinical studies (39%), public health (34%), nursing care (14%) and human resources (13%). Forty four percent of articles were published in indexed nursing journals, and the rest in others biomedical journals. In conclusion, the scientific production on nursing from Latin America was assessed according to the number of publications indexed in Medline. This product shows strong differences among the countries, with Brazil and Mexico alone accounting for 76% of publications.

Raúl A., Borracci; María M., Rabhansl de Desmery.

2013-10-01

120

Expressions: Multiple Intelligences in the English Class. Theory & Research into Practice (TRIP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended to help teachers think of ways to broaden the range of intelligences students use in language arts classes within the constraints of the content area, this book offers help for teachers who want to create classes in which students enthusiastically participate in constructive activities. In its first section ("Theory and Research"), the…

Smagorinsky, Peter

121

A organização do conhecimento na dinâmica da pesquisa em artigos da literatura científica da Brapci / Knowledge organization in the dynamics of research in the scientific literature of articles at Brapci  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa as dimensões de pesquisa expressas concretamente na literatura da área de Organização do Conhecimento. Considera que a produção científica desenvolvida em determinados contextos sociais e momentos históricos reflete as mudanças e contradições desse contexto, tanto em sua organiza [...] ção interna quanto em suas aplicações. Questiona como se configuram as relações entre as opções metodológicas adotadas nessa literatura e o processo dinâmico de pesquisa sob a ótica multidimensional. Ilustra esse processo de análise a partir de um corpus de 105 artigos recuperados da Base Referencial de Artigos de Periódicos em Ciência da Informação, entre 2003 e 2012. Utiliza os softwares Endnote e Excel para organização e análise dos dados coletados. Categoriza os artigos de pesquisa sob o ponto de vista de seu objeto e delineamento metodológico, bem como de suas relações teóricas por meio de estudo de citação. Evidencia os autores mais expressivos e atuantes na área de Organização do Conhecimento no Brasil. Identifica os periódicos mais devotados ao tema e conclui que a produção científica brasileira sobre o tema distribui-se de maneira irregular ao longo do período analisado, tendo seu ápice no ano de 2011, durante o qual são publicados 18,27% dos artigos. Finaliza estabelecendo relações entre as correntes teóricas da Organização do Conhecimento e os enfoques e temáticas predominantes no corpus. Os enfoques de pesquisa de maior incidência foram o teórico e o linguístico, e o tipo de análise foi documental. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to analyze the research dimensions expressed in the literature in the field of knowledge organization. We consider that scientific investigation developed in certain social contexts and historical conjunctures reflects the changes and contradictions present in these contexts [...] , both in its organization and applications. This process is illustrated from a corpus of 105 articles retrieved from the referential database of journal articles on Information Science between 2003 and 2012. Endnote and Excel software were used for organizing and analyzing the data collected. The articles are categorized according to their object and methodological approach, as well as their theoretical foundations through the study of citations. Throughout this investigation, we point out the most expressive and active authors in the field of knowledge organization in Brazil. We also identify the journals that are more devoted to the theme and we conclude that Brazilian scientific production on the theme is irregularly distributed over the period of time analyzed, peaking in 2011 when 18,27% of the total number of articles were published. We conclude by establishing the relationship between theoretical currents of knowledge organization and the prevalent approaches and themes found in the corpus. The focus of the most prevalent research approaches were the theoretical and linguistic approaches and the type of analysis was documentary.

Juliana Lazzarotto, Freitas; Bruna Silva do, Nascimento; Leilah Santiago, Bufrem.

2014-12-01

122

Comparative Study on Anchorage in Reinforced Concrete Using Codes of Practice and Expressions by Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper (Part II reports a comparative study for BS8110 and EC2 of practice and those expressions by Batayneh and Neilsen on tests from literature. These have been treated under straight bar anchorages with transverse pressure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of the existing equations for bond strength of straight bars by applying to the available tests in the literature .The most important parameters were examined in these tests are concrete strength, anchorage length, concrete covers, bar diameter and transverse pressure. 264 tests from the literature have been chosen, which are all for straight bars with transverse pressure. The specimens are pull-out specimens with small concrete covers, beams ends and slabs. For both comparative studies in Part I and Part II, the conclusions and recommendations are presented here together

Rizgar Amin Agha

2014-08-01

123

Asperger’s Disorder and Nonverbal Learning Disability: Similarity Between Cognitive Profile and Memory Functions Research Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD is a condition associated with prominent nonverbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, while the verbal abilities remain relatively intact. Some researchers have reported that there is a considerable overlap between cognitive and behavioral features of Asperger’s Disorder (AD and NVLD. The present study aimed to assess the hypothesis of the presence of NVLD in AD using a neuropsychological battery, which primarily focused on memory, in a group of children and adolescents from the Turkish population. Methods: 21 individuals, aged 7-16 years, - who referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty Child Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed with AD according to DSM-IV criteria, and 18 age-, gender-, IQ- and education level-matched volunteer controls were evaluated. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s Version, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and The Benton Judgment of Line Orientation and Facial Recognition tests were administered to the participants.Results: The AD group performed similarly to the controls on verbal memory and verbal comprehension, but was significantly poorer in short- and long-term visual memory, perceptual organization and visuospatial constructional abilities. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the neuropsychological profile of the individuals with AD is closely similar to that of NVLD. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 140-6

Ay?e K?l?nçaslan

2011-06-01

124

Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women  

OpenAIRE

Biological sex is known to have significant effects on pain, with women typically experiencing higher levels of pain compared with men. Although extensive research has been conducted investigating the effects of biological sex on pain, research investigating the effects of gender and sexual orientation is lacking, particularly with regard to women. The authors of this article conducted a study investigating correlations between measures of gender expression and preferred gender expression in ...

Vigil, Jacob M.; Rowell, Lauren N.; Lutz, Charlotte

2014-01-01

125

O letramento acadêmico em inglês: dificuldades na confecção da seção introdução de artigos acadêmicos / English academic literacy: difficulties in writing the introduction section of research articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora), comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2 [...] 004) e de Samraj (2002) ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência do movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino. Abstract in english This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor) were compared with Swales' (2004) and Samraj' (2002) [...] models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.

Marília Mendes, Ferreira.

1025-10-01

126

O letramento acadêmico em inglês: dificuldades na confecção da seção introdução de artigos acadêmicos English academic literacy: difficulties in writing the introduction section of research articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora, comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2004 e de Samraj (2002 ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência do movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino.This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor were compared with Swales' (2004 and Samraj' (2002 models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.

Marília Mendes Ferreira

2012-01-01

127

A Comparative Survey of Lotka and Pao’s Laws Conformity with the Number of Researchers and Their Articles in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Fields in Web of Science (1986-2009)  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS) during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via ...

Farideh Osareh; Esmaeel Mostafavi

2011-01-01

128

Too Few Articles in the Journal Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries are Research?Based. A review of: Crawford, Gregory A., and Jessica Feldt. “An Analysis of the Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46.3 (Spr. 2007: 77?87.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To discover which journals publish a preponderance of the literature on instruction in academic libraries, and to further learn what topics are discussed in the literature and what methods of inquiry are used to explore those topics.Design – Comparative analysis.Setting – The ERIC database.Subjects – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002, found in the ERIC database via the descriptor ‘library instruction.’Methods – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002 were searched in the ERIC database using the term ‘library instruction,’ because the term has been used by ERIC since the inception of the database. Article characteristics such as year of publication, journal in which a given article was published, and types of articles were identified. After normalizing the identification of article types by comparing individual codifications of a random sample of articles from the results list, the researchers coded all of the articles according to the articles’ main topics. These article topics were then condensed into broader topics (e.g. articles coded initially as addressing the topics of instruction to “graduate students” or “high school students” were condensed under the heading “instruction of specific populations”. Those articles deemed to have a research component were further analyzed in terms of research methodology, scope, and use of statistics. The questions guiding the authors? study consisted of:• In which journals are articles on instruction in academic libraries published?• What are the topics of the articles that have been published?• How has the literature of instruction in academic libraries changed over the years?• What is the nature of research [authors? emphasis] articles on instruction in academic libraries?• For research articles, what are the research methods used and what types of statistics are utilized? (77?78.Main results – The search found 791 articles appearing in 90 journals. However, only six journals were responsible for publishing 60% of the articles on the results list. Based on the categorization into topics or types,five article types – “general essays,” articles on “instruction for searching online catalogs and databases,” “articles on course? or assignment?related instruction,” “programmatic and management issues,”and “specific institution instruction” –accounted for 54% of the total articles; eleven other topics are represented in the remaining articles. Only 24.5% of the articles could be considered “research?based.” While nine types of research methods were used, 62.3% of the research?based articles relied on surveys or questionnaires. However, taking into account what could be an expected decline in interest for studying instruction for microforms, and an increased interest in studying instruction for the Internet, the types of articles published each year between 1971 and 2002 remained generally static.Conclusion – The authors conclude that, unsurprisingly, a select few journals are responsible for publishing the majority of articles on instruction in academic libraries, and note that these journals are “closely associated with academic librarianship and instruction” (85. The authors’ findings concerning the types of articles published over the course of the date range examined, although interesting, are equally unsurprising. What is surprising and alarming, is that only a quarter of all articles published are research-based. Furthermore, those articles that were found to be research-based did not often employ sophisticated research methods, preferring for example, the use of descriptive statistics over inferential statistics. Ideally, this article will spur the development and publication of more, and more rigorous, research?based scholarship in addition to pointing authors both to the journals most likely to publish their research and to the topics that have been historically (since 1971 underrepresented in the literature.

Kurt Blythe

2008-03-01

129

Using a Research Article to Foster Moral Reflection and Global Awareness in Teaching about Religion and Politics, Theory Testing, and Democracy in the Muslim World  

Science.gov (United States)

Encouraging students to reflect on their ethical principles and to develop a global outlook have been identified as key pedagogical goals in recent national reports on higher education. This article shows how instructors can use a current article from the "American Sociological Review (ASR)" to facilitate moral reflection and global awareness. The…

Davis, Nancy J.; Robinson, Robert V.

2006-01-01

130

Use of Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes in Baculovirus Research and Recombinant Protein Expression: Current Trends and Future Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The baculovirus expression system is one of the most successful and widely used eukaryotic protein expression methods. This short review will summarise the role of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACS) as an enabling technology for the modification of the virus genome. For many years baculovirus genomes have been maintained in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes, and foreign genes have been inserted using a transposition-based system. However, with recent advances in molecular biology techniques, particularly targeting reverse engineering of the baculovirus genome by recombineering, new frontiers in protein expression are being addressed. In particular, BACs have facilitated the propagation of disabled virus genomes that allow high throughput protein expression. Furthermore, improvement in the selection of recombinant viral genomes inserted into BACS has enabled the expression of multiprotein complexes by iterative recombineering of the baculovirus genome. PMID:23762754

Roy, Polly; Noad, Rob

2012-01-01

131

Protective articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

132

La similitud léxico-semántica en artículos de investigación científica en español: Una aproximación desde el Análisis Semántico Latente Lexical-semantic similarity in scientific research articles in Spanish: An approach to Latent Semantic Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta investigación es un estudio comparativo de la relación de similitud léxico-semántica entre tres variables textuales (palabras clave, resumen y el contenido de artículos de investigación científica. Además, se comparan a partir de los valores de similitud léxico-semántica dos áreas científicas (ciencias biológicas y ciencias sociales. El estudio se realiza utilizando una muestra estratificada representativa correspondiente a 22 artículos de investigación científica de ambas áreas científicas, incluidos en un corpus de 675 artículos científicos. Para la determinación de la similitud léxico-semántica entre las variables, se utiliza un método estadístico-computacional denominado Análisis Semántico Latente. Los resultados nos permiten establecer, por una parte, que en la muestra investigada el resumen ‘macrosemantiza’ mejor el contenido semántico global del artículo que las palabras clave. Por otra parte, no se presentan diferencias significativas entre los promedios de similitud léxico-semántica entre las áreas científicas estudiadas. Estos resultados se explican en función de los complejos procesos de estandarización que tienden a homogeneizar la producción científicaThis research focuses on lexical-semantic similarities found in three text variables (key words, abstract, and content in scientific research articles. Two scientific areas (biological sciences and social sciences from the values of lexical-semantic similarity are compared. The study employs a representative stratified sample of 22 scientific research articles in these two areas, which have been included in a corpus of 675 scientific articles. To determine lexical-semantic similarities among the variables, a computer-statistical method is employed, called Latent Semantic Analysis. The findings help assert, on the one hand, that the abstract ‘macro-semanticizes’ better the global semantic content of the article than do the key words. On the other hand, no meaningful differences among the averages of lexical-semantic similarity in the scientific areas studied are revealed. These findings are accounted for in terms of the generally complex standardization processes which tend to homogenize the production of this type of articles

René Venegas

2006-01-01

133

FindArticles.com  

Science.gov (United States)

This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.

134

Is there a place for work in child development? Implications of child development theory and research for interpretation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, with particular reference to Article 32, on children, work and exploitation.  

OpenAIRE

This paper is about the role of child-development knowledge and research in international efforts to improve the lives and prospects for millions of working children. Article 32 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is framed in psychological terms. It declares that children must be protected from work that is harmful to their ’physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development’. The Convention presumes a universal concept of ’development’ and ’harm’ (in terms of w...

Woodhead, Martin

1999-01-01

135

Research Quality and Newsworthiness of Published Articles are Partial Predictors of Journal Impact Factors. A Review of: Lokker, C., Haynes, R. B., Chu, R., McKibbon, K. A., Wilczynski, N. L., & Walter, S. D. (2012. How well are journal and clinical article characteristics associated with the journal impact factor?A retrospective cohort study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 100(1, 28-33. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.100.1.006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – Determine what characteristics ofa journal’s published articles can be used topredict the journal impact factor (JIF.Design – A retrospective cohort study.Setting – The researchers are located atMcMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario,Canada.Subjects – The sample consisted of 1,267clinical research articles from 103 evidencebased and clinical journals which werepublished in 2005 and indexed in theMcMaster University Premium LiteratUreService (PLUS database and those samejournals’ JIF from 2007.Method – The articles were divided 60:40 intoa derivation set (760 articles and 99 journalsand a validation set (507 articles and 88journals. Ten variables which could influenceJIF were developed and a multiple linearregression was run on the derivation set andthen applied to the validation set.Main Results – The four variables found to besignificant were the number of databaseswhich indexed the journal, the number ofauthors, the quality of research, and the“newsworthiness” of the journal’s publishedarticles. Conclusion – The quality of research and newsworthiness at time of publication of a journal’s articles can predict the journal impact factor with 60% accuracy.

Jason Martin

2012-09-01

136

Original research articles on the cardiopulmonary system recently appeared in Brazilian clinical and surgical journals / Artigos originais sobre o sistema cardiopulmonar publicados recentemente em periódicos Brasileiros clínicos e cirúrgicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Nos últimos anos, houve um aumento considerável na qualidade dos artigos científicos publicados em periódicos médicos brasileiros. As razões para tal incremento são muitas, incluindo a iniciativa de open access da base SciELO, a adoção do inglês por vários periódicos e, a mais relevante, o aumento e [...] m número e qualidade dos pesquisadores brasileiros. Este artigo indica os melhores artigos sobre os sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório publicados recentemente nesses periódicos. Será oferecido ao leitor um panorama dessas áreas e alguns artigos podem ser selecionados para maiores informações. Abstract in english In the last few years, a huge increment in the quality of scientific articles published in Brazilian Medical Journals has been observed. Several reasons were related to this feature including the SciELO free access initiative, the English language adopted by most journals, and, more importantly, the [...] increase in the number and quality of Brazilian researchers. This article highlights, in the cardiovascular and respiratory areas, the best articles that have been published in these journals in the last few months. The reader will have a general overview of these areas and can select the original articles for deeper information.

Kavita Kirankumar, Patel; Bruno, Caramelli; Maurício Rocha e, Silva.

2011-12-01

137

Contributions to Mathematics Practical Researcher Post-Graduation Professional Education Contribuições para a Formação do Professor de Matemática Pesquisador nos Mestrados Profissionalizantes na Área de Ensino  

OpenAIRE

This article reports on research results related to teacher education, in particular, in professional mathematics and science education masters degree programs. It aims to contribute to the meaning production about the expression “teacher research” and to the constitution of the “practical researcher” figure. The text analyses the discourse about education in Brazil; characterizes “teacher research”; analyses recent mathematics teacher production; establishes quality criteria; dev...

Vera Clotilde Garcia Carneiro

2008-01-01

138

What Does Research Say about the Ideal Condition for Students Learning Mathematics?--A "Baker's Dozen" Articles to Inform Secondary Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

In seeking to align the everyday decision-making and lesson delivery of secondary teachers to current research in mathematics education, this piece provides an application of theory into classroom practice. By focusing on a sample of 13 quantitative and qualitative research studies of pedagogical best practice published since 2000, a set of…

Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.; Jones, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

139

La similitud léxico-semántica en artículos de investigación científica en español: Una aproximación desde el Análisis Semántico Latente / Lexical-semantic similarity in scientific research articles in Spanish: An approach to Latent Semantic Analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Esta investigación es un estudio comparativo de la relación de similitud léxico-semántica entre tres variables textuales (palabras clave, resumen y el contenido de artículos de investigación científica). Además, se comparan a partir de los valores de similitud léxico-semántica dos áreas científicas [...] (ciencias biológicas y ciencias sociales). El estudio se realiza utilizando una muestra estratificada representativa correspondiente a 22 artículos de investigación científica de ambas áreas científicas, incluidos en un corpus de 675 artículos científicos. Para la determinación de la similitud léxico-semántica entre las variables, se utiliza un método estadístico-computacional denominado Análisis Semántico Latente. Los resultados nos permiten establecer, por una parte, que en la muestra investigada el resumen ‘macrosemantiza’ mejor el contenido semántico global del artículo que las palabras clave. Por otra parte, no se presentan diferencias significativas entre los promedios de similitud léxico-semántica entre las áreas científicas estudiadas. Estos resultados se explican en función de los complejos procesos de estandarización que tienden a homogeneizar la producción científica Abstract in english This research focuses on lexical-semantic similarities found in three text variables (key words, abstract, and content in scientific research articles). Two scientific areas (biological sciences and social sciences) from the values of lexical-semantic similarity are compared. The study employs a rep [...] resentative stratified sample of 22 scientific research articles in these two areas, which have been included in a corpus of 675 scientific articles. To determine lexical-semantic similarities among the variables, a computer-statistical method is employed, called Latent Semantic Analysis. The findings help assert, on the one hand, that the abstract ‘macro-semanticizes’ better the global semantic content of the article than do the key words. On the other hand, no meaningful differences among the averages of lexical-semantic similarity in the scientific areas studied are revealed. These findings are accounted for in terms of the generally complex standardization processes which tend to homogenize the production of this type of articles

René, Venegas.

140

Using local citation data to relate the use of journal articles by academic researchers to the coverage of full-text document access systems  

OpenAIRE

The methodology and findings are presented of an empirical study comparing local citation patterns with the holdings lists of a number of sources of journal articles. These sources were the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC) and the BL 'inside' service, library holdings, ProQuest Direct, SearchBank, EiText and a linking system including both the Geobase database and the BLDSC. The value of local citation figures is discussed, as is the concept of a 'core' of journal titles, from...

Jacobs, Neil; Woodfield, Julie; Morris, Anne

2000-01-01

141

Introducing article-processing charges and inviting "detailed methods sections" articles  

OpenAIRE

This editorial introduces the use of article-processing charges at Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations and reviews that advantages of publishing in an Open Access journal. In addition, it introduces a new type of article the journal hopes to publish, detailed reports of study design or data analysis methods that have been used in health science research. The new type of article is intended to supplement the woefully constrained methods sections in standard research report articles, provi...

Phillips, Carl V.

2005-01-01

142

Tracking Theory Building and Use Trends in Selected LIS Journals: More Research is Needed. A review of: Kim, Sung?Jin, and Dong Y. Jeong. “An Analysis of the Development and Use of Theory in Library and Information Science Research Articles.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 548?62.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective ? The authors measure theory incidents occurring in four LIS journals between 1984?2003 in order to examine their number and quality and to analyze them by topic. A third objective, only identified later in the text of the study, was to compare theory development and use between Korean and international journals. Research questions asked include whether LIS has its own theoretical base as a discipline, and what characteristics the theoretical framework has.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – Journal issues selected from four LIS journals for the time span from 1984 ? 2003.Subjects – Two international journals, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST and Library and Information Science Research (LISR were selected based on their high ranking in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI impact factors. Two Korean journals, Journal of the Korean Society for Information Management (JKSIM and Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science (JKSLIS were selected.Methods ? After having determined a definition of theory, and identifying different levels of theory, the authors set up rules for the identification of theory incidents, which are defined as “events in which the author contributed to the development or the use of theory in his/her own paper” (550. Content analysis of 1661 research articles was performed to measure theory incidents according to working definitions. Interrater reliability was ensured by conducting independent coding for “subfield classification, identification of theory incidents, and quality measurement” (555,using a sample of 199 articles (random selection not specified, achieving 94?97% interrater reliability. Incidents, once identified, were evaluated for quality using Dubin’s “efficiency of law” criteria, involving measures of relatedness, directionality, co?variation, rate of change, and “profundity,” defined as the depth to which theory is incorporated into the research study.Main Results ? 21.79% (n=362 of the articles contained theory incidents that were analyzed and evaluated. Trend measurement indicated an overall increase, although a slight decrease was shown in the year range 1993?2003. International journals accounted for 61.33% of theory incidents, compared to 38.67% for the Korean journals. T?testing showed that differences in means between Korean and international journals were not statistically significant. Topical theory areas were ranked by frequency. The top five areas were shown to be nearly identical between Korean and international journals. ANOVA was performed with significant results in the difference between efficiency ratings. Conclusion – The authors find that the overall proportion of theory incidents including both theory development and use increased through the 20?year time span examined, and that LIS has established its own theoretical framework based upon the frequency of incidents.

Carol Perryman

2007-09-01

143

Etudes de brûleurs adaptés au fonctionnement à faible excès d'air. Première partie Research on Burners Adapted to Operate with Low Air Express. Part One  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article constitue la synthèse des résultats acquis dans le cadre de la recherche coopérative EDF-IFP concernant l'étude des paramètres aérodynamiques gouvernant le fonctionnement d'un brûleur à 2 veines d'air avec stabilisateur central à aubages. Après avoir rappelé les motivations de l'étude, et présenté les équipements expérimentaux mis en ceuvre à FIFP et l'EDF, on présente les renseignements significatifs obtenus sur un brûleur de petite échelle (500 à 1000 th/h opérant sous d'excès d'air - influence des paramètres aérodynamiques et géométriques sur les conditions de mélange; - optimisation des conditions de réglages et mise en évidence d'un type de stabilisateur d'intérêt pratique, - influence du recyclage de gaz brûlés sur la structure des flammes. This article is a synthesis of the results obtained in the joint EDF-IFP research project on the aerodynamic parameters governing the operating of a two-airstream burner with a central vane swirler. After reviewing the reasons behind the project and describing the experimental equipment used by IFP and EDF, the significant data are given for a small-scale burner (500,000 ta 1,000,000 kcal/h operating with a 2 % air excess. These data include : - the influence of aerodynamic and geometric parameters on the mixture conditions; - optimizing adjustment conditions and finding a practicable swirler type; - the influence of burned-gas recycling on flame structure.

Droin R.

2006-11-01

144

RELATIONSHIP MARKETING RESEARCH TAILORED TO SUPPORT SALES MANAGEMENT. CASE STUDY: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS LOGISTICS COMPANY IN ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within current economy context, complexities and particularities most companies are constantly seeking to maximize effectiveness and efficiency of their business. As sales force represents for most organizations their “spearheds”and direct contact with the market, its management can be a source for customer satisfaction and overall efficiency. Relationship marketing research with all its particularities and dimensions, if tailored appropriately can explicitly pinpoint major sources of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Focus of contemporary relationship marketing is the customer viewed across lifetime as a profit source and partner rather than on short term for singular transactions. Research findings help the organization better manage its sales force and generate customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty and maximize profits while achieving superior efficiency.

