This paper investigates how boosters are used by qualitative and quantitative research article writers to express certainty. Boosters are words such as "definitely," "sure," "demonstrate" which signal writers' assurance in what they say. Drawing on a corpus of 200 research articles in Applied Linguistics, this…
Biook Behnam; Amin Naeimi; Ali Darvishzade
Scientific writers might not inevitably be exact, precise and explicit in expression, eschewing vulnerability to criticism and seeking acceptability form academia. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency, form and function of the multi-objective linguistic and rhetorical device of hedging in the discussion sections of 100 qualitative and quantitative research articles where appropriate expression of scientific claims is highly welcome. As such, the taxonomy proposed by Hyland (...
Full Text Available Scientific writers might not inevitably be exact, precise and explicit in expression, eschewing vulnerability to criticism and seeking acceptability form academia. The present study aimed at investigating the frequency, form and function of the multi-objective linguistic and rhetorical device of hedging in the discussion sections of 100 qualitative and quantitative research articles where appropriate expression of scientific claims is highly welcome. As such, the taxonomy proposed by Hyland (1996 was applied in order to identify and classify the various hedge words, followed by an independent-samples t-test to compare the total number of hedging devices. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between qualitative and quantitative research articles with respect to both frequency and form of the employed hedge words, bearing important implications for educational researchers and practitioners in applying appropriate hedging strategies in the academic publishing of scientific texts.
This article explores certain concepts relating to critiquing research papers. These include considering the peer review process for publication, demonstrating the need for critiquing, providing a way to carefully evaluate research papers and exploring the role of impact factors. Whilst all these features are considered in this article, the focus is on presenting a systematic and comprehensive way of critiquing research papers. The information provided should be of use to the many radiographers, associated health professionals and undergraduate and postgraduate students embarking on research projects
Along with other global campaigns to affect social and political transformation (such as Amnesty International), Article 19 is an organization designed "to combat censorship by promoting freedom of expression and access to official information." With offices in London and South Africa, the organization has partners in over 30 countries, and monitors, researches, publishes, and litigates on behalf of freedom of expression around the world. Certainly one of the first stops on the site should be the Virtual Handbook of Expression, which contains a number of briefs of freedom of expression cases from the UN Human Rights Committee, the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights and the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. In addition, the Virtual Handbook contains a number of key documents, organized around themes that include such timely topics as defamation, national security, print regulation, and privacy. Of course, visitors will also find a great deal of additional material here, including information on Article 19's work in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and a publication archive as well.
Ignacio Vázquez Orta
In the present paper an intercultural quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of modal verbs as epistemic stance markers in SERAC (Spanish-English Research Article Corpus), a corpus of research articles (RAs) in different disciplines, is carried out. The corpus selected for this research consists of 48 Business Management research articles. Special emphasis is laid on the introduction and discussion sections of RAs, where stance devices are most frequently located to pursue convergen...
The present analysis aims to provide a workable framework and analytical parameters against which to measure generic prototypicality and variation in research articles (RAs) from different disciplinary domains, namely Applied Linguistics (ApL), Economics (Eco), Law (Law) and Medicine (Med). The investigation is based on the assumption that, besides genre-related conventions, there are also subject-area related factors which influence the construction of a text. As a matter of fact, for hard-...
Ignacio Vázquez Orta
Full Text Available In the present paper an intercultural quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of modal verbs as epistemic stance markers in SERAC (Spanish-English Research Article Corpus, a corpus of research articles (RAs in different disciplines, is carried out. The corpus selected for this research consists of 48 Business Management research articles. Special emphasis is laid on the introduction and discussion sections of RAs, where stance devices are most frequently located to pursue convergence with the readership. This kind of intercultural analysis has been achieved through both a bottom-up research approach and a top-down research approach. The results obtained in this study point in the direction that there are obvious differences between the use of modal verbs by native writers and the use of modal verbs by non-native Spanish writers. The most remarkable aspect is that Spanish writers show a deviant handling of hedges and boosters. Therefore, they have difficulties in establishing a proper tenor when they write in English.
Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.
Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…
This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…
Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…
Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.…
Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek
This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…
Dong, Hai-lin; Xue, Huan
As an academic genre, the research article (RA) abstracts play an important role in academic community. This paper aims to explore the differences between RA abstracts by native and non-native speakers of English in terms of the generic structure. Theoretically, the commonly accepted IMRD model (Introduction-Method-Results-Discussion) and Swale’s Move-Step model are adopted to analyse the macro- and micro-structure respectively. It is found that the Introduction Move is obligatory for Engli...
Garbutt, Ruth; Tattersall, John; Dunn, Jo; Boycott-Garnett, Rachel
This is an article that talks about our research about sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It talks about how people with learning disabilities have been fully involved in the research. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
Characterizes the phraseology of introductions from a corpus of 150 cancer research articles. Explains the fixedness and idiosyncratic nature of scientific phraseology in terms of discourse processes such as reformulation. Argues for the design of a representative and specialized corpus of the research article and a contextual approach to corpus…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Published research results in early childhood education contribute to the field's knowledge, theory, and practice. They also guide future early childhood education research studies. The publication of research articles is an essential requirement for academics. For some researchers, however, writing may be a difficult activity, particularly the…
A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc.), and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Commun...
Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan
This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…
Ruiying, Yang; Allison, Desmond
Examines how selected research articles reporting empirical investigations in applied linguistic proceed from first presenting results to eventually offering final conclusions or some other form of closure. (Author/VWL)
Defines "hedging" as linguistic strategies that qualify categorical commitment to express possibility rather than certainty. Suggests that hedging is central to effective argument in scientific writing. Identifies the major forms, functions, and distribution of hedges in a corpus of 26 molecular biology research articles and describes the…
Bruno T., Saragiotto; Lucíola C. M., Costa; Ronaldo F., Oliveira; Alexandre D., Lopes; Anne M., Moseley; Leonardo O. P., Costa.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Background : While the research design of articles published in medical journals and in some physical therapy journals has already been evaluated, this has not been investigated in Brazilian physical therapy journals. Objective : To describe the research design used in all articles published in [...] Brazilian scientific journals that are freely available, have high Qualis rankings, and are relevant to physical therapy over a 7-year period. Method : We extracted the bibliometric data, research design, research type (human or animal), and clinical area for all articles published. The articles were grouped into their level of evidence, and descriptive analyses were performed. We calculated the frequency, proportions of articles, and 95% confidence interval of these proportions with each research design in each journal. We cross-tabulated the clinical areas with research designs (expressed as number and percentages). Results : A total of 1,458 articles from four Brazilian journals were found: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, Revista Fisioterapia em Movimento, Revista Fisioterapia e Pesquisa, and Revista Acta Fisiátrica. The majority of articles were classified as level II of evidence (60%), followed by level III (29%) and level I (10%). The most prevalent research designs were cross-sectional studies (38%), single-case or case-series studies, and narrative reviews. Most articles reported human research and were in the musculoskeletal, neurologic, and cardiothoracic areas. Conclusions : Most of the research published in Brazilian physical therapy journals used levels II and III of evidence. Increasing the publication rate of systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials would provide more high-quality evidence to guide evidence-based physical therapy practice.
Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer
Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…
The editor of Brock Education offers tips for writing educational research articles that will appeal to him as a reader and as editor of Brock Education. First, capture his interest in the first few paragraphs. Second, convey your topic is of great interest or importance at the moment. Third, convey a sense of wonder and engagement about the topic and the research. Fourth, explain how your work relates to the larger field of study. Fifth, provide a thorough analysis of the research findings....
Biswas, B; Ahmad, R
The concept of research bioethics arose and developed over the last three decades mainly in response to moral crisis created by rapidly advancing medical science and technology. Accordingly, reinterpretation of some fundamental principles of ethics is needed. At the heart of the ethical principle of respect for person, lies the informed consent process. Nuremberg Code, Helsinki Declaration of World Medical Association (WMA), Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) Guidelines etc. demonstrated the importance of informed consent in biomedical research involving human subjects. This article was planned to evaluate the reflection of informed consent in the published research articles. Fifty-two articles published in national and international journals were studied among which informed consent was found to be taken only in 21(40.4%) occasions and the same was not taken in 31(59.6%) occasions. Study showed that out of 38 articles published in national journals, informed consent was taken from only in 12(31.6%) situations, while out of 14 articles published in international journals, informed consent was taken in 9(64.3%) situations. Out of 36 observational studies, informed consent (both written and verbal) was taken from only 27.8% cases, whereas out of 16 interventional experiments, informed consent was taken in 68.8% situations. PMID:17867274
Huimin Shi; Anchalee Wannaruk
Although the rhetorical structure of research articles (RA) has been extensively examined from individual sections to complete IMRD sections regarding different disciplines, no research has been addressed to the overall rhetorical structure of RAs as a whole entity in the field of agricultural science. In this study, we analyzed 45 agricultural science RAs, using Kanoksilapatham’s (2005) model as an analytical tool. A sixteen-move structure was identified, 3 for the Introduction section, 5 ...
Wenk, Laura; Tronsky, Loel
Primary research articles discuss aspects of scientific inquiry that are important in understanding the nature of science. Yet, most introductory science courses use textbooks that ignore the scientific process; opportunities for explicit discussion of the nature of science are lost. In Hampshire College's science program, students read current…
Full Text Available A great deal has been published about oral and written genres in business (e.g., letters, research articles, oral presentations, etc., and less attention has been paid to business research article abstracts as a written genre, as many experts would argue. This research intends to raise rhetorical awareness about the role of abstracts in today’s academic world. To this effect, the abstracts of two official publications of the Association of Business Communication, Journal of Business Communication and Business Communication Quarterly, have been analyzed and compared in terms of structure and content according to models published in the specialized literature. The results show an irregular and inconsistent presentation of abstracts, a good number of them following no set pattern and thus lacking in important information for researchers. These findings suggest, first of all, that abstracts have a specific mission to fulfil and should not be disregarded; and, secondly, that journal guidelines for authors should be more explicit in their instructions on how to write and structure abstracts.
Bänziger, Tanja; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R
Research on the perception of emotional expressions in faces and voices is exploding in psychology, the neurosciences, and affective computing. This article provides an overview of some of the major emotion expression (EE) corpora currently available for empirical research and introduces a new, dynamic, multimodal corpus of emotion expressions, the Geneva Multimodal Emotion Portrayals Core Set (GEMEP-CS). The design features of the corpus are outlined and justified, and detailed validation data for the core set selection are presented and discussed. Finally, an associated database with microcoded facial, vocal, and body action elements, as well as observer ratings, is introduced. PMID:22081890
Loi, Chek Kim
This study investigates the rhetorical organisation of English and Chinese research article introductions in the field of educational psychology using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) framework of move analysis. A corpus of 40 research articles (20 Chinese and 20 English) was selected. The English research articles, written by first-language…
Full Text Available The writer’s strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997. Myers’ studies (1989, 1992 on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness strategies in regularities of scientific style that are usually explained in terms of conventions. In the context of scientific communication, the researcher performs two basic tasks: presenting a claim and contradicting former theories or beliefs. Both actions could be interpreted as impolite behaviours and constitute what Brown and Levinson (1987 call face threatening acts (FTAs. In this study we explore the presence of face-redressive politeness strategies in the discussion sections of engineering research articles. The data are drawn from a corpus of 46 discussion sections in the fields of computing, telecommunications, nanotechnology and robotics.La estrategia del escritor de combinar la exposición de información factual a la vez que expresa sus opiniones personales y mantiene la interacción con el lector ya ha sido objeto de análisis (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour y Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997. Los estudios de Myers (1989, 1992, enfocados a la pragmática de la cortesía en artículos científicos, analizan las estrategias de cortesía presentes en las regularidades del discurso científico, que tienden a ser consideradas como convenciones del género. En el contexto de la comunicación científica, el investigador realiza dos tareas básicas: presentar una hipótesis o afirmación científica y contradecir teorías u opiniones asumidas por la comunidad científica. Ambas acciones son susceptibles de ser consideradas descorteses y constituyen lo que Brown y Levinson (1987 denominan ‘actos de amenaza de la imagen pública’ (face threatening acts en su denominación inglesa. En este estudio se describen las estrategias de cortesía destinadas a preservar la imagen en las secciones de discusión de 46 artículos científicos pertenecientes a los campos de la informática, las telecomunicaciones, la nanotecnología y la robótica.
Xiaoning Peng; Beiji Zou; Lijun Tang; Ping Luo
Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII) is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these ei...
In order to improve the reliability of facial expression recognition system, and reduce the chance of false positives caused by error, classification strategy is important in recognition process. In the process, the k-nearest neighbor algorithm is improved. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is excellent when it is applied to facial expression recognition system.
Posted on December 07, 2010 In the special December issue of Proteomics Clinical Applications, two articles focus directly on scientific outputs from CPTC. A Viewpoint article, authored by Participants of a Wellcome Trust/EBI meeting and retreat (Patterson
Full Text Available Human-computer intelligent interaction (HCII is usually based on facial expression recognition. A dynamic facial expression recognition method based on video sequence is proposed in this paper, which uses Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model. Firstly, we get some special facial expression regions, in which the motion features are extracted and described as phase form and then constituted to eigen-sequences. Secondly we use Gaussian of Mixture Hidden Markov Model to learn and test these eigen-sequences, and recognize six universal facial expressions: angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad and surprise. And we developed an experimental system based on our algorithm. The experimental results show that the computing time and the error of vector quantization is reduced, while the classification efficiency is improved.
Chenail, Ronald J.
Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…
Randolph, Justus J.; Griffin, Andrea E.; Zeiger, Samara R.; Falbe, Kristina N.; Freeman, Noreen A.; Taylor, Bridget E.; Westbrook, Amy F.; Lico, Cheryl C.; Starling, Cristy N.; Sprull, Nakiesha M.; Holt, Carolyn; Smith, Kristie; McAnespie, Hannah
Methodological reviews, reviews that concentrate on research methods rather than research outcomes, have been used in a variety of fields to improve research practice, inform debate, and identify islands of practice. In this article, we report on the results of a methodological review of all of the articles published in "Georgia Educational…
Mónica Chávez Muñoz
Full Text Available Academic writing has been recently defined as a social activity in disciplinary communities and cultures. As a result, there has been an increasing interest in the study of self as author, focusing on the way writers represent themselves in texts and how writers interact with readers. Additionally, authorial presence has been analysed across languages and across sections of the research article. This study explores the usage pattern of pronominal discourse functions across sections of 60 research articles in the fields of linguistics, psychology and educational research in English and Spanish. Drawing on a modified version of Tang and John’s (1999 taxonomy of pronouns, I explain the frequency and usage of pronouns in each section of the research articles. The analysis of items revealed some differences and similarities in terms of linguistic choices writers make in a specific section of the research article in both languages.Keywords: research articles, text analysis, personal pronouns, metadiscourse, contrastive linguistics
Barge, Dipti S.; , Dinkar K. More; Bhola, Sarang S.
It is imperative to study demographic factors while studying buying behavior of customers as demographic factors are the major determinants of buying behavior. To verify the green buying behavior of customers and to evaluate the influence of demographic factors on green buying behavior, researchers have critically analyzed, research articles, research papers and research reports of this aspect. The review found thirty three articles that studied demographic factors from va...
This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…
Fatemeh Mirzapour; Maryam Ahmadi
The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines) in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research articles (30 articles in each language) in terms of sub-types of lexical cohesion. The study reveals that the order of occurrence in descending order of su...
Materials form the personal collection of Dr. Franz J. Dahlkamp donated to the IAEA Library by his son, Jürgen Dahlkamp. The collection includes drafts, notes, worksheets, manuscripts, figures, maps, articles, proofs and other materials associated with the production of a not yet published (2014) scientific work: Uranium Deposits of the World, Australia/Oceania, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America.
Materials form the personal collection of Dr. Franz J. Dahlkamp donated to the IAEA Library by his son, Jürgen Dahlkamp. The collection includes drafts, notes, worksheets, manuscripts, figures, maps, articles, proofs and other materials associated with the production of a not yet published (2014) scientific work: Uranium Deposits of the World, Australia/Oceania, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America.
Materials form the personal collection of Dr. Franz J. Dahlkamp donated to the IAEA Library by his son, Jürgen Dahlkamp. The collection includes drafts, notes, worksheets, manuscripts, figures, maps, articles, proofs and other materials associated with the production of a not yet published (2014) scientific work: Uranium Deposits of the World, Australia/Oceania, Africa, Europe, USA and Latin America.
Murata, Masaki; Sasaki, Akira; Kanamaru, Toshiyuki; Shirado, Tamotsu; Isahara, Hitoshi
We introduce software that recognizes, extracts, and displays expressions concerning atomic and molecular data from academic papers in the electronic form. This software includes a toolbar application that can be installed in Internet Explorer (IE). This toolbar can be used by scientific readers and researchers to highlight, color-code, and collect important expressions more easily. Those expressions include atomic and molecular symbols (e.g., Xe+ and H2O) and electron configurations(e.g., 4d95s25p) from the atomic and molecular data of a large number of academic papers. We confirmed by experiments that the software could find important expressions with high precision (0.8-1.0). This software is also useful for compiling databases of atomic and molecular data, which is important for plasma simulations, because the simulations critically depend on atomic and molecular data, including the energy levels and collisional and radiative rate coefficients.
Fryer, Daniel Lees
Genre analysis studies concerning the medical research article are limited, and the few studies that do exist tend to focus exclusively on the textual aspects of the genre, with little consideration for the context and discourse community in which texts are produced. The objective of this study is thus: 1) to analyze and describe the genre of the medical research article by emphasizing the written medical discourse (text) and the activity of medical research (context); 2) to compare study fin...
Luz Gil-Salom; Carmen Soler-Monreal
The writer’s strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Myers’ studies (1989, 1992) on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness strategies in regularities of scientific style that are usually explained in terms of conventions. In the context of scientific...
Full Text Available The paper looks at how articles on engineering topics and some scholarly reports are organized. Technical writing uses a variety of devices to communicate fully. The medium where they are generally published varies, but, in general terms, their structures have many similarities. We are going to observe some particularities, in accordance with the factors that influence the production and interpretation of such a text.
Porte, Graeme; Richards, Keith
This paper discusses the meaning and range of replication in L2 research from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. In the first half of the paper, it will be argued that key quantitative studies need to be replicated to have their robustness and generalizability tested and that this is a requirement of scientific inquiry. Such research…
Ritter, Sherri E.
The purpose of this study was to understand the methodologies authors in higher education journals used to obtain knowledge in their fields. This study looked at five peer reviewed journals of higher education and analyzed the methods of research employed by the authors to help them answer their respective research questions. The methods of…
Disciplinary variation in academic writing has been explored for the most part by comparing a particular genre, such as the research article, across different disciplines. However, genre theorists have not systematically studied relationships among related genres. It is argued in this article that a study of relationships among related genres from…
Reporting evidentials are frequently used in Research Articles. Based on the data analysis of 50 English research articles of applied linguistics, the study shows that reporting evidentials not only function as indicating the information sources, but also have multiple evaluative functions. The analyses have proved this by showing the evaluative functions of reporting evidential in choosing different information sources and different realization forms. At the same time the persuasive effects ...