Fotea Ioan Stefan

2010-07-01

145

The expression of managerial functions in activities of local communities of Lithuania  

OpenAIRE

According to the author this article is relevant for scien­tists of management, who research the expression of managerial principles in practice, as well as for heads of local communities, who seek for their management to be successful so that better application of functions of organisational management in activities of local communities would contribute to their managerial success. The aim of this article is to find out if functional local communities can be analysed as organisations, and i...

Nefas, Saulius

2010-01-01

146

Health- and Disease-Related Biomarkers in Aging Research  

OpenAIRE

This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological agi...

Thompson, Hilaire J.; Voss, Joachim G.

2009-01-01

147

A Comparative Survey of Lotka and Pao’s Laws Conformity with the Number of Researchers and Their Articles in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Fields in Web of Science (1986-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via Web of Science during 1986-2009; that were stored in 500 records files and added to "ISI.exe" software for analysis to be performed. Then, the required output of this software was saved in Excel. There were 19150 articles in the computer science field (by 45713 authors and 958 articles in artificial intelligence field (by 2487 authors. Then for final counting and analyzing, the data converted to “Excel” spreadsheet software. Lotka and Pao’s laws were tested using both Lotka’s formula: (for Lotka’s Law; also for testing Pao’s law the values of the exponent n and the constant c are computed and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were applied. The results suggested that author productivity distribution predicted in “Lotka's generalized inverse square law” was not applicable to computer science and artificial intelligence; but Pao’s law was applicable to these subject areas. Survey both literature and original examining of Lotka and Pao’s Laws witnessed some aspects should be considered. The main elements involved in fitting in a bibliometrics method have been identified: using Lotka or Pao’s law, subject area, period of time, measurement of authors, and a criterion for assessing goodness-of-fit.

Farideh Osareh

2011-10-01

148

Does anybody read "evidence-based" articles?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The electronic version of the British Medical Journal (eBMJ has a unique feature in that it provides an electronic record of the number of times an article has been viewed ("hits" in the week after its publication. We sought to compare the relative popularity of primary research and "evidence-based" papers against that of narrative reviews and editorials. We surveyed four broad groupings of articles in 2001: Editorials, Clinical Reviews (which are narrative reviews, Education and Debate, and Papers (which are original research articles and systematic reviews. Clinical Reviews were the most frequently viewed articles, with an average of 4148 hits per article, while Papers were less popular (average of 1168 hits per article. Systematic reviews (23 articles, average of 1190 hits per article were visited far less often than narrative reviews. Editorials (average of 2537 hits per article were viewed much more frequently than Papers, even where the editorial was written as an accompanying piece with a direct link to the paper. Discussion Narrative reviews and editorials are accessed more frequently than primary research papers or systematic reviews in the first week after their publication. These findings may disappoint those who believe that it is important for readers to critically appraise the primary research data. Although the technical quality of journal articles may have been helped by recommendations on structured reporting, the readability of such articles has received little attention. Authors and journal editors must take steps to make research articles and systematic reviews more attractive to readers. This may involve using simpler language, as well as innovative use of web resources to produce shorter, snappier papers, with the methodological or technical details made available elsewhere. Conclusion Primary research and "evidence-based" papers seem to be less attractive to readers than narrative reviews and editorials in the first week after publication. Authors and editors should try to improve the early appeal of primary research papers.

Derry Sheena

2003-07-01

149

The Development in Leading e-Government Articles 2001-2010 : Definitions, Perspectives, Scope, Research Philosophies, Methods and Recommendations: An Update of Heeks and Bailur  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a study of development in leading e-government papers from 2001-2010. Inspired by a study by Heeks and Bailur, the analysis uses a different sampling method, adds new themes, and focuses on changes over time. Through an iterative process known as template analysis the five most cited papers from each year are analyzed according to themes such as perspectives on the impact and impact causes of e-government, methods used, underlying research philosophies and recommendations. Findings indicate that the papers are still somewhat optimistic regarding the impact of e-government, but no longer as technologically deterministic. Discussions of research philosophies start to appear, as do social constructionist studies, although most papers are still positivistic. There is an increase in the use of primary data, and some movement in focus from infrastructure and services towards citizens. There is little development in the discussions of generalization of results and recom-mendations offered.

Madsen, Christian Østergaard; Berger, Jesper Bull

2014-01-01

150

Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)  

OpenAIRE

The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. ...

Irena Jekova; Vessela Krasteva; Ivaylo Christov; Ivan Dotsinsky; Todor Stoyanov

2009-01-01

151

Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environm [...] ental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

RODOLFO A., MEDINA; GARETH I., OWEN.

152

Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

2008-01-01

153

Motricity, art and corporal expression. An experience through school center visits to exhibition rooms  

OpenAIRE

In this article, we intend to go beyond the educational possibilities that a non formal context generates. Art, motricity and expression are the main features of this research. We developed an activity called «Visitas culturales» , cultural visits, in several schools in Almería, where we worked with art and corporal expression at the same time from a wide point of view. The sensations and emotions of the children played the main role, highlighting the personal identity of each one. Our mai...

Antonia Irene Hernández Rodríguez; Celia Moreno Barbero

2010-01-01

154

Qualitative Research Process  

OpenAIRE

This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

2011-01-01

155

Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. Combined criteria have been introduced dealing with the QRS areas and amplitudes, the waveshapes evaluated by steep slopes and sharp peaks, vectorcardiographic (VCG loop descriptors, RR intervals irregularities. Algorithms have been designed for application on a single ECG lead, a synthesized lead derived by multichannel synchronous recordings, or simultaneous multilead analysis. Some approaches are based on templates matching, cross-correlation or rely on a continuous updating of adaptive thresholds. Various beat classification methods have been designed involving discriminant analysis, the K-th nearest neighbors, fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. The efficiency of the developed methods has been assessed using internationally recognized arrhythmia ECG databases with annotated beats and rhythm disturbances. In general, high values for specificity and sensitivity competitive to those reported in the literature have been achieved.

Irena Jekova

2009-08-01

156

The Use of Popular Science Articles in Teaching Scientific Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the use of popular science articles in teaching scientific literacy. Comparing the discourse features of popular science with research article and textbook science--the last two being target forms for students--it argues that popular science articles cannot serve as models for scientific writing. It does, however, suggest…

Parkinson, Jean; Adendorff, Ralph

2004-01-01

157

[A practical guide for writing an original scientific article.  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing scientific articles is an integrated part of being a medical doctor at academic institutions, and the demand for publishing scientific work has increased during recent years. The discipline of writing scientific articles can be troublesome and complicated, especially for young inexperienced researchers. This article is a guide to structuring and writing an original scientific article. PMID:25294676

Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

2014-06-30

158

Research Impact and Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a 2010-11 study involving senior researchers from seven disciplines, this article explores critically some of the diverse interpretations of impact in different disciplines, sub-fields and modes of research, and researchers' views about how these interpretations articulate with top-down impact agendas and with university structures…

Oancea, Alis

2013-01-01

159

Econometrics | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 217-235 Open Access Article: Ranking Leading Econometrics Journals Using Citations Data from ISI and RePEc by Chia-Lin Chang and Michael McAleer Econometrics 2013, ...and research impact of 10 leading econometrics journals taken from the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (ISI) Category of Economics, using ...citations data from ISI and the highly accessible Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) database that is widely used in economics, finance ...using quantifiable static and dynamic Research Assessment Measures (RAMs), with 15 RAMs from ISI and five RAMs from RePEc. The similarities and differences in ...

160

Bringing Digital Science Deep Inside the Scientific Article: the Elsevier Article of the Future Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ICT revolution of the last decades impacted scientific communication as it has impacted many other forms of communications, changing the way in which articles are delivered and how they can be discovered. However, the impact of ICT on the research itself has been much more profound, introducing digital tools to the way in which researchers gather data, perform analyses, and exchange results. This brought new, digital forms of research output, and disseminating those calls for changes deeply impact the core format of the scientific article.In 2009, Elsevier introduced the “Article of the Future” project to define an optimal way for the dissemination of science in the digital age, and in this paper we discuss three of its key dimensions. First we discuss interlinking scientific articles and research data stored with domain-specific data repositories — such interlinking is essential to interpret both article and data efficiently and correctly. We then present easy-to-use 3D visualization tools embedded in online articles: a key example of how the digital article format adds value to scientific communication and helps readers to better understand research results. The last topic covered in this paper is automatic enrichment of journal articles through text-mining or other methods. Here we share insights from a recent survey on the question: how can we find a balance between creating valuable contextual links, without sacrificing the high-quality, peer-reviewed status of published articles?

IJsbrand Jan Aalbersberg

2014-04-01

161

19 CFR 10.253 - Articles eligible for preferential treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Extension of Atpa Benefits to Tuna and Certain Other Non-Textile Articles § 10.253 Articles eligible for preferential...equipment which are allocable to the specific merchandise; (C) Research, development, design, engineering, and blueprint...

2010-04-01

162

Using Silhouettes Expressively  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author describes how her intermediate art class used silhouettes expressively and interpreted ancient and contemporary silhouettes in a personal way. The students analyze relationships of works of art to one another in terms of history, aesthetics, and culture, justifying conclusions made in the analysis, and using such…

Horst, Carol

2007-01-01

163

Language Change in Legal Research Article Titles  

OpenAIRE

This investigation, based on CADIS (Corpus of Academic Discourse compiled at the University of Bergamo, Gotti 2006) and relying on a corpus of legal RAs written in English and published between 1980 and 2010, proposes an integrated model ? combining parameters and criteria drawn from different studies (White / Hernandez 1991, Hagan 2004, Hartley 2007, Eyrolle et al. 2008) ? for analysing RA titles and assessing the effectiveness of the different possible constructions. This model examines...

Sala, Michele

2013-01-01

164

The F1000Research: Ebola article collection  

OpenAIRE

The explosion of information about Ebola requires rapid publication, transparent verification and unrestricted access. I urge everyone involved in all aspects of the Ebola epidemic to openly and rapidly report their experiences and findings.

Piot, Peter

2014-01-01

165

Quit Now! A Psychoeducational Expressive Therapy Group Work Approach for At-Risk and Delinquent Adolescent Smokers in Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…

Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan

2012-01-01

166

Optogenetics for gene expression in mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Molecular switches that are controlled by chemicals have evolved as central research instruments in mammalian cell biology. However, these tools are limited in terms of their spatiotemporal resolution due to freely diffusing inducers. These limitations have recently been addressed by the development of optogenetic, genetically encoded, and light-responsive tools that can be controlled with the unprecedented spatiotemporal precision of light. In this article, we first provide a brief overview of currently available optogenetic tools that have been designed to control diverse cellular processes. Then, we focus on recent developments in light-controlled gene expression technologies and provide the reader with a guideline for choosing the most suitable gene expression system. PMID:25153239

Müller, Konrad; Naumann, Sebastian; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D

2015-02-01

167

Índice de Palabras de Contenido (IPC y Distribución Porcentual de Legomena (DPL en artículos de investigación en español Index of Content Words (ICW and Percent Distribution of Legomena (PDL in Research Articles in Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de una revisión de los índices clásicos en estadística léxica (Leyes de Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot, se proponen dos índices lingüísticos que buscan aportar nuevos datos en la descripción de textos especializados. Se presenta un caso de la aplicación de estos índices a un corpus representativo y multidisciplinar de artículos de investigación en español, que se contrasta con otros siete corpus a modo de control. Si bien desde un punto de vista general los índices tienen un comportamiento estable en los distintos registros, de forma específica, los índices permiten distinguir registros de alta y de baja especialización y dan cuenta de la variación disciplinar de los corpus analizados.Based on a review of classic indices in lexical statistics (Laws of Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot, two linguistic indices are proposed in order to contribute new data in the description of specialized texts. A case is presented in which these indices are applied to a representative, multidisciplinary corpus of research articles in Spanish that is contrasted with seven other corpora serving as a control group. Although, from a general point of view the proposed indices present stable behaviour in different registers, implemented specifically, the proposed indices allow the distinction between high and low specialized registers and reveal the disciplinary variation of the corpora analyzed.

Ken Matsuda

2012-03-01

168

Research Application Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast two types of scholarly article designs, quantitative and qualitative, as to how two research designs can be similar and different, and how the authors conduct their research and present their results. When researching and analyzing two scholarly articles of different design types, it is…

Baskas, Richard S.

2011-01-01

169

Research misconduct  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics

170

Research misconduct  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics.

Gilbert, F.J. E-mail: f.j.gilbert@abdn.ac.uk; Denison, A.R

2003-07-01

171

Structural Geology 'Research' Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

In this assignment students read and discuss a peer-reviewed journal article and prepare for and attend our class 'research' conference. In the conference they present on an area of current research as discussed in the journal article they read, and they practice formulating questions about other's research. Outcomes: 1. Read and discuss a structural geology peer-reviewed journal article. 2. Prepare a presentation that demonstrates your understanding of a current research topic in structural geology. 3. View and understand several diverse areas within geology and geophysics that use structural geology in research. 4. Ask questions relevant to a research presentation.

Willis, Julie

172

Clinicopathological Research and Expression of PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objective It has been known that abnormality of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal pathway played an important role in initiation of some malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the expression and clinicopathological significance of PTEN, PI3K and Akt in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Expression levels of PTEN, PI3K and Akt protein were determined using immunohistochemistry S-P in 61 specimens of NSCLC with follow-up. Results ?The levels of PTEN protein was higher than that of control group, and levels of PI3K and Akt protein were lower than that of control group; ?Expression of PTEN and PI3K were related to histotype, clinical stage, lymphonode metastasis and survival rate; Expression of Akt was related to clinical stage, lymphonode metastasis and survival rate; ?The Cox Monovariable Analyses revealed that both smoking and negative expression of PTEN were the risking factors on the death of the NSCLC patients after surgery; ?The expression of PTEN protein was negatively correlated to that of PI3K and Akt respectively, while the expression of PI3K was positively correlated to that of Akt. Conclusion In NSCLC, the lack of PTEN induced up-regulation of PI3K and Akt, which demonstrated that PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC. They could be used as the indicators of prognosis and targets of therapy.

Hong SHU

2009-08-01

173

Emotional Expression in Reality TV  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reality TV has been disputed and discussed along many lines for the last 20 years; the media themselves always with a twist of concern about reality programs crossing moral borderlines while research has put more interest in questions of genre and representation of more or less useful and maybe empowering social identities. In the latest generation of reality TV which Misha Kava has described as the “celebrity generation”, it seems that reality creates new standards for mixing facts and fiction and even different “realities” as participants become media stars while more traditional celebrities are being treated as ordinary people. My article will discuss different presentations of selves and especially the emotional verbal and nonverbal expressions in reality TV communication. Aspects of the intimate self and its emotional expressions seem to be strategically managed in reality TV and even commodified in the celebrity culture. The article will discuss and analyze examples of reality TV’s interpersonal strategically communication in relation to ordinary interpersonal communication where much information about the self is communicated incidentally to the purpose of the situation, and some is communicated involuntarily. Goffman has described the intended and the unintended aspects of personal communication as information ‘given’ which means intended and managed, and information ‘given off’ which is unintentional. In relation to his investigation in human lying and deceit Ekman points out, that information ‘given off’ in lying behavior will must often be found in non-verbal mikro expressions and mikro gestures. I will end by discussing the strategic emotional expressions as production of floating identities in a broader framework on the basis of among others Gergen, Lipovetsky and Baumann. These postmodern and hyperreal trends will then be discussed in relation to Danish philosopher Løgstrup and his concept of the basic utterances of life (de suveræne livsytringer) and Habermas’ understanding of life/system worlds. I aim to get closer to an understanding of what management of visibility and sensibility in communication might mean to the human being of our time – and why we seem to seek it so desperately in the (media) culture.

Rasmussen, Tove Arendt

174

Psychosocial explanations in research articles in Psychology: the Portuguese case and comments to Torres & Neves / Explicações psicossociais em artigos de Psicologia: o caso português e comentários a Torres e Neves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Apresenta-se aqui um comentário à intervenção de Torres e Neves sobre os temas de pesquisa em psicologia social no Brasil. Este comentário foca-se nas questões de análise intercultural referidas por aqueles autores e da sua importância no desenvolvimento da psicologia social. Procura também alimenta [...] r este debate com uma ilustração do que se passa no cenário português. Assim, apresenta-se uma análise aos conceitos, explicações ou análises psicossociais presentes nos artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2012 em três revistas portuguesas (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). Os resultados mostram uma grande predominância dos "sistemas externos aos indivíduos", em especial daqueles que se relacionam com sistemas de categorizações e/ou de identidades sociais de grupos com diferente estatuto social (Doise, 2012). Estes dados são discutidos, de forma sintética, em articulação com a defesa da "tradução cultural" que Torres e Neves fazem. Abstract in english In the present paper we present a commentary on the talk given by Torres and Neves regarding the themes of research in Social Psychology in Brazil. This commentary focuses on issues of intercultural analyses referred to by these authors and their importance in the development of Social Psychology. W [...] e also aim to feed this debate with an illustration of the Portuguese scenario. Therefore, we present an analysis of the concepts, explanations and/or psychosocial analyses present in articles published between 2006 and 2012 in three Portuguese journals of Psychology (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). The results show a high predominance of the "systems external to individuals", especially the ones related to systems of categorization and/or social identities in groups of different social status (Doise, 2012). These results are discussed, synthetically, in articulation with the defence of "cultural translation" as proposed by Torres and Neves.

Joaquim Pires, Valentim; Teresa, Forte; Ana, Figueiredo.

2013-03-01

175

Mixed Method Research: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed method research. Lastly, the article describes the process of mixed method research.

Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

2012-12-01

176

Mixed Method Research: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

2012-01-01

177

Gene expression in fungi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This contribution is based on the four presentations made at the Special Interest Group (SIG meeting titled Gene Expression in Fungi held during IMC9 in Edinburgh. This overview is independent from other articles published or that will be published by each speaker. In the SIG meeting, basic principles of in vivo animal models for virulence studies were discussed. Infection associated genes of Candida albicans and fungal adaptation to the host was summarized. Azole susceptibility was evaluated as a combined result of several changes in expression of pertinent genes. Gene transfer in fungi, resulting in fungal evolution and gene adaptation to environmental factors, was reported.

A. Kalkanci

2011-06-01

178

Permaculture Magazine Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from Permaculture Magazine offers a selection of gratis online articles. According to the site, this section "has sample articles from previous issues of Permaculture Magazine. These have been chosen primarily to give an idea of the broad range of subjects covered by the magazine" back to issue number nine. Topics include ecofarming, bird management, earthen huts, and pollution control.

2008-04-03

179

Demographic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Demographic Research is a newly launched, peer-reviewed online journal of the population sciences published by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. The first article in Volume One (covering May 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999) has recently been posted: Cancer Rates over Age, Time, and Place: Insights from Stochastic Models of Heterogeneous Populations by James W. Vaupel and Anatoli I. Yashin. Articles are available in both HTML and .pdf formats. The Website provides detailed information about the journal's purpose, mission, submission guidelines, and review process.

180

Biomolecules | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 1-19 Open Access Article: The Role of Non-Native Interactions in the Folding of Knotted Proteins: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations by Roberto Covino,...Full-text (7311 KB) Abstract: For several decades, the presence of knots in naturally-occurring proteins was largely ruled out a priori for its supposed incompatibility with ...the efficiency and robustness of folding processes. For this very same reason, the later discovery of several unrelated families of knotted proteins ...researchers to look into the physico-chemical mechanisms governing the concerted sequence of folding steps leading to the consistent formation of the same knot type ...

181

Life | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. (This article belongs to the Special Issue Planet Formation and the Rise of Life) p. 66-76 Open Access Review Review: On the ...

182

Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.

Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy

2012-01-01

183

Articles for Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles For Educators is a free resource offered by Virtu Software. On this website, teachers will find lesson plans, field trip ideas, tips and tricks for the classroom written by educators. Visitors can browse the directory of articles by subject or search for a specific topic. This section highlights Mathematics lesson plans written by math teachers and is organized into the following main sections: Competition, Fun with Numbers, and Miscellaneous. Membership, which is free, provides educators access to post articles, comment on other articles, or discuss subjects in the community forum. The website does include a few advertisements, but they do not overwhelm the website and its creator, a software developer who is also active in Christian ministry, also includes several Christian education links.

184

Researching a Cricket Book  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the process of researching a book-length biography on Victorian cricketing great Bill Ponsford using primary sources. In particular, the article discusses some of the useful research pathways that are available using PROV records and other collections in preparing such a biography.

John Leckey

2006-10-01

185

Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

2013-08-06

186

Analysis of the journal articles of medical imaging by bibliometrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To evaluate the development status, character and trends of medical imaging. Methods: The articles published on >, > and > from 1983 to 1996 were analyzed by bibliometrics and compared with the articles published on > and > of USA. Results: total numbers of the published articles were increasing gradually in these years. But, the rate of increase was not equal among different research fields. For example, the number of research articles of CT, MR and Interventional Radiography were increasing more quickly than that of X ray. It was also found that the development status and trends of medical imaging were different between China and America. Most research articles published in the journals of America in 1996 were about MR, whereas CT ranked first in china in the same year. Conclusion: Medical imaging develops very quickly in recent years. The emphasis of research and development has switched over from traditional X ray to new fields or techniques, such as Ct, MR and interventional radiology

187

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

Allen, Deborah

2012-01-01

188

Microarray Data Analysis of Gene Expression Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microarrays are becoming a widely used tool to study gene expression evolution. A recent paper by Wang and Rekaya describes a comprehensive study of gene expression evolution by microarray. The work provides a perspective to study gene expression evolution in terms of functional enrichment and promoter conservation. It was found that gene expression patterns are highly conserved in some biological processes, but the correlation between promoter and gene expression is insignificant. This scope of this work and future improvement to study gene expression evolution will be discussed in this article.

Honghuang Lin

2009-11-01

189

Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study  

OpenAIRE

Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal d...

Bart Jan Voskamp; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Ewoud Schuit; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Maarten Buimer; Eva Pajkrt; Wessel Ganzevoort

2014-01-01

190

Research into Research: SUPER Project Case Studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The SUPER Project is a collaborative research effort which has been in place for two years. This article presents case studies of this project and offers suggestions for extending it. Schools that have become the partners of research institutions are being encouraged to make research one of their institutionalized functions. (VM)

Gifford, Bernard R.; Gabelko, Nina H.

1987-01-01

191

Animal research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind of compromise where adherents of each view compromise on some points. The ethical basis for the mainstream view of the use of animals in research is analyzed in this light. In the second part of the article, scientific information about the use of animals in research (and in particular the harm and benefit of such use) is analyzed in the light of ethical questions that seem to be pertinent against the background of a mainstream compromise view.

Olsson, I.A.S.; SandØe, Peter

2012-01-01

192

Epithelial expression of mRNA and protein for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? in endobronchial biopsies in horses with recurrent airway obstruction  

OpenAIRE

Page 1 of 7 (page number not for citation purposes) BMC Veterinary Research Research article Open Access Epithelial expression of mRNA and protein for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? in endobronchial biopsies in horses with recurrent airway obstruction Miia Riihimäki*1,6, Amanda Raine2, Jamshid Pourazar3, Thomas Sandström3, Tatiana Art4, Pierre Lekeux4, Laurent Couëtil5 and John Pringle1 Address: 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Equine Internal Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences...

Art Tatiana; Sandström Thomas; Pourazar Jamshid; Raine Amanda; Riihimäki Miia; Lekeux Pierre; Couëtil Laurent; Pringle John

2008-01-01

193

REVIEW ARTICLE: Recent Advances in Nanomaterial Fabrication  

Science.gov (United States)

As nanostructures with well-controlled dimension, composition, and crystallinity are expected to be a new class of intriguing system for investigating structure-property relations, this review article provides a comprehensive review of researches of these materials and related applications.

Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn

2014-04-01

194

Student Portfolios: A Collection of Articles.  

Science.gov (United States)

More and more, schools are looking to student portfolios as a valid, reliable, and authentic form of assessment. This collection offers practical, well-researched answers to a variety of philosophical, organizational, and implementational questions surrounding portfolio assessment. Articles in the first section provide a rationale for student…

Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

195

Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.  

Science.gov (United States)

ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels. PMID:25257728

Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman

2014-11-01

196

What do we study studying body? Researcher’s attempts to embodiment research.  

OpenAIRE

The article presents researcher’s attempts, methodological problems and queries in embodiment research during a Grounded Theory Methodology based study on social world of ballroom dancers. The research has been conducted among ballroom dancers, flamenco dancers, belly dancers, dance instructors, choreographers and judges. One of the aspects of the research is social construction of embodiment. In the article I will present techniques and methods of research such as auto...

Byczkowska, Dominika

2009-01-01

197

The research committee of Chuetsu-oki earthquake influences to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station. How to press-release and take care of expression in articles at press side  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As for the influences of Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, we can conclude that 'the safety function of the nuclear power station, that is, 'Shutdown', 'Cooling down' and 'Isolating' functioned as per designed even against an earthquake beyond assumption, and fundamental nuclear safety could assured'. Nevertheless, it is said that one of the causes that harmful rumor had spread was due to mass communication media. In the press reports on some nuclear power station when affected by an earthquake and on trouble in the nuclear power station in the future, we will propose that the publication should be really useful for habitants and citizens and be promoted in the positive and expected direction, in order not to make the same mistake as this time. JSME should aim at implement the above-mentioned proposal under cooperation with other academic societies and organizations. (author)

198

Transgenic mouse lines expressing rat AH receptor variants - A new animal model for research on AH receptor function and dioxin toxicity mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) rats are exceptionally resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity mainly because of their mutated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene. In H/W rats, altered splicing of the AHR mRNA generates two AHR proteins: deletion (DEL) and insertion (INS) variants, with the INS isoform being predominantly expressed. To gain further insight into their functional properties, cDNAs of these and rat wild-type (rWT) isoform were transferred into C57BL/6J-derived mice by microinjection. The endogenous mouse AHR was eliminated by selective crossing with Ahr-null mice. A single mouse line was obtained for each of the three constructs. The AHR mRNA levels in tissues were generally close to those of C57BL/6 mice in INS and DEL mice and somewhat higher in rWT mice; in testis, however, all 3 constructs exhibited marked overexpression. The transgenic mouse lines were phenotypically normal except for increased testis weight. Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes by TCDD occurred similarly to that in C57BL/6 mice, but there tended to be a correlation with AHR concentrations, especially in testis. In contrast to C57BL/6 mice, the transgenics did not display any major gender difference in susceptibility to the acute lethality and hepatotoxicity of TCDD; rWT mice were highly sensitive, DEL mice moderately resistant and INS mice highly resistant. Co-expression of mouse AHR and rWT resulted in augmented sensitivity to TCDD and abolished the natural reivity to TCDD and abolished the natural resistance of female C57BL/6 mice, whereas mice co-expressing mouse AHR and INS were resistant. Thus, these transgenic mouse lines provide a novel promising tool for molecular studies on dioxin toxicity and AHR function.

199

Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)

200

ABRF-MARG RESEARCH STUDY: EVALUATION OF SMALL SAMPLE NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING  

Science.gov (United States)

Microarrays have had a significant impact on many areas of biology. However, there are still many fertile research areas that would benefit from microarray analysis but are limited by the amount of biological material that can be obtained (e.g. samples obtained by small biopsy, f...

201

?Comparing featured article groups and revision patterns correlations in Wikipedia  

OpenAIRE

Collaboratively written by thousands of people, Wikipedia produces entries which are consistent with criteria agreed by Wikipedians and of high quality. This article focuses on Wikipedia’s Featured Articles and shows that not every contribution can be considered as being of equal quality. Two groups of articles are analysed by focusing on the edits distribution and the main editors’ contribution. The research shows how these aspects of the revision patterns can change dependent upon the c...

Poderi, Giacomo University Of Stuttgart

2009-01-01

202

Standards for the preparation and writing of Psychology review articles  

OpenAIRE

The synthesis of bibliographical resources addressing a topic is an interesting subject for research. It is included as part of literature reviews. The aim of this theoretical study is to establish a series of standards for planning, preparing and writing Psychology review articles. With this aim, the study suggests a set of guidelines for the structuring and justification of content for these types of articles: organisation of the article, background understanding of the topic, literature re...

Edos, Luis Fern U. E. Ndez-r U.; Gualberto Buela-Casal

2009-01-01

203

Strategy and programs of the research on high-level and long-living radioactive wastes (by right of article L542 of the environment code from December 30, 1991 law). Conjuncture document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gives, in a first part, a brief insight on the main results of the researches carried out in 2002 on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes according to the three research ways defined by the December 30, 1991 law: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep geologic underground, wastes conditioning and storage. The second part of the document is an executive summary of the 2003 edition of the document 'strategy and programs of the researches on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes - SPR 2003'. It presents the content of the different chapters: 1 - researches methodology and implementation of coordinated studies; 2 - researches status 10 years after the enforcement of the law; 3 - the main goals and steps to reach before the 2006 date-line; 4 - the description and analysis of the programs under consideration; 5 - the coordination between French programs; 6 - the international cooperation. (J.S.)

204

Research by design - a research strategy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through the work with form and space – drawings, models and completed works. Probably all good design is informed by some kind of researchresearch based design. But can research arise from design?

Hauberg, JØrgen

205

PCA facial expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

2013-12-01

206

La difusión de las investigaciones y el formato IMRYD: Una pesquisa a propósito de la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos / The dissemination of research and the IMRYD format: a screennig apropos of the critical reading of the scientific articles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudia la importancia del formato IMRYD -Introducción, Métodos, Resultados y Discusión- para la organización del artículo científico entre los investigadores y profesores de mercadeo y organización de empresas. Con vistas a identificar qué aspectos consideran más importantes en esta estructura, [...] se interrogó a 143 catedráticos de las áreas referidas. Una vez informatizados los datos recogidos, se aplicó el modelo de Rasch para determinar los aspectos considerados como los más importantes por el grupo de expertos consultados. Los especialistas consultados señalaron un total de 20 aspectos como los más relevantes para evaluar la calidad de un artículo científico. Finalmente, a partir de lo indicado por los expertos consultados, se conformó una guía para la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos en las áreas del mercadeo y la organización empresarial. Abstract in english The importance of the format IMRYD -Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion- for the organization of the scientific article among the investigators and professors of marketing and businesses organization is studied. 143 professors of the referred areas were interviewed in order to know which a [...] re the aspects considered by them as the most important in this structure. Once the collected data were computerized, Rasch's model was applied to determine the aspects chosen as the most significant by the group of experts consulted. These specialists indicated a total of 20 aspects as the most relevant to evaluate the quality of a scientific article. Finally, from the aspects mentioned by the experts consulted, a guide for the critical reading of the scientific articles in the areas of marketing and business organization was made.

Julio, García del Junco; Mario, Castellanos Verdugo.

2007-01-01

207

The Pragmatics of Branding : An Application of Dewey's Theory of Aesthetic Expression  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article aims to explore the potential of Dewey's theory of aesthetic expression to expand knowledge about aesthetics in branding and better understand how brands work. The paper aims to mine the pragmatic theory of aesthetic expression as involving artistry, intention and imagination to reveal the role beauty plays alongside usefulness in defining and refining brand image and meaning. Design/methodology/approach: Dewey's dialectical method of holistically combining tensions such as beauty and usefulness is applied to brand theory and used to critique current brand management practices. Findings: The application of the theory of aesthetic expression emphasizes: understanding humans holistically in order to explain how beauty and expression create value and enrich lives; redefining brand ownership and use to accommodate the aesthetic ways people handle expression/expressiveness; and managing brands with appreciation of how beauty empowers them to attract users. Research limitations/implications: Seven dialectical tensions featured in Dewey's theory are identified and developed into holistic propositions for the future study of brands and branding: beauty/usefulness, act/object, inner/outer material, private/public, expression/statement, appreciation/control, symbolic/instrumental. Practical implications: The primary practical implication derived from application of the theory of aesthetic expression to brands and branding is that the most beautiful brands emerge from acts of co-creation that respect the artistry, intention and imagination of the brand's stakeholders. Originality/value: The article offers increased depth to the study of the expressive/emotional/aesthetic aspects of branding and offers an enriched aesthetic foundation for studying and practicing brand co-creation

Hatch, Mary Jo

2012-01-01

208

Research strategy and programmes on the management of long-lived high-level radioactive waste (pursuant to article L542 of the environmental code taken from the law of December 30, 1991)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is made of two parts: the first part is a status report which highlights the main achievements of all research activities conducted in 2001 in the global context of national and international efforts on nuclear waste management (partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations, conditioning and storage, national and international collaborations, report no 7 of the national review board (CNE), the Global 201 conference and the year 2001 highlights). The second part is the executive summary of the 2002 edition of the 'Research strategy and programmes' document. The new edition has ben reorganized according to previous editions in an effort to make it more concise, clearer and more comprehensive. Chapter 1 now focusses entirely on the methodology followed by all research partners and stakeholders in structuring and implementing research programmes. Chapter 2 is new and provides a summary of the major research results 10 years after the 1991 law became effective. Chapter 3 is also new and highlights the major milestones yet ahead and identified in terms of both objectives to be attained and key steps leading up to 2006. Chapter 4 contains a detailed description and analysis of the programmes envisaged and the last 2 chapters discuss very broadly the coordination of research activities and the way they are being implemented both at national (chapter 5) and international (chapter 6) levels. (J.S.)

209

Revised article: Business Ideas Competition  

CERN Multimedia

THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...

2003-01-01

210

Building Sustainable Research Engagements: Lessons Learned from Research with Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Engaged scholarship, translational science, integrated research, and interventionist research, all involve bringing research into a practical context. These usually require working with communities and institutions, and often involve community based participatory research. The article offers practical guidance for engaged research. The authors…

Vukotich, Charles J., Jr.; Cousins, Jennifer; Stebbins, Samuel

2014-01-01

211

Research Universities as Knowledge Networks: The Role of Institutional Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the elaboration of institutional research practice, which is an important element of any research university. The study addresses three questions. First, how did institutional research arise, and what is its raison d'etre in a research university? Second, how can institutional research contribute to the improvement of…

Chirikov, Igor

2013-01-01

212

Alzheimer Research Forum  

Science.gov (United States)

"The Alzheimer Research Forum is an independent nonprofit organization" of science and medical professionals dedicated to research and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The site includes up-to-date information in the form of news, papers of the week, journal article abstracts in advance, live discussions, and more. A wide variety of resources focus on many different aspects of Alzheimer's research.

213

Learning Qualitative Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

Gerhart, Lael

2009-01-01

214

Writing a Research Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of research and the career of a university lecturer depend heavily on the success in publishing scientific papers. This article reviews the guidelines for writing and submitting research papers. The three most important success criteria in publishing are as follows: the paper describes a good research, it is written according to the…

Mikk, Jaan

2006-01-01

215

Expressive Typography  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the things that many post-secondary graphic-design schools look for in student portfolios is one or two typography projects with hand-rendered type. At Merivale High School, junior graphic-design classes work with traditional media, and every year they receive an assignment that encourages them to play with letter forms. In this article,…

Osterer, Irv

2012-01-01

216

Getting To The Bottom Of The Well: The Value Of Qualitative Research Into Teaching And Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Qualitative researchers are often compelled to defend their methods and associated underpinning philosophy to researchers from other cultures of inquiry. This is particularly so where academics from a variety of disciplines are undertaking research into teaching and learning from a non-social scientific background.  This article examines how we might best mount a defence of the qualitative tradition for teaching and learning research through the identification of:a the commonalities between quantitative and qualitative research approaches; b the relation between qualitative research and the humanities; and c the distinctiveness of qualitative research. In discussing these issues I address reservations often expressed by those who are sceptical of the value of qualitative research, proposing  that a fruitful way of explicating this value is to draw attention to affinities across cultures of inquiry.

Glynis Cousin

2013-11-01

217

[The fate of scientific articles when errors and scientific misconduct are detected.  

Science.gov (United States)

When a minor error is noted in a scientific article, the publishing journal should issue a correction. Issuing an expression of concern is relevant when scientific misconduct is suspected. If the suspicion proves to be well founded, the journal should retract the article. The number of retractions is increasing, and this emphasizes the need for unequivocal concepts and guidelines. The reason a given article is corrected or retracted should be unambiguous and articles as well as notices should be indexed properly. PMID:25347246

Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

2014-01-20

218

ac superconducting articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

219

Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

Carol Perryman

2009-03-01

220

Transforming Interior Spaces: Enriching Subjective Experiences Through Design Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores tacit knowledge of lived experience and how this form of knowledge relates to design research. It investigates how interior designers interpret user lived experiences when creating designed environments. The article argues that user experience is the basis of a form of knowledge that is useful for designers. The theoretical framework proposed in the article examines the nature of user experience and how it can be utilized in the design process. The study of lived experiences is contextualized within aesthetic, subjective, and functional aspects of the interior design process, which requires users to express their meanings and needs. A case study is described to illustrate the various stages of this process.

Tiiu Poldma

2010-01-01

221

An Expressed Sequence Tag collection from the male antennae of the Noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis: a resource for olfactory and pheromone detection research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocturnal insects such as moths are ideal models to study the molecular bases of olfaction that they use, among examples, for the detection of mating partners and host plants. Knowing how an odour generates a neuronal signal in insect antennae is crucial for understanding the physiological bases of olfaction, and also could lead to the identification of original targets for the development of olfactory-based control strategies against herbivorous moth pests. Here, we describe an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project to characterize the antennal transcriptome of the noctuid pest model, Spodoptera littoralis, and to identify candidate genes involved in odour/pheromone detection. Results By targeting cDNAs from male antennae, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in male olfaction, including pheromone reception. A total of 20760 ESTs were obtained from a normalized library and were assembled in 9033 unigenes. 6530 were annotated based on BLAST analyses and gene prediction software identified 6738 ORFs. The unigenes were compared to the Bombyx mori proteome and to ESTs derived from Lepidoptera transcriptome projects. We identified a large number of candidate genes involved in odour and pheromone detection and turnover, including 31 candidate chemosensory receptor genes, but also genes potentially involved in olfactory modulation. Conclusions Our project has generated a large collection of antennal transcripts from a Lepidoptera. The normalization process, allowing enrichment in low abundant genes, proved to be particularly relevant to identify chemosensory receptors in a species for which no genomic data are available. Our results also suggest that olfactory modulation can take place at the level of the antennae itself. These EST resources will be invaluable for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction and pheromone detection in S. littoralis, and for ultimately identifying original targets to fight against moth herbivorous pests.

Maïbèche-Coisné Martine

2011-01-01

222

Lewy Body Dementia Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... is pleased to offer the following articles on LBD-related research, written for the general public. Incidence ... strong case for cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment in LBD. Risk Factors Identified for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder ...

223

Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture of such article  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron absorbing article is described which comprises boron carbide particles and an irreversibly-cured phenol aldehyde condensation polymer cured to a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles. Such an article may be used in spent fuel storage racks. It can be manufactured by mixing together a curable phenolic resin with boron carbide particles, compacting the mixture to an article of desired shape, curing the resin at an elevated temperature, impregnating the cured article with curable phenolic resin in liquid state, and curing the article again

224

Heterologous Expression of Peroxidases  

Science.gov (United States)

The industrial importance of peroxidases has led to much research in the past two decades on the development of a cost effective and efficient production process for peroxidases. Unfortunately, even today, no clear answers can be given to questions such as (1) should the peroxidase be expressed in bacteria, yeast, or fungi? (2) which is the optimal production strain (e.g., protease deficient, heme overproducing)? (3) which expression vector should be chosen? and (4) what purification method should be used? Strategies that have proven successful for one peroxidase can fail for another one; for each individual peroxidase, a new strategy has to be developed. This chapter gives an overview of the heterologous production of heme containing peroxidases in various systems. It focuses on the heterologous production of fungal peroxidases as they have been subject of considerable research for their industrial and environmental applications. An earlier study has also been performed by Conesa et al. [1] and is extended with recent proceedings.

de Weert, Sandra; Lokman, B. Christien

225

Research Needs in Business Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Set of five articles includes "Introduction" (D'Onofrio); "Teaching Higher-Order Thinking Skills" (Maxam); "Research Questions in Teaching Software" (Franz, Waller); "Research in International Business Education" (Blockhus); and "The Knowledge Worker and Computer Technology" (Graf). (JOW)

D'Onofrio, Marianne J., Ed.; And Others

1990-01-01

226

Action Research: Some basic issues  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.

Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

2003-01-01

227

Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

2007-01-01

228

Scholarly and Research Journals: Survey of Publisher Practices and Present Attitudes on Authorized Journal Article Copying and Licensing. Analysis of Returns to Questionnaires Developed by and Distributed for the National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU).  

Science.gov (United States)

The report tabulates and analyzes responses to two questionnaires returned by 531 (out of 1672) profit and non-profit publishers of 974 (out of 2552) United States scholarly and research journals. Certain categories of periodicals were excluded because they were not believed to ordinarily contain communications useful for scholarly purposes, or…

Fry, Bernard M.; And Others

229

Slime Mold Development: Article  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a video composed of a sequence of time lapse films created by John Tyler Bonner in the 1940s to show the life cycle of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. As only the second person to study slime molds, Bonner frequently encountered audiences who had never heard of, let alone seen, the unusual organism. He therefore decided to create a film to present at seminars in order to introduce his object of study. Bonner created the video for his senior thesis at Harvard University with the help of photographer Frank Smith. Bonner began to work at Princeton University in 1947, thus the mention of that university on the title screen of the film. It was digitized and narrated by developmental biologist Rachel Fink of Mount Holyoke College. Includes (approximate starting times given): Amoebae [00:02]; Aggregation [00:27]; Migrating Pseudoplasmodia [02:16]; Culmination [03:28]; Trisected Pseudoplasmodium [04:17].

Mary E. Sunderland (ASU Embryo Project Encyclopedia)

2011-11-28

230

CurioCity: Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The CurioCity E-Zine from LetâÂÂs Talk Science is geared toward precocious teens, but there is plenty for adults to enjoy as well. Readers can browse articles in a variety of subjects, including Consumer Science, Entertainment, Environment, Health, In the News, Sports, and Tech Buzz. Typical offerings include gems like âÂÂThrowaway Sex Organsâ (re: sea slugs) and âÂÂCan Eating Peanuts Cure Peanut Allergies?â The site also offers dozens of short videos on topics as diverse as Neil Armstrong on Being an Engineer, and The Math and Mystery of Murmurations. Also, dig into the Themes section, where topics are divided by Biotechnology, Sky Science, and Spotlight on Energy. Teachers will especially want to explore the Educators link, where they can register for free curriculum-based, classroom-ready resources on STEM subjects.

231

Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / research and development of a reverse engineering system for local industrial articles (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the research on the application of local industrial article use reverse engineering (RE, it had been regarded as imitation and reproduction technology, but has recently been as a part of the production information integration). With the actual local industrial article as standard, which has features in design and was added with local traditionality, such as glass having 3D free-form surface, 3D shape information modeling technology RE is developed, and a system for direct automatic metal mold processing is established, aiming at shortening of delivery date, cost reduction and higher grade. The target of the research is Okinawa prefecture. In fiscal 1997, study was made of the speeding-up of the non-contact 3D shape information inputting (multi-point simultaneous inputting by CCD of the laser reflected light of the actual model) and the data storage technology. Cast iron was selected as molding materials, judging from reactivity/machinability with heat resistant glass. Also studied was the blend of glass materials suitable for press forming. Further, studies were proceeded with of development of intellectual cutting tools into which sensor function is integrated and of virtual reality for facilitating/accelerating the design up to metal mold manufacturing. 39 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

232

Research Strategies in Comparative Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research strategies related to data collection and data analysis were identified through content analysis of 427 articles in three comparative-education journals, published between 1985 and 1995, and 112 articles published between 1964 and 1966. In recent years, the strategies used have become more diverse, the geographic focus of research has…

Rust, Val D.; Soumare, Aminata; Shibuya, Megumi; Pescador, Octavio

1999-01-01

233

10 CFR 600.31 - Research misconduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...credit. Research means all basic, applied, and demonstration research in all...education, linguistics, medicine, psychology, social sciences statistics, and research...presentations, internal reports, and journal articles. (c) Unless...

2010-01-01

234

A more than one-hundred-fold higher per capita rate of authorship of five democratic nations versus their relatively undemocratic neighboring nations among 6,437 articles in 14 medical journals: does democracy and civil liberties promote intellectual creativity and medical research?  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to compare medical research productivity between democratic countries and their relatively undemocratic neighbors to identify mechanisms to promote medical research. Country of authorship was determined manually for articles published in 14 medical journals in 2005, and compared pairwise for democracies vs. relatively undemocratic nations: Israel vs. the rest of the Middle East; Japan vs. Russia; South Korea vs. North Korea; and Taiwan or Hong Kong vs. Mainland China. Democracies were quantitatively defined according to the Freedom House Index and the Economist's Index of Democracy. The frequency of publication of Israeli authors of unsolicited articles (excludes editorials) was found to be 1.08%, while its percentage of the world population is only .11% (OR = 9.97, 95%-ORCI: 4.30-23.1, P Israel was 0.30%, while its percentage of the world population is 4.04% (OR = 0.071, 95%-ORCI = 0.04-0.12, P democracy: correlation coefficient with Freedom House Index = 0.83, and correlation coefficient with the Economist's Democracy Index = 0.76. The OR of national authorship was also (mildly less) correlated with per capita income (corr. coeff. = 0.75). In conclusion, five democracies exhibit a remarkably higher relative frequency of medical publications than their relatively undemocratic neighbors. The relative frequency of authorship was, furthermore, extremely strongly correlated with democracy and political freedom. The freedom hypothesis may help explain this phenomenon: political freedom and liberty in democracies may promote intellectual creativity and medical research. This hypothesis should be tested by a multivariate analysis of univariate risk factors of medical authorship for all nations. PMID:19184425

Cappell, Mitchell S

2009-08-01

235

Estrategias académicas de inserción científica: una propuesta metodológica para el estudio de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en los artículos de investigación / Stratégies Universitaires d'Insertion Scientifique: Une Proposition Méthodologique pour l'étude des Revendications épistémiques dans les Articles de Recherche / Academic Strategies for Scientific Insertion: A Methodological Proposal to Study Epistemic Claims Found in Research Articles / Estratégias acadêmicas de inserção científica: uma proposta metodológica para o estudio das reivindicações epistêmicas nos artígos de pesquisas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As reivindicações epistêmicas são atos graças aos que os responsáveis encaminham socialmente o saber ora ativado. No mundo acadêmico, as reivindicações epistêmicas associam-se com conteúdos específicos que um autor desfralda após escrever um artigo de investigação. Se bem existem métodos diversos pa [...] ra analisar a construção coletiva do conhecimento, não existem propostas específicas que permitam uma descrição do modo como essas reivindicações são socialmente inseridas numa comunidade científica. é nesse âmbito que este artigo apresenta um método interdisciplinar para estudar a forma em que os autores de artigos científicos incluem, utilizando citações, as suas reivindicações epistêmicas na comunidade científica. Apresentaremos uma tipologia das reivindicações epistêmicas, onde diferenciamos em função do tipo de conteúdo que as mesmas promovem as reivindicações teóricas, metodológicas e performativas. Os resultados mostram que o tipo de reivindicação epistêmica associa-se à estratégia de citação. O método que oferecemos contribui ao estudo da construção coletiva do conhecimento, já que permite diferenciar as estratégias acadêmicas que os autores ativam e o tipo de conhecimento reivindicado. Abstract in spanish Las reivindicaciones epistémicas son actos a través de los cuales los actores sitúan socialmente el saber que movilizan. En el mundo académico, las reivindicaciones epistémicas se asocian a los contenidos específicos que un autor despliega al escribir un artículo de investigación. Si bien existen mé [...] todos diversos para analizar la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, no existen propuestas específicas que permitan describir el modo en que estas reivindicaciones se insertan socialmente en una comunidad científica. En este contexto, este artículo presenta un método interdisciplinario para estudiar la manera en que los autores de artículos científicos inscriben, a través del uso de las citaciones, sus reivindicaciones epistémicas en una comunidad científica. Proponemos una tipología de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en la que distinguimos, en función del tipo de contenido que éstas promueven, las reivindicaciones teóricas, metodológicas y performativas. Los resultados muestran que el tipo de reivindicación epistémica está asociado a la estrategia de citación. El método que proponemos contribuye al estudio de la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, pues permite diferenciar las estrategias académicas que los autores movilizan y el tipo de conocimiento reivindicado. Abstract in english Epistemic claims are actions in which the actors apply their knowledge socially. In the academic world, epistemic claims are associated with specific contents that an author makes when writing a research article. While there are diverse methods for analyzing the collective construction of knowledge, [...] there are no specific proposals to describe how these claims are socially inserted in the scientific community. In this context, the article presents an interdisciplinary method for studying how authors of scientific articles use their epistemic claims in order to insert themselves into a scientific community. We propose a typology of epistemic claims in which, based on the type of content they promote, we distinguish the theoretical and performance claims. The results show that the type of epistemic claim is associated with the citation strategy. The method that we propose contributes to the study of collective construction of knowledge, in that it makes it possible to differentiate the academic strategies used by authors and the type of knowledge claimed.