Kwan, Becky S. C.; Chan, Hang; Lam, Colin
Evaluations of prior scholarship play a crucial role in the literature review (LR) of a research article by showing how the boundary of an area of inquiry can be further advanced by the writer's work. Yet, many inexperienced writers find evaluating others' work a major challenge. Although the task has received some attention in research and…
De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.
De Vos, Winnok H; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J; Jones, David B; van Loon, Jack J W A; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H K
As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy. PMID:25362364
This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…
Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher
This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.
Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…
Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.
The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and distributions of indicator species have been used by fisheries scientists to interpret variations in fish stocks. Generally the CPR data can be used to determine whether changes in the distributions and growth rates of fish have resulted from changes in planktonic food, changes in strength of ocean currents and distribution of water masses and to identify trends in larval abundances. With the tightening regulation of fisheries to reduce overfishing, global climate change and changing anthropogenic inputs into the sea, the unique source of information on unexploited populations in the long-term time series of the CPR survey will be of increasing value to fisheries scientists in the study of natural variability.
Full Text Available Reading research articles in English will be a special challenge for those students who speak English as a foreign language (EFL. EFL graduate students will require a specific method for helping them to cope with the articles they have to read. This study tries to offer a method for helping them to read, understand, and analyze English articles easier. This study employs evaluation and trialing. It is accompanied by pre and post surveys that will give information about the condition of the students before and after the method is implemented. This study involved graduate students majoring in Information Systems at Satya Wacana Christian University. It is expected that the method proposed will help the students to know exactly what they need to read and focus on when they read a research article so that they can use their time more efficiently and effectively.
Shahriari Ahmadi, Hesamoddin; Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hosseini Fatemi, Azar
Considering the role of academic writing in the dissemination of research findings among members of scientific communities, efforts have been made by language specialists to achieve a more detailed understanding of this register, with hopes that the derived features could then be used to teach researchers, writing in a second/foreign language, to more effectively communicate the results of their studies. This study sets out to achieve a similar goal through the analysis of research article in...
Pilar Mur Dueñas
Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.
Full Text Available Thymidine phosphorylase (TP is a key enzyme that contributes to the composition and decomposition of pyrimidine nucleotides. TP seems homologous to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and its effects on inducing vascularization and anti-apoptosis are closely related to growth and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. In addition, TP is a key enzyme that catalyzes the transformation from 5-fluorouracil (FU prodrugs of 5?-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5?-DFUR to 5-FU. The activity of TP is closely related to the sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to fluorouracil drugs and targeted therapy. Given the important functions of TP in growth, metastasis, tumor treatment, and prognosis, determining its expression mechanism is significant. This article summarizes the research development of TP expression in colorectal carcinoma, tumor neovascularization, cytotoxicity activation of 5?-DFUR, and colorectal carcinoma therapy.
The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for ‘citation analysis’ are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines. This article uses ‘real world’ examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community. The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer ional qualitative review and peer assessment.
Nightingale, Julie M; Marshall, Gill
The research-related performance of universities, as well as that of individual researchers, is increasingly evaluated through the use of objective measures, or metrics, which seek to support or in some cases even replace more traditional methods of peer review. In particular there is a growing awareness in research communities, government organisations and funding bodies around the concept of using evaluation metrics to analyse research citations. The tools available for 'citation analysis' are many and varied, enabling a quantification of scientific quality, academic impact and prestige. However there is increasing concern regarding the potential misuse of such tools, which have limitations in certain research disciplines.This article uses 'real world' examples from radiography research and scholarship to illustrate the range of currently available citation analysis tools. It explores the academic debate surrounding their strengths and limitations, and identifies the potential impact of citation analysis on the radiography research community.The article concludes that citation analysis is a valuable tool for researchers to use for personal reflection and research planning, yet there are inherent dangers if it is used inappropriately. Whilst citation analysis can give objective information regarding an individual, research group, journal or higher education institution, it should not be used as a total substitute for traditional qualitative review and peer assessment. PMID:23566748
Van Lacum, Edwin B.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.; Goedhart, Martin J.
The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach--based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory--means that we teach students to read research articles by…
Full Text Available Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking scholars. This study reports on the identification of moves and co-existing linguistic features commonly used in environmental science and applied linguistics research article abstracts. 200 research article abstracts published during the years of 2010-2013 were analyzed with reference to Hyland’s analytical framework. The two-tier analysis reveals a typical rhetorical structure including a cluster of linguistic features associated with certain pieces of information presented in each particular move, elucidating how research article abstracts in both fields are conventionally constructed. With the presence of all five moves, the structures of I-P-M-Pr-C and P-M-Pr-C were most prevalent among the corpus of environmental science and applied linguistics, respectively. All of the moves, except for Introduction move, were conventional across the two disciplines. Pedagogical implications of the findings are useful particularly for academic reading and writing instruction, enabling language teachers to empower their learners with strategies that contribute to the enhancement of success for publishing in scholarly leading publication.
This study investigates the ways writers comment on the results of their research. Making claims in the form of Commenting on Results is a key move in discussion of results sections. Using data drawn from published journal articles and master dissertations in Language Teaching, the study investigates how published academics and students writing…
Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…
In this article, author Trevor Cooling presents a review of three books that disseminate recent research on religious schools. The first, "Leadership and Religious Schools: International Perspectives and Challenges," edited by Michael T. Buchanan, is an edited volume of essays about leadership in religious schools. Editor Michael…
Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.
We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…
Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly
This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…
The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these s...
Romanov, Volodymyr; Sherer, Volodimyr; Galelyuka, Igor; Sarakhan, Yevgeniya; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra
In the Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine the smart portable fluorometer for express-diagnostics of photosynthesis was designed. The device allows easy to estimate the level of influence of natural environment and pollutions to alive plants. The device is based on real time processing of the curve of chlorophyll fluorescent induction. The principles of operation and results of experimental researches of device are described in the article.
Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship
Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patentsthe NSE-related patents
Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not male and female writers of academic research articles were different in the use of interpersonal resources in English. In order to carry out the study, 32 applied linguistics research articles with the standard macrostructure of empirical research articles (Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion/Conclusion were selected from amongst the highest ranked journals. The results of the current study indicated that, with respect to both interactive and interactional features, there were no significant gender-based differences in the overall distribution of interpersonal resources in the four sections of the articles (p-value> 0.05. It also confirmed the view that writing differences are not gender-specific, but rather section-specific. In this line, identification of male and female EFL learners’ use of metadiscourse elements will provide guidelines to EFL teachers to tailor their teaching methods and avoid mismatches between classroom practices and learners’ language use.Keywords: metadiscourse; interactive resources; interactional resources; gender
Full Text Available Objective(s: Diagnostic nuclear medicine is being increasingly employed in clinical practice with the advent of new technologies and radiopharmaceuticals. The report of the prevalence of a certain disease is important for assessing the quality of that article. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of published nuclear medicine articles and determine the frequency of reporting the prevalence of studied diseases. Methods: We used Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2 checklists for evaluating the quality of articles published in five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factors in 2012. The articles were retrieved from Scopus database and were selected and assessed independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. Decision concerning equivocal data was made by consensus between the reviewers. Results: The average STARD score was approximately 17 points, and the highest score was 17.19±2.38 obtained by the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine. QUADAS-2 tool showed that all journals had low bias regarding study population. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine had the highest score in terms of index test, reference standard, and time interval. Lack of clarity regarding the index test, reference standard, and time interval was frequently observed in all journals including Clinical Nuclear Medicine, in which 64% of the studies were unclear regarding the index test. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology had the highest number of articles with appropriate reference standard (83.3%, though it had the lowest frequency of reporting disease prevalence (zero reports. All five journals had the same STARD score, while index test, reference standard, and time interval were very unclear according to QUADAS-2 tool. Unfortunately, data were too limited to determine which journal had the lowest risk of bias. In fact, it is the author’s responsibility to provide details of research methodology so that the reader can assess the quality of research articles. Conclusion: Five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factor were comparable in terms of STARD score, although they all showed lack of clarity regarding index test, reference standard, and time interval, according to QUADAS-2. The current data were too limited to determine the journal with the lowest bias. Thus, a comprehensive overview of the research methodology of each article is of paramount importance to enable the reader to assess the quality of articles.
Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.
This paper investigates, from the metadiscourse perspective, the linguistic phenomenon of evidentiality in English Research Articles (RAs) of applied linguistics. Based on a corpus of 100 RAs, the study first presents its own classification of evidentiality and their specific lexicogrammatical realizations. Then, following Hyland’s metadiscourse model (2005), it examines in detail how different evidential types and linguistic realizations can function as various metadiscourse devices an...
Wirada Amnuai; Anchalee Wannaruk
This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison’s (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and differences regarding the move occurrence, move-ordering patterns, and move cyclicity were found. The marked differences of the two corpora were in the ...
Watinee Suntara; Siriluck Usaha
The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008) illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and applied linguistics by investigating 200 abstracts published between 2009-2012. Hyland’s (2000) model of five rhetorical moves was chosen as the a...
This study examined 90 research article abstracts in three applied linguistics journals (i.e., TESOL Quarterly, Applied Linguistics, and Language Learning) from two dimensions: the move structure features and the verb tense of each move. The results showed that the abstracts analyzed tended to take a four-move structure instead of a five-move one as proposed in literature. In addition, since some publishers have word limits on abstract length, authors would usually follow the publisher’s gu...
Enrique Lafuente Millán
In today’s academic world, creating an appropriate authorial identity by means of self-mention resources is essential to project an image of competence and reliability in research articles (RAs), and to highlight the relevance of one’s contributions. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative data on the use of exclusive first person markers in RAs from four different disciplines, namely Applied Linguistics, Business Management, Food Technology and Urology, complemented by insights fr...
Supachai Saeeaw; Supong Tangkiengsirisin
Abstract is of a pivotal genre in scientific communication, assisting not only highly selective readers with judgment of the pertinent articles but also researchers in disseminating new knowledge and intellectual discoveries. Difficult yet challenging, however, is the task of writing effective abstracts particularly among non-English speaking scholars. This study reports on the identification of moves and co-existing linguistic features commonly used in environmental science and applied lingu...
Concepción Hernández Guerra; Herna?ndez Guerra, Juan M.
English for Specific Purposes (ESP) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) are two disciplines whose importance has been growing lately. This is due to the ever-increasing interest in the language that describes the most recent developments in varying disciplines and the need to communicate in and understand that language. One of the means for the spreading of those new developments in the different technologies is through research articles inspecialised journals. These impose certain rules ...
Sala, Michele; D Angelo, Larissa
This paper seeks to further existing knowledge of gender variation and of the role of the professional author status in academic discourse by analysing research articles by male and female authors with different levels of disciplinary authority within the domains of Applied Linguistics, Law and Economics. In this paper we compare the use of interactive resources (transitions, frame markers, endophoric markers, evidentials, code glosses, cf. Tse / Hyland 2006) and interactional resources (...
Moreno, Ana I.
The present paper starts out by assuming that, despite a relative uniformity of research articles (RAs) imposed by the requirements of the genre, there will be significant intercultural variation in the rhetorical preferences of national cultures. Its aim is to find evidence for or against this assumption. To do so, it focuses on one micro-level feature of text rhetoric, the use of causal metatext (or text about text) in orienting readers in the interpretation of cause-effect intersentential ...
Giannoni, Davide Simone
Studies in EAP and contrastive discourse analysis have greatly multiplied in recent years, producing countless descriptions of academic text types in different settings. The following paper seeks to fill a small and yet not insignificant gap in the extensive literature devoted to the research article. It examines the socio?pragmatic construction and textualization of scholarly Acknowledgements in English and Italian journals from a genre?analytic perspective, drawing on a corpus of 100 su...
Gholam Reza Zarei; Sara Mansoori
The study tried to discover disciplinary distinctions between Persian and English in the academic genre. The focus was on the use of metadiscourse in the discipline of computer engineering research articles across the two languages. The selected corpus was analyzed through the model suggested by Hyland and Tse (2004). The results demonstrated that the two languages are distinct in their use of metadiscourse in the discipline studied. It was found that Persian, unlike English, relied on intera...
Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze comparatively English and Persian research articles (Linguistics, Literature, and Library and Information disciplines in terms of number and degree of utilization of sub-types of lexical cohesion in order to appreciate textualization processes in the two languages concerned. The study analyzes 60 research articles (30 articles in each language in terms of sub-types of lexical cohesion. The study reveals that the order of occurrence in descending order of sub-types of lexical cohesion is ( Rep., Col., Syn., Gen.N., Mer., Hyp., and Ant. in English data, while the order in Persian data is ( Rep., Syn., Col., Ant., Hyp., Mer., Gen.N.. In both data the most frequent sub-types are repetition, collocation, synonymy. In English data the general tendency is towards the use of repetition and collocation but Persian data show the general tendency towards the use of repetition and synonymy. This study might have implications for teachers and researchers in the field of teaching English as a foreign language because of the fact that teaching sub-types of lexical cohesion to foreign language learners will improve the quality of their reading and writing.
Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume
To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free publication in the journal until the end of 2012. Of course all of the shortlisted papers were of great merit, and the full list of nominees can be found below (in alphabetical order). Nominees Achard F, DeFries R, Eva H, Hansen M, Mayaux P and Stibig H-J 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045022 Baccini A, Laporte N, Goetz S J, Sun M and Dong H 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011 Barona E, Ramankutty N, Hyman G and Coomes O T 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 024002 Charpentier A D, Bergerson J A and MacLean H L 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014005 Chester M V and Horvath A 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024008 Cooley S R and Doney S C 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 024007 Diffenbaugh N S, White M A, Jones G V and Ashfaq M 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 024024 Farrell A E and Brandt A R 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014004 Graham W M, Condon R H, Carmichael R H, D'Ambra I, Patterson H K, Linn L J and Hernandez F J Jr 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 045301 Hansen J E 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024002 Heinonen J and Junnila S 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Jackson R B et al 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 044006 Jiang M, Michael Griffin W, Hendrickson C, Jaramillo P, VanBriesen J and Venkatesh A 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034014 Koren I, Kaufman Y J, Washington R, Todd M C, Rudich Y, Martins J V and Rosenfeld D 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 Kummu M, Ward P J, de Moel H and Varis O 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 Lau W K M, Kim M-K, Kim K-M and Lee W-S 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 025204 Lindeboom H J et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 035101 Lowe J A, Huntingford C, Raper S C B, Jones C D, Liddicoat S K and Gohar L K 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 Möhler O, Benz S, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M, Wagner R, Schneider J, Walter S, Ebert V and Wagner S 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 025007 Menon S, Akbari H, Mahanama S, Sednev I and Levinson R 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 014005 Schneider A, Friedl M A and Potere D 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 044003 Sloan T and Wolfendale A W 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 024001 Tedesco M, Fettweis X, van den Broeke M R, van de Wal R S W, Smeets C J P P, van de Berg W J, Serreze M C a
Full Text Available This paper will focus on accessing the research article “Being a narrative inquirer in a multicultural landscape” by the researcher JoAnn Phillion (2002, by explicitly and critically discussing the synopsis of the study, its approaches to educational research with explanations, the main strengths of this research as a contribution to educational policy, practice and knowledge. It is to be followed by a critical evaluation on how theory, research design, methods and researcher values influenced the analysis and conclusions of the articles. Possible improvements will be suggested for the potential betterments during the refining process. A conclusion with a sharp overall assessment on the study will be included.
Moreno, Ana I.; Jesús Rey-Rocha; Sally Burgess; Irene López-Navarro; Itesh Sachdev
Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs) for publication in English (as L2) is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA) writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured question...
Full Text Available This paper investigates, from the metadiscourse perspective, the linguistic phenomenon of evidentiality in English Research Articles (RAs of applied linguistics. Based on a corpus of 100 RAs, the study first presents its own classification of evidentiality and their specific lexicogrammatical realizations. Then, following Hyland’s metadiscourse model (2005, it examines in detail how different evidential types and linguistic realizations can function as various metadiscourse devices and what roles they can play in the construction and attainment of persuation. The study has shown the multiple metadiscourse functions of evidentiality. It provides a new perspective to understand evidentiality.
Gholam Reza Zarei
Full Text Available The study tried to discover disciplinary distinctions between Persian and English in the academic genre. The focus was on the use of metadiscourse in the discipline of computer engineering research articles across the two languages. The selected corpus was analyzed through the model suggested by Hyland and Tse (2004. The results demonstrated that the two languages are distinct in their use of metadiscourse in the discipline studied. It was found that Persian, unlike English, relied on interactive resources more. The disciplinary distinction indicates that Persian computer engineering provides more textual elements while English language values a reader responsible trend.
Dayong Ding; Shichao Liu; Kai Wang; Lihong Huang; Jisheng Zhao
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable S...
There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…
This dissertation describes the role of the specialized translator in the process of the composition of medical research articles. The dissertation investigates the revisions of two specialized translators, respectively Italian and English native speakers, in five medical research articles written by Italian doctors in English and subsequently published in international specialised medical journals. An analysis of the revisions performed by the native and non-native speakers is undertaken usi...
Kuhi, Davud; Tofigh, Marzieh; Babaie, Raziyeh
It is widely acknowledged that academic writing is not just about communicating an ideational content; it is also about the representation of self. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tendency of Iranian and American writers for self-representation which is realized by means of writers’ explicit (first person self-references) and implicit self (imperative forms and attitude markers) in computer engineering research articles. In this study, 40 published research articles written...
Ding, Dayong; Liu, Shichao; Wang, Kai; Huang, Lihong; Zhao, Jisheng
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD. PMID:24936711
Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, a lysophospholipid, is involved in various cellular processes such as migration, proliferation, and survival. To date, the impact of S1P on human glioblastoma is not fully understood. Particularly, the concerted role played by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and S1P in aggressive tumor behavior and angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Results To gain new insights in the effect of S1P on angiogenesis and invasion of this type of malignant tumor, we used microarrays to investigate the gene expression in glioblastoma as a response to S1P administration in vitro. We compared the expression profiles for the same cell lines under the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF, an important growth factor. We found a set of 72 genes that are significantly differentially expressed as a unique response to S1P. Based on the result of mining full-text articles from 20 scientific journals in the field of cancer research published over a period of five years, we inferred gene-gene interaction networks for these 72 differentially expressed genes. Among the generated networks, we identified a particularly interesting one. It describes a cascading event, triggered by S1P, leading to the transactivation of MMP-9 via neuregulin-1 (NRG-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA. This interaction network has the potential to shed new light on our understanding of the role played by MMP-9 in invasive glioblastomas. Conclusion Automated extraction of information from biological literature promises to play an increasingly important role in biological knowledge discovery. This is particularly true for high-throughput approaches, such as microarrays, and for combining and integrating data from different sources. Text mining may hold the key to unraveling previously unknown relationships between biological entities and could develop into an indispensable instrument in the process of formulating novel and potentially promising hypotheses.