Álvaro, Pina-Stranger; Omar, Sabaj Meruane; Paulina, Toro Tengrove; Ken, Matsuda Oteíza.

2013-04-01

236

A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708

Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

2014-10-01

237

The aesthetic rationality of the popular expressive arts: Lifeworld communication among breast cancer survivors living with lymphedema.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of popular expressive arts as antidotes to the pathologies of the parallel processes of lifeworld colonization and cultural impoverishment has been under-theorized. This article enters the void with a project in which breast cancer survivors used collages and installations of everyday objects to solicit their authentic expression of the psycho-social impacts of lymphedema. The article enlists Jurgen Habermas' communicative action theory to explore the potential of these expressive arts to expand participants' meaningful engagement with their lifeworlds. The findings point to the unique non-linguistic discursivity of these non-institutional artistic forms as their liberating power to disclose silenced human needs: the images 'spoke' for themselves for group members to recognize shared subjectivities. The authenticity claims inherent in the art forms fostered collective reflexivity and spontaneous, affective responses and compelled the group to create new collective understandings of the experience of living with lymphedema. The article contributes theoretical insights regarding the emancipatory potential of aesthetic-expressive rationality, an under-developed area of Habermasian theory of communicative action, and to the burgeoning literature on arts-based methods in social scientific research. PMID:25197263

Quinlan, Elizabeth; Thomas, Roanne; Ahmed, Shahid; Fichtner, Pam; McMullen, Linda; Block, Janice

2014-08-01

238

Selected Gymnastics Articles. Sports Articles Reprint Series. First Edition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a collection of the best articles in the "DGWS (Division for Girls and Women's Sports) Gymnastics Guide" from 1963 to 1972. Included are the current Federation of International Gymnastics rule interpretations from the 1972-74 Gymnastics Guide. The articles have been edited to conform with the new rules and regulations from the Federation…

Bowers, Carolyn O., Ed.

239

Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression  

CERN Document Server

This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

Pickin, Andrew

2011-01-01

240

[Research progress of negative costimulator B7-H4 in urologic tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

B7-H4 is a recently-identified member of B7 costimulation superfamily. B7-H4 serves as an inhibitory modulator of T cell response through suppressing the proliferation, activation, and cytokine production of T cells. B7-H4 is found to be abnormally expressed in multiple human tumors. Many studies have shown that B7-H4 expression is closely related to the progression and prognosis of urologic tumors. Investigation of B7-H4 function will provide new strategies for diagnosis and immunotherapy of urologic tumors. This article reviews the recent progress of B7-H4 research in urologic tumors. PMID:25187465

Tao, Yan; Hong, Mei

2014-07-01

241

Research and Technology, 1994  

Science.gov (United States)

This report selectively summarizes the NASA Lewis Research Center's research and technology accomplishments for the fiscal year 1994. It comprises approximately 200 short articles submitted by the staff members of the technical directorates. The report is organized into six major sections: Aeronautics, Aerospace Technology, Space Flight Systems, Engineering and Computational Support, Lewis Research Academy, and Technology Transfer. A table of contents and author index have been developed to assist the reader in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Lewis-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Lewis staff members and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report a Lewis contact person has been identified, and where possible, reference documents are listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible.

1995-01-01

242

CSIRO Marine Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Offered by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), CSIRO Marine Research Web site contains multiple levels of valuable information. The organization's mission is to "understand its oceans by conducting research in the sustainable use of Australia's marine resources, the ocean's role in climate, and the effective conservation of the marine ecosystem integrity." Visitors will find current news articles, research material including free modeling software, and various data and related products such as remote sensing information and publications. The strength of the site lies in the adaptability of its offerings to research and researchers around the world.

1998-01-01

243

The Mock Research Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

The mock research paper combines creative writing with academic writing and, in the process, breaks down that binary. This article describes a writing assignment that offers an introduction to the college research paper genre. This assignment helps students focus on crafting an argument and learning genre conventions while postponing until the…

Clark, Carlton

2008-01-01

244

Temporal Expressions in Japanese-to-English Machine Translation  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes in outline a method for translating Japanese temporal expressions into English. We argue that temporal expressions form a special subset of language that is best handled as a special module in machine translation. The paper deals with problems of lexical idiosyncrasy as well as the choice of articles and prepositions within temporal expressions. In addition temporal expressions are considered as parts of larger structures, and the question of whether to translate them as noun phrases or adverbials is addressed.

Bond, F; Uchino, H; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Uchino, Hajime

2000-01-01

245

Free Expression Clearinghouse  

Science.gov (United States)

Composed and maintained by the Free Expression Network (FEN), which is dedicated to protecting the right of free expression and opposing governmental efforts to suppress this constitutionally protected right, this Web site is primarily designed to provide an array of information on First Amendment issues to the Internet community. Providing valuable information for First Amendment advocates and researchers, this site contains up-to-date news stories on First Amendment issues from around the nation, as well as court and congressional hearings dating back from 1998 to the present. The site also contains news stories on censorship issues, violations, and lawsuits in the fields of art, printed media, music, television, and video games. Although the site is user-friendly, viewers should be aware that hyperlinks from the home page take a few moments to access.

246

Beyond interlibrary loan state-of-the-art article retrieval  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Hanford Technical Library, high-tech methods are providing researchers and managers with better journal article delivery. New technologies include the ProQuest Business Periodicals OnDisc system, which stores images of journals on CD-ROM; optically scanned and faxed images from CURL UnCover2; and fax communications with a commercial document delivery service. Overall successes and small setbacks in implementing these services will show the possibilities of rapid article retrieval in the 1990s.

Edwards, E.L.

1992-10-01

247

Who cites non-English-language pharmaceutical articles?  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: The objective was to determine a link between the number of non-English language references in the bibliographies of publications in international pharmaceutical journals and the geographic origin of these publications. METHODS: A systematic prospective analysis of 7 international pharmaceutical journals in 2005-2006. All research articles whom corresponding author was a pharmacist were included. For each article, were recorded: - the geographic origin of the corresponding author (cl...

Edouard, Bruno

2009-01-01

248

Beyond Captions: Linking Figures with Abstract Sentences in Biomedical Articles  

OpenAIRE

Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic lan...

Bockhorst, Joseph P.; Conroy, John M.; Agarwal, Shashank; O’leary, Dianne P.; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

249

Understanding the influence of advertisements in social media; article 2  

OpenAIRE

Social interaction is important for human beings and has been subject for research in different forms. Due to technological developments the last decade, social media have occurred and show social interaction in new forms. With the background in social media and the key concept of interaction, these articles offer a behavior analytic view of understanding interaction in social media. The first article presents Web 2.0 and interaction viewed from traditional approach and functional approach. T...

Lillemoen, Maria

2013-01-01

250

Enhancing the Ability of Creative Expression and Intercultural Understanding through Visual Story  

Science.gov (United States)

In our web-based platform “Wayang Authoring” children with different cultural backgrounds can create and share stories, and make experiences in culturally different storytelling. The idea of Wayang Authoring is based on the Indonesian ancient art form Wayang. The research question focuses on if and how the design of our system can support children to enhance understanding of story grammar, creative storytelling and self-expression as well as help to share cultural diversity. In this article the Wayang Authoring platform and its background is presented.

Widjajanto, Wahju Agung; Lund, Michael; Schelhowe, Heidi

251

Yes! I Am a Researcher. The Research Story of a Young Adult with Down Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

My name is Emma I am 28 years old and I have Down syndrome. This is an article about my story about becoming a researcher. This article has lots of photographs of me doing research. It has information about the things I did with research. It has examples of some of my research work. This article lets me share my story with other people. This…

White, Emma L.; Morgan, Michelle F.

2012-01-01

252

Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

Tight, Malcolm

2013-01-01

253

Legal Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Inquiry  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the need to develop research methodologies to address new and emerging issues in our field, this article provides an overview of traditional legal research. This article, which admittedly focuses on the American approach, should be of interest to South Africa researchers in Education Law in light of growing interest among scholars on how our…

Russo, Charles

2005-01-01

254

Research in Counseling: A 10-Year Review to Inform Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviewed 4,457 articles from 1998 to 2007 in American Counseling Association division-affiliated journals to identify research articles published in counseling; 1,139 articles (25.6%) were quantitatively research based. The authors provide details related to quantitative research publications, including individual journal contribution…

Ray, Dee C.; Hull, Darrell M.; Thacker, Andi J.; Pace, Laura S.; Swan, Karrie L.; Carlson, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

255

CEO Express  

Science.gov (United States)

This site was created by AlphaSight Online Strategies as a "no-nonsense business site built by an executive for fellow executives." The site provides an extensive list of links that are of interest to executives. Links are categorized into daily news and information, business research, all things Internet, and tools, travel, and fun. Within each of these categories, links are further divided into smaller categories to facilitate browsing.

2007-05-04

256

El Consejo Nacional de la Educación Superior y la Investigación Científica: expresión de la política educativa cardenista / National Council for Higher Education and Scientific Research: Expression of the educational policy of Lazaro Cardenas' government  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se describe el surgimiento, en 1935, del Consejo Nacional de la Educación Superior y la Investigación Científica (CNESIC) y su desarrollo en la política pública del gobierno de Lázaro Cárdenas del Río. Se afirma que la creación de este Consejo fue una respuesta a la problemática en [...] torno a la Universidad Autónoma de México (hoy UNAM) y el control de la enseñanza secundaria. El CNESIC constituyó la primera iniciativa del Estado posrevolucionario dirigida a formalizar la relación entre la educación y la ciencia. Sin embargo, como muchas otras acciones gubernamentales, este organismo quedó sujeto a las decisiones personales del presidente. El CNESIC fue reorganizado tres años después de su creación bajo fuertes conflictos y presiones políticas. Tras una serie de logros el organismo finalmente desapareció, pero, sentó un precedente en el avance de la reforma educativa en México. Abstract in english This article deals with the emergence, in the year 1935, of the National Council for Higher Education and Scientific Research (Consejo Nacional de la Educación Superior y la Investigación Científica, CNESIC) and with its development within the public policies of Lazaro Cardenas' government. Some his [...] torians tell that the creation of that Council was an answer to the problem caused by the National Autonomous University (today called National Autonomous University of Mexico, UNAM) and the control upon secondary education. The CNESIC in fact represent the first real initiative of the post-revolutionary government to formalize the relationships between education and science. However, as many other governmental actions this Council remained narrowly linked to the president's personal will. The CNESIC was reorganized three years after its creation under strong pressures and in a very difficult situation. After several achievements this governmental body finally disappeared, although it set a precedent in the process of the educational reform in Mexico.

Gabriela M. Luisa, Riquelme Alcántar.

257

Administrative Sciences | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...Sciences Arts Atmosphere Atoms Axioms Behavioral Sciences Bioengineering Biology Biomedicines Biomolecules Biosensors Brain Sciences Buildings Cancers Catalysts Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings ...that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the ... 35-50 Open Access Article: Role of Strong versus Weak Networks in Small Business Growth in an Emerging Economy by M. Kamil Kozan and ...culture should be included as a contingency variable in future studies of network strength and growth relationship. The paper also discusses the possible ...

258

Why plasma research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is aware of the importance of thermonuclear energy and the need for plasma research. It is also aware of the important part that nuclear fusion could play in the solving of the energy crisis. South Africa has already built its first tokamak device for nuclear fusion and plasma research. This article deals with the necessity of plasma research

259

ResearchIndex  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.

260

Religions | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...and the profane, from within the folds of the global and global Islam. Halal emerges as a terrain replete with paradigmatic juridical and ...trans-Atlantic discourse centered on notions of a geopolitical “clash of civilizations” between Islam and the West. Accordingly, the debates about the Moors ...and Christians festivals—like the celebrations themselves—reveal deep ambivalence about the role of Islam and of Muslims in Spain’s past and present. (This ...article belongs to the Special Issue Islam, Immigration, and Identity) Select/unselect all Displaying article 1-7 Export citation of selected articles ...

261

Membranes | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...Applied Sciences Arts Atmosphere Atoms Axioms Behavioral Sciences Bioengineering Biology Biomedicines Biomolecules Biosensors Brain Sciences Buildings Cancers Catalysts Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate ...Societies Sports Sustainability Symmetry Systems Technologies Toxics Toxins Vaccines Veterinary Sciences Viruses Water Volume Author Section Issue Article Type all Addendum Article ... High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/... 20-39 Open Access Article: Carbon Nanotube- and Carbon Fiber-Reinforcement of Ethylene-Octene Copolymer Membranes for Gas and Vapor Separation by Zuzana Sedláková, Gabriele Clarizia,...

262

Supervisory Process From a Supportive-Expressive Relational Psychodynamic Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial theoretical and empirical focus has been placed on detailing the processes that therapists use in psychotherapy. Relatively limited investigation, however, has been conducted into the utility of the various techniques and processes that supervisors use in facilitating the development of trainee competence to conduct psychotherapy. The present article explores 2 sets of supervisory techniques/processes that can be used to assist novice therapists in the development of clinical skills from a supportive-expressive (Luborsky, 1984) relational (Greenberg & Mitchell, 1983) psychodynamic approach: (a) providing systematic and structured training in interpretation, and (b) facilitating trainee use of countertransference. We detail the theoretical underpinnings and research findings for each supervisory process, followed by presentation of vignettes illustrating supervisor-supervisee interactions that demonstrate the use of these processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365152

Diener, Marc J; Mesrie, Vicky

2014-11-01

263

Fundamentals of vitamin D hormone-regulated gene expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Initial research focused upon several known genetic targets provided early insight into the mechanism of action of the vitamin D hormone (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)). Recently, however, a series of technical advances involving the coupling of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to unbiased methodologies that initially involved tiled DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip analysis) and now Next Generation DNA Sequencing techniques (ChIP-seq analysis) has opened new avenues of research into the mechanisms through which 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates gene expression. In this review, we summarize briefly the results of this early work and then focus on more recent studies in which ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq analyses have been used to explore the mechanisms of 1,25(OH)2D3 action on a genome-wide scale providing specific target genes as examples. The results of this work have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms involved at both genetic and epigenetic levels and have revealed a series of new principles through which the vitamin D hormone functions to control the expression of genes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24239506

Pike, J Wesley; Meyer, Mark B

2014-10-01

264

Effective Clustering Algorithms for Gene Expression Data  

CERN Document Server

Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. Identification of co-expressed genes and coherent patterns is the central goal in microarray or gene expression data analysis and is an important task in Bioinformatics research. In this paper, K-Means algorithm hybridised with Cluster Centre Initialization Algorithm (CCIA) is proposed Gene Expression Data. The proposed algorithm overcomes the drawbacks of specifying the number of clusters in the K-Means methods. Experimental analysis shows that the proposed method performs well on gene Expression Data when compare with the traditional K- Means clustering and Silhouette Coefficients cluster measure.

Chandrasekhar, T; Elayaraja, E

2012-01-01

265

Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

266

What Is Effective Research Leadership? a Research-Informed Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing upon findings from a UK-based and -funded study of academic leadership provided by (full) professors, this article focuses on research leadership as perceived by those on the receiving end of it. Research leadership is defined as the influence of one or more people on the research-related behaviour, attitudes or intellectual capacity of…

Evans, Linda

2014-01-01

267

"Breastfeeding" by feeding expressed mother's milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides the pediatric community with a practical overview of milk expression and an update on the recent literature. Approaches for working mothers, preterm infants, critically ill infants, and mothers before lactogenesis II are presented separately, as these groups may benefit from practices tailored to individual needs. PMID:23178067

Flaherman, Valerie J; Lee, Henry C

2013-02-01

268

Success Express: Building on the Butterfly Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes Success Express, a program planned and implemented as part of a collaborative 1990 Javits project for gifted students between Lamar University and Texas A & M. The program has been continued by Lamar and Beaumont Independent School District as a two week summer program to identify high-potential, low-income 4-5 year olds and…

Sisk, Dorothy

2006-01-01

269

Predicting Future Citation Count Using Bibliographic and Author Information of Articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic journal continues to spread rapidly among academic researchers. Citation count shown of an article in academic journals plays an important role in academia. It helps academic researchers in choosing suitable and reliable references for their research. It is unfortunate that recently published papers tend to be unapparent, since it has less citation count than other former works. This research proposes a new way to predict future citation count of an article using regression analysis by machine learning. As a result, citation count prediction of article is delivered using the new proposed method.

Takashi

2014-04-01

270

Gene expression networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advent of microarrays and next-generation biotechnologies, the use of gene expression data has become ubiquitous in biological research. One potential drawback of these data is that they are very rich in features or genes though cost considerations allow for the use of only relatively small sample sizes. A useful way of getting at biologically meaningful interpretations of the environmental or toxicological condition of interest would be to make inferences at the level of a priori defined biochemical pathways or networks of interacting genes or proteins that are known to perform certain biological functions. This chapter describes approaches taken in the literature to make such inferences at the biochemical pathway level. In addition this chapter describes approaches to create hypotheses on genes playing important roles in response to a treatment, using organism level gene coexpression or protein-protein interaction networks. Also, approaches to reverse engineer gene networks or methods that seek to identify novel interactions between genes are described. Given the relatively small sample numbers typically available, these reverse engineering approaches are generally useful in inferring interactions only among a relatively small or an order 10 number of genes. Finally, given the vast amounts of publicly available gene expression data from different sources, this chapter summarizes the important sources of these data and characteristics of these sources or databases. In line with the overall aims of this book of providing practical knowledge to a researcher interested in analyzing gene expression data from a network perspective, the chapter provides convenient publicly accessible tools for performing analyses described, and in addition describe three motivating examples taken from the published literature that illustrate some of the relevant analyses. PMID:23086841

Thomas, Reuben; Portier, Christopher J

2013-01-01

271

Teacher Research: Challenging Our Assumptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher research--often called "action research"--is an intentional and systematic inquiry into one's own classroom practice with the goal of improved student learning (Cochran-Smith and Lytle 1993). In this article, the authors present a teacher research p

Ortiz, Christine; Passmore, Cynthia; Dockter, Derek; Christopher, Elizabeth; Villagomez, Gisela; Robins, Lori I.

2009-09-01

272

La formulación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación científica en cuatro disciplinas: historia, lingüística, literatura y biología / Formulation of objectives of research articles in four disciplines: history, linguistics, literature and biology / A formulação dos objetivos de artigos de pesquisa em quatro disciplinas: história, linguística, literatura e biologia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Analisar propriedades estruturais e funcionais dos produtos textuais da atividade científica ajuda a compreender o papel da linguagem na construção e na divulgação do conhecimento. Este artigo relata um estudo sobre a formulação de objetivos de artigos de investigação científica (AIC) em quatro disc [...] iplinas: História, Linguística, Literatura e Biologia. O objetivo maior deste estudo foi identificar padrões de formulação dos objetivos, das seções onde são apresentados e verificar se há diferenças entre as disciplinas estudadas. Um corpus constituído de 40 artigos foi analisado, distribuídos igualmente para cada uma das disciplinas estudadas. Obteve-se como resultado a identificação de cinco padrões na formulação de objetivos, que são apresentados, preferivelmente, no resumo e na introdução. Não obstante, trata-se, igualmente, das diferenças existentes entre o AIC das quatro disciplinas. Igualmente, há certas ambiguidades entre apresentar o objetivo da investigação e o objetivo do artigo, o que ressalta o caráter metonímico e performativo do AIC. Abstract in spanish Analizar las propiedades estructurales y funcionales de los productos textuales de la actividad científica ayuda a comprender el rol del lenguaje en la construcción y difusión del conocimiento. En el presente artículo se analiza la formulación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación científic [...] a (AIC) en cuatro disciplinas: Historia, Lingüística, Literatura y Biología. El propósito fue identificar patrones de formulación de los objetivos, los apartados donde son presentados y si existen diferencias entre las disciplinas estudiadas. Se analizaron 40 artículos, diez de cada una de las disciplinas. Como resultado, identificamos cinco patrones en la formulación de objetivos, los que son presentados indistintamente en el resumen y en la introducción. Sin embargo, se aprecian diferencias notables entre los AIC de las disciplinas estudiadas. Asimismo, con frecuencia se produce una ambigüedad entre presentar el objetivo de la investigación y el objetivo del artículo, resaltando el carácter metonímicoy realizativo del AIC. Abstract in english The analysis of the structural and functional properties of scientific activity textual products aids understanding the role of language in the construction and diffusion of scientific knowledge. Thus, the present article is based on a study of the formulation of objectives of research articles (RA) [...] in four disciplines: History, Linguistics, Literature, and Biology. The goal was to identify patterns in the formulation of objectives, the sections where they are presented, and potential differences among the disciplines. 40 articles were analyzed, ten from each discipline. The results show five patterns in the formulation of objectives, which are presented indistinctively within the abstract and the introduction. Nevertheless, some interesting differences have been found among the RA of the disciplines studied. Likewise, some ambiguity is found between the presentation of the research objective and the article objective, stressing the metonymic and performative character of the RA.

Cristian, González Arias.

2011-08-01

273

Research Ethics III: Publication Practices and Authorship, Conflicts of Interest, and Research Misconduct  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. Method: In "Research Ethics III", they review the RCR domains of publication…

Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

2011-01-01

274

Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed.

William C. S. Cho

2012-09-01

275

Network-enabled gene expression analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Although genome-scale expression experiments are performed routinely in biomedical research, methods of analysis remain simplistic and their interpretation challenging. The conventional approach is to compare the expression of each gene, one at a time, between treatment groups. This implicitly treats the gene expression levels as independent, but they are in fact highly interdependent, and exploiting this enables substantial power gains to be realized....