Enrique Lafuente Millán
Full Text Available In today’s academic world, creating an appropriate authorial identity by means of self-mention resources is essential to project an image of competence and reliability in research articles (RAs, and to highlight the relevance of one’s contributions. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative data on the use of exclusive first person markers in RAs from four different disciplines, namely Applied Linguistics, Business Management, Food Technology and Urology, complemented by insights from specialist informants in each of the fields. Moreover, the main discourse functions performed by authors when using exclusive “we” have been studied. The results indicate that there are significant variations in the frequency of these resources and in the preferred functions for which they are used across disciplines, although this variation is not entirely consistent with the dichotomy between hard and soft sciences.
Sponsored by the Ministry of Sciences and Research of the Land of Northrhine-Westphalia (Germany) and the Paul-Mikat-Foundation, Dusseldorf (Germany), this site contains bibliographic citations to over 4,000 pertinent articles and decisions. RAVE is composed of two main sections: Public International Law and European Law. Citations are available from the early 1990's and can be browsed or searched via an Excite engine. A systematic index is available for browsing, as is an alphabetical one (although the latter is unfortunately not hyperlinked). A list of periodicals and abbreviations is also provided. Users can opt to view the site in English, French, or German with citations given in the language of their origin. Hyperlinks to decisions or documents are provided when available.
Full Text Available The previous studies on abstracts (e.g., Santos, 1996; Samraj, 2002; Pho, 2008 illustrate that disciplinary variation in research article abstracts is discernible. However, the studies of abstracts from two related disciplines are still limited. The present study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of abstracts in the fields of linguistics and applied linguistics by investigating 200 abstracts published between 2009-2012. Hyland’s (2000 model of five rhetorical moves was chosen as the analytical framework for the rhetorical structure. Findings indicated that there were three conventional moves in abstracts in linguistics, while there were four conventional moves in abstracts in applied linguistics. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for academic writing for novice writers in the two disciplines.
Omar, Sabaj; Miguel, Fuentes; Ken, Matsuda.
Full Text Available En este artículo, se describe la variación de los accidentes del verbo en las secciones de artículos de investigación en español. Para ello, se analizaron los accidentes del verbo de 42.086 formas verbales en un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, pertenecientes a 6 áreas de la [...] ciencia y obtenidos de la base SciELO-Chile. Los resultados generales muestran que los elementos no marcados son siempre más frecuentes, independientemente del área de la ciencia y de la sección. Además, las áreas de la ciencia no afectan los patrones de uso de los verbos. Por último, al analizar la variación por sección, el único accidente que varía sustancialmente es el tiempo verbal. Los resultados de esta investigación son de utilidad para aquellos interesados en la descripción del discurso científico y en la didáctica de la escritura científica. Abstract in english This article attempts to describe verbal inflection variation in research article sections written in Spanish. In order to depict these inflections, we analyzed a corpus of 42.086 verbal forms from 162 research papers. These papers are from six scientific areas and were obtained from the Chilean Sci [...] ELO index. General results show that unmarked elements are always more frequent regardless the scientific area or the section. Besides, we can state that verb patterns are not affected by the scientific area under analysis. Finally, when the sections of the papers were analyzed, we could find out that variation takes place only in tense. These results are useful for both scientific discourse description and the didactics of scientific writing.
DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES DESIGNING EAP MATERIALS BASED ON INTERCULTURAL CORPUS ANALYSES: THE CASE OF LOGICAL MARKERS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES
Pilar Mur Dueñas
Full Text Available The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.The ultimate aim of intercultural analyses in English for Academic Purposes is to help non-native scholars function successfully in the international disciplinary community in English. The aim of this paper is to show how corpus-based intercultural analyses can be useful to design EAP materials on a particular metadiscourse category, logical markers, in research article writing. The paper first describes the analysis carried out of additive, contrastive and consecutive logical markers in a corpus of research articles in English and in Spanish in a particular discipline, Business Management. Differences were found in their frequency and also in the use of each of the sub-categories. Then, five activities designed on the basis of these results are presented. They are aimed at raising Spanish Business scholars' awareness of the specific uses and pragmatic function of frequent logical markers in international research articles in English.
Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii
Full Text Available Differentiated cells can change to embryonic stem cells by reprograming. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has revolutionized the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. iPSCs can self-renew and differentiate into many cell types. iPSC cells offer a potentially unlimited source for targeted differentiation. Through the expression of a set of transcription factors, iPSCs can be generated from different kinds of embryonic and adult cells. This technology for the first time enabled the researchers to take differentiated cells from an individual, and convert them to another cell type of interest, which is particularly to that person. When the set of master transcription factors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is expressed ectopically in somatic cells, the transcriptional network is propelled to organize itself in such a way as to maintenance a pluripotent state. Since iPSCs are similar to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC, they can be considered as sources for modeling different diseases. iPSCs which are induced from somatic cells of patient can be useful for screening and drugs selection, and also introduce treatment via grafting the cells. Although this technology has been successful in different fields, the tumorigenesis of viral vectors during induction of reprogramming is a major challenge. Nevertheless, iPSCs are valuable for clinical applications and research. By discovery of these cells many challenges related to the safety, efficacy, and bioethics of ESCs are solved. Pluripotency is defined in two aspect of functional and molecular, by which functional regards the capacity of cell is generate three kinds of embryonic layers and germ line, and molecular aspect regards the identifying of molecules and genes that support functional features. Identification of these genes has been placed at the center of fields related to development and stem cell research. In this review, we discuss the process of generation of these cells, as well as required genes and factors for pluripotency, and also current progress in generation of iPSCs utilizing tens of reliable and new studies.
Jackson, Daniel J.; Wo?rheide, Gert; Degnan, Bernard M.
Background: The Mollusca constitute one of the most morphologically and ecologically diverse metazoan phyla, occupying a wide range of marine, terrestrial and freshwater habitats. The evolutionary success of the molluscs can in part be attributed to the evolvability of the external shell. Typically, the shell first forms during embryonic and larval development, changing dramatically in shape, colour and mineralogical composition as development and maturation proceeds. Major developmental tran...
The extent to which action research has a democratising influence - and the ethical pitfalls involved in the practice of action research. The conduct of action research within the organisational context and the practice community receives attention.
This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…
Li, Li-Juan; Ge, Guang-Chun
This paper reports a corpus-based genre analysis of the structural and linguistic evolution of medical research articles (RAs) written in English. Towards that end, we analyzed the frequency of occurrence of the 11 moves identified by Nwogu (1997), of the three most frequently used verb tenses (simple past, simple present and present perfect) and…
This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…
Koyalan, Aylin; Mumford, Simon
The process of writing journal articles is increasingly being seen as a collaborative process, especially where the authors are English as an Additional Language (EAL) academics. This study examines the changes made in terms of register to EAL writers' journal articles by a native-speaker writing centre advisor at a private university in Turkey.…
Ana I. Moreno
Full Text Available Previous quantitative studies suggest that the burden researchers who use English as an additional language perceive when writing research articles (RAs for publication in English (as L2 is 24% greater than the burden they perceive when they write RAs for publication in their L1. It remains unclear precisely which aspects of research article (RA writing in English present these writers with the greatest challenge and just why they perceive this increase in difficulty. A structured questionnaire comprising thirty-seven questions about researchers’ publication experiences in scientific journals in English and in Spanish was designed and sent out to all (n = 8,794 Spanish postdoctoral researchers at one research-only institution and four universities in Spain, yielding responses from 1,717 researchers. Our first results show that the discussion is the section that is perceived as more difficult to write for English-medium journals, across the four broad knowledge areas in a way that cannot be fully explained by their lower level of proficiency in English (as L2. This article proposes the rhetorical transfer hypothesis as a possible explanation for their additional difficulty. Our results also reveal that their increased perceived difficulty writing RA discussions in English (as L2 does not decrease noticeably until Spanish researchers report high or very high levels of proficiency in English (as L2 for academic or general purposes or have published on average at least 37 RAs as corresponding author in English-medium journals over the last ten years. Implications for English for Academic Purposes (EAP research and pedagogy are discussed.
María Marcela, Puebla; Andrea, Puchmuller.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es describir y analizar el cibergénero científico-académico Artículo de Investigación desde el punto de vista de su funcionalidad y en consecuencia, el valor informativo de sus links. A tal fin, se seleccionaron 90 hiperartículos pertenecientes al campo de la Psicología, [...] Matemática y Biología y se los analizó teniendo en cuenta los atributos de funcionalidad propuestos por M. Shepherd, C. Watters y A. Kennedy (2004). Los resultados muestran que el cibergénero Artículo de Investigación presenta características funcionales que benefician ampliamente al lector-investigador y que marcan una diferencia significativa respecto a las posibilidades que ofrecen los Artículos de Investigación publicados en medios impresos. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to describe and analize the functionality attribute and the consequent informative value of the links of the cybergenre Research Article. 90 hyperarticles in the field of Psychology, Mathematicas and Biology were collected for this purpose and analized following M. Shepherd, [...] C. Watters and A. Kennedy's (2004) categorization of the functionality attribute. Results show that the Research Article cybergenre has functional characteristics that greatly benefit the reader-researcher and make an important difference regarding the possibilities offered by paper issued Research Articles.
Rubio, M. Milagros del Saz
Using (Swales, 1990) and (Swales, 2004) Create-A-Research-Space model (CARS) as an investigative tool and Hyland's (2005) model of metadiscourse, this article reports on a pragmatic two-level rhetorical analysis of the constituent moves and steps of research article introductions and focuses on the identification and mapping of the metadiscoursal…
Moreno, Ana I.
The present study assumes that, despite the relative uniformity of research articles (RAs) imposed by the requirements of the genre, there may be intercultural variation in the rhetorical preferences of different writing cultures. The paper develops further Moreno’s (1998) model for the comparison of the metatext employed in English and Spanish to signal premise-conclusion intersentential coherence relations. It does so by focusing on the types and preference of use of retrospective cohesiv...
Alireza Jalilifar; Khodayar Mehrabi
The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs) in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English and Persian journals between 2000 and 2012 were selected. The RAs were textually analyzed to determine the distribution of directives. Findings reveal...
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive Slaughter, Hartwell Center, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale St., Memphis TN 38105-2794. Tel: (901) 495-4844; Fax: (901) 495-2945; email: Clive.Slaughter@stjude.org or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewer’s ...
This column highlights recently published articles that are of interest to the readership of this publication. We encourage ABRF members to forward information on articles they feel are important and useful to Clive slaughter, hartwell center, St. Jude children’s Research hospital, 332 north Lauderdale St., Memphis TN 38105–2794. Tel: (901) 495–4844; Fax: (901) 495–2945; email: firstname.lastname@example.org or to any member of the editorial board. Article summaries reflect the reviewe...
The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these s...
The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER), is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these s...
Salom, Luz Gil; Monreal, Carmen Soler
The writer's strategy to combine the exposition of factual information with personal judgement and interaction with the reader has been analysed in a number of studies (Hunston, 1994; Hyland, 1998a, 1998b; Latour and Woolgar, 1979; Skelton, 1997). Myers' studies (1989, 1992) on the pragmatics of politeness in scientific articles analyse politeness…
Matthews, Dona J.
The author finds the target article "Cultural Variation and Dominance in a Globalised Knowledge Economy" to be a thoughtful exploration of an important topic for all social scientists, certainly including those who study gifted development and education. Roland S. Persson (2012a) raises many questions about policy and practice in giftedness…
Paulson, Eric J., Ed.; Laine, Michaeline E., Ed.; Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.; Bullock, Terry L., Ed.
This volume presents 27 articles from "The Journal of College Literacy and Learning," a peer-reviewed journal (formerly the "Forum for Reading") produced by the International Reading Association's College Literacy and Learning Special Interest Group. Following "Foreword" (Donna E. Alvermann) and "Introduction" (Eric J. Paulson; Michael E. Laine;…
This article reviews literature on mathematics education in China in the last decade. It focuses on papers that were published after 2000, and Chinese Social Science Citation Index (CSSCI). Some influential journals in the field of mathematics education, such as the "Journal of Mathematics Education" and "Mathematics Instruction" were also…
Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this software.
Full Text Available The publisher of IRRODL, The Canadian Institute of Distance Education Research (CIDER, is pleased to link here to a series of eight online seminars that took place over Spring 2005, using Elluminate live e-learning and collaborative solutions. These interactive CIDER Sessions disseminate research emanating from Canada's vibrant DE research community, and we feel these archived recordings are highly relevant to many in the international distance education research community. To access these sessions, you must first download FREE software. Visit http://www.elluminate.com/support/ to download this software.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a pilot study examining the use of first-person pronouns, certain adjectives and grading adverbs in a corpus of 51 French psychology student papers written in English as a second language. These results were compared to a corpus of published psychology articles and to a sub-corpus of psychology student texts from the British Academic Written English corpus (BAWE. Strategic use of pairs of evaluative words was found in the students’ texts but not in the published texts. However, the variables of native language and level of field expertise cannot explain all of the variance observed. Future work will improve the validity of the findings by using larger corpora of student and published texts.
Wilson, Dan E.; Tashina Van Vlack; Schievink, Brendin P.; Doak, Eric B.; Shane, Jason S.; Elizabeth Dean
Established standards for first-line hypertension management include lifestyle modification and behavior change. The degree to which and how lifestyle modification is systematically integrated into studies of first-line drug management for hypertension is of methodological and clinical relevance. This study systematically reviewed the methodology of articles from a recent Cochrane review that had been designed to inform first-line medical treatment of hypertension and was representative of hi...
There are two principal data sources for collaborative filtering recommenders in scholarly digital libraries: usage data obtained from harvesting a large, distributed collection of Open URL web logs and citation data obtained from the journal articles. This study explores the characteristics of recommendations generated by implementations of these two methods: the 'bX' system by ExLibris and an experimental citation-based recommender, Sarkanto. Recommendations from each syst...
McGrath, Lisa; Kuteeva, Maria
Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…
Mohamed Khaled Salahou
This study summarizes the most important developments and results found in the specialized research literature on Control of Irrigation Canals in the last ten years. The control of irrigation canals is not an easy task to carry out without solid background knowledge on the theme. Fortunately, this subject has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world in the last decades.
Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.
Conducting Research on the International Space Station using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities. Sean W. Thompson and Robert E. Lake. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA. Eight "Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station" (EXPRESS) Rack facilities are located within the International Space Station (ISS) laboratories to provide standard resources and interfaces for the simultaneous and independent operation of multiple experiments within each rack. Each EXPRESS Rack provides eight Middeck Locker Equivalent locations and two drawer locations for powered experiment equipment, also referred to as sub-rack payloads. Payload developers may provide their own structure to occupy the equivalent volume of one, two, or four lockers as a single unit. Resources provided for each location include power (28 Vdc, 0-500 W), command and data handling (Ethernet, RS-422, 5 Vdc discrete, +/- 5 Vdc analog), video (NTSC/RS 170A), and air cooling (0-200 W). Each rack also provides water cooling (500 W) for two locations, one vacuum exhaust interface, and one gaseous nitrogen interface. Standard interfacing cables and hoses are provided on-orbit. One laptop computer is provided with each rack to control the rack and to accommodate payload application software. Four of the racks are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System to reduce vibration between the ISS and the rack. EXPRESS Racks are operated by the Payload Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center and the sub-rack experiments are operated remotely by the investigating organization. Payload Integration Managers serve as a focal to assist organizations developing payloads for an EXPRESS Rack. NASA provides EXPRESS Rack simulator software for payload developers to checkout payload command and data handling at the development site before integrating the payload with the EXPRESS Functional Checkout Unit for an end-to-end test before flight. EXPRESS Racks began supporting investigations onboard ISS on April 24, 2001 and will continue through the life of the ISS.
Macleod, C.; Koster, Eh; Fox, E.
This commentary reviews key theoretical, methodological, and clinical issues raised by recent research on cognitive bias modification (CBM). The authors identify the major ways in which the new work reported within this special section extends earlier CBM research. In particular, they note that it considers a wider range of participants, includes a greater diversity of symptoms measures, and targets for change a broader array of processing biases than previously has been the case. Furthermore...
Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.; Jebamalar Tamilselvi, Dr J.
In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the dif...
Beulah Jeba Jaya Y.
Full Text Available In any organization, fraud detection and prevention is daunting task because millions of dollars lost with the different nature of fraudulent activities. Organizations got to engage intelligent andinnovative techniques to detect fraud at the earliest opportunity to protect business and their shareholders, customers and employees. This paper surveyed different fraud detection research articlesfrom the year 2004 to 2012 based on data mining techniques. This research work used to analyze the different affected business areas which discusses the data mining algorithms by higher fraud coverage. It also highlights the important challenges and limitations involved with the data mining techniques for detecting fraudulent activities.
Sormunen, Eero; Lehtio, Leeni
Introduction: We report on a pilot study of students' use of sources in authoring Wikipedia articles. The procedure is demonstrated by investigating how students processed texts from sources to compose their own texts. Method: Four groups of upper secondary school students (aged 17-18 years) participated in an eight-week geography course and seven…
"The Journal of Applied Research in the Community College" (JARCC) actively seeks scholarly submissions on community colleges that originate from doctoral dissertations. Understanding the scope and complexity of community and junior colleges nationally requires multiple vantage points. Newly minted doctorates and doctoral candidates can provide a…
The central goal of the field of second language acquisition (SLA) is to describe and explain how second language learners acquire the target language. In order to achieve this goal, SLA researchers work with second language data, which can take a variety of forms, including (but not limited to) such commonly used methods as naturalistic…
Lim, Jason Miin Hwa
Notwithstanding the voluminous literature devoted to research genres, more investigation needs to be conducted to demonstrate the pedagogical significance of studying linguistic features in relation to communicative functions. Motivated by a concern for the pedagogical applicability of genre analysis, this paper investigates the extent to which…
Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua
There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…
Huss, Markus; Sasse, Florenz; Kunze, Brigitte; Jansen, Rolf; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Ingenhorst, Gudrun; Zeeck, Axel; Wieczorek, Helmut
Background: V-ATPases constitute a ubiquitous family of heteromultimeric, proton translocating proteins. According to their localization in a multitude of eukaryotic membranes, they energize many different transport processes. Since their malfunction is correlated with various diseases in humans, the elucidation of the properties of this enzyme for the development of selective inhibitors and drugs is one of the challenges in V-ATPase research. Results: Archazolid A and B, two recently discove...
Full Text Available In Canada, there are two species of otters, the river otter (Lontra canadensis and the sea otter (Enhydra lutris. The river otter is considered to be plentiful and ranges throughout a large part of Canada. On the other hand, the sea otter is classified as of Special Concern and only small translocated colonies are found along the coastline of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The scientific literature was reviewed with respect to both river and sea otter research performed within Canada since 1970 to evaluate the number and topics of research papers that had been published dealing with these otter species. Since 1970, 25 papers have been published, most of the research concentrating on contaminants (mercury, organochlorines in river otters (80%. There is only 1 scientific paper (1978 dealing with the sea otter (4%. Almost half of publications studying river otters were from or in combination from the province of Ontario (48%. Miscellaneous topics made up 16% of the publications. This paper reveals that in Canada very little scientific work has been published dealing with sea otters and that a huge number of the publications deal with river otters found within the province of Ontario. Thus since 1970, there has been a serious lack of research dealing with either otter species and that most of that work has had no structure or focus. It is hoped that government agencies, the scientific community, non government organizations, and interested groups can organize strategies and granting opportunities to increase the amount of scientific studies to further understand and protect future populations of these 2 species in Canada.