Edwards David; Wang Lei; Sørensen Peter

2012-01-01

276

Impact Factor: Early Career Research & Digital Scholarship  

Science.gov (United States)

It is becoming increasingly vital to publish and share research as well as get citations for the purpose of researcher visibility. The publishing options available for research distribution seem endless. It really is an academic jungle out there! This article reviews why early career researchers and graduate scholars should consider their research

Pasquini, Laura A.; Wakefield, Jenny S.; Roman, Tiffany

2014-01-01

277

Multiple Enactments of Educational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The article addresses the widespread claim to make educational research more relevant for practitioners, policy makers, potential users and stakeholders, and proposes a problematisation of the notion of "useful knowledge". The article illustrates the conceptual, instrumental and legitimative relevance of knowledge and highlights empirically the…

Landri, Paolo

2012-01-01

278

Developing a Community of Research Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing journal articles is essential for academics and professionals to develop their ideas, make an impact in their fields and progress in their careers. Research assessment makes successful performance in this form of writing even more important. This article describes a course on writing journal articles and draws on interviews with…

Murray, Rowena

2012-01-01

279

Motricity, art and corporal expression. An experience through school center visits to exhibition rooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we intend to go beyond the educational possibilities that a non formal context generates. Art, motricity and expression are the main features of this research. We developed an activity called «Visitas culturales» , cultural visits, in several schools in Almería, where we worked with art and corporal expression at the same time from a wide point of view. The sensations and emotions of the children played the main role, highlighting the personal identity of each one. Our main aim was using art and corporal expression as a means to discover, arousing sensations and significances in the children that, probably they went unnoticed, enlarging the knowledge, not only of themselves but also of the world that sourrounds them. We consider that it is crucial creating a series of competences in the pupils, as well as appreciating and valuing in a critical way the different cultural and artistic expressions. It is also important using them as a source of enjoyment and personal enrichment. Becoming familiar with past and present expressions, boosting the aesthetic development, the creativity, the convergent and divergent thinking to facilitates the communication as well as the enrichment of differents realities and productions connected to the world of arts and culture.

Antonia Irene Hernández Rodríguez

2010-07-01

280

3D facial expression recognition using maximum relevance minimum redundancy geometrical features  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, facial expression recognition (FER) has become an attractive research area, which besides the fundamental challenges, it poses, finds application in areas, such as human-computer interaction, clinical psychology, lie detection, pain assessment, and neurology. Generally the approaches to FER consist of three main steps: face detection, feature extraction and expression recognition. The recognition accuracy of FER hinges immensely on the relevance of the selected features in representing the target expressions. In this article, we present a person and gender independent 3D facial expression recognition method, using maximum relevance minimum redundancy geometrical features. The aim is to detect a compact set of features that sufficiently represents the most discriminative features between the target classes. Multi-class one-against-one SVM classifier was employed to recognize the seven facial expressions; neutral, happy, sad, angry, fear, disgust, and surprise. The average recognition accuracy of 92.2% was recorded. Furthermore, inter database homogeneity was investigated between two independent databases the BU-3DFE and UPM-3DFE the results showed a strong homogeneity between the two databases.

Rabiu, Habibu; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Mashohor, Syamsiah; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce

2012-12-01

281

Effects of article retraction on citation and practice in medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

At times, there are reasons for authors to make a formal statement of retraction of work they publish in biomedical journals. This study examines 235 retracted articles and looks at the reasons for these retractions and citations to the articles subsequent to retraction. The primary reasons for retraction are error of various kinds (such as problems with method or sample, including contamination of samples) and misconduct. The 235 articles are cited a total of 2,034 times after retraction. This set of citations can be divided into two groups: citations that appear in journals included in the Abridged Index Medicus and those that appear in other journals included in MEDLINE. While most of the citations in these two groups of journals can be categorized as "implicitly positive," 275 make explicitly positive mention of retracted articles. The implications for continued citation for biomedical research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:10550028

Budd, J M; Sievert, M; Schultz, T R; Scoville, C

1999-10-01

282

Children's Expressed Emotions when Disclosing Maltreatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Our goal was to examine children's expressed emotions when they disclose maltreatment. Little scientific research exists on this topic, and yet children's emotional expressions at disclosure may inform psychological theory and play a crucial role in legal determinations. Method: One hundred and twenty-four videotaped forensic interviews…

Sayfan, Liat; Mitchell, Emilie B.; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

2008-01-01

283

Content analysis of published articles in the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The publication of academic research is important for its contribution to the body of knowledge. A periodic analysis of journal content leads to the identification of research practices; while it also identifies the challenges that researchers face. The South African Journal of Economic and Manageme [...] nt Sciences (SAJEMS) is considered to be one of the leading publications in the field of economic and managerial research in South Africa. The SAJEMS was selected as the unit of analysis; and a content analysis was conducted on 257 articles published during the seven-year period 2004 - 2010. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the input and output factors relating to published articles, including questions on authors and article content, such as the various methodological approaches. The findings revealed that there has been a decrease in co-authored articles during the period 2005 - 2008. Although the contribution by practitioners increased significantly in 2005 and 2008, the majority of the articles are still authored predominantly by academics. It is promising to see that international authors were involved in nearly 20 per cent of the articles contributed. When it came to the methodological approaches, the articles employed largely non-probability sampling designs. Furthermore, almost two-thirds of the articles published in SAJEMS were based on quantitative research designs. This content analysis reveals the current research practices published in the SAJEMS. It provides food for thought for academics.

Yolanda, Jordaan; Melanie, Wiese; Karim, Amade; Ermi, de Clercq.

284

Research Article Molecular Diversity Among Sesame Varieties Of Tamil Nadu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR markers were used to estimate the molecular genetic diversityamong 10 sesame varieties cultivated in Tamil Nadu. The 14 ISSR primers in 10 sesame genotypes yielded 66reproducible amplified bands. The number of amplified bands varied from 1 to 7. Out of 66 bands, 65 werepolymorphic (98.5%. Average number of bands and polymorphic bands per primer were 4.7 and 4.6 respectively.The polymorphic information content (PIC value ranged between 0.50 and 0.85. NTSYS-pc (ver 2.02software was used to calculate the Jaccard’s similarity coefficients. The maximum similarity was observedbetween VRI 1 and VRI 2 followed by Paiyur 1 and TMV 6 and less similarity between VRI 1 and SVPR 1.Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 10 genotypesin to five groups at 0.60 similarity coefficient. Varieties CO 1, SVPR 1 and TMV 7 were clustered in to threeseparate clusters indicating most divergent among the released varieties of Tamil Nadu.

Anitha, B.K., N. Manivannan, P. Vindhiya varman, C. Gopalakrishnan and K. Ganesamurthy

2010-07-01

285

Review article: Research on dengue during World War II revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the basic clinical information about dengue infection comes from experimental human studies conducted in the 1920s and 1940s. Albert Sabin's original laboratory records from one such study were bequeathed to Duane J. Gubler. These records were reviewed and 150 experiments were included in our analyses. Persons were inoculated with dengue virus 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2. Median fever duration was shorter in primary DENV-2 infections compared with DENV-1, although maximum temperature and severity of illness were comparable. At 1.5-9 months after primary infection, 20 persons were inoculated with the heterologous serotype. Only one person inoculated with a heterologous serotype at fever. On average, persons had a shorter incubation period in secondary infection compared with primary infection. PMID:25311700

Snow, Grace E; Haaland, Benjamin; Ooi, Eng Eong; Gubler, Duane J

2014-12-01

286

Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentation, some inconsistencies seem to be present in the analysis of Gross et al. These are identified and discussed here, along with a brief survey of relevant literature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Guntur, Srinivas; SØrensen, Niels N.

2014-01-01

287

Reframing Risqué/Risky: Queer Temporalities, Teenage Sexting, and Freedom of Expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Canada recognizes young people’s constitutionally protected freedom of expression and consequently their right to engage in a narrow subset of consensual sexually expressive practices without being prosecuted as child pornographers. Nevertheless, numerous anti-sexting campaigns decry the possibility of voluntary and “safe sexting” let alone the affordances of adolescents’ self-produced and consensually shared sexual imagery. In this article, we argue that these actors have erred in their construction of youths’ risqué imagery as inherently risky and thus governable. We propose that anti-sexting frameworks—which conflate consensual and nonconsensual sexting and which equate both with negative risks that purportedly outweigh the value and benefits of the practice—rely on a calculus that is fundamentally flawed. This article consists of two main parts. In Part I, we map and trouble the ways in which responses to consensual teenage sexting emphasize the practice’s relationship to embodied, financial, intimate and legal risks. In Part II, we suggest that research examining consensual adolescent sexting and young people’s rights to freedom of expression consider alternative theoretical frameworks, such as queer theories of temporality, when calculating the risk of harm of adolescent sexual imagery.

Lara Karaian

2015-01-01

288

???? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????? ?????(Russian and Norwegian culinary expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a description of culinary terms in Russian and Norwegian, and deals with the contrastive study of metaphorical expressions containing such terms, making a special point of their origin, thematic variety and linguistic properties. The author argues that the universal character of metaphorical changes makes itself evident in a large number of expressions containing either verbs connected with cooking or naming products and dishes used as characteristics of a human being or human actions, great number of them being used pejoratively. The author argues that the study of the structure and semantics of these phraseological units can also be of great help in getting a better command of the culture and history of the country and its language.

Olga Komarova

2008-01-01

289

22 CFR 120.6 - Defense article.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Defense article. 120.6 Section 120.6...DEFINITIONS § 120.6 Defense article. Defense article means any item or technical...subchapter. It does not include basic marketing information on function or...

2010-04-01

290

Aberrant gene expression in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating complex traits and conditions. PMID:25617623

Zeng, Yong; Wang, Gang; Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Cai, James J

2015-01-01

291

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FINDINGS PUBLISHED IN SCHOLARLY ARTICLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Articles published in scholarly journals, such as this one, tend to be mainly addressed to researchers at universities. Industrial follow-up and implementation of results from a scholarly article appears to be the exception, rather than the rule. Research grant specifications, as well as university policies, favor the generation of new knowledge, rather than the implementation of good ideas. But without patent protection, corporations have low motivation to expend the considerable effort to reduce ideas to practice after they have been openly published. The author speculates that the situation could be much more dynamic if there were a system of priority of implementation. According to such a system, the first company to successfully implement an idea that first appears in a peer-reviewed journal article, as validated by its debut in the marketplace, would have a grace period during which competitors would have to pay them a fee to sell a generic version of the same thing.

Martin A. Hubbe

2010-07-01

292

The Janus Head Article - On Quality in the Documentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The god Janus in Greek mythology was a two-faced god; each face had its own view of the world. Our idea behind the Janus Head article is to give you two different and maybe even contradicting views on a certain topic. In this issue the topic is quality in the documentation process. In the first half of this issue’s Janus Head Article translators from the international company Grundfos give us their view of quality and how quality is managed in the documentation process at Grundfos. In the second half of the Janus Head Article scholars from the University of Southern Denmark describe and discuss quality in the documentation process at Grundfos from a researcher’s point of view.

Henrik Andersen

2012-08-01

293

10 CFR 600.31 - Research misconduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...demonstration research in all fields of science, medicine, engineering...medicine, psychology, social sciences statistics, and research involving...presentations, internal reports, and journal articles. (c) Unless... (f) In conducting the activities in paragraph (c) of...

2010-01-01

294

2007 Research and Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is pushing the envelope of research and technology in aeronautics, space exploration, science, and space operations. Our research in aeropropulsion, structures and materials, and instrumentation and controls is enabling next-generation transportation systems that are faster, more environmentally friendly, more fuel efficient, and safer. Our research and development of space flight systems is enabling advanced power, propulsion, communications, and human health systems that will advance the exploration of our solar system. This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center s research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2007. Comprising 104 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers, the report is organized into six major sections: Aeropropulsion, Power and Space Propulsion, Communications, Space Processes and Experiments, Instrumentation and Controls, and Structures and Materials. It is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year; most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained.

Riddlebaugh, Stephen M. (Editor)

2008-01-01

295

Rain research with disdrometers: a bibliometric review  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyses the research on disdrometers based on published studies. To do so, a wide data base of bibliographic references has been used: the Web of Science (published by Thomson Reuters). The search was carried out for all of the articles whose "TOPIC" was disdrometer. The more than 300 articles found were analysed according to various criteria: countries with research using disdrometers; publication dates; evolution of the number of articles; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the more than 60 journals where these articles have been published. Since 1963, there has been an increase in the number of articles published on disdrometers, which in the last 20 yr has been more than ten times higher than the increase in the number of articles on meteorology.

Fernandez-Raga, M.; Palencia, C.; Tomas, C.; Calvo, A. I.; Castro, A.; Fraile, R.

2011-09-01

296

Trends in operations strategy research  

OpenAIRE

This article aims to identify research approaches in operations strategy research, with regards its content. From a systematic literature review we highlight the main definitions of operations strategy and discussions on competitive priorities and then, present the main focuses of the articles published in reputable journals nationally and internationally. It was identified that studies on the operations strategy followed in general the direction of relating the influence and the alignment of...

Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour; Alceu Gomes Alves Filhos

2009-01-01

297

Antarctic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research Synopsis of Program: Scientific research, and operational support of that research, are ... research. For projects involving fieldwork, the U.S. Antarctic Program supports only that research ...

298

Plants | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants) p. 589-614 Open Access Review Review: Calcium Signals from ...how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective,... However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis ...transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling. (This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling ...

299

Nutrients | January 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...These findings suggest that the acute addition of cocoa flavanols to low-fat chocolate milk offer no additional recovery benefits. (This article belongs ...to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health) p. 63-75 Open Access Article: Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced ... 319-341 Open Access Review Review: High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings by Deyar ...substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...

300

Publications | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 14-26 Open Access Article: A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality of Retraction Notices by Emma Bilbrey, Natalie O'Dell& nbspand Jonathan Creamer Publications ... This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction ... Results suggest the rubric to be a robust, if preliminary, tool. Analysis of the retraction notices suggest that their quality ... The rubric presented in this study could be adopted by journals to help standardize the writing of retraction notices. (This article ...

301

Microarrays | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Software written in Mathematica is freely available. Select/unselect all Displaying article 1-3 Export citation of selected articles as: Plain Text BibTeX BibTeX (without abstracts) Endnote Endnote (without abstracts) Tab-delimited PubMed XML DOAJ XML AGRIS XML Microarrays EISSN 2076-3905 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Contact MDPI Payment Information Jobs at MDPI �-2014 MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated ...

302

Global Ice Core Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This informative site from the US Geological Survey (USGS) covers the latest ice-core research projects from around the world, including sites in Nepal, Norway, and Kyrghyzstan. Authored by researchers at the Global Ice core Research Office, the site contains an overview of the mid-latitude and polar glaciers, isotopic methods in glacial research, and applications to paleoclimatology. Links to maps, figures, and in some cases, full-text articles (HTML) about specific glaciers are available, and the site is peppered with color photos of glacial environments. Links to biographies of the scientists involved in the project, contacts, and other snow and ice sites are also listed.

303

eResearch: access and support to university researchers  

OpenAIRE

The way research is undertaken is changing fundamentally with eResearch, the uptake of web technologies and the application of advanced computational techniques. At the same time, rapid changes are underway in scholarly publishing and communication so that research outputs - both articles and data - are available in new and different ways. What does this mean for university libraries in our work to support research? Many university libraries are establishing and populating institutional repos...

Stokker, Judy

2008-01-01

304

Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives; Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991). Acquis et perspectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2004-07-01

305

Water Resources Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

306

Emotive lexical expressions in "Przewodnik Katolicki" from the years 1895-2005. Primal disparaging and derogatory words or expressions (peiorativa)  

OpenAIRE

The article discusses emotive expressions that express negative emotions of the sender excerpted from "Przewodnik Katolicki" from the years 1895-2005. The author studies nominal primal negative emotional expressions that belong to the class of personal names (nomina personae), i.e. words that are semantically non-derivable and whose meanings include a fixed emotional component that is obligatory revealed in the statement. This group of units also includes words that are derived morphologicall...

Wiatrowski, Przemys?aw

2010-01-01

307

Ethical Approval for Research in Physiology Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this article is to reflect on the contemporary ethical standards that should be applied to the publication of physiology education research. As teachers, we are all education researchers to some degree but our appreciation of when and how regulatory requirements apply to our work is variable. A significant number of articles in…

Kibble, Jonathan D.

2009-01-01

308

Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions  

Science.gov (United States)

To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

2013-01-01

309

Indexing Research Papers in Open Access Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper synthesizes the actions performed in order to transform a classic scientific research journal – “Annals. Computer Science Series” – available only in printed form until 2008, into a modern e-journal with free access to the full text of the articles. For achieving this goal, the research papers have been included in various article databases, portals and library catalogs which offered a high visibility to the journal. Keywords: Open-Acces Initiative, article database, standards, meta-data harvesting

Alexandra-Emilia Forti?

2009-01-01

310

Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

2012-01-01

311

Research Skills for the Future: An Interdisciplinary Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is a response to a Viewpoint & Discussion article published in this journal: Ulrich, W., & Dash, D. P. (2013. Research skills for the future: Summary and critique of a comparative study in eight countries. Journal of Research Practice, 9(1, Article V1.

Rick Szostak

2013-01-01

312

Experiencia del Comité de Ética de Investigación en Seres Humanos de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile y los desafíos que impone la nueva legislación chilena en la investigación médica / Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law [...] 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.

Manuel, Oyarzún G; María Eugenia, Pinto C; Gina G, Raineri B; Hugo, Amigo; Lucía, Cifuentes O; María Julieta, González; Nina, Horwitz; Claudia, Marshall F; Gricel, Orellana V.

2014-07-01

313

Title, abstract, key words and references in biomedical articles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientists frequently communicate the results of their work in research reports. When writing scientific articles, authors must follow instructions and requirements of standard article format. A scientific paper should have in proper order, a Title, Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Literature. A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper. It should attract researchers' attention in order to be included in their investigation. An abstract is a short summary of the article. It concisely summarizes results and conclusion so that essential details of the paper can be understood in 100 - 250 words. The most commonly used are structured abstracts. Key words are provided below the abstract and describe the medical concepts characteristic for the whole article. Assign at least one and an average of 5 to 10 key words. Indexing in biomedicine means using the Thesaurus of the American National Library of Medicine: Medical Subject Headings. It provides easy and fast access to precise information using key words assigned to each document. Reference citation is obligatory and integral part of scientific articles. It provides communication among the authors and binds scientific papers as well as whole scientific knowledge in certain fields.

Brki? Silvija

2003-01-01

314

Internet Research, Uncensored  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author discusses a computer program called Psiphon which bypasses government filters undetected. The University of Toronto's Citizen Lab, a research center for digital media and politics, designed Psiphon for technology-savvy activists. Some technology-savvy activists use other open-source software, like Tor (which relies on…

Kean, Sam

2007-01-01

315

The Prevention Researcher, 1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3) "Adolescent Gambling in Minnesota"…

Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

1999-01-01

316

RESEARCH BULLETIN. NUMBER 12.  

Science.gov (United States)

SIX PAPERS OF T.D. CUTSFORTH WERE CHOSEN FOR POSTHUMOUS REPUBLICATION ON THE CRITERION OF RELEVANCE TO CURRENT RESEARCH. THE ARTICLES INCLUDE "THE SYNAESTHESIA OF A BLIND SUBJECT WITH COMPARATIVE DATA FROM AN ASYNAESTHETIC BLIND SUBJECT--CHAPTERS 5 THROUGH 7" (COAUTHORED WITH R.H. WHEELER), "ROLE OF EMOTION IN AN SYNAESTHETIC SUBJECT--SUMMARY AND…

CLARK, LESLIE L., ED.

317

Participants’ responsibilities in clinical research  

OpenAIRE

Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake...

Resnik, David B.; Ness, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

318

The Uranium Chemistry Research Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses the research work done at the Uranium Chemistry Research Unit of the University of Port Elizabeth. The initial research programme dealt with fundamental aspects of uranium chemistry. New uranium compounds were synthesized and their chemical properties were studied. Research was also done to assist the mining industry, as well as on nuclear medicine. Special mentioning is made of the use of technetium for medical diagnosis and therapy

319

How the researcher’s experience of visual images can contribute to qualitative research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In art and drawing children can visually articulate pre-reflexive phenomena such as feelings, emotions, experiences, intentions and engagement. Research can include children’s art and drawings to study such phenomena and how they can be articulated and thematized in non-verbal/visual articulation. The researcher’s pre-reflexive sensory and aesthetic experiences often contribute to the immediate interpretations of such data, but the studies often lack any reflection on how drawings aesthetically affect the researcher’s awareness or interest that could otherwise creatively provide material for the study. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the construct ‘aesthetic object’ may offer researchers an approach to non-verbal/visual articulation that can explicitly and creatively include the researcher’s sensory and aesthetic experiences in the knowledge production. Examples from studies that incorporate phenomenological and cultural psychological approaches and include children’s art are part of the article.

Nielsen, Anne Maj

2014-01-01

320

Towards universal systems for recombinant gene expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recombinant gene expression is among the most important techniques used both in molecular and medical research and in industrial settings. Today, two recombinant expression systems are particularly well represented in the literature reporting on recombinant expression of specific genes. According to searches in the PubMed citation database, during the last 15 years 80% of all recombinant genes reported on in the literature were expressed in either the enterobacterium Escherichia coli or the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Nevertheless, some eukaryotic proteins are misfolded or inadequately posttranslationally modified in these expression systems. This situation demands identification of other recombinant expression systems that enable the proper expression of the remaining eukaryotic genes. As of now, a single universal system allowing expression of all target genes is still a distant goal. In this light, thorough experimental screening for systems that can yield satisfying quantity and quality of target protein is required. In recent years, a number of new expression systems have been described and used for protein production. Two systems, namely Drosophila melanogaster S2 insect cells and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells stably expressing the EBNA-1 gene, show exceptional promise. The time has come to identify a few well-performing systems that will allow us to express, purify, and characterize entire eukaryotic genomes.

Sørensen Hans

2010-04-01

321

Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

322

Uso de movidas retóricas y patrones léxico-gramaticales en artículos de investigación en español: Implicancias para la enseñanza de la escritura científica / THE USE OF RHETORICAL MOVES AND LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL PATTERNS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES WRITTEN IN CHILEAN SPANISH: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión crítica de distintos enfoques que se centran en la descripción de las estructuras retóricas y de sus rasgos lingüísticos en artículos de investigación, en el presente trabajo proponemos un nuevo método para describir este fenómeno en artículos de investigación en español. Pa [...] ra ello, se etiquetó, con movidas retóricas, un corpus de 162 artículos que es representativo de la producción científica chilena entre los años 2000 y 2008. A los 11.000 o más registros derivados del análisis, se aplicó técnicas estadísticas que permiten dar cuenta de cuáles son las movidas retóricas (MR) prototípicas y describir los patrones léxico-gramaticales asociados a ellas en este tipo de textos especializados. Los resultados muestran, en primer lugar, cuáles son las MR prototípicas en este tipo de textos y, en segundo lugar, que a ellas se asocian patrones léxico-gramaticales específicos. Los resultados de esta investigación se constituyen en valiosa evidencia empírica tanto para los interesados en el análisis del discurso científico como para aquellos enfocados en el ámbito de la didáctica y el aprendizaje de la escritura científica. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a new method for the description of rhetorical structures and their corresponding linguistic features in research articles in Spanish. The method is based on a critical review of different approaches focusing on this phenomenon. To this effect, we labelled a 162-research-ar [...] ticle corpus using rhetorical moves. The corpus is representative of Chilean scientific production between 2000 and 2008. We applied statistical techniques to over the 11,000 records to account for the prototypical rhetorical moves and describe the lexico-grammatical patterns associated to them in this type of specialist texts. The results of the study demonstrate the operation of particular 'prototypical' rhetorical moves in such texts as well as the lexico-grammatical patterns which formalize the former. The research done provides valuable empirical evidence both for those aiming at the analysis of scientific discourse and those focusing on the teaching and learning of scientific writing.

Omar, Sabaj Meruane.

323

Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There has been substantial rise in the volume of published works on fat transfer in the medical literature in the past 25 years, and this is indicative of its growing popularity. However, many unanswered questions remain, and there is no consensus as to the optimum technique. Consequently, the scientific and clinical research on fat grafting continues to increase rapidly. The purpose of our study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the most-cited articles in fat transfer. Methods: Through the Web of Science, all articles relating to fat grafting were identified in the plastic and reconstructive literature. The 100 most-cited articles were identified and analyzed individually. Results: Total citations ranged from 35 to 363 and the most-cited paper by Sidney Coleman was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The United States produced 46% of the most-cited papers, and the University of California was the most prolific institution. Twenty-one articles focused on lipofilling to the face while 14 articles looked at fat grafting to the breast. Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most. PMID:25674376

Joyce, Kenneth M.; Rahmani, George; Walsh, Stewart R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Hussey, Alan J.; Kelly, Jack L.