Diego Schaurich; Jacó Fernando Schneider; Cíntia Nasi; Marcio Wagner Camatta
Understanding the human being is a complex task, because it involves biological, psychological and social questions. Investigation of Cartesian procedure had suffered ruptures, mainly because of the criticism to objectivity, on dealing whit human questions. In the end of nineteen century, phenomenology is born as a philosophical-methodological option for research, in which Comprehensive Sociology, from Alfred Schütz, outstands. This study’s objective is discuss some of the possible contrib...
Full Text Available Understanding the human being is a complex task, because it involves biological, psychological and social questions. Investigation of Cartesian procedure had suffered ruptures, mainly because of the criticism to objectivity, on dealing whit human questions. In the end of nineteen century, phenomenology is born as a philosophical-methodological option for research, in which Comprehensive Sociology, from Alfred Schütz, outstands. This study’s objective is discuss some of the possible contributions from Schütz’s Phenomenological Sociology for nursing research. The main concepts boarded were intentionality, intersubjectivity, determined biographical situation, human actions, typification and social relation. Phenomenological research seeks the meanings that people attribute to their own experience, which are revealed with these people’s descriptions. Alfred Scütz’s phenomenological sociology aims the subjective meaning of the human actions, trying to establish the ideal type by typification. These concepts can be used as a theoretical-methodological base to investigate about things lived in the social world, mainly when it is about a social world in which nursing professionals are part of.
King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.
Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.
Jones, Jennifer D
The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm. PMID:17348759
Full Text Available In recent years, genre studies have attracted the attention of many researchers. The aim of the present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of abstract written by English native and non-native (Iranian students in two disciplines of mathematics and applied linguistics. To this end, twenty native English students’ abstract texts from each discipline and the same number of non-native (Iranian ones were selected. In this study, Hyland’s (2000 five?move model was used to identify the rhetorical structure of the four sets of texts. After analyzing each text, the main moves were extracted and the frequencies of each one were calculated and compared. The cross-disciplinary and cross?linguistic analyses reveal that linguistics abstracts follow a conventional scheme, but mathematics abstracts in these two languages do not exhibit the usual norms in terms of moves. Besides, greater difference in move structure is seen across languages in mathematics. The findings of the study have some pedagogical implications for academic writing courses for graduate students, especially students from non-English backgrounds in order to facilitate their successful acculturation into these disciplinary communities.Keywords: Genre Analysis, mathematics, applied linguistics
Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit
We present design guidelines for using Adapted Primary Literature (APL) as part of current interdisciplinary topics to introductory physics students. APL is a text genre that allows students to comprehend a scientific article, while maintaining the core features of the communication among scientists, thus representing an authentic scientific discourse. We describe the adaptation of a research paper by Nobel Laureate Paul Flory on phase equilibrium in polymer-solvent mixtures that was presented to high school students in a project-based unit on soft matter. The adaptation followed two design strategies: a) Making explicit the interplay between the theory and experiment. b) Re-structuring the text to map the theory onto the students' prior knowledge. Specifically, we map the theory of polymer-solvent systems onto a model for binary mixtures of small molecules of equal size that was already studied in class.
It is widely recognised that public acceptability often poses a barrier towards renewable energy development. This article reviews existing research on public perceptions of wind energy, where opposition is typically characterized by the NIMBY (not in my back yard) concept. The objectives of the article are to provide a critical assessment of past research and an integrated, multidimensional framework to guide future work. Six distinct strands of research are identified, summarized and critiqued: public support for switching from conventional energy sources to wind energy; aspects of turbines associated with negative perceptions; the impact of physical proximity to turbines; acceptance over time of wind farms; NIMBYism as an explanation for negative perceptions; and, finally, the impact of local involvement on perceptions. Research across these strands is characterized by opinion poll studies of general beliefs and case studies of perceptions of specific developments. In both cases, research is fragmented and has failed to adequately explain, rather than merely describe, perceptual processes. The article argues for more theoretically informed empirical research, grounded in social science concepts and methods. A multidimensional framework is proposed that goes beyond the NIMBY label and integrates previous findings with social and environmental psychological theory. Copyright
Sharma, Prof Anil K.
It gives me an immense pleasure to bring out the Volume 2 (Issue 1) of Current Trends in Biotechnology & Chemical Research (CTBCR) to our scientific community with twelve articles including research, reviews and case-studies. CTBCR is a Half yearly Open Access journal that publishes papers related to the study and application of biotechnology related to (i) Medicine, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, (ii) Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology, and (iii) Environment and Biodiversity. C...
This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies
Nancy Emilce, Carvajal Medina; Eliana Edith, Roberto Flórez.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los escritos académicos en inglés, en nuestro contexto, representan un aspecto significativo que puede ser innovador cuando se usa un modelo de convergencia en las etapas de la escritura a través del trabajo colaborativo. En este artículo se presenta un estudio que buscó analizar cómo el trabajo col [...] aborativo se relaciona con los escritos académicos que desarrollan en inglés los estudiantes de pregrado de ingeniería electrónica de una universidad colombiana, que seguían etapas específicas de escritura. Para la recolección de la información se tuvieron en cuenta apuntes, escritos hechos por los estudiantes y entrevistas semi-estructuradas. Los resultados muestran que la escritura es viable si los estudiantes siguen las etapas y reciben retroalimentación por parte del profesor. Así mismo, el trabajo colaborativo permitió la escritura de artículos de investigación de una forma fácil y dinámica. Abstract in english Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students' academi [...] c writing development in English as a foreign language at a Colombian university, following some specific writing stages. Field notes, students' artifacts, and semi-structured interviews were the instruments used to gather information. The results showed that writing is achievable if students can follow stages and receive feedback from the teacher. Additionally, collaborative work allowed students to write research articles in an easy and dynamic way.
James C. Ouyang
Full Text Available ??????????????????20??1,746??????9??????????311????????????????????????????????8??????Excel?SPSS??????????????8????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????20?????5????????????????????????????????????????This research uses wiki platform to collect 1,746 articles from 20 Library and Information Science-related journals and 311 theses and/or dissertations from 9 universities. According to Library Information Science Research Areas Classification Scheme, these articles can be divided into eight areas and analyzed statistically by applying Excel and SPSS. The result shows that the collected articles are distributed evenly in these eight research areas. However, the total amount of articles is decreasing. The research focus of theses and dissertations have mainly been on “Services to user populations”, “information systems and retrieval”, and “Organization of information”. By using cluster analysis, 20 journals can be separated into five groups and the similarities of the journals within the same group are very high. From the distribution of topics of the journals, theses and dissertations, the status quo of Library and Information Science research can be understood.
Through analyzing the value of the activities in the process of express delivery, the model of logistics value chain analysis (LVCA) of express enterprises is constructed. Using the model, the express enterprises can identify the key activities from the whole process of express delivery from senders to receivers, and those key activities constitute the logistics competitiveness of express enterprises. Then a model of logistics competitiveness is established, which includes four aspects: stra...
This letter serves as a response to the Letter to the Editor submitted by Donald R. Davis regarding our research article entitled “Mineral Concentration of Broccoli Florets in Relation to Year of Cultivar Release” published in Crop Science (2011, 51:2721-2727). In our manuscript, we clearly stated ...
Liu, Peng Fei; Cao, Yan Wei; Jiang, Hai Ping; Wang, Yong Hua; Yang, Xue Cheng; Wang, Xin Sheng; Niu, Hai Tao
The aim of this study was to study the expression profiles of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cells of different risk groups and to explore the crucial role of biological pathway change in heterogeneity of MIBC cells. Thirty individual samples (cancer and non-cancerous specimens) were obtained from patients with MIBC. Laser capture microdissection was employed to harvest the homogeneous MIBC cells and normal urothelial cells. iTRAQ and 2D-LC-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify the differently expressed proteins. Then, the significantly changed proteins were further analyzed using Arraytrack ™ software. The interested proteins were compared with the published literatures to discuss the exact functions. A total of 3,073 non-redundant proteins were identified in this research; therefore, 855/2,210/633 (fold change >1.5 relative to normal group) presented in high-/median-/low-risk groups, respectively. 617/1,620/463 proteins with SWISS-ACC number output from Arraytrack ™ software and presented in high-/median-/low-risk groups, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that the mainly changed pathways (top-10, p risk groups, including Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) spliceosome, protein export, ribosome pathways. The mainly altered pathways in Metabolism category included glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, pyruvate metabolism pathway for high-risk group, and glutathione metabolism, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation pathways for median-risk group. The major changed pathways for low-risk group included focal adhesion pathway and ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The changed biological pathways are closely related to the regulation of heterogeneity for MIBC. The KEGG pathways of Genetic information processing category and Metabolism (anaerobic or aerobic) category play a crucial role in determining the malignant phenotype of MIBC cells. The quantification analysis of proteins combining with the KEGG pathway analysis contributes to screening candidate biomarkers and guides the biological molecular therapy of MIBC. PMID:25085780
Hongwei Ren; Yuying Li
The abstract of research papers is one of the first things that a reader will read to determine the value of the research. A well-written abstract will surely promote the text attached to it more effectively. By examining the rhetorical moves in the abstracts of Chinese Master’s English theses and published research articles in applied linguistics, this study compares the practices of student writers and expert writers in fulfilling the rhetorical goal of abstracts to shed light on the degr...
Full Text Available Hedging is a linguistic strategy frequently employed in scientific writing to diminish the author‘s commitment to the accompanying proposition and to mitigate claims, thus presenting a proposition as a possibility or probability rather than a fact. This article describes the results of a pilot study on the frequency and variety of hedging devices in Lithuanian and English research articles in two different disciplines (linguistics and medicine. The study is limited to lexical hedges only. The results of a cross – disciplinary study demonstrate that in the field of medicine, researchers tend to hedge less and hence are much more determined in their claims than linguists in both languages. The cross – linguistic study shows that English speaking researchers seem to use significantly more hedging devices than their Lithuanian speaking colleagues in both disciplines. The variety of hedges used in English was also wider than in Lithuanian. Most frequently used hedges in both languages in linguistic articles were adverbs, whereas in medical articles it was modal verbs.
Harris, Frank, III; Palmer, Robert T.; Struve, Laura E.
Using theories and concepts relating to the social construction of Black masculinity and male gender role conflict the authors explored contextualized meanings of masculinities and corresponding behavioral expressions among 22 Black men enrolled at a private research university. The concepts of toughness, aggressiveness, material wealth.…
The pressure to produce work in English and to publish internationally has increased over recent years. However, a large number of non-native writers may be excluded from the web of global scholarship due to defective rhetorical organizations and discourse structures of their works. This study aimed to investigate frequency and distribution of transition markers (TMs) in introduction sections of applied linguistics research articles (RAs) written by native writers of English (NE), non- native...
Full Text Available Researchers in the field of automatic translation and natural language processing have been using the Web as a language resource for a number of years. Likewise, mastery of the advanced syntax of the Web's search engines, in order to retrieve the appropriate terminological and phraseological information, has now become an important element among the specialized translator's necessary skills, especially in the field of medicine, which is widely covered on the Web. In the case of noun phrases, checking the currency of the various word groupings that can be inferred when analyzing a syntactically ambiguous expression (whether on the Web or in digital corpora yields interesting results for the improvement of existing computer applications. Yet, the use of annotated corpora to retrieve potentially ambiguous noun phrases also has pedagogical applications, both in terms of attracting students' attention to some common pitfalls and providing them with the tools that they need in order to solve the difficulties that such structures create. ---------------------------------------------------- Uso de la Web y de corpus informáticos para la traducción de grupos nominales complejos en artículos de investigación médica. Los investigadores dedicados a la traducción automática y el procesamiento del lenguaje natural han utilizado la Web como recurso lingüístico desde hace ya bastante tiempo. Del mismo modo, el conocimiento profundo de la sintaxis avanzada para recuperar la información terminológica y fraseológica correcta en los buscadores de la red se ha convertido en un conocimiento que los traductores especializados deben añadir a sus destrezas básicas, especialmente en el campo de la medicina, tan ampliamente cubierto en la red. En el caso de grupos nominales, la comprobación de la vigencia de los distintos grupos de palabras que pueden utilizarse para analizar una expresión ambigua desde el punto de vista sintáctico (en la red o en corpus digitales, rinde interesantes resultados para mejorar las aplicaciones informáticas existentes. Sin embargo, el uso de corpus anotados para recuperar frases nominales potencialmente ambiguas también tiene aplicaciones pedagógicas, tanto para atraer la atención de los estudiantes hacia algunos escollos comunes como para brindarles los instrumentos necesarios para resolver las dificultades derivadas de dichas estructuras.
Prof. Anil K. Sharma
Full Text Available It gives me an immense pleasure to bring out the Volume 2 (Issue 1 of Current Trends in Biotechnology & Chemical Research (CTBCR to our scientific community with twelve articles including research, reviews and case-studies. CTBCR is a Half yearly Open Access journal that publishes papers related to the study and application of biotechnology related to (i Medicine, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, (ii Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology, and (iii Environment and Biodiversity. CTBCR recognizes that Biotechnology also relies heavily on chemical research therefore CTBCR will present information on interdisciplinary aspects of chemical research in biotechnology. Also it will address various complexities associated with structure-function and application of chemistry and other tools and techniques applied in Biotechnology. CTBCR will appeal to scientists and engineers in both academia and industry focused on the safe and efficient application of Biotechnology to Medicine, chemistry, Agriculture , pharmacy and the environment. The current issue features articles on phytoremediation looking at the effect of industrial effluents on growth parameters of phytoremediators; predicting de-novo generated, iteratively optimized new lead molecules targeting HIV-1 protease; optimizing process parameters for decolorization of anaerobically digested Molasses Spent Wash using Aspergillus niger. There are couple of excellent review articles on “Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy” and on “Aflatoxins”. The issue also features two case reports and other research articles on antibacterial potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract; synthesis and bioactivity of novel imidazoles; a simpler method to synthesize NiO nanoparticles; template formation by aluminium anodization processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials and lastly an article on formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of Cefpodoxime proxetil. The main focus of this issue of CTBCR has been on healthcare, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, chemistry, food and agriculture technologies. The issue covers not only basic aspects but also applications and commercialization. Special attention has been given to papers and topics of the interdisciplinary intersections between the major disciplines i.e. medicine and nutrition or chemistry and environment, microorganisms and bio-molecules etc. All the abstracts published in CTBCR do have a wide-reach fulfilling our primary aim for sharing of the knowledge and for contributing to the progress in the study area. While thanking all the editorial board members for their continued support and timely interactions, we reiterate our commitment for ethical, quality publications in all areas of Biotechnology and chemical research, and to continue to evolve progressively for the benefit of our contributors and readers. Together with the Board of Editors, we will seek to publish only scientifically sound information, wellwritten and informative news in Biotechnology and chemical research. I am very happy and proud to introduce an impeccable list of Editorial and Advisory Board Members. By doing this venture we hope to familiarize our authors and readers with their respective field of expertise. We would also invite our senior editorial board members and other experts from diverse areas to act as Guest Editors of special issues devoted to selected topics in the coming months. I hope that you will enjoy reading this issue of CTBCR.
KØppe, Simo; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
The evolution of developmental psychology has been characterized by the use of different quantitative and qualitative methods and procedures. But how does the use of methods and procedures change over time? This study explores the change and Development of statistical methods used in articles published in Child Development from 1930 to 2010. The methods used in every article in the first issue of every volume were categorized into four categories. Until 1980 relatively simple statistical methods were used. During the last 30 years there has been an explosive use of more advanced statistical methods employed. The absence of statistical methods or use of simplemethods had been eliminated.
Enhancer-trap lines are used to identify tissue- and stage-specific gene expression. An Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) enhancer-trap population from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC), Ohio, USA, has been screened for '-glucuronidase (GUS) expression in germinating see...
Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter
This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar (GS) received during five-year periode 2004-09 (February) by the two publication types, the citation distributions over the individual sample publications and observed years as well as over external, institutional and personal self-citations. The institute concerned is the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Copenhagen. The results demonstrate that the open access working papers publicy accessible through DIIS e-archive became far less cited than the corresponding sample of DIIS journal articles published in printed form. However, highly cited working papers have higher impact than the average of the lower half of cited articles. Citation time series show identical distinct patterns for the article in WoS and GS and working papers in GS, more than doubling the amount of citations received through the latter source.
Through an analysis of recent quantitative data on equity and school funding in South Africa, this article aims to explicate the patterns and typology of inequality in post-apartheid South Africa, and to deepen our understanding of the construct of equity. It also aims to understand the application of equity in the context of public schooling…
Full Text Available This paper investigates patterns of rhetorical convergence and divergence in pairs of RA abstracts (English-Spanish and Spanish-English published in the journal Ibérica. To that end, a total of 84 pairs of author-translated RA abstracts were analyzed. Based on the results of a pilot study, the following rhetorical patterns were analyzed in the corpus: text-referring expressions, degree of epistemic commitment, amplified attitude, self-mention, and periphrastic (e.g. multi-word expressions. In addition, selected authorial input was requested to seek further explanations about the variation across these two languages. For text-referring expressions, broad cross-linguistic convergence was found in the expressions used and the degree to which the text is given agency. By contrast, the abstracts in Spanish were found to include greater degree of epistemic commitment, more amplified expressions of attitude, more self-mention, particularly in the plural first person, and periphrastic equivalents. Authorial input indicated that some of these diverging patterns were due to collocational differences but they were also influenced by beliefs about what is more natural in Spanish. Our results suggest that there may be specific lexical bundles performing intensifying functions in Spanish that deserve further investigation. These findings may have implications for ESP pedagogy and translation studies.
Descripción de las formas de justificación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación en español de seis áreas científicas (Description of the Justification Forms in Research Articles in Spanish in Six Scientific Areas
Omar Sabaj Meruane
Full Text Available La justificación de los objetivos de investigación es una parte consustancial de la producción científica. A pesar de ello, no existen descripciones detalladas de cómo esta práctica se realiza en distintas áreas de la ciencia. En este trabajo analizamos los extractos textuales de justificación de un corpus representativo de 162 artículos de investigación, correspondientes a seis áreas de la ciencia. Utilizando los lineamientos de la teoría fundada, los resultados del análisis muestran que la justificación no siempre se plasma en un movimiento retórico determinado en estos textos. Se puede establecer, además, que el ámbito de justificación puede corresponder a problemáticas o argumentos de distinto nivel, y que la forma más común de justificar una investigación se basa en los aportes, implicancias o aplicabilidad de los resultados. Por último, proponemos que las formas retóricas que adopta la justificación son sensibles a las variaciones determinadas por la naturaleza epistemológica, los objetos de estudio y los procedimientos metodológicos utilizados en cada una de las áreas de la ciencia. (The justification of research objectives is an inherent part of scientific production. However, there are not any detailed descriptions as to how this practice is carried out in different scientific areas. In this article, we analyzetextual extracts of justification from a representative corpus of 162 research articles, corresponding to six scientific disciplines. Using the guidelines of the Grounded Theory, the results of the analysis show that the justification is not always expressed as a determined rhetorical move in these texts. Furthermore, it can be established that the field of justification can correspond to problems and arguments of distinctive levels, and that the most common way to justify a research project is based on the contributions, implicationsor applicability of the results. Finally, we propose that the rhetoric forms that the justification takes are sensible to variations determined by the nature of epistemology, the objects of study and the methodological procedures used in each of the scientific areas.
Ingwersen, Peter; Elleby, Anita Bjerg
This paper presents the results of an empirical case study of the characteristics of citations received by 10 open accessible non-peer reviewed working papers published by a prestigious multidisciplinary, but basically social science institute, compared to 10 printed peer reviewed journal articles published in the same year (2004) by the same institute and predominantly by the same authors. The study analyzes the total amount of citations and citation impact observed in Web of Science (WoS) a...
Dania, Silva Hernández.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas rec [...] omendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen. Abstract in english Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the bas [...] is of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.
Dania, Silva Hernández.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas rec [...] omendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen. Abstract in english Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the bas [...] is of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.
Dania Silva Hernández
Full Text Available Se exponen algunas funciones del resumen de un artículo científico de investigación y los problemas que con más frecuencia se observa en ellos. Se presentan algunos datos históricos sobre el origen del resumen, su concepto, tipos y 15 recomendaciones prácticas para su redacción. Apoyada en estas recomendaciones, se propone un esquema de trabajo dividido en cuatro momentos para lograr paso a paso un buen resumen, que equivale a que esté bien redactado y tenga un contenido coherente con el artículo. Un resumen con estas condiciones conseguirá que la opinión primaria de directores, árbitros, editores y lectores sobre un artículo sea favorable; lo contrario llevará con seguridad a un dictamen desfavorable. Se puede afirmar entonces que el futuro de un artículo depende en gran medida de la calidad de su resumen.Some functions of the abstract of a scientific research article were presented in this paper, together with the most frequent problems found. Likewise, some historical data on the origin, concept, and types of abstract were provided as well as 15 practical recommendations for its writing. On the basis of these recommendations, a working outline divided into four moments is suggested, with a view to attaining step by step a good abstract, that is to say, a well-written abstract with a content that matches the article. An abstract having these conditions can help to create favourable primary opinions in directors, arbiters, editors and readers about the article, otherwise would cause an unfavorable opinion. It may be stated that the future of a research article depends largely on the quality of its abstract.
Full Text Available Erratum to: Cancer Biol Med 2013;10:10-15. doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2013.01.002In the published article1, an error appeared on page 10. The footnote about corresponding author should have read as follows:Correspondence to: Ji-Min ZhangEmail: email@example.comThe authors and the journal apologize for the error and for any confusion it may have caused.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To globally characterize the cancer stroma expression profile of muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma and to discuss the cancer biology as well as biomarker discovery from stroma. Laser capture micro dissection was used to harvest purified muscle-invasive bladder cancer stromal cells and normal urothelial stromal cells from 4 paired samples. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the proteome expression profile. The differential proteins were further analyzed using bioinformatics tools and compared with the published literature. Results We identified 868/872 commonly expressed proteins and 978 differential proteins from 4 paired cancer and normal stromal samples using laser capture micro dissection coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. 487/491 proteins uniquely expressed in cancer/normal stroma. Differential proteins were compared with the entire list of the international protein index (IPI, and there were 42/42 gene ontology (GO terms exhibited as enriched and 8/5 exhibited as depleted in cellular Component, respectively. Significantly altered pathways between cancer/normal stroma mainly include metabolic pathways, ribosome, focal adhesion, etc. Finally, descriptive statistics show that the stromal proteins with extremes of PI and MW have the same probability to be a biomarker. Conclusions Based on our results, stromal cells are essential component of the cancer, biomarker discovery and network based multi target therapy should consider neoplastic cells itself and corresponding stroma as whole one.
Kafkas, ?enay; Kim, Jee-Hyub; McEntyre, Johanna R
Molecular biology and literature databases represent essential infrastructure for life science research. Effective integration of these data resources requires that there are structured cross-references at the level of individual articles and biological records. Here, we describe the current patterns of how database entries are cited in research articles, based on analysis of the full text Open Access articles available from Europe PMC. Focusing on citation of entries in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), UniProt and Protein Data Bank, Europe (PDBe), we demonstrate that text mining doubles the number of structured annotations of database record citations supplied in journal articles by publishers. Many thousands of new literature-database relationships are found by text mining, since these relationships are also not present in the set of articles cited by database records. We recommend that structured annotation of database records in articles is extended to other databases, such as ArrayExpress and Pfam, entries from which are also cited widely in the literature. The very high precision and high-throughput of this text-mining pipeline makes this activity possible both accurately and at low cost, which will allow the development of new integrated data services. PMID:23734176
Investigação em cancro gástrico: artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais por autores portugueses / Gastric cancer research: articles published in national and international journals by portuguese authors
Nuno, Lunet; Rui, Carvalho; Henrique, Barros.
Full Text Available Introdução: O cancro do estômago permanece um dos mais frequentes, especialmente nos países em desenvolvimento, pelo que poderá tornar-se numa doença negligenciada no que respeita aos esforços de investigação. O Japão apresenta das mais elevadas taxas de incidência em todo o mundo e contribui actual [...] mente para a maior parte das publicações científicas nesta área. Sendo Portugal um dos países com mais elevada frequência de cancro do estômago no mundo desenvolvido, o objectivo deste estudo foi caracterizar, quanto aos objectivos dos estudos e afiliação dos autores, as publicações sobre adenocarcinoma gástrico e/ou lesões pré-cancerosas do estômago publicadas por investigadores portugueses. Métodos: Pesquisámos as bases de dados MEDLINE® e Index de Revistas Médicas Portuguesas no período 19922003 e revimos os resumos dos artigos identificados. Excluíram-se os que não reportavam investigação original e os baseados exclusivamente no estudo de linhas celulares ou em experimentação animal. Obtivemos o número de citações dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais através da Web of Science®. Resultados: Identificaram-se 88 artigos em revistas internacionais e 53 em revistas nacionais. Os artigos de pendor clínico são mais frequentemente publicados em revistas portuguesas e a investigação dos factores de risco e da etiologia nas publicações internacionais. A genética/epidemiologia molecular foi o assunto mais estudado nos artigos de revistas internacionais, na sua maioria abordando mecanismos/etiologia/factores de risco (n=55, 89%). A maior parte (81%) dos artigos publicados em revistas internacionais são de grupos de investigação do Porto, sendo também os mais citados (número mediano de citações até 2004 = 15). Conclusão: A publicação da investigação em cancro do estômago em revistas nacionais ou internacionais depende do objecto de estudo. A alta proporção de artigos no campo da genética contrasta com o reduzido número de publicações acerca do papel etiológico de exposições decorrentes dos estilos de vida. Abstract in english Background: Gastric cancer remains one of the most frequent worldwide, though it may become a neglected disease concerning the research efforts due to its lower frequency in the developed countries. Japan is responsible for most of the stomach cancer research all over the world, with an increasing t [...] rend in the study of genetic susceptibility and the use of molecular markers. Portugal, like Japan, presents one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in the developed world, and our aim was to characterize articles addressing gastric adenocarcinoma or the respective precancerous lesions published by Portuguese researchers, according to the study subjects and authors’ affiliation. Methods: MEDLINE® and Portuguese Medical Journals Index databases were searched within the period 1992-2003 and the abstracts of the identified articles were reviewed. We obtained the number of citations for articles published in international journals through the Web of Science®. Those not reporting original research and those based exclusively in the study of cell lines or animal experimentation, were excluded. Results: We identified 88 articles in international journals (70% addressed cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors) and 53 in national journals (87% reported therapy/clinical and pathological descriptions). Genetic/ molecular topics were the most studied in articles on cancer mechanisms/etiology/risk factors from international journals (n=55, 89%). Most articles (81%) published in international journals come from groups from Porto, and these were also the most cited (median number of citations until 2004 = 15). Conclusion: The study scope is a major determinant for publication of stomach cancer research by Portuguese authors in national or international journals. The high proportion of studies on genetics/molecular biology is in contrast with the scarce number of published works addressing the etiological
Sheaffer, Beverly L.; Golden, Jeannie A.; Averett, Paige
The ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion is integral in social interaction. Although the importance of facial expression recognition is reflected in increased research interest as well as in popular culture, clinicians may know little about this topic. The purpose of this article is to discuss facial expression recognition literature…
Troncone, R.; Ivarsson, A.; Szajewska, H.; Mearin, M. L.; Št?pánková, Renata; Tlaskalová, Helena; Tu?ková, Ludmila
Ro?. 27, - (2008), s. 1030-1043. ISSN 0269-2813 Grant ostatní: XE(XE) Food-CT-2005517787 CDEUSSA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : coeliac disease * food Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2008
The current study seeks to describe and analyze journal research publications in the top 10 Library and Information Science journals from 2007-8. The paper presents a statistical descriptive analysis of authorship patterns (geographical distribution and affiliation) and keywords. Furthermore, it displays a thorough content analysis of keywords and…
Howard, Matt C; Jayne, Bradley S
Cyberpsychology is a recently emergent field that examines the impact of technology upon human cognition and behavior. Given its infancy, authors have rapidly created new measures to gauge their constructs of interest. Unfortunately, few of these authors have had the opportunity to test their scales' psychometric properties and validity. This is concerning, as many theoretical assumptions may be founded upon scales with inadequate attributes. If this were found to be true, then previous findings in cyberpsychology studies would need to be retested, and future research would need to shift its focus to creating psychometrically sound and valid measures. To provide inferences on this concern, the current study examines the article reporting, scale creation, and scale reliabilities of every article published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking from its inception to July 2014. The final data set encompassed the coding of 1,478 individual articles, including 921 scales, and spanning 17 years. The results demonstrate that the simple survey methodology has become more popular over time. Authors are gradually applying empirically tested scales. However, self-created measures are still the most popular, leading to concerns about the measures' validity. Also, the use of multi-item measures has increased over time, but many articles still fail to report adequate information to assess the reliability of the applied scales. Lastly, the average scale reliability is 0.81, which barely meets standard cutoffs. Overall, these results are not overly concerning, but suggestions are given on methods to improve the reporting of measures, the creation of scales, and the state of cyberpsychology. PMID:25751050
Moreno, Ana I.
This paper is a revised version of a three-hour seminar given in Spanish at the VIII Semana de la Ciencia en Madrid, Spain, 18 November 2008, under the title: ??Es el discurso cient??fico universal en su contenido y forma?. The purpose of this seminar was to introduce a non-specialised audience to a relatively new field of research within Applied Linguistics, known as Intercultural Rhetoric. This research field mainly seeks to describe and explain the communication problems encountered by wri...
Melissa Lee Philips (; )
This article from BioScience provides information on genetic tagging and how it can provide imaging in live animals. Scientists can now visualize developmental gene expression quantitatively in three dimensions and at single-cell resolution. Recent advances in optical microscopy and fluorescent genetic tags allow imaging of gene expression in live animals, as well. Eventually, researchers hope to construct virtual atlases of animal development.
Raúl A., Borracci; María M., Rabhansl de Desmery.
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de evaluar la producción de artículos de enfermería provenientes de Latinoamérica publicados en revistas internacionales, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica de artículos de enfermería en PubMed entre 1997 y 2006. Se encontraron 1.246 artículos latinoamericanos publicados en revist [...] as indexadas en Medline; el 46% (575/1.246) provenían de una Escuela o Departamento de Enfermería y el resto eran de otro origen. Brasil y México contribuyeron con el 76% de las publicaciones. Los tipos de artículos y prioridades incluyeron estudios observacionales y ensayos clínicos controlados (39%), salud pública (34%), cuidados de enfermería (14%) y recursos humanos (13%). El 44% de los artículos se publicaron en revistas de enfermería y el resto en otras revistas biomédicas. En conclusión, esta evaluación de la producción científica latinoamericana en enfermería, basada en la cantidad de artículos publicados en revistas indexadas en Medline, arrojó un producto que muestra fuertes diferencias entre los países de la región, con Brasil y México con el mayor número (76%) de las publicaciones. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to assess the production of articles on nursing research from Latin American countries published in international journals. A bibliographic search of nursing research articles was carried out in PubMed during the period 1997-2006. A total of 1246 articles from Latin Am [...] erican countries were published in Medline indexed journals; 46% (575/1246) came from a Nursing School or Department and the rest from other sources. Brazil and Mexico contributed with 76% of publications. Types of studies and priorities included observational and controlled clinical studies (39%), public health (34%), nursing care (14%) and human resources (13%). Forty four percent of articles were published in indexed nursing journals, and the rest in others biomedical journals. In conclusion, the scientific production on nursing from Latin America was assessed according to the number of publications indexed in Medline. This product shows strong differences among the countries, with Brazil and Mexico alone accounting for 76% of publications.
Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics – the comprehensive study of protein composition - in tendon research. Materials and Methods We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies) and III (13 of 14), metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (6 of 12), -9 (7 of 7), -13 (4 of 7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (4 of 7), and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7), and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12). Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro. Conclusions Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins) that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus, our results suggested an untapped potential for proteomics in tendon research. PMID:25879758
Hu, Bo; Zhang, Chengjin; Baawo, Kouwendy; Qin, Rong; Cole, Gregory J.; Lee, Ju-ahng; Chen, Xiaoxin
The zebrafish has become a useful model organism for research on development and diseases. However, there has been no zebrafish model system for studying oral carcinogenesis. In the present study, we first characterized the histology of the upper gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish. We found that zebrafish tongue was covered by a non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, which was similar to the oro-esophageal epithelium in humans. In situ hybridization showed that keratin 5, a marker o...
Kilduff, Thomas S.; Lein, Ed S.; La Iglesia, Horacio; Sakurai, Takeshi; Fu, Ying-hui; Shaw, Paul
Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the control of sleep and wakefulness is a major research area in neuroscience. This mini-symposium review highlights some recent developments at the gene, molecular, cellular, and systems level that have advanced this field. The studies discussed below utilize organisms ranging from flies to humans and focus on the interaction between the sleep homeostatic and circadian systems, the consequences of mutations in genes involved in the circadian clock o...
Kooijman-van Dijk, A.L.
Although it is clear that there are links between access to modern energy carriers and economic development, the necessary understanding of these links is lacking. Research in literature shows mixed results. This paper studies the mechanisms that link energy supply and impacts on income generation. Empirical data from 264 small scale enterprises in 16 clusters of villages in the Indian Himalayas is analysed. The steps between energy supply and impacts on enterprise are stratified, studying actual energy use of energy services. The analysis shows that for the majority of typical enterprises in rural areas, which are informal enterprises with less than 6 workers, the impacts on incomes are low even though the uptake of electricity in enterprises is high. The key factor influencing impacts on incomes is limitations in access to markets for enterprise products, especially social access. For most small scale rural entrepreneurs the main impacts of energy access are on wellbeing. The findings are discussed to come to policy recommendations in the field of energy supply and complementary fields to achieving positive impacts on rural development.
Full Text Available Objective: Nonverbal learning disability (NVLD is a condition associated with prominent nonverbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, while the verbal abilities remain relatively intact. Some researchers have reported that there is a considerable overlap between cognitive and behavioral features of Asperger’s Disorder (AD and NVLD. The present study aimed to assess the hypothesis of the presence of NVLD in AD using a neuropsychological battery, which primarily focused on memory, in a group of children and adolescents from the Turkish population. Methods: 21 individuals, aged 7-16 years, - who referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty Child Psychiatry Department and were diagnosed with AD according to DSM-IV criteria, and 18 age-, gender-, IQ- and education level-matched volunteer controls were evaluated. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, California Verbal Learning Test-Children’s Version, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and The Benton Judgment of Line Orientation and Facial Recognition tests were administered to the participants.Results: The AD group performed similarly to the controls on verbal memory and verbal comprehension, but was significantly poorer in short- and long-term visual memory, perceptual organization and visuospatial constructional abilities. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the neuropsychological profile of the individuals with AD is closely similar to that of NVLD. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2011; 48: 140-6
Full Text Available The pressure to produce work in English and to publish internationally has increased over recent years. However, a large number of non-native writers may be excluded from the web of global scholarship due to defective rhetorical organizations and discourse structures of their works. This study aimed to investigate frequency and distribution of transition markers (TMs in introduction sections of applied linguistics research articles (RAs written by native writers of English (NE, non- native Persian writers of English (NNE, and native writers of Persian (NP. For this purpose, 45 RAs were functionally and manually analyzed and compared to find possible differences among their introduction sections in terms of frequency and distribution of TMs. The results showed that compared with English, Persian language makes more use of TMs. Moreover, it was revealed that NNE writers show a pattern of overuse of TMs when they write in English owing to the effects of their native language writing culture.
Dolja, Valerian V; Koonin, Eugene V
Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing. Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These features provided immense opportunities for using closterovirus vectors for the functional genomics studies and pathogen control in economically valuable crops. This review briefly summarizes advances in closterovirus research during the last decade, explores the relationships between virus biology and vector design, and outlines the most promising directions for future application of closterovirus vectors. PMID:23596441
Lu, Yan; You, Ming; Ghazoui, Zara; Liu, Pengyuan; Vedell, Peter T.; Wen, Weidong; Bode, Ann M.; Grubbs, Clinton J.; Lubet, Ronald A.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are effective in therapy/prevention of ER+ breast cancers. Rats bearing methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced ER+ mammary cancers were treated with the AI vorozole (1.25 mg/kg BW/day) for 5 days. RNA expression showed 162 down-regulated and 180 up-regulated (p 1.5) genes. Genes modulated by vorozole were compared with published data from four clinical neoadjuvant trials employing AIs (anastrozole or letrozole). More than thirty genes and multiple pathways exhibited synchronous changes in animal and human data sets. Cell cycle genes related to chromosome condensation in prometaphase (APC pathway, including Aurora-A kinase, BUBR1B, TOP2, Cyclin A, Cyclin B CDC2 and TPX-2) were down-regulated in animal and human studies reflecting the strong anti-proliferative effects of AIs. Comparisons of rat arrays with a cell culture study where estrogen was removed from MCF-7 cells showed decreased expression of E2F1-modulated genes as a major altered pathway. Alterations of the cell cycle and E2F related genes were confirmed in a large independent set of human samples (81 pairs baseline and 2 weeks anastrozole treatment). Decreases in proliferation related genes were confirmed at the protein level for Cyclin A2, BuRB1, cdc2, Pttg and TPX-2. Interestingly, the proteins down-regulated in tumors were similarly down-regulated in vorozole treated normal rat mammary epithelium. Finally, decreased expression of known estrogen responsive genes (including TFF 1,3, progesterone receptor, etc.) were decreased in the animal model. These studies demonstrate that gene expression changes (pathways and individual genes) are similar in humans and the rat model. PMID:24067424
Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.
This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…
Marília Mendes Ferreira
Full Text Available Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora, comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2004 e de Samraj (2002 ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência do movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino.This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor were compared with Swales' (2004 and Samraj' (2002 models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.