2015-01-01

324

Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values  

Science.gov (United States)

While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

2014-01-01

325

Artistic Expressions as Primary Modes of Inquiry  

Science.gov (United States)

"Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…

McNiff, Shaun

2011-01-01

326

48 CFR 952.235-71 - Research misconduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

...credit. Research means all basic, applied, and demonstration research in all...education, linguistics, medicine, psychology, social sciences statistics, and research...presentations, internal reports, and journal articles. (g) By executing...

2010-10-01

327

Educational Technology Research Journals: Educational Technology Research and Development 2001-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines 10 years (2001-2010) of journal articles from "Educational Technology Research and Development" (ETR&D) to determine trends in article topics, key contributing authors, citation patterns, and methodological trends. The analysis identified several unique characteristics of this journal over the past decade, including a balance…

Zaugg, Holt; Amado, Mayavel; Small, Tyler R.; West, Richard E.

2011-01-01

328

Ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines revisited: Fair ranking for reasonable quality?  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to review the fiercely discussed question of whether the ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines is justified by the quality of the articles. After an overview of current research on information quality in Wikipedia, a summary of the extended discussion on the quality of encyclopedic entries in general is given. On this basis, a heuristic method for evaluating Wikipedia entries is developed and applied to Wikipedia articles that scored highly in a sea...

Spree, Ulrike; Lewandowski, Dirk

2011-01-01

329

Continuous, Dynamic and Comprehensive Article-Level Evaluation of Scientific Literature  

OpenAIRE

It is time to make changes to the current research evaluation system, which is built on the journal selection. In this study, we propose the idea of continuous, dynamic and comprehensive article-level-evaluation based on article-level-metrics. Different kinds of metrics are integrated into a comprehensive indicator, which could quantify both the academic and societal impact of the article. At different phases after the publication, the weights of different metrics are dynami...

Wang, Xianwen; Fang, Zhichao; Yang, Yang

2014-01-01

330

Research Upregulation of CD23 (Fc?RII Expression in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells (huASMC in Response to IL-4, GM-CSF, and IL-4/GM-CSF  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle cells play a key role in remodeling that contributes to airway hyperreactivity. Airway smooth muscle remodeling includes hypertrophy and hyperplasia. It has been previously shown that the expression of CD23 on ASMC in rabbits can be induced by the IgE component of the atopic serum. We examined if other components of atopic serum are capable of inducing CD23 expression independent of IgE. Methods Serum starved huASMC were stimulated with either IL-4, GM-CSF, IL-13, IL-5, PGD2, LTD4, tryptase or a combination of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 each with GM-CSF for a period of 24 h. CD23 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence. Results The CD23 protein expression was upregulated in huASMC in response to IL-4, GM-CSF, and IL-4/GM-CSF. The percentage of cells with increased fluorescence intensity above the control was 25.1 ± 4.2% (IL-4, 15.6 ± 2.7% (GM-CSF and 32.9 ± 13.9% (IL-4/GMCSF combination(n = 3. The protein content of IL-4/GMCSF stimulated cells was significantly elevated. Expression of CD23 in response to IL-4, GM-CSF, IL-4/GM-CSF was accompanied by changes in cell morphology including depolymerization of isoactin fibers, cell spreading, and membrane ruffling. Western blot revealed abundant expression of the IL-4R? and a low level expression of IL-2R?c in huASMC. Stimulation with IL-4 resulted in the phosphorylation of STAT-6 and an increase in the expression of the IL-2R?c. Conclusion CD23 on huASMC is upregulated by IL-4, GM-CSF, and IL-4/GM-CSF. The expression of CD23 is accompanied by an increase in cell volume and an increase in protein content per cell, suggesting hypertrophy. Upregulation of CD23 by IL-4/GM-CSF results in phenotypic changes in huASMC that could play a role in cell migration or a change in the synthetic function of the cells. Upregulation of CD23 in huASMC by IL-4 and GM-CSF can contribute to changes in huASMC and may provide an avenue for new therapeutic options in asthma targeting ASMC.

Lew D Betty

2005-05-01

331

Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

2009-01-01

332

Library of Online Technology Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

This rather useful website was created via the TechCast forecasting system, which was developed by Professor William E. Halal and his associates at George Washington University and George Mason University. They were interested in forecasting which technologies were expanding, and they used their system to identify these technologies by reviewing the academic literature and other publications. Visitors to the site can find a list of all the articles arranged chronologically and they include links to the TechCast radio program. Some of the more recent pieces include "The Virtual Assistant Arrives", "The Mystery and Power of Light", and "Can a Green Economy Save the Earth?" Visitors can also create their own profile to save articles of note for future reference and they can also offer their own feedback on different aspects of the site.

333

Some Characteristics of Research Evaluations for Humanity and Social Science Researchers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the characteristics of research evaluations for social science and humanity researchers. A successful research evaluation should include all the publication media used by their researchers. In social science and humanity studies, articles and books are the two most commonly used scientific publication media, but several other publication media play an important role in some disciplines too. In additions, books always receive high citation rate. Also, social science and humanity researches deal with local and regional problems more often and cite earlier articles than are in sciences. Thus, any evaluation that covered only articles or books would probably be incomplete to varying degrees. A window of longer years for evaluation would be more appropriate for social science and humanity researchers. [Article Content in Chinese

Yuwei Chang

2005-03-01

334

Literacy Research, Ethics and Social Responsibility  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I examine the ethics of conducting literacy research, beyond what is typically addressed in current ethical guidelines. Using a few studies as examples, I analyse how the conception of research that underlies literacy research is grounded in ethics based on individual autonomy that allow researchers to disregard their social…

Delandshere, Ginette

2007-01-01

335

Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

Gaytan, Jorge

2007-01-01

336

Library and Information Science Practitioners and Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the need for research in the field of library and information science and describes results of questionnaires sent to library association members that investigated how many practitioners read at least one research journal, how many read research-based articles, how many apply research results to professional practices, and how many…

Powell, Ronald R.; Baker, Lynda M.; Mika, Joseph J.

2002-01-01

337

Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs  

Science.gov (United States)

Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

2011-01-01

338

Scientific works of research workers of the army health service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten articles about the effects of gamma radiation or neutron radiation on human or animal cells are studied here. Effects of radiation, recoveries, research on radioprotective substances are examined in these articles. (N.C.)

339

Towards Greater Recognition of the Right to Play: An Analysis of Article 31 of the UNCRC  

Science.gov (United States)

Children's right to play is formally enshrined in Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). However, few research studies have explored children's experiences of play from an explicit rights-based perspective. Using children's views to illustrate the multi-dimensional relationship Article 31 holds with other…

Davey, Ciara; Lundy, Laura

2011-01-01

340

Aspects of Theme in the Method and Discussion Sections of Biology Journal Articles in English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes the thematic structure of the method and Discussion section of biology research articles. A corpus of 30 journal articles was analyzed using the categories of systematic functional linguistics and a semantic categorization for unmarked themes realized by subject. Revealed differences in the semantic construction of the sections. (VWL)

Martinez, Iliana A.

2003-01-01

341

Statistical Techniques Used in Published Articles: A Historical Review of Reviews  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study is to provide a historical account and metasynthesis of which statistical techniques are most frequently used in the fields of education and psychology. Six articles reviewing the "American Educational Research Journal" from 1969 to 1997 and five articles reviewing the psychological literature from 1948 to 2001…

Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

342

Using Google Scholar to Estimate the Impact of Journal Articles in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the potential of Google Scholar as an alternative or complement to the Web of Science and Scopus for measuring the impact of journal articles in education. Three handbooks on research in science education, language education, and educational technology were used to identify a sample of 112 accomplished scholars. Google…

van Aalst, Jan

2010-01-01

343

A Comprehensive Analysis of Articles Retracted Between 2004 and 2013 from Biomedical Literature – A Call for Reforms  

OpenAIRE

Science is a dynamic subject and it was never free of misconduct or bad research. Indeed, the scientific method itself is intended to overcome mistakes and misdeeds. So, we aimed to assess various factors associated with retraction of scientific articles from 2004 to 2013. Data were retrieved from PubMed and Medline using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in April 2014 to detect articles retracted from 2004 to 2013. Statistical analysis was carr...

Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Mahendra, Ashish; Yadav, Bhupender; Singh, Harpreet; Arora, Nitin; Arora, Monika

2014-01-01

344

Towards an Analysis of Review Article in Applied Linguistics: Its Classes, Purposes and Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The classes, purposes and characteristics associated with the review article in the field of applied linguistics were analyzed. The data were collected from a randomly selected corpus of thirty two review articles from a discipline-related key journal in applied linguistics. The findings revealed that different sub-genres can be identified within the applied linguistic review article genre. Three main types of review articles were therefore identified based on the analysis of linguistic devices often used by the authors, their communicative purposes, and the specialist informants’ feedback: (1 the bibliographic review article which gives readers a comprehensive and descriptive record of annual works and it encompasses the literature-oriented approach, (2 the critical evaluative review article which encompasses subject-oriented approach, that is to say it identifies an idea or raises a research problem, then gives its solution by analyzing and evaluating the selective works done before in the related field, and finally it suggests a new direction, and (3 the mixed-mode review article which has the twin roles and encompasses both literature-oriented and subject-oriented approaches. A possible colony of review genre was suggested and this study further examined some of the characteristics and purposes associated with the review articles. The classification continuum, purposes, characteristics, and linguistic devices of the review articles proposed thus provide useful guidance for graduate EFL (English as a Foreign Language students and novice writers how to monitor and make use of the review articles during their research writing.

Ali Sorayyaei Azar

2014-09-01

345

[Nurses and research: an analysis of two international nursing journals].  

Science.gov (United States)

The intent of the article, dedicated to a series (Prof Inf, 4,2005:229-235 e 236-245) of what nurses write, two European Nursing journals are analysed by categorizing nursing research and non research articles comparing with two Italian refereed Nursing Journals. Results show a tendency of a prevalence of nursing research articles (quantitative and qualitative methods) for all categories in those European (J. Nurs Manag and J Adv Nurs) compared with a prevalence of non research articles in the two Italian refereed Nursing journals. Results sustain the necessity of a national scientific debate and more production of research for the scientificity of nursing and to better care. PMID:16824360

Sansoni, Julita; Marucci, Anna Rita; Comerci, Stefania

2006-01-01

346

Research strategy and programmes on the management of long-lived high-level radioactive waste (pursuant to article L542 of the environmental code taken from the law of December 30, 1991); Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is made of two parts: the first part is a status report which highlights the main achievements of all research activities conducted in 2001 in the global context of national and international efforts on nuclear waste management (partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations, conditioning and storage, national and international collaborations, report no 7 of the national review board (CNE), the Global 201 conference and the year 2001 highlights). The second part is the executive summary of the 2002 edition of the 'Research strategy and programmes' document. The new edition has ben reorganized according to previous editions in an effort to make it more concise, clearer and more comprehensive. Chapter 1 now focusses entirely on the methodology followed by all research partners and stakeholders in structuring and implementing research programmes. Chapter 2 is new and provides a summary of the major research results 10 years after the 1991 law became effective. Chapter 3 is also new and highlights the major milestones yet ahead and identified in terms of both objectives to be attained and key steps leading up to 2006. Chapter 4 contains a detailed description and analysis of the programmes envisaged and the last 2 chapters discuss very broadly the coordination of research activities and the way they are being implemented both at national (chapter 5) and international (chapter 6) levels. (J.S.)

NONE

2002-07-01

347

Dialectical Imagery and Postmodern Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…

Davison, Kevin G.

2006-01-01

348

The Ethics of Archival Research  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the key ethical issues involved in conducting archival research? Based on examination of cases and interviews with leading archival researchers in composition, this article discusses several ethical questions and offers a heuristic to guide ethical decision making. Key to this process is recognizing the person-ness of archival materials.…

McKee, Heidi A.; Porter, James E.

2012-01-01

349

High Citation of Iranian Coauthored articles in comparison with single authored ones: does it link with self-citation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of co-authorship and self-citation on the citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in Web of Science (WoS. Research population included Iranian indexed articles in WoS in 2007 which had been received at least one citation. Numbers of articles in the time of research (October & November 2010 was 7355, which 390 of them, using stratified random sampling, was selected as sample. Research results showed that co-authored articles have received more citations than single-authored ones and this difference was statistically significant. On the other hand, self-citation exclusion has significantly reduced the citation rates of both co-authored and single-authored articles. After self-citation exclusion, existing difference between citation rates of co-authored and single-authored articles lost its significance. So, it can be concluded that self-citation exclusion led to reduction of citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in WoS, but this exclusion affected co-authored articles citation rates more than single-authored ones. In other words, high citation of Iranian co-authored articles in comparison with single-authored articles has been affected mainly by self-citation, not by foreign citation. This finding, which was our contribution, contradicted with results of previous researches.

Seaid Nazarian

2012-10-01

350

Expressed Emotion in Schizophrenia: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

The expressed emotion (EE) is considered to be an adverse family environment, which includes the quality of interaction patterns and nature of family relationships among the family caregivers and patients of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Influence of EE has been found to be one of the robust predictors of relapse in schizophrenia. This review article aims to provide a brief description of the origins and evolution of the EE as a construct from the available literature. The EE...

Amaresha, Anekal C.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

2012-01-01

351

Brief review on ethics regulation in research: contributions to think of research in education in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This article provides a review on ethics in research geared to researchers and Brazilian groups of research in education. We raised sources in Portuguese available on the web, crossing terms as “ethics in research involving human beings”, “ethics committees” , “ethics regulation in research”, “ethics in social research”, “ethics in educational research”. Seeking a panorama that valued diversity of topics and perspectives, we organized the sources into five topics: Integrit...

Mónica de la Fare; Frederico Viana Machado; Isabel Cristina de Moura Carvalho

2014-01-01

352

Astronomy Education: Becoming a Hybrid Researcher  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes the experiences of a former astronomer who is making the transition to astronomy education research as an international graduate student in the United States. The article describes the author’s encounters with education research, its methodologies, and his changing research interests as he progresses through the graduate program. It also describes his experiences with the busy life of a graduate student in American academia and his experiences as an international student.

Erik Brogt

2007-01-01

353

Astronomy Education: Becoming a Hybrid Researcher  

OpenAIRE

This article describes the experiences of a former astronomer who is making the transition to astronomy education research as an international graduate student in the United States. The article describes the author’s encounters with education research, its methodologies, and his changing research interests as he progresses through the graduate program. It also describes his experiences with the busy life of a graduate student in American academia and his experiences as an international stud...

Erik Brogt

2007-01-01

354

Strategy and programs of the research on high-level and long-living radioactive wastes (by right of article L542 of the environment code from December 30, 1991 law). Conjuncture document; Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991). Document de conjoncture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document gives, in a first part, a brief insight on the main results of the researches carried out in 2002 on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes according to the three research ways defined by the December 30, 1991 law: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep geologic underground, wastes conditioning and storage. The second part of the document is an executive summary of the 2003 edition of the document 'strategy and programs of the researches on the management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes - SPR 2003'. It presents the content of the different chapters: 1 - researches methodology and implementation of coordinated studies; 2 - researches status 10 years after the enforcement of the law; 3 - the main goals and steps to reach before the 2006 date-line; 4 - the description and analysis of the programs under consideration; 5 - the coordination between French programs; 6 - the international cooperation. (J.S.)

NONE

2003-07-01

355

Publishing Scientific Articles in XML.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most publication houses are using SGML for electronic mark up of pages intended for hardcopy. Since XML is a major subset of SGML with W3C backing and greater database compatibility, many publication houses are naturally considering switching to or including XML. Now, if authors were also to switch to XML for their manuscripts, it would greatly reduce the work load at the publication houses and reduce the number of errors that are introduced in the translation process. XML is also a logical progression for authors since it is rapidly becoming incorporated into editors such as Word Perfect, Notepad, Emacs, etc. There is an XML standard for equation markup, MathML, and equation editors exist for it. It is easy to put these manuscripts onto the Web; all one needs is to link to a standard cascade style sheet (CSS2). Leveraging our experience with encapsulating scientific data in XML the ADC (Astronomical Data Center) staff are working out details of a scientific XML article format called "AXML" (Article XML Markup Language). We foresee using AXML eventually as an end to end solution for data from experiment/observation through analysis to publication. With fewer transformations needed on article text, equations, and tables, less human intervention will be required and fewer human errors will be introduced, for example, proofing of XML documents by publication houses could someday be unnecessary or (at least) vastly more efficient. In this poster we discuss examine several important aspects of this technology, give the technical details of AXML (including a DTD) and give examples which show the power of AXML.

Shaya, E.; Borne, K.; Thomas, B.; Cheung, C. Y.

2001-12-01

356

Outlook on Research in Education for Sustainable Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of current research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It shows a lack of correspondence between ESD research and recent debates in educational research. Research on ESD has established as a field of research with insufficient relations to other fields in educational research. Based on the overview…

Grasel, Cornelia; Bormann, Inka; Schutte, Kerstin; Trempler, Kati; Fischbach, Robert

2013-01-01

357

JLPEA | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 1-14 Open Access Article: Compact Modeling Solutions for Oxide-Based Resistive Switching Memories (OxRAM) by Marc Bocquet, Hassen Aziza, Weisheng Zhao, Yue Zhang, Santhosh Onkaraiah, Christophe Muller, Marina Reyboz, Damien Deleruyelle, Fabien Clermidy& nbspand Jean-Michel Portal J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2014, 4(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/jlpea4010001 Received: 25 October 2013; in revised form: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 9 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF ...

358

Viruses | February 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...to prevent HSV-2 infection are not yet available, but are currently being developed. To facilitate this process, the latest progress in development ...new ideas for developing an effective vaccine from animal experiments and human clinical trials. Experimental results indicate that future HSV-2 vaccines may depend ...the pros and cons of VIP and its opportunities and challenges towards clinical applications to control HIV/AIDS endemics. (This article belongs ...model, such as the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) model, prior to human clinical trials. However, the ability to model re-infection in the ...

359

Atmosphere | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 81-91 Open Access Article: Aerosol Optical Properties and Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution in Wuhan, China by Wei Gong, Shanshan Zhang and ...Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (898 KB) | Download XML Full-text Abstract: Columnar aerosol volume size distributions from March 2012 to February 2013 in Wuhan,...were investigated with a focus on monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical depths (AODs) and Ångström exponents. AOD is ... The Ångström exponent suggested that the aerosol sizes in summer (~1.22), winter (~1.14), ...

360

Toxics | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 36-45 Open Access Article: Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Lung Cells of Sprague Dawley Rats after 12 Weeks of Inhalation Exposure by Hyun Sun ...Download XML Full-text | Supplementary Files Abstract: Due to the widespread use of silver nanoparticles in consumer products, the toxicity of silver nanoparticles has ... However, most genotoxicity studies of silver nanoparticles have been performed in vitro. Therefore, this study evaluated the DNA damage to lung ...cells caused by repeated inhalation of silver nanoparticles. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles for 12 weeks in a whole-body ...

361

Atmosphere | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 365-382 Open Access Article: A Methodology to Infer Crop Yield Response to Climate Variability and Change Using Long-Term Observations by Mustapha El-Maayar and Manfred ...Full-text (846 KB) | Download XML Full-text Abstract: A new methodology to extract crop yield response to climate variability and change from long-term crop yield observations ...FDA), the proposed methodology considers that the difference in value between crop yields of two consecutive years reflects necessarily the contributions of climate and ...approach was applied to remove the effect of non-climatic factors on crop yield and, hence, to isolate the effect of the observed ...

362

Foods | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 544-553 Open Access Article: Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution by Dara Leong, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóez, Floriane Guillas and ... monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent ...batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100-1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated ... The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did ...

363

Agronomy | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 74-89 Open Access Article: Biological Control of the Weed Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in Rice (Oryza sativa) by the Fungus Myrothecium verrucaria ...20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. Infection and mortality levels of 100% of hemp ... sesbania seedlings occurred within 48 h after fungal application in the greenhouse. In rice field tests conducted over a three year period, ...inoculum concentration of 50 g L-1 ( dry mycelium equivalent) controlled 95% of =20 cm tall hemp sesbania plants. M. verrucaria also controlled larger plants (...

364

Publications | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...Publications, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Publications | December 2013 - Browse Articles Submit to Publications Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z ...For Authors For Editors For Librarians About Open Access Policy Title / Keyword Journal all Actuators Administrative Sciences Aerospace Agriculture Agronomy Algorithms Animals Antibiotics Antibodies ...Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments ...Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Publications Publications Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for Authors Publication Fees Special Issues ...

365

Electronics | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 368-386 Open Access Review Review: Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics by Junji Haruyama Electronics 2013, 2(4), 368-386; doi:10....December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (669 KB) | Download XML Full-text Abstract: Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly ... A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is ... In the present article, the recent advancements in graphene spintronics are reviewed, introducing the observation of spin coherence and the spin Hall ...

366

Dentistry Journal | Article Processing Charges  

SCPinfonet

... Dentistry Journal Dentistry Journal, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Dentistry Journal | Article Processing Charges Submit to Dentistry Journal ...Catalysts Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Dentistry Journal Dentistry Journal Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting ... 1 (2013) Dentistry Journal - Open Access and Publication Fees Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767) is an Open Access journal, which is free ...

367

Cancers | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Cancers Cancers, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Cancers | March 2014 - Browse Articles Submit to Cancers Login Register ...Atoms Axioms Behavioral Sciences Bioengineering Biology Biomedicines Biomolecules Biosensors Brain Sciences Buildings Cancers Catalysts Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Cancers Cancers Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2009) Table of Contents Cancers, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1- Issues are regarded as officially published ...

368

Arts | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Human occupations followed each other in the cavity from at least the Middle Paleolithic to the Roman age. In 1913, Passermard ...has resulted in a new interpretation of the well-known panel of the Spotted horses of Pech Merle. The conclusion that has been popularized ...as the relevance of this study to the art by examining the Spotted horses in the context of the entire panel and the panel ...I will conclude with another possible interpretation of the meaning of the Spotted horses of Pech Merle. (This article belongs to the ...

369

Micromachines | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Based on the development of microfluidic technology, microfluidic systems incorporated with impedance measurement technique, have been reported as a new analytical ... 50-65 Open Access Article: Dynamics of Microvalve Operations in Integrated Microfluidics by Alan T. H. Lau, Hon Ming Yip, Kathy ...widely used key components for automating liquid manipulation and flow control in microfluidics for more than one decade. Due to their robust operations ...and the ease of fabrication, tremendous microfluidic systems have been developed with the multiple microvalves for higher throughput and extended functionalities. Therefore, ...

370

Plants | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... In addition, transcripts of genes involved in starch metabolism such as SEX1 (glucan water dikinase) and SEX4 (phosphoglucan phosphatase), DBE (debranching enzyme), MEX1 (maltose transporter), APL3 ( ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (Glc6PT) were up-regulated in the HsPIPKIa plants. Our results reveal that increasing the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway affects chloroplast carbon metabolism and suggest that InsP3 is one component of an inter-organelle signaling network regulating chloroplast metabolism. (This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling) p. 58-69 Open Access Review ...

371

[Resources in medical research].  

Science.gov (United States)

The biennial national statistical surveys of research and development expenditure, based on OECD guidelines, contribute to the knowledge base for Norwegian research policy. This article outlines the resources for research and development in the medical sciences, with emphasis on the higher education sector. This sector, which includes university hospitals, performs about 75% of medical research in Norway (medical research in industry not included) while the remaining 25% is performed in research institutes in the institute sector. In 1995, current expenditure for medical research amounted to 1,240 million Norwegian kroner, 930 million in the higher education sector and 310 million in the institute sector. From 1993 to 1995, there was a small increase in real terms in resources for medical research in universities and colleges paid for over institutional budgets, while there was no growth in externally funded research. Over the 25-year period 1970-1995, the growth in expenditures for medical research was higher than for the natural sciences, but lower than for the humanities and the social sciences. Comparisons between the Nordic countries show that investments in medical research in Norway is much lower than in Denmark or Sweden. PMID:9844517

Sundnes, S L

1998-10-30

372

Express web application development  

CERN Document Server

Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

Yaapa, Hage

2013-01-01

373

Editorial Research recognition  

OpenAIRE

Only partly tongue in cheek, I suggested in ALT-N (number 18, July 1997) that we should consider mounting a Campaign for the Acknowledgement of Research into Educational Technology (CARET). I was astonished by the large number of responses in my mailbox, not one of them dissenting from the views I expressed, and many offering examples of how excellent peer-reviewed publications in good journals, sometimes associated with very respectable research grants, had vanished into the ether when it ca...