O letramento acadêmico em inglês: dificuldades na confecção da seção introdução de artigos acadêmicos / English academic literacy: difficulties in writing the introduction section of research articles
Marília Mendes, Ferreira.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho discute as dificuldades de um pós-graduando da área de energia na confecção da introdução de um artigo acadêmico em inglês. Duas versões do texto foram analisadas (uma após a instrução e outra após a conferência com a instrutora), comparando-as com os modelos de introdução de Swales (2 [...] 004) e de Samraj (2002) ensinados no curso. O aluno apresentou os seguintes problemas: a narração como modo de organização retórica do texto, a ausência do movimento 2 dos modelos, uma escolha inadequada de léxico. A combinação desses elementos impediu que o texto apresentasse o valor cultural do gênero textual artigo acadêmico - a autopromoção. Os dados suscitam questionamentos sobre os limites da descrição empírica dos gêneros textuais e de seu ensino. Abstract in english This paper discusses the difficulties of a graduate student in the area of Energy in writing the introduction of a research paper in English. Two versions of the text (one after the instruction and another after the conference with the instructor) were compared with Swales' (2004) and Samraj' (2002) [...] models of introductions taught in the English academic writing course offered. The student revealed the following problems: narration as the rhetorical mode of organization of the text, the absence of Move 2 of the introduction, inappropriate choice of vocabulary. The combination of these factors prevented the article from having the cultural value of the academic article genre: self-promotion. The data raise questions about the limits of empirical description of genres and their teaching based on this kind of description.
Too Few Articles in the Journal Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries are Research?Based. A review of: Crawford, Gregory A., and Jessica Feldt. “An Analysis of the Literature on Instruction in Academic Libraries.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46.3 (Spr. 2007: 77?87.
Full Text Available Objective – To discover which journals publish a preponderance of the literature on instruction in academic libraries, and to further learn what topics are discussed in the literature and what methods of inquiry are used to explore those topics.Design – Comparative analysis.Setting – The ERIC database.Subjects – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002, found in the ERIC database via the descriptor ‘library instruction.’Methods – Journal articles published between 1971 and 2002 were searched in the ERIC database using the term ‘library instruction,’ because the term has been used by ERIC since the inception of the database. Article characteristics such as year of publication, journal in which a given article was published, and types of articles were identified. After normalizing the identification of article types by comparing individual codifications of a random sample of articles from the results list, the researchers coded all of the articles according to the articles’ main topics. These article topics were then condensed into broader topics (e.g. articles coded initially as addressing the topics of instruction to “graduate students” or “high school students” were condensed under the heading “instruction of specific populations”. Those articles deemed to have a research component were further analyzed in terms of research methodology, scope, and use of statistics. The questions guiding the authors? study consisted of:• In which journals are articles on instruction in academic libraries published?• What are the topics of the articles that have been published?• How has the literature of instruction in academic libraries changed over the years?• What is the nature of research [authors? emphasis] articles on instruction in academic libraries?• For research articles, what are the research methods used and what types of statistics are utilized? (77?78.Main results – The search found 791 articles appearing in 90 journals. However, only six journals were responsible for publishing 60% of the articles on the results list. Based on the categorization into topics or types,five article types – “general essays,” articles on “instruction for searching online catalogs and databases,” “articles on course? or assignment?related instruction,” “programmatic and management issues,”and “specific institution instruction” –accounted for 54% of the total articles; eleven other topics are represented in the remaining articles. Only 24.5% of the articles could be considered “research?based.” While nine types of research methods were used, 62.3% of the research?based articles relied on surveys or questionnaires. However, taking into account what could be an expected decline in interest for studying instruction for microforms, and an increased interest in studying instruction for the Internet, the types of articles published each year between 1971 and 2002 remained generally static.Conclusion – The authors conclude that, unsurprisingly, a select few journals are responsible for publishing the majority of articles on instruction in academic libraries, and note that these journals are “closely associated with academic librarianship and instruction” (85. The authors’ findings concerning the types of articles published over the course of the date range examined, although interesting, are equally unsurprising. What is surprising and alarming, is that only a quarter of all articles published are research-based. Furthermore, those articles that were found to be research-based did not often employ sophisticated research methods, preferring for example, the use of descriptive statistics over inferential statistics. Ideally, this article will spur the development and publication of more, and more rigorous, research?based scholarship in addition to pointing authors both to the journals most likely to publish their research and to the topics that have been historically (since 1971 underrepresented in the literature.
Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)
A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.
Published Articles Division of Extramural Activities Contacts | About | Exit Funding Patterns Awards of R01 and R21 Grants in FY 2014 Awards of R01 and R21 Grants in FY 2013 Awards of R01 and R21 Grants in FY 2012 Awards of R01 and R21 Grants in FY
Ji, Tieming; Liu, Peng; Nettleton, Dan
Heterosis, also known as the hybrid vigor, occurs when the mean phenotype of hybrid off-spring is superior to that of its two inbred parents. The heterosis phenomenon is extensively utilized in agriculture though the molecular basis is still unknown. In an effort to understand phenotypic heterosis at the molecular level, researchers have begun to compare expression levels of thousands of genes between parental inbred lines and their hybrid offspring to search for evidence of gene expression heterosis. Standard statistical approaches for separately analyzing expression data for each gene can produce biased and highly variable estimates and unreliable tests of heterosis. To address these shortcomings, we develop a hierarchical model to borrow information across genes. Using our modeling framework, we derive empirical Bayes estimators and an inference strategy to identify gene expression heterosis. Simulation results show that our proposed method outperforms the more traditional strategy used to detect gene expression heterosis. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:25435758
Saidi, Younousse; Finka, Andrija; Chakhporanian, Mickhail; Zry?d, Jean-pierre; Schaefer, Didier G.; Goloubinoff, Pierre
The ability to express tightly controlled amounts of endogenous and recombinant proteins in plant cells is an essential tool for research and biotechnology. Here, the inducibility of the soybean heat-shock Gmhsp17.3B promoter was addressed in the moss Physcomitrella patens, using ?-glucuronidase (GUS) and an F-actin marker (GFP-talin) as reporter proteins. In stably transformed moss lines, Gmhsp17.3B-driven GUS expression was extremely low at 25 °C. In contrast, a short non-damaging heat-tr...
This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)
Dulong Rosnay, Melanie
At the crossroad of law and computer science, the notion of Digital Rights Management renews the research on Lex Electronica. Rights Expression Languages provide the legal semantic and syntax to be implemented by Digital Rights Management Systems. Rights Expressions are legal metadata that define the actions led on a digital text or multimedia file. This article presents some legal resources and requirements to express rights and transactions pertaining to digital documents and data, ie legal...
Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Ping-chang
The construction of expression vector is a basic tool for biotechnology and production of desired proteins, this article summarized the construction of pET-32 ? (+) vector techniques which are generally used in research laboratories. The procedures include that acquisition of the exogenous DNA fragment for construction of the vector, subcloning the DNA fragment into pET-32 ? (+) expression vector, protein expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and protein purification under native condit...
Objective: To examine the expression of MMP-2 gene and Survivin gene in subclinical microscopic tumor and its peripheral normal esophageal tissues, and study the radiation target in molecular level. Methods: Esophageal squamous cancer and its peripheral tissue samples of 34 patients were cut into sequential sections. The expression of MMP-2 gene and Survivin gene then examined. The length of the peripheral esophageal tissue, positively expressing the two genes, was measured, and the relation among the experimental date, tumor stage and vertical length of tumor were analyzed. Results: For tumor tissue, subclinical microscopic tumor and the peripheral differentiated normal tissue, the positive expression rate of MMP-2 was 85%, 83% and 79%, respectively. The positive expression rate of Survivin was 76%, 85% and 85%, respectively. The positive expression level of both MMP-2 and Survivin genes in subclinical microscopic tumor was significantly higher than that in the peripheral differentiated normal tissue (?2=6.46, P= 0.028 and ?2=16.15, P=0.001). The length was 17.2 -70.4 mm and 15.0 - 82.4 mm of cancerous peripheral tissue with positive expression of MMP-2 gene upside and downside of the tumor. The length was <70 mm in 97% of the samples. For Survivin gene,the length was 3.7-76.4 mm and 16.1-56.3 mm, and was < 70 mm in 96% of the samples. The length of cancerous peripheral esophageal tissue expressing the two genes increased significantly along wwo genes increased significantly along with tumor stage or tumor length, and there was statistical correlation between the length of tumor and the positive expression ranges of Survivin gene. Conclusions: Both MMP-2 gene and Survivin gene are positively expressed in esophageal cancerous peripheral tissue. The range positively expressing the two genes is < 70 mm in more than 96% of the samples, and the length is correlated with the tumor stage. More attention should be paid to the peripheral differentiated normal tissue with positive expression of MMP-2 gene and Survivin gene in esophageal squamous carcinoma. (authors)
This new service is a partnership between LookSmart and the Gale Group, a publisher of research and reference materials for libraries, businesses, and information technologists. The site offers free access to the full-text of articles published in over 350 magazines and journals dating from 1998. Users can search the database by keyword and by one of the nine subject categories (Arts & Entertainment, Computers & Technology, Reference & Education, Sports, etc.). Search returns include article title, periodical, and short description, with a link to the full-text, which is conveniently and quickly displayed at the FindArticles site, though with numerous advertising banners. Visitors can also view a list of the publications indexed, alphabetically or by subject. Periodical listings include a one-sentence description and a link to their Website. Despite the banners and other commercial content (the bills must be paid, after all) this site is a very useful reference source, indexing many leading journals and magazines.
La similitud léxico-semántica en artículos de investigación científica en español: Una aproximación desde el Análisis Semántico Latente Lexical-semantic similarity in scientific research articles in Spanish: An approach to Latent Semantic Analysis
Full Text Available Esta investigación es un estudio comparativo de la relación de similitud léxico-semántica entre tres variables textuales (palabras clave, resumen y el contenido de artículos de investigación científica. Además, se comparan a partir de los valores de similitud léxico-semántica dos áreas científicas (ciencias biológicas y ciencias sociales. El estudio se realiza utilizando una muestra estratificada representativa correspondiente a 22 artículos de investigación científica de ambas áreas científicas, incluidos en un corpus de 675 artículos científicos. Para la determinación de la similitud léxico-semántica entre las variables, se utiliza un método estadístico-computacional denominado Análisis Semántico Latente. Los resultados nos permiten establecer, por una parte, que en la muestra investigada el resumen ‘macrosemantiza’ mejor el contenido semántico global del artículo que las palabras clave. Por otra parte, no se presentan diferencias significativas entre los promedios de similitud léxico-semántica entre las áreas científicas estudiadas. Estos resultados se explican en función de los complejos procesos de estandarización que tienden a homogeneizar la producción científicaThis research focuses on lexical-semantic similarities found in three text variables (key words, abstract, and content in scientific research articles. Two scientific areas (biological sciences and social sciences from the values of lexical-semantic similarity are compared. The study employs a representative stratified sample of 22 scientific research articles in these two areas, which have been included in a corpus of 675 scientific articles. To determine lexical-semantic similarities among the variables, a computer-statistical method is employed, called Latent Semantic Analysis. The findings help assert, on the one hand, that the abstract ‘macro-semanticizes’ better the global semantic content of the article than do the key words. On the other hand, no meaningful differences among the averages of lexical-semantic similarity in the scientific areas studied are revealed. These findings are accounted for in terms of the generally complex standardization processes which tend to homogenize the production of this type of articles
Polly Roy; Rob Noad
The baculovirus expression system is one of the most successful and widely used eukaryotic protein expression methods. This short review will summarise the role of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACS) as an enabling technology for the modification of the virus genome. For many years baculovirus genomes have been maintained in E. coli as bacterial artificial chromosomes, and foreign genes have been inserted using a transposition-based system. However, with recent advances in molecular biolo...
Análise linguístico-discursiva do genero introdução de artigo de pesquisa (para fins específicos): Teste ANPAD / A linguistic-discursive analysis of the genre research article introduction (to specific purposes): ANPAD Test
Juliana Guimarães Rodrigues, Coelho.
Full Text Available Este artigo é um recorte de um estudo que analisou o gênero textual `introdução de artigo de pesquisa' sob a ótica retórico-discursiva. Os princípios teórico-metodológicos que orientaram esta pesquisa foram: inglês instrumental, leitura e gêneros textuais. A pesquisa realizada é de natureza descriti [...] va focalizada (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), e o corpus utilizado é formado por introduções de artigo de pesquisa da prova de inglês do teste ANPAD. Neste artigo, será apresentada uma análise linguístico-discursiva das introduções desse corpus. Os resultados mostraram que as evidências linguísticas nem sempre correspondem a um determinado movimento retórico (SWALES, 1990) presente nos textos das introduções analisadas. O estudo teve finalidade pedagógica, pois evidenciou os marcadores linguísticos e as estruturas verbais que realmente ocorrem nesse gênero. Abstract in english This article is part of a study which analyzed the textual genre `research article introduction' from the perspective of rhetorical-discursive analysis. The theoretical-methodological principles which guided this research were: English for specific purposes, reading and textual genre. This research [...] was a focused description (LARSEN-FREEMAN; LONG, 1991), and the corpususedwas composed by research article introductions from the ANPAD English test (ANPAD is a test for postgraduate courses). This article presents the linguistic-discursive analysis of the introductions that comprise the corpusused in the studyof the original study. The results showed that the linguistic evidence not always corresponded to a specific rhetorical movement (SWALES, 1990) in the introductions. The study had a pedagogical purpose because it highlighted the linguistic marks and the verbal structures that really occur in this genre.
LOS MODOS DE EXISTENCIA DE LA ESTRATEGIA DE SEMILLEROS EN COLOMBIA COMO EXPRESIONES DE LA COMPRENSIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN ENTRE INVESTIGACIÓN FORMATIVA Y LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN SENTIDO ESTRICTO. MÚLTIPLES LECTURAS, DIVERSAS PRÁCTICAS / MODES OF EXISTENCE OF THE STRATEGY OF RESEARCH HOTBEDS IN COLOMBIA AS EXPRESSIONS OF THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORMATIVE RESEARCH AND RESEARCH IN A STRICT SENSE OF THE TERM: MULTIPLE INTERPRETATIONS AND DIVERSE PRACTICES
Rosa María, Bolívar Osorio.
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo es resultado del proyecto de investigación "Trayectoria e impacto de la estrategia semilleros de investigación de la Universidad de Antioquia para la universidad y en el contexto local y nacional". En particular, se analiza la relación entre dos conceptos que se han incorporado en el d [...] iscurso de la formación en investigación en todas las universidades colombianas como lo son el concepto de Investigación Formativa y de Investigación en sentido estricto. Los resultados reflejan la coexistencia de una multiplicidad de enfoques teórico-metodológicos en los que se expresan esas relaciones que finalmente terminan por determinar las estrategias bajo las cuales se forma en investigación actualmente en Colombia y en particular las dinámicas de los semilleros de investigación en la actualidad; concluyendo que hace falta un debate profundo sobre las condiciones pedagógicas para la formación de un investigador, tarea pendiente para una comunidad académica que en algunos casos ha recibido acríticamente los documentos de política nacional. Abstract in english This article is the result of the research project entitled "Path and impact of the strategy of research hotbeds at University of Antioquia, for the University and the local and national context." In particular, it examines the relationship between two concepts that have been incorporated into the s [...] peech in research training of all Colombian universities: Formative research and Research in the strict sense of the term. The results reflect the coexistence of a multiplicity of theoretical-methodological approaches in which those relationships are expressed, which in the long run, end up by identifying the strategies under which researchers are currently being trained in Colombia. It can be concluded that it is necessary a deep debate about the pedagogical conditions for the training of researchers. It is a pending task for an academic community, which in some cases, has uncritically received the documents of national policy.
LOS MODOS DE EXISTENCIA DE LA ESTRATEGIA DE SEMILLEROS EN COLOMBIA COMO EXPRESIONES DE LA COMPRENSIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN ENTRE INVESTIGACIÓN FORMATIVA Y LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN SENTIDO ESTRICTO. MÚLTIPLES LECTURAS, DIVERSAS PRÁCTICAS. MODES OF EXISTENCE OF THE STRATEGY OF RESEARCH HOTBEDS IN COLOMBIA AS EXPRESSIONS OF THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORMATIVE RESEARCH AND RESEARCH IN A STRICT SENSE OF THE TERM: MULTIPLE INTERPRETATIONS AND DIVERSE PRACTICES.
Rosa María Bolívar Osorio.
Full Text Available Este artículo es resultado del proyecto de investigación “Trayectoria e impacto de la estrategia semilleros de investigación de la Universidad de Antioquia para la universidad y en el contexto local y nacional”. En particular, se analiza la relación entre dos conceptos que se han incorporado en el discurso de la formación en investigación en todas las universidades colombianas como lo son el concepto de Investigación Formativa y de Investigación en sentido estricto. Los resultados reflejan la coexistencia de una multiplicidad de enfoques teórico-metodológicos en los que se expresan esas relaciones que finalmente terminan por determinar las estrategias bajo las cuales se forma en investigación actualmente en Colombia y en particular las dinámicas de los semilleros de investigación en la actualidad; concluyendo que hace falta un debate profundo sobre las condiciones pedagógicas para la formación de un investigador, tarea pendiente para una comunidad académica que en algunos casos ha recibido acríticamente los documentos de política nacional. Abstract This article is the result of the research project entitled “Path and impact of the strategy of research hotbeds at University of Antioquia, for the University and the local and national context.” In particular, it examines the relationship between two concepts that have been incorporated into the speech in research training of all Colombian universities: Formative research and Research in the strict sense of the term. The results reflect the coexistence of a multiplicity of theoretical-methodological approaches in which those relationships are expressed, which in the long run, end up by identifying the strategies under which researchers are currently being trained in Colombia. It can be concluded that it is necessary a deep debate about the pedagogical conditions for the training of researchers. It is a pending task for an academic community, which in some cases, has uncritically received the documents of national policy.