Gabriel Jacobs

1997-01-01

374

Understanding chimpanzee facial expression: insights into the evolution of communication  

OpenAIRE

To understand the evolution of emotional communication, comparative research on facial expression similarities between humans and related species is essential. Chimpanzees display a complex, flexible facial expression repertoire with many physical and functional similarities to humans. This paper reviews what is known about these facial expression repertoires, discusses the importance of social organization in understanding the meaning of different expressions, and introduces a new coding sys...

Parr, Lisa A.; Waller, Bridget M.

2006-01-01

375

Library Research: A Domain Comparison of Two Library Journals  

Science.gov (United States)

Research articles published by the "Community & Junior College Libraries" journal and the "College & Undergraduate Libraries" journal were analyzed to determine their domain. The discussion includes a comparison of past domain studies with the current research. The researchers found the majority of articles (52%) in the…

Davies, Karen; Thiele, Jennifer

2013-01-01

376

The art of/in educational research: assemblages at work  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this article is to challenge the present western policy to control and tame educational research practices. It suggests a research methodology approach inspired by Deleuzian immanent ontology and the concept of  ?assemblage ?. Based on my PhD-project  ?Assemblages of desire in pedagogical practices: Inspirations from Deleuze and Guattari ‘ the article draws on the overlaps between research, p...

Ninni Sandvik

2010-01-01

377

Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out-domain-experts for an article, we conclude that BioFigRank represents an artificial intelligence system that offers expert-level intelligence to help biomedical researchers to navigate increasingly proliferated big data efficiently. PMID:24625719

Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

2014-01-01

378

Efficient Expression of Antibody Fragments with the Brevibacillus Expression System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibodies, owing to their capability to bind specifically to a target molecule, have been and will continue to be applied in various areas, including research, diagnosis and therapy. In particular, antibody fragments, which are size-reduced antibodies comprising functional variable domains, are suited for production in bacteria. They also are useful in applications requiring intracellular delivery and for further engineering toward molecules possessing multiple custom functions. An expression system based on Brevibacillus is characterized by high efficiency and simple genetic recombination for secretory production. The Brevibacillus expression system has been successfully utilized for the efficient production of antibody fragments, e.g., scFvs (single-chain antibody fragments comprising heavy-chain and light-chain variable domains, linked by a spacer sequence. Expression in fusion with a Halobacterium-derived secretory protein was shown to confer enhanced productivity. In the case of Fabs, productivity as high as 100 mg/L was accomplished in a simple system, i.e., shake flask cultures. The Brevibacillus expression system offers several advantages, shared by other bacterial systems, such as E. coli, in particular, for the ease in genetic engineering and culture production.

Hiroshi Hanagata

2014-05-01

379

Evaluating quality control of Wikipedia's feature articles  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Wikipedia’s internal quality control mechanism, the “featured article” process, which assesses articles against a stringent set of criteria. To this end, scholars were asked to evaluate the quality and accuracy of Wikipedia featured articles within their area of expertise. A total of 22 usable responses were collected from a variety of disciplines. Out of the Wikipedia articles assessed, only 12 of 22 were found to pass W...

Lindsey, David

2010-01-01

380

CURRENT RESEARCHES OF NOTION “CREATIVITY” IN PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS RELATION TO RISK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers theoretical sources for the purpose of systematization of notion “creativity”, as well as its related notion “risk appetite”. The author analyzes classical and the latest studies of the creativity and its related phenomena, remaining within a focus of research concerned with social instability The author studies scope of an inquiry of creativity and creative individuals, as well as the risk appetite and scope of an inquiry of risk in psychology. It is suggested that creativity is a multifaceted phenomenon that has to be explored in the interdisciplinary discourse. The risk appetite can be a prerequisite for the ability to express creativity.

NATALJA MIHEJEVA

2011-01-01

381

Children's participation in research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the 10 planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article offers an argument based on theory and practical examples for the inclusion of children in educational and educational research. It also introduces some of the problems which warrant consideration if researchers are to understand and cooperate with children as co-researchers. The author 15 portrays the educational process and the research process as a possible way for the democratisation of children.

Broström professor m.so., Stig

2012-01-01

382

Research Focus in Palliative Care  

OpenAIRE

This brief article on pre-conference CME topic ?How to plan Research in Palliative Care? is aimed to provide an overview of the background, concept, domains, present research activities and the future prospect for research opportunities. Advances in Palliative Care are made with a focus to address the quality of medical practice and ?quality of death?, in those patients who have advanced stage diseases where cure may or may not be possible. The issues which...

Mohanti Bidhu

2011-01-01

383

Systematic Review Articles in the Core Health Care Journals  

OpenAIRE

Systematic review articles (SRs) are becoming increasingly important to clinical practice. A hand search of the core health care journals was done to assess number and type of SRs for 2000. Many more SRs are being published but they are concentrated in The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and a few core clinical journals. Their topics are also concentrated on therapy issues rather than other categories of health research. Background: SRs have assumed increasing importance for ev...

Mckibbon, K. Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian

2001-01-01

384

Cross species analysis of microarray expression data  

OpenAIRE

Motivation: Many biological systems operate in a similar manner across a large number of species or conditions. Cross-species analysis of sequence and interaction data is often applied to determine the function of new genes. In contrast to these static measurements, microarrays measure the dynamic, condition-specific response of complex biological systems. The recent exponential growth in microarray expression datasets allows researchers to combine expression experiments from multiple species...

Lu, Yong; Huggins, Peter; Bar-joseph, Ziv

2009-01-01

385

On written expression of primary school pupils  

OpenAIRE

Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. ...

Stevanovi? Jelena; Maksi? Slavica; Tenjovi? Lazar

2009-01-01

386

Open access and article processing charges  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Substance Abuse, Treatment, Prevention, and Policy uses a medium that provides the broadest possible worldwide readership. Anyone in the world can read articles without charge. Since the articles published here will hopefully help inform policy this is exactly the right target – free and unlimited access. Beginning July 2006, article-processing charges will be applied to papers published in this journal.

Arndt Stephan

2006-01-01

387

Measuring the Interestingness of News Articles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An explosive growth of online news has taken place. Users are inundated with thousands of news articles, only some of which are interesting. A system to filter out uninteresting articles would aid users that need to read and analyze many articles daily, such as financial analysts and government officials. The most obvious approach for reducing the amount of information overload is to learn keywords of interest for a user (Carreira et al., 2004). Although filtering articles based on keywords removes many irrelevant articles, there are still many uninteresting articles that are highly relevant to keyword searches. A relevant article may not be interesting for various reasons, such as the article's age or if it discusses an event that the user has already read about in other articles. Although it has been shown that collaborative filtering can aid in personalized recommendation systems (Wang et al., 2006), a large number of users is needed. In a limited user environment, such as a small group of analysts monitoring news events, collaborative filtering would be ineffective. The definition of what makes an article interesting--or its 'interestingness'--varies from user to user and is continually evolving, calling for adaptable user personalization. Furthermore, due to the nature of news, most articles are uninteresting since many are similar or report events outside the scope of an individual's concerns. There has been much work in news recommendation systems, but none have yet addressed the question of what makes an article interesting.

Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

2007-09-24

388

Gene expression profiling in sarcomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant mesenchymal tumors of difficult classification. There is considerable variability in both histological appearance and responsiveness to therapy. Their overall poor clinical prognosis is reflected by the fact that >65% of patients suffering retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma die within 5 years [Heslin MJ, et al. Prognostic factors associated with long-term survival for retroperitoneal sarcoma: implications for management. J Clin Oncol 1997;15(8):2832-9]. A greater understanding of the biology of sarcomas is needed in order to increase the potential for identifying new therapeutic targets and strategies. Microarray analysis permits a global approach to gene expression analysis of thousands of genes at the same time and has proven to be useful for further molecular characterization of tumor tissue and cell lines. This article provides a comprehensive review of possible new biomarkers identified in gene expression studies of sarcomas. These markers give new insight into the pathogenesis of sarcomas, such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma [Lee YF, et al. Molecular classification of synovial sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas by gene expression profiling. Br J Cancer 2003;88(4):510-5], allow a further subclassifcation of tumors like calponin-positive and calponin-negative leiomyosarcoma, or may help to predict treatment responsiveness and prognosis in patients based on an individual gene expression pattern. In some studies candidate targets for possible new treatment strategies were identified. For instance newly identified markers such as ERBB2 [Allander SV, et al. Expression profiling of synovial sarcoma by cDNA microarrays: association of ERBB2, IGFBP2, and ELF3 with epithelial differentiation. Am J Pathol 2002;161(5):1587-95] and EGFR [Nielsen TO, et al. Molecular characterization of soft tissue tumours: a gene expression study. Lancet 2002;359(9314):1301-7] might lead to the possible therapeutic use of Trastuzumab, Gefitinib or Cetuximab in synovial sarcoma, comparable to the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI (Gleevec) that is the standard treatment today of CD117-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors. PMID:17555981

Tschoep, Katharina; Kohlmann, Alexander; Schlemmer, Marcus; Haferlach, Torsten; Issels, Rolf-Dieter

2007-08-01

389

After Effects expressions  

CERN Document Server

Put the power of Expressions to work in your animations with controls and efficiencies impossible to achieve with traditional keyframing techniques. No programming skills are required. Foundation concepts and skills orient the new designer and serve as a handy reference to the experienced one. Basics of creating expressions, variables, commands, and expression helpers precede the leap into javascript and math essentials for more advanced expressions that include randomness, physical simularions and 3D. Full color illustrations display the scripts and the resulti

Geduld, Marcus

2013-01-01

390

Expressing emotions through vibration  

OpenAIRE

This thesis addresses a challenging problem: “how to let the visually impaired ‘see’ others emotions”. We, human beings, are heavily dependent on facial expressions to express ourselves. A smile shows that the person you are talking to is pleased, amused, relieved etc. People use emotional information from facial expressions to switch between conversation topics and to determine attitudes of individuals. Missing emotional information from facial expressions and head gestures makes the...

Ur Re?hman, Shafiq

2010-01-01

391

Article 72 : Protection de renseignements touchant à la sécurité nationale  

OpenAIRE

L’article 72 du Statut de la Cour pénale internationale régit la question de la protection des informations touchant la sécurité nationale. Dans le contexte de la répression des « crimes les plus graves qui touchent l’ensemble de la communauté internationale », selon l’expression du Préambule du Statut de la Cour, quelle est la place des intérêts étatiques au respect du secret défense ? Au vu de l’esprit du Statut de la Cour et des réponses déjà envisagées par d’au...

Beaucillon, Charlotte

2012-01-01

392

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions: Multiplication  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers simplifying algebraic expressions using multiplication. The unit's activities include defining the terminology associated with algebraic operations, using the fundamental laws of algebra to simplify those expressions, removing the symbols of grouping and changing the signs of the appropriate terms to simplify expressions. Practice questions are also included.

Blohowiak, Chad

393

Article Impact Means Journal Impact  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These days there is a lot of misunderstanding of scientometrics and we often see a confusion of the research with its indicators. Science ministries and university administrators try to push their country's or institution's "research impact" by telling researchers to increase numeric figures that were invented as proxies for later assessment. In obvious juxtaposition to common sense this even leads to direct orders to postdocs "to only publish in high impact journals" and not to engage in other important activities scientists of well-rounded stature will routinely perform, like publication in medium impact journals of their immediate field, in startup journals, in conference proceedings, of book chapters, as grey literature or intended for dissemination to the general public, reviewing, editing, writing blogs etc.

Uwe Matzat

2013-06-01

394

Riding the Wave: Student Researcher Reflection on the Action Research Process  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…

Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah

2012-01-01

395

Aligning Web-Based Tools to the Research Process Cycle: A Resource for Collaborative Research Projects  

Science.gov (United States)

Using John Creswell's Research Process Cycle as a framework, this article describes various web-based collaborative technologies useful for enhancing the organization and efficiency of educational research. Visualization tools (Cacoo) assist researchers in identifying a research problem. Resource storage tools (Delicious, Mendeley, EasyBib)…

Price, Geoffrey P.; Wright, Vivian H.

2012-01-01

396

A Creative Approach to the Research Paper: Combining Creative Writing with Academic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a combination of a research essay and a creative writing assignment that encourages rigorous academic research while allowing students to get "outside the box" of traditional academic research papers. This assignment has five steps. The first two steps offer the chance to introduce academic research along with summary and…

Blue, Tim

2006-01-01

397

Researching With Undergraduate Students: Exploring the Learning Potentials of Undergraduate Students and Researchers Collaborating in Knowledge Production  

OpenAIRE

The article presents a particular case of undergraduate students working on subprojects within the framework of their supervisors’ (the authors’) research project during Autumn Semester 2012 and Spring Semester 2013. The article’s purpose is to show that an institutionalized focus on students as “research learners” rather than merely curriculum learners proves productive for both research and teaching. We describe the specific university learning context and the particular organizat...

Trine Wulf-Andersen; Kevin Holger Mogensen; Peder Hjort-Madsen

2013-01-01

398

Researching With Undergraduate Students : Exploring the Learning Potentials of Undergraduate Students and Researchers Collaborating in Knowledge Production  

OpenAIRE

The article presents a particular case of undergraduate students working on subprojects within the framework of their supervisors’ (the authors’) research project during Autumn Semester 2012 and Spring Semester 2013. The article’s purpose is to show that an institutionalized focus on students as “research learners” rather than merely curriculum learners proves productive for both research and teaching. We describe the specific university learning context and the particular organizat...

Wulf-andersen, Trine Østergaard; Mogensen, Kevin; Hjort-madsen, Peder

2013-01-01

399

Gendering Excellence in Technological Research Gendering Excellence in Technological Research Gendering Excellence in Technological Research  

OpenAIRE

Gender patterns in technological and engineering research careers were explored in a EU funded 13-country study PROMETEA, conducted 2005-2007, including old and new EU member states, as well as Serbia, Russia and Chile. Drawing on the data from this study, the article analyses the gendering of key arenas of excellence in technological and engineering research from a comparative international perspective, with focus on research funding, publishing, scientific prizes and awards, and patents. A ...

Liisa Husu; Paula Koskinen

2010-01-01

400

In plants, expression breadth and expression level distinctly and non-linearly correlate with gene structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Compactness of highly/broadly expressed genes in human has been explained as selection for efficiency, regional mutation biases or genomic design. However, highly expressed genes in flowering plants were shown to be less compact than lowly expressed ones. On the other hand, opposite facts have also been documented that pollen-expressed Arabidopsis genes tend to contain shorter introns and highly expressed moss genes are compact. This issue is important because it provides a chance to compare the selectionism and the neutralism views about genome evolution. Furthermore, this issue also helps to understand the fates of introns, from the angle of gene expression. Results In this study, I used expression data covering more tissues and employ new analytical methods to reexamine the correlations between gene expression and gene structure for two flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. It is shown that, different aspects of expression pattern correlate with different parts of gene sequences in distinct ways. In detail, expression level is significantly negatively correlated with gene size, especially the size of non-coding regions, whereas expression breadth correlates with non-coding structural parameters positively and with coding region parameters negatively. Furthermore, the relationships between expression level and structural parameters seem to be non-linear, with the extremes of structural parameters possibly scale as power-laws or logrithmic functions of expression levels. Conclusion In plants, highly expressed genes are compact, especially in the non-coding regions. Broadly expressed genes tend to contain longer non-coding sequences, which may be necessary for complex regulations. In combination with previous studies about other plants and about animals, some common scenarios about the correlation between gene expression and gene structure begin to emerge. Based on the functional relationships between extreme values of structural characteristics and expression level, an effort was made to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the energy-cost hypothesis and the time-cost hypothesis. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. I. King Jordan, Dr. Liran Carmel (nominated by Dr. Eugene V. Koonin and Dr. Fyodor A. Kondrashov.

Yang Hangxing

2009-11-01

401

Antibiotics | December 2013 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... 485-499 Open Access Article: Influence of Sterilized Human Fecal Extract on the Sensitivity of Salmonella enterica ATCC 13076 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 to Enrofloxacin by Youngbeom Ahn, Ryan Stuckey, Kidon Sung, Fatemeh Rafii and Carl E. Cerniglia Antibiotics 2013, 2(4), 485-499; doi:10.3390/antibiotics2040485 Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 ... To investigate antimicrobial effects on bacteria under colonic conditions, we studied resistance development in Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes exposed to enrofloxacin in the presence of fecal extract. The bacteria were incubated at 37 °C in Mueller-Hinton broth, with and without 0.01~0.5 µg/mL enrofloxacin, in the presence and absence of sucrose, and with 1% or 2.5% filter-sterilized fecal ...

402

African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The article is part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

Indiran Govender

2014-04-01

403

Recent research on care coordination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with multiple chronic conditions have been shown to have significant Medicare expenditures. Care coordination programs have been implemented targeting this population by organizations striving to achieve the triple aim of (a) improving healthcare quality, (b) improving the patient experience, and (c) reducing costs. Outcomes of these programs have been mixed. This research brief profiles four published articles that address different aspects of care coordination. Readers are encouraged to access the full articles to learn more details about the intervention strategies and findings described in these articles. PMID:25654460

Rocks, Donna; Cooper-Audain, Elizer

2015-02-01

404

Language Revolt in Paradise: Recent Indonesian Non-Conventional Expressions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Language is dynamic and, accordingly, language change is bound to occur. This article analyzes few recent Indonesian non-conventional expressions as properties which potentially motivate some changes in Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian. Since the term “non-conventional” has to do with the notion of “convention”, which is central to Saussurean linguistics, the analysis is carried out by means of Saussure’s linguistic views. The analysis shows that the non-conventional expressions can be well accounted for using Saussure’s theoretical propositions. However, as to why Indonesians come up with the non-conventional expressions is beyond pure Saussure’s linguistic concepts. The article also touches upon the idea that the issue about non-conventional expressions (which may be deemed grammatical aberrations poses a challenge to language planners.

Yazid Basthomi

2009-01-01

405

Neutron scattering investigation on low-dimensional, quantum and frustrated magnetism and utilization of neutron polarization analysis. My first encounter with neutron research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

My first encounter with neutron scattering research on low-dimensional magnetism at the Hahn-Meitner Institut under the supervision of Prof. H. Dachs and Prof. M. Steiner, were it all began, is accounted for. The polarized neutron analysis research on low-dimensional magnetism at the Institut Laue Langevin under the supervision of Dr. R. Pynn is also reported. I would like to dedicate this article to late Prof. H. Dachs expressing may deepest gratitude for his warm guidance during the early period of my neutron science carrier. (author)

406

APPROACHES AND ACTIVITIES FOR ENGLISH ARTICLE USE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article system of English can be difficult for students to understand and even forteachers to articulate. Some theorists believe that article pedagogy should focus on form. Others, most notably Pica (1983, believe that article pedagogy should focus on a communicative approach. Both approaches have valid claims. Although, there is no single or particular schema or method for teaching articles, a variety of options for conceptualizing article pedagogy and usage found in the literature will be presented. The effectiveness of teaching activities and exercises rely upon the proficiency levels, cultures, and ages of the students being taught. Learners can also be encouraged to foster their own learning of the article system by keeping a tally of their article errors, thus becoming ethnographers of their own learning process.

JABER MASLAMANI

2008-11-01

407

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

408

IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report II : Use of 'omics' in understanding placental development, bioinformatics tools for gene expression analysis, planning and coordination of a placenta research network, placental imaging, evolutionary approaches to understanding pre-eclampsia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2013 twelve themed workshops were presented, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of new technologies for placenta research: 1) use of 'omics' in understanding placental development and pathologies; 2) bioinformatics and use of omics technologies; 3) planning and coordination of a placenta research network; 4) clinical imaging and pathological outcomes; 5) placental evolution.

Ackerman, W E; Adamson, L

2013-01-01

409

IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report II: use of 'omics' in understanding placental development, bioinformatics tools for gene expression analysis, planning and coordination of a placenta research network, placental imaging, evolutionary approaches to understanding pre-eclampsia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2013 twelve themed workshops were presented, five of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of new technologies for placenta research: 1) use of 'omics' in understanding placental development and pathologies; 2) bioinformatics and use of omics technologies; 3) planning and coordination of a placenta research network; 4) clinical imaging and pathological outcomes; 5) placental evolution. PMID:24315655

Ackerman, W E; Adamson, L; Carter, A M; Collins, S; Cox, B; Elliot, M G; Ermini, L; Gruslin, A; Hoodless, P A; Huang, J; Kniss, D A; McGowen, M R; Post, M; Rice, G; Robinson, W; Sadovsky, Y; Salafia, C; Salomon, C; Sled, J G; Todros, T; Wildman, D E; Zamudio, S; Lash, G E

2014-02-01

410

Proceedings of the Seminar Result of the Research Reactor Safety Technology Research Centre 2000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding of the seminar of result research reactor safety technology research centre. Result research have been presented in summary of ''Result Research reactor Safety Technology Research Centre'' on February 27-28, 2001. There are 34 titles of articles presented with reactor, operation reactor safety and management waste. The aims of publishing those proceedings to get a useful reference for other researcher and user society

411

Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction  

OpenAIRE

Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic ...

Schmale, Gu?nter

2013-01-01

412

Language Revolt in Paradise: Recent Indonesian Non-Conventional Expressions  

OpenAIRE

Language is dynamic and, accordingly, language change is bound to occur. This article analyzes few recent Indonesian non-conventional expressions as properties which potentially motivate some changes in Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian). Since the term “non-conventional” has to do with the notion of “convention”, which is central to Saussurean linguistics, the analysis is carried out by means of Saussure’s linguistic views. The analysis shows that the non-conventional expressions can be...

Yazid Basthomi

2009-01-01

413

Research pedagogy: problematization of teaching and learning  

OpenAIRE

From a methodological viewpoint this article proposes a pedagogic reflection on research based on the relationship between research, knowledge production and reproduction. Besides, it also takes a look at the way operational research is being done and the dialogic possibilities derived from the critical and epistemic thought. Finally, taking into account the dialogic thought, it also presents the implications of a social and collaborative research perspective which considers research as a ...

Daniel Vega Torres

2013-01-01

414

Banking Data and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article on free banking data and research, created by Ruth Kobylecky Humphrey for the American Library Association, includes an index of annotations on a wide range of federal and association Websites that offer financial information and help for their members. The index is broken into several sections including Federal Agencies, The Federal Reserve System, International Banking, and the Secondary Market. Within each section, the entries are arranged in alphabetical order and carefully annotated.

Humphrey, Ruth K.

415

Endeavors to Represent the Non-Representational : Researching corporeal-locomotive media  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is based on the findings and results of a three-year-long stody of various gameplayers activities and experiences across different offscreen-onscreen gameworlds. The findings and results emerged through the use of a mixed methods approach that combined grounded theory method with phenomenography, remix methods, interpretative ethnography and visual methods. The present article will, with the concluded study as its foundation, present the developed methodological framework as well as the study’s methodological results and findings. The presented methodological framework, results and findings emerged through the development of a conceptual understanding of the non-representational and pre-linguistic nature and structure of corporeal-locomotive gameplay. Through the effort of trying to think and talk about games as corporeal-locomotive activities and experiences it quickly became apparent that it was senseless to interview or study the communication of gameplayers as it was to analyze their onscreengameplay or make them fill out questionnaires. In this way, the traditional ways of conducting ‘game research’ was fruitless in the study’s endeavor to think and talk about the corporeal-locomotive dimension of gameplay where hands and bodies where moving to the (kin)aesthetic rhythms of the game’s choreography. Consequently, I found myself barred from ‘meaningfully’ communicating the expressive, sensuous and (kin)aesthetic meaning and significance of corporeal-locomotive gameplay without seeming ‘meaningless’ to the research community. Therefore, I was forced to take on the additional task of developing a methodological framework that, on the one hand, was capable of connecting with the corporeal-locomotive dimension in gameplay activity and experience in a generative, appreciative and appropriate way and, on the other hand, was capable of communicating and representing this emerging new research field of ‘gameplay corporeality’ in a meaningful, proper and scholarly sound way. In short, I found myself taking a leap of faith, as I witnessed my Ph.D. thesis turn into a vibrant mix of ‘research music videos,’ ‘film strips,’ ‘photo montages,’ ‘collages,’ ‘poetic tales,’ ‘theoretical remixes,’ ‘aestheticized metaphorical writings,’ ‘fictionalized narratives,’ ‘narrative inquiries.’ This article presents the methodological side of the story through presenting the results of this hazardous, messy and meticulous endeavor to represent the non-representational nature of corporeal-locomotive gameplay activity and experience. Furthermore, the article points towards the importance of letting the expressive research field or subject dictate the method, rather than letting the method dictate the exploration of the research field or subject – A circumstance that sets the methodological approach apart from more traditional approaches within media studies and game research.

NØrgård, Rikke Toft

416

Is operations research really research?  

OpenAIRE

This paper takes a philosophical look at the Research in Operations Research. First, the questions "What is Research?" and "What is Operations Research?" are discussed. Next, the paper discusses why it is important to have a clear definition of research, especially in academia. The paper then discusses a research paradigm called 'Design Research'. Design Research is defined and compared with other research paradigms. Seven guidelines for understanding, executing, and evaluating Design Researc...

Nj, Manson

2006-01-01

417

Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

418

Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

Broussard, Lisa

2006-01-01

419

Ethical Issues in Collaborative Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…

Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John

2013-01-01

420

The Research Roadmap of Requirement Validation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The requirement validation is vital for every successful software development. In this process, the requirements from the users arechecks and analyzed with its consistency, completeness and correctness. The validation of requirements is a very vast research area in software engineering. In this presented article, some quality research approaches are cited for the software engineering researchers and software professionals.

Dhirendra Pandey

2013-04-01

421

Freedom of Information and Research Data  

OpenAIRE

Research data produced in both universities and the NHS are subject to the Freedom of Information Act 2000. This article examines the practical and ethical implications of freedom of information for research data, arguing that increased openness is both here to stay and is ethically justifiable. Researchers need to learn how best to cope with this.

Wilson, J. G. S.

2011-01-01

422

Behavioural Ecology Research Group  

Science.gov (United States)

An August 2002 article from New Scientist details the intriguing findings of an Oxford research team working with New Caledonian crows. In it, readers are introduced to Betty, a crow that has "challenged the chimpanzee's reputation as the most proficient toolmaker in the animal world." This Web site is the homepage of the Behavioral Ecology Group at Oxford that works with Betty, along with other New Caledonian crows and European Starlings, in investigating "animal and human decision-making with the tools of experimental psychology and of evolutionary biology." This well-designed Web site provides and interesting and highly readable account of ongoing research in this field.

423

[Expression of Araneus ventricosus minor ampullate spidroin].  

Science.gov (United States)

A repetitive DNA fragment, named P1, was amplified by PCR with the full-length Minor Ampullate Spidroin gene sequence of Araneus ventricosus as template. P1 was ligated with pPic3.5 and PKT expression vectors and transferred into GS115 and BL21(DE3) competence cells, respectively. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to analyze the recombinant his-tag fusion protein. With expressed in different expression systems, soluble P1 induced proteins could be obtained as the same size. Furthermore, the expression level and purification recovery efficiency were also higher in GS115 than that of BL21(DE3). Additionally, the expression level could be improved after optimizing the incubation and induction conditions of GS115. In this research, Pichia pastoris expression system is more suitable for the native repetitive Gly/Ala-rich spider spidroin gene sequence expression than Escherichia coli system. The data can help the native full-length MiSp gene expression and large-scale exploitation of recombinant of spider silk proteins. PMID:24409695

Yang, Zijiang; Chen, Gefei; Meng, Qing

2013-09-01

424

Antibodies | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

... Thus, it will be shown that these effects are mediated not only via activation of cytokine and Toll-like receptors (TLR), but also by direct receptor-ligand interactions. Importantly, the function of these receptor/ ligands, CD48 and CD244, do not require recognition of class ... Early on, in an immune response, ligation of the iNKT cell TCR leads to rapid and copious secretion of prototypical Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Moreover, like NK cells, iNKT cells express cytotoxic granules, such as perforin and granzyme that polarize upon activation of ...Received: 19 November 2013; in revised form: 19 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (2929 KB) | Download XML Full-text Abstract: The variety of chemically diverse pharmacologically-active compounds administered to patients is large and seemingly forever growing, and, with every new drug released and administered, ...

425

The User Perspective in Lexicography: The Lemmatisation of Fixed Expressions in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: The article discusses the user perspective and information retrieval in relation to the lemmatisation of specific multi-word lexical units, namely fixed expressions, in the Shona monolingual dictionary, Duramazwi Guru reChiShona. It shows that the decisions arrived at in lemmatising fixed expressions were influenced by a user-driven approach. The article gives a comparative analysis of how fixed expressions were treated in previous Shona dictionaries and how they were subse...

Nomalanga Mpofu

2011-01-01

426

Development of databases from scientific and technological articles using language processing technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a new computer program which recognizes expressions of atomic and molecular states in scientific articles. It is shown that the program can be applied to the automatic collection of atomic data. Concept of another software to collect and analyze information from academic meetings to match seeds and needs between basic science and application of is also discussed. (author)

427

Expressive Aphasia and Carotid Dissection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ultrasound images of a patient presenting to the Emergency Department with expressive aphasia who was found to have carotid dissection. The first image is a standard 2D image that depicts the internal carotid with a visible flap within the lumen. The second image is a color Doppler image showing turbulent flow within the true lumen and visible flow within the false lumen. The case and the patient’s outcome are summarized along with some teaching points about carotid dissection. Also, there is some background and research on using ultrasound to help identify dissection. [West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(5:530-531.

Simmons, Joshua R

2010-12-01

428

ASME Article 13, ''Continuous acoustic emission monitoring''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Article 13 is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nondestructive examination document. From ASME Section 5, the Subcommittee On Nondestructive Testing, three documents have been authored by its Subgroup on Acoustic Emission, for inclusion into its book of requirements. These documents are: (1) Article 11 ''Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Vessels'' (2) Article 12 ''Acoustic Emission Examination of Metallic Vessels During Pressure Testing'' (3) Article 13 ''Continuous Acoustic Emission Monitoring''. Article 13 differs from Articles 11 and 12 in several ways. Articles 11 and 12 are primarily new vessel examination documents. Article 13 is intended for continuous AE monitoring of in-service vessels. The Article 13 document was authored with task group members of the requesting Section (Section 11). Several acoustic emission application methods and types of vessels are referenced. Personnel requirements are comparatively different. Use of several types of AE equipment, as well as sensors on waveguides are noted. Article 13 is written as a document of general requirements, with seven mandatory appendices, each having requirements specific to the method of application. The seven appendices are: Nuclear Components, Non-Nuclear Metal Vessels, Non-Metallic Components (in course of preparation), Limited Zone Monitoring, Hostile Environment Monitoring, Leak Detection, and a Glossary of Terms For Acoustic Emission Examinationoustic Emission Examination

429

Does Facial Expressivity Count? How Typically Developing Children Respond Initially to Children with Autism  

Science.gov (United States)

Research investigating expressivity in children with autism spectrum disorder has reported flat affect or bizarre facial expressivity within this population; however, the impact expressivity may have on first impression formation has received little research input. We examined how videos of children with autism spectrum disorder were rated for…

Stagg, Steven D.; Slavny, Rachel; Hand, Charlotte; Cardoso, Alice; Smith, Pamela

2014-01-01

430

Ideophones in Tamil: Historical observations on the morphology of X-e?al expressives  

OpenAIRE

This article will deal with the continued presence in Tamil, from its earliest observable condition upto the present situation, of a class of words or, more precisely, a class of expressions that I shall designate here as "ideophones".

Chevillard, Jean-luc

2002-01-01

431

Ideophones in Tamil: Historical observations on the morphology of X-e?al expressives  

OpenAIRE

This article will deal with the continued presence in Tamil, from its earliest observable condition upto the present situation, of a class of words or, more precisely, a class of expressions that I shall designate here as "ideophones".

Chevillard, Jean-luc

2004-01-01

432

Hartford Institute for Religion Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Affiliated with Hartford Seminary, this Website promises to become a significant resource for scholars in the field of sociological research on religion. The site currently features articles, studies, descriptions of methodology, and other scholarly materials for the topics of women and religion, church growth/ decline, religion and the family, religion and the Web, congregational studies, Pentecostalism, and homosexuality and religion. The Website also describes current institute projects, with a promise that articles and data resulting from these projects will be published on the site in the future. In addition, the Institute's Website serves as an annotated directory of online organizations, data resources, scholars, and research relevant to its subject.

433

Energy engineering: Student-researcher collaboration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article reports on cooperation methods between researchers and students at different levels. Levels included in this work are BSc, MSc and PhD student levels. At Aalborg University, Department of Energy Technology education and research are closely linked. The relationship between student-student; student-researcher and researcher -researcher is analyzed. The problems of work division, synchronization, transportation, storing and dissemination are disused. The importance of a proper work method and collaboration between researchers at different levels is underlined. As a case study, a research project involving researchers at the before mentioned levels is presented.

Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen

2013-01-01

435

Order of the 29. of January 2010 approving the decision n. 2009-DC-0146 made on the 16. of July 2010 by the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), modified by the decision n. 2009-DC-0162 of the 20. of October 2009, defining the list electric equipment generating X rays which are hold or used for purposes of biomedical research or medical, dental, forensics or veterinary diagnosis and submitted to a declaration regime on the account of the first paragraph of the article R. 1333-19 of the Public Health code and abrogating the 23 April 1969 order related to equipment and installations using ionizing radiations on medical purposes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This legal document indicates the list of equipment which must now be declared to the ASN (the French Nuclear Safety Authority), specifies that any use of these equipment in conditions other than normal requires an authorization on the account of an article of the Public Health Code. A list of equipment is given which are used in medical and forensics radio-diagnosis, in biomedical research, in dental and veterinary radio-diagnosis

NONE

2010-07-01

436

New approaches to researching patient safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an overview of contemporary research into patient safety. The article suggests that patient safety research to date has tended to privilege the formal and structural dimensions of safety at the expense of the social and affective dimensions of safety. The article previews the research articles brought together in this special issue of Social Science & Medicine, paying particular attention to the impact of these studies on the field of patient safety research generally. The present article summarises this impact in the form of the following three patient safety research principles. First, to account for whether and how safe and improvement-oriented practice is achieved, research must engage with both the predictability and the complexity of the sites and processes it seeks to describe, explain and/or impact on. Second, engaging with complexity implicates researchers in experiencing it, and this implicates the research process and its methodology in a process of sense-making of the practical and affective consequences for and with practitioners inhabiting and enacting that complexity. Third, besides numerically-based descriptions, abstracted explanations and procedural prescriptions, patient safety research evidence must encompass experiential data, collaboratively-produced accounts and/or experience-based designs. PMID:19853984

Iedema, Rick

2009-12-01

437

Reporting Race and Ethnicity in Genetics Research: Do Journal Recommendations or Resources Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Appeals to scrutinize the use of race and ethnicity as variables in genetics research notwithstanding, these variables continue to be inadequately explained and inconsistently used in research publications. In previous research, we found that published genetic research fails to follow suggestions offered for addressing this problem, such as explaining the basis on which these labels are assigned to populations. This study, an analysis of genetic research articles using race or ethnicity terms, explores possible features of journals that are associated with improved reporting of race and ethnicity in genetic research. A journal's expressed commitment to improving how race and ethnicity are used in genetic research, demonstrated by an editorial or in its instructions to authors, was the strongest predictor of following recommendations about reporting race and ethnicity. Journal impact factor had only a limited positive effect on attention to these issues, suggesting that editorial resources associated with higher impact factor journals are not sufficient to improve practices. Our findings reiterate that race and ethnicity variables are used inconsistently in genetic research, but also shed light on how journals might improve practices by highlighting the need for scientists to carefully scrutinize the use of these variables in their work. PMID:25407312

Sankar, Pamela; Cho, Mildred K; Monahan, Keri; Nowak, Kamila

2014-11-19

438

Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article  

Science.gov (United States)

The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

2013-01-01

439

Disaster research: a nursing opportunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses working or living near a community disaster have the opportunity to study health-related consequences to disaster or disaster recovery. In such a situation, the researchers need to deal with the conceptual and methodological issues unique to postdisaster research and know what resources are available to guide them, even if they have no specialized training or previous experience in disaster research. The purpose of this article is to review issues and challenges associated with conducting postdisaster research and encourage nurses to seek resources and seize opportunities to conduct research should the situation arise. Current disaster studies and the authors' personal experiences conducting maternal-child research in post-Katrina New Orleans (2005-2013) provide real-life examples of how health professionals and nurses faced the challenges of doing postdisaster research. After catastrophic events, nurses need to step forward to conduct disaster research that informs and improves future disaster planning and healthcare responses. PMID:23899191

Giarratano, Gloria; Savage, Jane; Barcelona-deMendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily W

2014-09-01

440

Safeguarding children in clinical research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current UK guidelines regarding clinical research on children permit research that is non-therapeutic from the perspective of that particular child. The guidelines permit research interventions that cause temporary pain, bruises or scars. It is argued here that such research conflicts with the Declaration of Helsinki according to which the interests of the research subject outweigh all other interests. Given this, in the context of clinical research, who is best placed to protect the child from this kind of exploitation? Is it the medical researcher, the child's parents or the nurse advocate? This article describes the problem, possible responses to it, and closes with a consideration of, and rejection of, a defence of current guidelines that claims moral parity between clinical research and clinical education. PMID:22691599

Edwards, Steven D

2012-07-01

441

Easyverifier 1.0: a software tool for revising scientific articles’ bibliographical citations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first academic revolution which occurred in developed countries during the late 19th century made research a university func- tion in addition to the traditional task of teaching. A second academic revolution has tried to transform the university into a tea- ching, research and socio-economic development enterprise. The scientific article has become an excellent practical means for the movement of new knowledge between the university and the socioeconomic environment. This work had two purposes. One was to present some general considerations regarding research and the scientific article. The second was to provide information about a computational tool which supports revising scientific articles’ citations; this step is usually done manually and requires some experience. The software allows two text files to be read, one containing the scientific article’s content and another one the bibliography. A report is then generated allowing the authors mentioned in the text but not indexed in the bibliography to be identified and to determine which authors have been mentioned in the bibliography but who have not been mentioned in the text of the article. The software allows researchers and journal coordinators to detect reference errors among citations in the text and the bibliographical references. The steps to develop the software were: analysis, design, implementation and use. For the analysis it was important the revision of the literature about elaboration of citations in scientific documents.

Freddy Alberto Correa Riveros

2010-05-01

442

Analysis of Medical Sciences Articles Structure Quality During 2002-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Quality of printed papers in 4 four medical journals affiliated to one of the universities of medical sciences in Iran was assessed based on methodological and statistical methods.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study conducted in 2010, out of all articles published between the years 2002 to 2008 in one of the universities of medical sciences for affiliated journals that were equal to 1568, a sample of 162 articles were selected with Multi-stage stratified sampling method . For data collection, standard questionnaire was used to develop an information form. One sample t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare scores from different parts of article.Results: Cross sectional studies with 61.7% (100 papers formed most of studies. Median of authors and number of references for each article were 3 and 19, respectively and 10% of articles had more than 35 references. Material and methods with 3.53 points from 4 points (88.2% earned the mighest score which was of high quality and conclusion achieved the lowest score. Also p-value has been reported correctly in 102 articles (81.6%. In 95 articles (58.6% results were not compare with the similar internal articles whereas only in 21 articles (13% comparison was not made with similar external researches.Conclusion: The present study showed that the overall quality of the medical articles is not desirable. Hence, employing experts in research methods and statistics in various medical studies can improve the quality of articles in this branch of science.

Mahmood Reza Gohari

2012-09-01

443

Synthesis of the advice expressed by the French nuclear safety authority about the researches relative to the management of high activity and long lived wastes as carried out in the framework of the December 30, 1991 law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reports on the main conclusions of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) after 15 years of researches on radioactive wastes management carried out in the framework of the law 91-1381 from December 30, 1991. The advice of the ASN is not limited to the high level and long lived radioactive wastes. It refers first to the advance of the three axes of research on radioactive waste management (separation-transmutation, conditioning and long-duration storage, disposal in deep geologic formation). A schedule is proposed for the implementation of a storage facility and the question of storage reversibility is discussed. Then it refers to the implementation of a national plan of management of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials, in particular concerning the low level and long lived wastes, the used sealed sources, the tritiated wastes and the naturally radioactive wastes (uranium mine tailings). (J.S.)

444

Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Every article is vetted by scientists at The ... Alzheimer's Research Foundation, a 501c3 not for profit,Tax ID # 13-3859563 The Fisher Center for Alzheimer's ...

445

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

OpenAIRE

This feature is designed to point CBE—Life Sciences Education readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research.

Allen, Deborah

2013-01-01

446

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

OpenAIRE

This feature is designed to point CBE?Life Sciences Education readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research.

Allen, Deborah

2014-01-01

447

Historical Research in Music Therapy. Third Edition  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography, produced by the American Music Therapy Association, represents a collection of research articles and publications over the past 50 years of music therapy's history. It is organized by author.

Solomon, Alan L., Ed.; Davis, William B., Ed.; Heller, George N., Ed.

2002-01-01

448

Open access and article processing charges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Substance Abuse, Treatment, Prevention, and Policy uses a medium that provides the broadest possible worldwide readership. Anyone in the world can read articles without charge. Since the articles published here will hopefully help inform policy this is exactly the right target – free and unlimited access. Beginning July 2006, article-processing charges will be applied to papers published in this journal.

Arndt Stephan

2006-07-01

449

Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy  

Science.gov (United States)

A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

450

Teaching engineering design research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance og engineering design as an industrial activity, and the increasingly complex and dynamic context in which it takes place, has led to the wish to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of engineering design in practice as well as in education. Although attempts have been made to improve design for centuries, it was not until well in the second half of the 20th century that engineering design became a research topic (see pahl and Beitz (1996), Heymann (2004) for historical overviews). Engineering research, such as research into thermodynamics, mechanics and materials, has a much longer tradition, as can be seen from the establishment of many technical universities in the second half of the 19th century. However, despite 30 years of design research, the feld is not a well-established scientific discipline. Furthermore, the effects on industrial practice and education are far less than expected . According to Suh (1998) "the most significant changes in design practice will occur when the field is fully endowed with a firm science base." Today, due to the organisation of our universitites and the paht to a university position, a substantial part of all research efforts is created by PhD students. This has created the demand for a clear, efficient way of learning the crafmanship of doing design research, a demand which is in strong contrast to the state of design research in general. This article reflects the authors' efforts in running a summer school om engineering design research to support young PhD students.

Blessing, Lucienne; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

2005-01-01

451

The Bibliometric Properties of Article Readership Information  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed on-line digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access and read their technical literature. Digital libraries such as the NASA Astrophysics Data System \\citep{2005JASIS.tmp....2K} permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure, the number of electronic accesses (``reads'') of individual articles. We explore various aspects of this new measure. We examine the obsolescence function as measured by actual reads, and show that it can be well fit by the sum of four exponentials with very different time constants. We compare the obsolescence function as measured by readership with the obsolescence function as measured by citations. We find that the citation function is proportional to the sum of two of the components of the readership function. This proves that the normative theory of citation is true in the mean. We further examine in detail the similarities and differences between the citation rate, the readership rate and the total citations for individual articles, and discuss some of the causes. Using the number of reads as a bibliometric measure for individuals, we introduce the read-cite diagram to provide a two-dimensional view of an individual's scientific productivity. We develop a simple model to account for an individual's reads and cites and use it to show that the position of a person in the read-cite diagram is a function of age, innate productivity, and work history. We show the age biases of both reads and cites, and develop two new bibliometric measures which have substantially less age bias than citations: SumProd, a weighted sum of total citations and the readership rate, intended to show the total productivity of an individual; and Read10, the readership rate for papers published in the last ten years, intended to show an individual's current productivity. We also discuss the effect of normalization (dividing by the number of authors on a paper) on these statistics. We apply SumProd and Read10 using new, non-parametric techniques to rank and compare different astronomical research organizations

Kurtz, Michael J.; Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Demleitner, Markus; Murray, Stephen S.; Martimbeau, Nathalie; Elwell, Barbara

452

Electronics | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...deal of research, resulting in tiny, highly efficient, wavelength-selective organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs). We consider the ...or fluorescently labelled biological species can be probed via light emission from OLEDs, and their subsequent light emission can be detected with OPDs.... In this review, we consider the design constraints of OLEDs and OPDs required to achieve fully organic electronic optical bio-detection systems. Current ... Fully realized OLED- and OPD-specific photoluminescence detection systems from literature are then examined, with a specific focus on their ultimate limits of ...

453

Insects | March 2014 - Browse Articles  

SCPinfonet

...3390/insects5010062 Received: 18 November 2013; in revised form: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (504 KB) | Download XML Full-text Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used successfully as a biopesticide for more than 60 years. More recently, genes encoding their toxins have been used to transform plants and other organisms. Despite the large amount of research on this bacterium, its true ecology is still a matter of debate, with two major viewpoints dominating: while some understand Bt as an insect pathogen, others see it as a ...

454

Psychological characteristics of villagers: analysis and practice of research  

OpenAIRE

The article considers the review of village evolution research tendencies. The analysis of research devoted to villagers’ psychology study, integrated psychological characteristics of villagers and the factors which influence upon transformation mechanisms of "villagers’ consciousness" are presented.

Natalya Gavrilova; Janbota Esmyrzaeva

2012-01-01

455

7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Research, Education, and Economics related to the Ten-Year...89) Copy and deliver on demand selected articles and other...Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board regarding...Research, Education, and Economics related to the National...

2010-01-01

456

48 CFR 952.235-71 - Research misconduct.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (d) In conducting the activities under paragraphs (b) and...demonstration research in all fields of science, medicine, engineering...medicine, psychology, social sciences statistics, and research involving...presentations, internal reports, and journal articles. (g) By...

2010-10-01

457

Finding and Recommending Scholarly Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

The rate at which scholarly literature is being produced has been increasing at approximately 3.5 percent per year for decades. This means that during a typical 40 year career the amount of new literature produced each year increases by a factor of four. The methods scholars use to discover relevant literature must change. Just like everybody else involved in information discovery, scholars are confronted with information overload. Two decades ago, this discovery process essentially consisted of paging through abstract books, talking to colleagues and librarians, and browsing journals. A time-consuming process, which could even be longer if material had to be shipped from elsewhere. Now much of this discovery process is mediated by online scholarly information systems. All these systems are relatively new, and all are still changing. They all share a common goal: to provide their users with access to the literature relevant to their specific needs. To achieve this each system responds to actions by the user by displaying articles which the system judges relevant to the user's current needs. Recently search systems which use particularly sophisticated methodologies to recommend a few specific papers to the user have been called "recommender systems". These methods are in line with the current use of the term "recommender system" in computer science. We do not adopt this definition, rather we view systems like these as components in a larger whole, which is presented by the scholarly information systems themselves. In what follows we view the recommender system as an aspect of the entire information system; one which combines the massive memory capacities of the machine with the cognitive abilities of the human user to achieve a human-machine synergy.

Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.

2014-05-01