Índice-H dos artigos citantes: uma contribuição para a avaliação da produção científica de pesquisadores experientes / Index of articles H-citing: a contribution to the evaluation of scientific production of experienced researchers
Claudio Gil Soares de, Araújo; Aline, Sardinha.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Há um crescente interesse e necessidade em avaliar a qualidade da produção científica dos pesquisadores. Para tal, as métricas mais importantes são: número de citações, número médio de citações por artigo indexado e o índice-H. Contudo, essas métricas apresentam limitações na avaliação d [...] o potencial de impacto das publicações de um pesquisador, especialmente dentre aqueles mais produtivos. OBJETIVO: Propor e demonstrar a utilização de uma nova métrica científica - índice-H dos artigos citantes, que permite refinar a discriminação do impacto das publicações de pesquisadores experientes sobre o conhecimento existente em sua área. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados da Web of Science de 13 dentre os pesquisadores doutores brasileiros mais produtivos na área de exercício físico e esporte, incluindo: número de artigos publicados, número de citações, número médio de citações por artigos, índice-H e o índice-H dos artigos citantes, ou seja, o índice-H obtido a partir da ordenação decrescente dos artigos que citaram artigos publicados pelo pesquisador. Dados de quatro outros pesquisadores - brasileiros e estrangeiros - foram usados como marcos de referência para comparações. RESULTADOS: Os índice-H do pesquisador e o dos artigos citantes são associados (r = 0,92; p > 0,01), porém, quando são analisados os seis pesquisadores mais produtivos, com índices-H acima de 7, a associação entre os dois índices-H desaparece (r = 0,35; p = 0,49). CONCLUSÃO: O índice-H dos artigos citantes pode contribuir para diferenciar a produção científica de pesquisadores com um grande número de artigos publicados. Sugere-se a adoção de sua mensuração pelas agências brasileiras e estrangeiras de fomento e de avaliação da produção científica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: there has been an increasing interest and need in evaluating the quality of scientific papers written by researchers. Therefore, the most important measurements used are the number of citations, the average number of citations per article published in indexed journals and the H-index. Th [...] ose bibliometric indicators present, however, limitations when assessing the potential impact of the publications of a given researcher, particularly among the most productive ones. OBJECTIVE: To propose and to demonstrate the use of a new scienciometric strategy - the H-index of the citing articles-, that allow to better discriminate the impact of a given researcher to the body of knowledge in the respective research area. METHODS: Research data - Web of Science - from 13 of the most productive Brazilian PhD researchers in the field of exercise and sport sciences were analyzed, including: number of publications, number of citations, average number of citations per article, H-index and the proposed H-index of citing articles (the H-index extracted from the ranking of articles that cited the papers published by a given researcher). Data from four other researchers - Brazilian and foreign - were used as reference for comparisons. RESULTS: The researcher's H-index and the H-index of the citing articles were associated (r=.92; p>.01). However, when the six most productive authors were analyzed with H-index above 7, the association between the two indexes disappears (r=.35; p=.49). CONCLUSIONS: The H-index of the citing articles can be useful to discriminate the scientific production of authors with a high number of published papers. It is suggested that this algorithm should be adopted by Brazilian and foreign financing and scientific production evaluation agencies.
Berry, Donald A
Observational studies present inferential challenges. These challenges are acute in cancer screening studies, in which lead-time and length biases are ever present. These biases can make any study worthless. Moreover, a flawed study's impact on the public can be deleterious when its conclusions are publicized by a naïve media. Flawed studies can also make the public learn to be wary of any article or reports of articles claiming to be scientific. Here, the author addresses these and related issues in the context of a study published in Cancer. PMID:24925345
Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey
Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…
End points and trial design in geriatric oncology research: a joint European organisation for research and treatment of cancer--Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology--International Society Of Geriatric Oncology position article.
Wildiers, Hans; Mauer, Murielle; Pallis, Athanasios; Hurria, Arti; Mohile, Supriya G; Luciani, Andrea; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Extermann, Martine; Lichtman, Stuart M; Ballman, Karla; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Muss, Hyman; Wedding, Ulrich
Selecting the most appropriate end points for clinical trials is important to assess the value of new treatment strategies. Well-established end points for clinical research exist in oncology but may not be as relevant to the older cancer population because of competing risks of death and potentially increased impact of therapy on global functioning and quality of life. This article discusses specific clinical end points and their advantages and disadvantages for older individuals. Randomized or single-arm phase II trials can provide insight into the range of efficacy and toxicity in older populations but ideally need to be confirmed in phase III trials, which are unfortunately often hindered by the severe heterogeneity of the older cancer population, difficulties with selection bias depending on inclusion criteria, physician perception, and barriers in willingness to participate. All clinical trials in oncology should be without an upper age limit to allow entry of eligible older adults. In settings where so-called standard therapy is not feasible, specific trials for older patients with cancer might be required, integrating meaningful measures of outcome. Not all questions can be answered in randomized clinical trials, and large observational cohort studies or registries within the community setting should be established (preferably in parallel to randomized trials) so that treatment patterns across different settings can be compared with impact on outcome. Obligatory integration of a comparable form of geriatric assessment is recommended in future studies, and regulatory organizations such as the European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration should require adequate collection of data on efficacy and toxicity of new drugs in fit and frail elderly subpopulations. PMID:24019549
Jarmo Saarti; Katri Vehvilainen-Julkunen
Purpose: Nursing science has developed rapidly as an academic discipline and also as a scientific institutioninternationally in the past thirty years. Publishing policies in different disciplines can be used in analyzing theirdevelopment and scientific culture. The purpose of this paper is to describe publication profile of Finnish nursingresearch and the contents and methods used.Methods: The data consisted of 433 articles published in Journal of Nursing Science (in Finnish Hoitotiede) durin...
Lam Yik San
Full Text Available This study seeks to compare and contrast the rhetorical moves in abstracts of students’ term papers and published articles in the field of Computer and Communications Systems Engineering. The reason is to identify to what extend the rhetorical moves used in the abstracts of students’ term papers approximate to the published articles. Using Santos’ (1996 five move pattern as the model of analysis, the data indicated that both the abstracts in the students’ term papers and the published articles did use some of the rhetorical moves. However, the pattern of use did vary among them. Furthermore, the study also revealed that abstracts with a complete five moves presented a more comprehensive overview of the content of the study when compared with abstracts with limited moves. These findings could heighten the awareness of the student writers as to how abstract writing should be structured and it could also increase their sophistication in the crafting of an effective abstract. Finally, the data could also form as an informed input for both writing instructors and program designers to incorporate the learning of the rhetorical moves in abstract writing instructions. Keywords: Expert Writers, Novice Writers, L2 Writers, Rhetorical moves, Abstract Writing
Important progress in understanding replication, interactions with host plants, and evolution of closteroviruses enabled engineering of several vectors for gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Due to the broad host range of closteroviruses, these vectors expanded vector applicability to include important woody plants such as citrus and grapevine. Furthermore, large closterovirus genomes offer genetic capacity and stability unrivaled by other plant viral vectors. These feat...
Jansen, Jonathan D.; Herman, Chaya; Pillay, Venitha; Soobrayan, Venitha
This article maps the process of research learning, that is, that domain of learning which novice researchers (such as doctoral students) experience in the complex process of becoming researchers. This exploratory qualitative study foregrounds the voices of the students and their accounts of research learning. The article questions the efficacy of the traditional 'how to write a doctoral dissertation' guidebooks and suggests that there are no clear steps to be followed in the writing of the p...
Subjetividad y discurso científico-académico: Acerca de algunas manifestaciones de la subjetividad en el artículo de investigación en español / Subjectivity and academic scientific discourse: Some subjectivity marks in research articles in Spanish
María Marta, García Negroni.
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar algunas de las manifestaciones de la subjetividad presentes en el género artículo de investigación científica, escrito en español. En un corpus de artículos procedentes de cuatro disciplinas (Historia, Lingüística, Geología y Medicina), se relevan, así en pri [...] mer lugar las marcas de persona, quizás la huella más evidente de la presencia del sujeto en el discurso. Se abordan luego los modos de referir la palabra ajena y las diferentes actitudes del locutor-autor frente a esas otras voces. En este marco, se analizan las comillas, marcas de la heterogeneidad "mostrada marcada", que permiten al locutor desdoblar su discurso para comentar las palabras que emplea, al mismo tiempo que las utiliza. Se concluye que el artículo científico contiene marcas de subjetividad y polifonía de diferente tipo, y que dichas marcas pueden correlacionarse con la configuración de ethos discursivos diferentes, según las disciplinas Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to study some marks of subjectivity in research articles in Spanish. In a corpus of research articles on History, Linguistics, Geology and Medicine, I focus first on person markers, the clearest trace of the author in discourse. Second I concentrate on the ways to refer [...] to other people’s discourse and different attitudes facing those voices authors show. Within this frame, I analyse inverted commas, evident marks of heterogeneity in discourse, which allow the author to unfold her discourse and make a comment on words while using them. I conclude that, far from being objective, neutral and monological, the research article presents subjective and polyphonic marks of many kinds and that those marks can correlate with the constitution of diverse discursive ethos, according to disciplines
Moore, Thomas C., Sr.
The character of force and strain measurement testing at LaRC is such that the types of strain gauge installations, the materials upon which the strain gauges are applied, and the test environments encountered, require many varied approaches. In 1997, a NASA Technical Memorandum (NASA TM 110327) was generated to provide the strain gauge application specialist with a listing of recommended procedures for strain gauging various transducers and test articles at LaRC. The technical memorandum offered here is an effort to keep the strain gauge user informed of new technological enhancements in strain-gauging methodology while preserving the strain-gauging guidelines set forth in the 1997 TM. This document provides detailed recommendations for strain gauging LaRC-designed balances and custom transducers, composite materials, cryogenic and high-temperature test articles, and selected non-typical or unique materials or test conditions. Additionally, one section offers details for installing Bragg-Grating type fiber-optic strain sensors for non-typical test scenarios.
El discurso científico de la historia: Análisis estructural y retórico de los artículos de investigación en historia / THE SCIENTIFIC DISCOURSE OF HISTORY: A STRUCTURAL AND RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF HISTORY RESEARCH ARTICLES
Miguel, Fuentes Cortés.
Full Text Available Al igual que en cualquier otra disciplina científica, el discurso general de la historia se transmite a través de distintos géneros, siendo el artículo de investigación (en adelante, AI), una manifestación que permite, en particular, analizar el discurso científico de la historia. En esta materia, e [...] l trabajo de Swales (1990, 2004) y su teoría de Movidas Retóricas (en adelante, MR) es un referente para el estudio específico de los artículos de investigación. Los estudios que siguen esta teoría son, en su mayoría, aplicables a trabajos escritos en la lengua inglesa y dan cuenta, de manera aislada, de las distintas secciones superestructurales, tales como la introducción o la conclusión. En este contexto, el objetivo de la presente investigación es describir, estructural y retóricamente, los artículos de investigación en historia. Para este efecto, se realizó un análisis de todas las secciones superestructurales presentes en los AiI de nuestro corpus. Además, se identificaron las MR prototípicas de los AI en historia, y se estableció el grado de similitud de las secciones superestructurales del corpus con los de otras disciplinas. Los resultados principales señalan que los artículos de investigación de historia se caracterizan, principalmente, por la narración e interpretación de hechos, en conjunto con la referencia literal a otras fuentes. Abstract in english As in all scientific disciplines, the general discourse of history is conveyed by means of different discourse genres. One of such genres is the research article (RA), which therefore enables the analysis of the scientific discourse of history. In this respect, the descriptive work of Swales (1990, [...] 2004) and his theory of Rhetorical Moves (RM) is seminal to the study of scientific research articles. The studies based on this theory have been published mostly in English and involve the analysis of some of the distinctive super-structural sections, mainly the introduction and the conclusion, in a discrete approach. The aim of the present study is to describe, both structurally and rhetorically, research articles in the area of history written in Chilean Spanish. To this end, an analysis was carried out of the superstructures present in the RA's of our corpus. Additionally, the prototypical RM's in history RA's were identified and the degree of similarity between these super-structural sections in our corpus and those of other disciplines was established. The main results of this study demonstrate that research articles in the area of history are characterized, mainly, by the narration and interpretation of facts, together with the literal reference to other sources.
Tracking Theory Building and Use Trends in Selected LIS Journals: More Research is Needed. A review of: Kim, Sung?Jin, and Dong Y. Jeong. “An Analysis of the Development and Use of Theory in Library and Information Science Research Articles.” Library & Information Science Research 28.4 (Sept. 2006: 548?62.
Full Text Available Objective ? The authors measure theory incidents occurring in four LIS journals between 1984?2003 in order to examine their number and quality and to analyze them by topic. A third objective, only identified later in the text of the study, was to compare theory development and use between Korean and international journals. Research questions asked include whether LIS has its own theoretical base as a discipline, and what characteristics the theoretical framework has.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – Journal issues selected from four LIS journals for the time span from 1984 ? 2003.Subjects – Two international journals, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (JASIST and Library and Information Science Research (LISR were selected based on their high ranking in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI impact factors. Two Korean journals, Journal of the Korean Society for Information Management (JKSIM and Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science (JKSLIS were selected.Methods ? After having determined a definition of theory, and identifying different levels of theory, the authors set up rules for the identification of theory incidents, which are defined as “events in which the author contributed to the development or the use of theory in his/her own paper” (550. Content analysis of 1661 research articles was performed to measure theory incidents according to working definitions. Interrater reliability was ensured by conducting independent coding for “subfield classification, identification of theory incidents, and quality measurement” (555,using a sample of 199 articles (random selection not specified, achieving 94?97% interrater reliability. Incidents, once identified, were evaluated for quality using Dubin’s “efficiency of law” criteria, involving measures of relatedness, directionality, co?variation, rate of change, and “profundity,” defined as the depth to which theory is incorporated into the research study.Main Results ? 21.79% (n=362 of the articles contained theory incidents that were analyzed and evaluated. Trend measurement indicated an overall increase, although a slight decrease was shown in the year range 1993?2003. International journals accounted for 61.33% of theory incidents, compared to 38.67% for the Korean journals. T?testing showed that differences in means between Korean and international journals were not statistically significant. Topical theory areas were ranked by frequency. The top five areas were shown to be nearly identical between Korean and international journals. ANOVA was performed with significant results in the difference between efficiency ratings. Conclusion – The authors find that the overall proportion of theory incidents including both theory development and use increased through the 20?year time span examined, and that LIS has established its own theoretical framework based upon the frequency of incidents.
Fotea Ioan Stefan
Full Text Available Within current economy context, complexities and particularities most companies are constantly seeking to maximize effectiveness and efficiency of their business. As sales force represents for most organizations their “spearheds”and direct contact with the market, its management can be a source for customer satisfaction and overall efficiency. Relationship marketing research with all its particularities and dimensions, if tailored appropriately can explicitly pinpoint major sources of customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Focus of contemporary relationship marketing is the customer viewed across lifetime as a profit source and partner rather than on short term for singular transactions. Research findings help the organization better manage its sales force and generate customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty and maximize profits while achieving superior efficiency.
Thompson, Hilaire J.; Voss, Joachim G.
This article focuses on a synthesis of knowledge about healthy aging research in human beings and then synthesized nurse-led research in gerontology and geriatrics that use biomarkers. Healthy aging research has attracted considerable attention in the biomedical and basic sciences within the context of four major areas: (a) genetic variations as an expression of successful or unsuccessful aging; (b) caloric restriction as an intervention to slow the progression of aging; (c) immunological agi...
RODOLFO A., MEDINA; GARETH I., OWEN.
Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environm [...] ental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.
RODOLFO A. MEDINA
Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via Web of Science during 1986-2009; that were stored in 500 records files and added to "ISI.exe" software for analysis to be performed. Then, the required output of this software was saved in Excel. There were 19150 articles in the computer science field (by 45713 authors and 958 articles in artificial intelligence field (by 2487 authors. Then for final counting and analyzing, the data converted to “Excel” spreadsheet software. Lotka and Pao’s laws were tested using both Lotka’s formula: (for Lotka’s Law; also for testing Pao’s law the values of the exponent n and the constant c are computed and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were applied. The results suggested that author productivity distribution predicted in “Lotka's generalized inverse square law” was not applicable to computer science and artificial intelligence; but Pao’s law was applicable to these subject areas. Survey both literature and original examining of Lotka and Pao’s Laws witnessed some aspects should be considered. The main elements involved in fitting in a bibliometrics method have been identified: using Lotka or Pao’s law, subject area, period of time, measurement of authors, and a criterion for assessing goodness-of-fit.
Madsen, Christian Østergaard; Berger, Jesper Bull
This paper presents a study of development in leading e-government papers from 2001-2010. Inspired by a study by Heeks and Bailur, the analysis uses a different sampling method, adds new themes, and focuses on changes over time. Through an iterative process known as template analysis the five most cited papers from each year are analyzed according to themes such as perspectives on the impact and impact causes of e-government, methods used, underlying research philosophies and recommendations. Findings indicate that the papers are still somewhat optimistic regarding the impact of e-government, but no longer as technologically deterministic. Discussions of research philosophies start to appear, as do social constructionist studies, although most papers are still positivistic. There is an increase in the use of primary data, and some movement in focus from infrastructure and services towards citizens. There is little development in the discussions of generalization of results and recom-mendations offered.
Rhythm Analysis by Heartbeat Classification in the Electrocardiogram (Review article of the research achievements of the members of the Centre of Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)
Irena Jekova; Vessela Krasteva; Ivaylo Christov; Ivan Dotsinsky; Todor Stoyanov
The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. ...
White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.
The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…
Rosemary dos Santos
Full Text Available Mediante as experiências vivenciadas na pesquisa interinstitucional “A cibercultura na era das redes sociais e da mobilidade: novas potencialidades para a formação de professores” no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação, da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Proped - UERJ propomos um olhar sobre os praticantes da pesquisa em sua formação plural habitando os diversos espaços formativos multirreferenciais. Para tanto, o objetivo deste texto é apresentar como as práticas de Educação online potencializam a interconexão de saberes, de narrativas e de aprendizagens nestes espaços formativos. Para enunciar tais práticas recorremos, além dos estudos das abordagens multirreferencial e dos cotidianos (Ardoino, Alves Macedo e Santos, aos estudos da cibercultura (Lemos, Santaella, Santos, Silva e da educação online (Santos, Silva. Analisando os rastros das itinerâncias e narrativas dos praticantes, chegamos aos seguintes achados: (a É possível criarmos metodologicamente outras possibilidades, outros métodos de fazer pesquisa em Educação que possibilitem a materialidade das autorias dos docentes articulando escola, cidade, ciberespaço; (b Precisaremos repensar os currículos em tempo de cibercultura e suas novas potencialidades comunicacionais; (c Precisaremos discutir nas diversas redes educativas, sobre como estudar para além das tecnologias em si, adentrando na vida social estruturada por elas para entendermos como os praticantes dos cotidianos produzem seus saberes e a própria cultura sociotécnica. Through the experiences in inter-institutional research "Cyberculture in the age of social networking and mobility: new possibilities for teacher training" in the Graduate Program in Education, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Proped-UERJ we suggest a look at the research practitioners, in their plural formation, inhabiting the various multireferential formative spaces. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present how the practices of online education enhance the interconnection of knowledge, learning and narratives in these formative spaces. To enunciate such practices we used, apart from the studies on multireferential and everyday situations approaches (Ardoino, Alves Macedo and Santos, studies of cyberculture (Lemos, Santaella, Santos, Silva and online education (Santos, Silva. By analyzing traces of itinerancies and narratives of practitioners, we come to the following findings: (a It is possible to methodologically create other possibilities, other methods of doing research in education that enable the materiality of teachers’ authorship, articulating school, city, cyberspace. (b We will need to rethink the curriculum in this time of cyberculture and new communication potentialities. (c We will need to discuss in the various educational networks about how to study beyond technologies, entering the social life structured by them in order to understand how everyday practitioners produce their own knowledge and sociotechnical culture.
Cashmore, A. R.
The topic of this research proposal is slightly different from that originally outlined. Specifically, instead of characterizing the genes encoding the small subunit of RuBP carboxylase and the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide from corn, these genes from pea are being characterized. The above polypeptides represent the major products of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in green leaves. CDNA clones encoding the above polypeptides were isolated and characterized. Both of these cDNA clones have now been sequenced, providing the amino acid sequences for the carboxylase small subunit and, for the first time, for the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide. Pea nuclear DNA was cloned into the lambda phage Charon 4, and cloned nuclear DNA sequences encoding the above polypeptides were isolated. Future work will be concerned with the structural and functional characterization of these nuclear genes.
Hossain, Dewan Mahboob
This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...
Full Text Available The morphological and rhythm analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG is based on ventricular beats detection, wave parameters measurement, as amplitudes, widths, polarities, intervals and relations between them, and a subsequent classification supporting the diagnostic process. Number of algorithms for detection and classification of the QRS complexes have been developed by researchers in the Centre of Biomedical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and are reviewed in this material. Combined criteria have been introduced dealing with the QRS areas and amplitudes, the waveshapes evaluated by steep slopes and sharp peaks, vectorcardiographic (VCG loop descriptors, RR intervals irregularities. Algorithms have been designed for application on a single ECG lead, a synthesized lead derived by multichannel synchronous recordings, or simultaneous multilead analysis. Some approaches are based on templates matching, cross-correlation or rely on a continuous updating of adaptive thresholds. Various beat classification methods have been designed involving discriminant analysis, the K-th nearest neighbors, fuzzy sets, genetic algorithms, neural networks, etc. The efficiency of the developed methods has been assessed using internationally recognized arrhythmia ECG databases with annotated beats and rhythm disturbances. In general, high values for specificity and sensitivity competitive to those reported in the literature have been achieved.
L'acquisition des articles en français L2 par des locuteurs d'une langue première sans articles est souvent envisagée sous l'angle du transfert négatif des propriétés nominales de la L1 à la L2. A travers cette étude exploratoire des marquages paranominaux en français L2, ainsi qu'en japonais et français L1s, nous confrontons cette hypothèse dite morphosyntaxique avec une autre hypothèse, l'hypothèse sémantique selon laquelle l'apprenabilité d'une catégorie mor...
Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
This article begins with a rationale for including international articles in the "Journal of Counseling & Development." Then, 2 general categories of international articles are described. First are articles that provide a general overview of counseling in a particular country. The 2nd category is more general and might involve international…
Based on a 2010-11 study involving senior researchers from seven disciplines, this article explores critically some of the diverse interpretations of impact in different disciplines, sub-fields and modes of research, and researchers' views about how these interpretations articulate with top-down impact agendas and with university structures…
Carmen, Piqué-Noguera; Ramón, Camaño-Puig.
Full Text Available El resumen es un género que ha recibido un tratamiento desigual en la literatura especializada; mientras en biomedicina, ciencias sociales y otras disciplinas afines numerosos autores han estudiado el resumen (Salager-Meyer, 1990; Hyland, 2000; Swales & Feak, 2009); en otras, en cambio, se les ha pr [...] estado escasa atención en lo que a su estructura y contenido se refiere y, concretamente, en Enfermería. Su importancia en la diseminación de la ciencia debería ser un acicate para dotar el resumen de una mayor información y fuerza persuasiva. Lo poco que se ha escrito sobre el resumen no aborda la problemática de si el resumen debe seguir el modelo tradicional de un solo párrafo o el estructurado con subtítulos (Posteguillo Gómez & Piqué-Angordans, 2007). El objetivo del presente estudio es describir el contenido y estructura del resumen tradicional así como los elementos textuales y discursivos del mismo. Siguiendo el modelo de la literatura especializada (Weissberg & Buker, 1990), se ha realizado un análisis de un corpus de 240 resúmenes extraídos de artículos de doce revistas de Enfermería mediante la identificación de sus unidades estructurales. Entre los resultados más significativos destaca la amplia variabilidad en cuanto a la estructura y contenido del resumen, con un exceso de resúmenes indicativos más que informativos. A partir de estos resultados concluimos que hace falta unificar criterios para una mejor redacción de los resúmenes de Enfermería y promoción de la investigación, con contenidos más afines a las directrices de la crítica especializada. Abstract in english The abstract is a genre that has received a great deal of attention in some areas, such as biomedicine and the social sciences (Salager-Meyer, 1990; Hyland, 2000; Swales & Feak, 2009); however, its structure and content in other areas, such as nursing, has received less attention. Its importance in [...] the dissemination of science should be an incentive for nursing authors to make it more informative and persuasive. No research has been found that surveyed the issue of whether the abstract should follow the traditional model of a single paragraph or structured with subtitles (Posteguillo Gomez & Piqué-Angordans, 2007). The aim of this study is to describe the content and structure of the traditional abstract, as well as its textual and discursive features. Drawing on the work of Weissberg and Buker (1990), we conducted an analysis of a corpus of 240 abstracts retrieved from twelve nursing journals in which we identified their structural units. One the most striking results was the wide range of variability in terms of the structure and content of the abstracts, with a vast majority of indicative, rather than informative abstracts. These findings suggest the need for a set of agreed upon criteria for writing abstracts in the field of nursing, more clearly aligned with international guidelines for scientific publication.
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.
This document contains, in chronological order, all articles related to dropouts that have appeared in the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) Newsletter from 1986 to 1989. The articles are: (1) "The Prevention and Recovery of Dropouts: An Action Agenda" (Robledo); (2) "Coca Cola Valued Youth Partnership Program Results of Second…
This article describes how contemporary costumes, expressive techniques, and mixed media can take "the ordinary" out of figure studies. To pique student interest and create a meaningful figurative study, students are instructed to bring in their latest fashion accessories (hats, shawls, neck warmers, denim jackets, etc.), or shop the local thrift…
Sharma, Bhanu; Lawrence, David Wyndham
A review of the top-cited articles in a scientific discipline can identify areas of research that are well established and those in need of further development, and may, as a result, inform and direct future research efforts. Our objective was to identify and characterize the top-cited articles in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used publically available software to identify the 50 TBI articles with the most lifetime citations, and the 50 TBI articles with the highest annual citation rates. ...
Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.
Christina E. Carter
Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information, and impact of e-resources on information behaviour. Subjects were also asked to provide three suggestions on improving access to scientific information.Main Results – The amount of reading and number of electronic journals and other sources consulted among the scholars who participated in this study has increased. Three-quarters of survey respondents consult more journals and read more articles. The scholars reported that they are grateful for the increase in electronic information and its enhanced ease of access, and are not overwhelmed by it. Their reading has become more discriminatory, though, with many reporting “skimming” much of what they read to save time. Scholars keep up-to-date in three main ways: web browsing of journal issues, library database searches, and TOC e-mail alerts. More than 90% of survey respondents reported conducting database searches. Google and Google Scholar were often mentioned ahead of specific library database names. In determining value and relevance of an article, its author and abstract are key for scholars. In addition, personal information management techniques used by scholars were all over the board. The three main methods were use of print or electronic folders, reference management software, and no system. Many of the academics felt their information management systems were “rudimentary” (p. 225.The request for suggestions and comments on the questionnaire was not answered by “most of the sample” (p. 226. Those who did respond to this request asked for more library resources. The main complaint expressed by scholars concerned the difficulty and complexity of finding journal article content using the Library website (e.g., varying databases, difficulty of interpreting what journal electronic and print holdings are available. Because of this, a number of scholars used Google to find library-subscribed content.Conclusion – By having greater and easier access to e-journals, scholars accessing the CBUC read more articles from more disciplines. Scholars would prefer a simpler library interface to search for
Kit, Phey Ling; Teo, Lan
In this article, we review the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, as well as current research on evidence-based practices. The relevance of structured expressive therapy in meeting the maturational and emotional needs of at-risk and delinquent adolescents, and the multicultural context of adolescents in Singapore's Asian society…
Bowman, Katherine G
Nurses are expected to use research as a form of evidence to support clinical practice. When selecting articles, some nurses may be unable to recognize the articles that report research. Research recognition is essential before study results may be used as evidence and translated into practice. The purpose of this article is to describe a typical research article, outline the major types of research, and identify the unique characteristics of research that may be used to recognize those articles that report research. PMID:25153431
Müller, Konrad; Naumann, Sebastian; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D
Molecular switches that are controlled by chemicals have evolved as central research instruments in mammalian cell biology. However, these tools are limited in terms of their spatiotemporal resolution due to freely diffusing inducers. These limitations have recently been addressed by the development of optogenetic, genetically encoded, and light-responsive tools that can be controlled with the unprecedented spatiotemporal precision of light. In this article, we first provide a brief overview of currently available optogenetic tools that have been designed to control diverse cellular processes. Then, we focus on recent developments in light-controlled gene expression technologies and provide the reader with a guideline for choosing the most suitable gene expression system. PMID:25153239
This collection of articles, provided by Positive Health Magazine, provides information on reflexology for stroke; vertical reflexology; precision reflexology; reflexology for skin disorders; and integrating color with reflexology. The collection of articles also offers some case studies in reflexology. Most of the articles are lengthy and provide helpful color illustrations. The articles would be of interest to aspiring and practicing reflexologists, as well as massage therapists and other practitioners of therapeutic massage.
Genetic research on cancer has grown tremendously in the last decade, and the increase in the number of published research articles has been truly phenomenal. However, molecular and genetic research focusing on the early detection of cancer is still lagging.
Pico, Alexander R.; Bader, Gary D.; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H.; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey
As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online “cookbook” for app developers. This article collection is another resource to help researchers find out more about relevant Cytoscape apps and to provide app developers with useful implementation tips. The collection will grow ov...
The explosion of information about Ebola requires rapid publication, transparent verification and unrestricted access. I urge everyone involved in all aspects of the Ebola epidemic to openly and rapidly report their experiences and findings.
The following topics are discussed: absorption spectra of Hg(0.656)Cd(0.344)Te compared with the Kane Model; performance of the pyroelectric vidicon imaging system; responsivity of pyroelectric detectors; pyroelectric effect of modified PZT ceramics at the F(RL)--F(RH) transition; technological principle of the unequal thickness hot-pressing of infrared optical materials; anodization on the photovoltaic infrared detector surface of InSb; feasibility problems in the application of infrared heating in a wafer furnace; application examples of infrared thermometer in power system; and big potential of infrared technique in energy conservation. Discussion Conference Held at Nanjing.
Open access (OA) to the research literature has the potential to accelerate recognition and dissemination of research findings, but its actual effects are controversial. This was a longitudinal bibliometric analysis of a cohort of OA and non-OA articles published between June 8, 2004, and December 20, 2004, in the same journal (PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). Article characteristics were extracted, and citation data were compared between the two groups at three different points in time: at "quasi-baseline" (December 2004, 0-6 mo after publication), in April 2005 (4-10 mo after publication), and in October 2005 (10-16 mo after publication). Potentially confounding variables, including number of authors, authors' lifetime publication count and impact, submission track, country of corresponding author, funding organization, and discipline, were adjusted for in logistic and linear multiple regression models. A total of 1,492 original research articles were analyzed: 212 (14.2% of all articles) were OA articles paid by the author, and 1,280 (85.8%) were non-OA articles. In April 2005 (mean 206 d after publication), 627 (49.0%) of the non-OA articles versus 78 (36.8%) of the OA articles were not cited (relative risk = 1.3 [95% Confidence Interval: 1.1-1.6]; p = 0.001). 6 mo later (mean 288 d after publication), non-OA articles were still more likely to be uncited (non-OA: 172 [13.6%], OA: 11 [5.2%]; relative risk = 2.6 [1.4-4.7]; p citations of OA articles was higher compared to non-OA articles (April 2005: 1.5 [SD = 2.5] versus 1.2 [SD = 2.0]; Z = 3.123; p = 0.002; October 2005: 6.4 [SD = 10.4] versus 4.5 [SD = 4.9]; Z = 4.058; p openly accessible OA articles. We found strong evidence that, even in a journal that is widely available in research libraries, OA articles are more immediately recognized and cited by peers than non-OA articles published in the same journal. OA is likely to benefit science by accelerating dissemination and uptake of research findings. PMID:16683865
This article relates common ways of conceptualising action research as “intervention”, “collaboration”, “interactive research”, “applied research”, and “practitioner research” to a number of different ways of knowing, extracted from the works of Aristotle. The purpose is not to disavow any of these practices but to expand the philosophical, methodological, and theoretical horizon to contain the Aristotelian concept of praxis. It is claimed that praxis knowing needs to be c...
Índice de Palabras de Contenido (IPC y Distribución Porcentual de Legomena (DPL en artículos de investigación en español Index of Content Words (ICW and Percent Distribution of Legomena (PDL in Research Articles in Spanish
Full Text Available A partir de una revisión de los índices clásicos en estadística léxica (Leyes de Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot, se proponen dos índices lingüísticos que buscan aportar nuevos datos en la descripción de textos especializados. Se presenta un caso de la aplicación de estos índices a un corpus representativo y multidisciplinar de artículos de investigación en español, que se contrasta con otros siete corpus a modo de control. Si bien desde un punto de vista general los índices tienen un comportamiento estable en los distintos registros, de forma específica, los índices permiten distinguir registros de alta y de baja especialización y dan cuenta de la variación disciplinar de los corpus analizados.Based on a review of classic indices in lexical statistics (Laws of Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot, two linguistic indices are proposed in order to contribute new data in the description of specialized texts. A case is presented in which these indices are applied to a representative, multidisciplinary corpus of research articles in Spanish that is contrasted with seven other corpora serving as a control group. Although, from a general point of view the proposed indices present stable behaviour in different registers, implemented specifically, the proposed indices allow the distinction between high and low specialized registers and reveal the disciplinary variation of the corpora analyzed.
Índice de Palabras de Contenido (IPC) y Distribución Porcentual de Legomena (DPL) en artículos de investigación en español / Index of Content Words (ICW) and Percent Distribution of Legomena (PDL) in Research Articles in Spanish
Ken, Matsuda; Scott, Sadowsky; Omar, Sabaj.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión de los índices clásicos en estadística léxica (Leyes de Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), se proponen dos índices lingüísticos que buscan aportar nuevos datos en la descripción de textos especializados. Se presenta un caso de la aplicación de estos índices a un corpus representativo [...] y multidisciplinar de artículos de investigación en español, que se contrasta con otros siete corpus a modo de control. Si bien desde un punto de vista general los índices tienen un comportamiento estable en los distintos registros, de forma específica, los índices permiten distinguir registros de alta y de baja especialización y dan cuenta de la variación disciplinar de los corpus analizados. Abstract in english Based on a review of classic indices in lexical statistics (Laws of Estoup-Zipf-Mandelbrot), two linguistic indices are proposed in order to contribute new data in the description of specialized texts. A case is presented in which these indices are applied to a representative, multidisciplinary corp [...] us of research articles in Spanish that is contrasted with seven other corpora serving as a control group. Although, from a general point of view the proposed indices present stable behaviour in different registers, implemented specifically, the proposed indices allow the distinction between high and low specialized registers and reveal the disciplinary variation of the corpora analyzed.
Thomas K J
This article is based on a seminar I gave in the Sungkyunkwan University to graduate students who are venturing into a research career. I do not claim this is complete or indisputable. The contents are based on my own experience as a researcher as well as by watching other researchers around me. Some of them were quite successful and some ran into difficult situations due to one reason or another. I hope this will be just a readable article to anyone who wishes to do a Ph. D.
Rasmussen, Tove Arendt
Reality TV has been disputed and discussed along many lines for the last 20 years; the media themselves always with a twist of concern about reality programs crossing moral borderlines while research has put more interest in questions of genre and representation of more or less useful and maybe empowering social identities. In the latest generation of reality TV which Misha Kava has described as the “celebrity generation”, it seems that reality creates new standards for mixing facts and fiction and even different “realities” as participants become media stars while more traditional celebrities are being treated as ordinary people. My article will discuss different presentations of selves and especially the emotional verbal and nonverbal expressions in reality TV communication. Aspects of the intimate self and its emotional expressions seem to be strategically managed in reality TV and even commodified in the celebrity culture. The article will discuss and analyze examples of reality TV’s interpersonal strategically communication in relation to ordinary interpersonal communication where much information about the self is communicated incidentally to the purpose of the situation, and some is communicated involuntarily. Goffman has described the intended and the unintended aspects of personal communication as information ‘given’ which means intended and managed, and information ‘given off’ which is unintentional. In relation to his investigation in human lying and deceit Ekman points out, that information ‘given off’ in lying behavior will must often be found in non-verbal mikro expressions and mikro gestures. I will end by discussing the strategic emotional expressions as production of floating identities in a broader framework on the basis of among others Gergen, Lipovetsky and Baumann. These postmodern and hyperreal trends will then be discussed in relation to Danish philosopher Løgstrup and his concept of the basic utterances of life (de suveræne livsytringer) and Habermas’ understanding of life/system worlds. I aim to get closer to an understanding of what management of visibility and sensibility in communication might mean to the human being of our time – and why we seem to seek it so desperately in the (media) culture.
Full Text Available Background and objective It has been known that abnormality of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signal pathway played an important role in initiation of some malignant tumors. The aim of this study is to examine the expression and clinicopathological significance of PTEN, PI3K and Akt in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Expression levels of PTEN, PI3K and Akt protein were determined using immunohistochemistry S-P in 61 specimens of NSCLC with follow-up. Results ?The levels of PTEN protein was higher than that of control group, and levels of PI3K and Akt protein were lower than that of control group; ?Expression of PTEN and PI3K were related to histotype, clinical stage, lymphonode metastasis and survival rate; Expression of Akt was related to clinical stage, lymphonode metastasis and survival rate; ?The Cox Monovariable Analyses revealed that both smoking and negative expression of PTEN were the risking factors on the death of the NSCLC patients after surgery; ?The expression of PTEN protein was negatively correlated to that of PI3K and Akt respectively, while the expression of PI3K was positively correlated to that of Akt. Conclusion In NSCLC, the lack of PTEN induced up-regulation of PI3K and Akt, which demonstrated that PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC. They could be used as the indicators of prognosis and targets of therapy.
Full Text Available This contribution is based on the four presentations made at the Special Interest Group (SIG meeting titled Gene Expression in Fungi held during IMC9 in Edinburgh. This overview is independent from other articles published or that will be published by each speaker. In the SIG meeting, basic principles of in vivo animal models for virulence studies were discussed. Infection associated genes of Candida albicans and fungal adaptation to the host was summarized. Azole susceptibility was evaluated as a combined result of several changes in expression of pertinent genes. Gene transfer in fungi, resulting in fungal evolution and gene adaptation to environmental factors, was reported.
Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics
Zhang, Hua-bing; Liu, De-Pei; Liang, Chih-Chuan
The alpha-globin gene cluster is located at the very tip of the short arm of chromosome 16. It produces the alpha-like globins, which is combined with the beta-like globins to form hemoglobin, and its mutants cause alpha-thalassemia, which is one of the most common genetic diseases. Its expression shows a tissue and developmental stage specificity that is balanced with that of the beta-globin gene cluster. In this article, we summarize the research on the control of expression of the alpha-globin gene cluster, mainly with respect to the alpha-major regulatory element (alpha-MRE): HS-40, the tissue-specific and developmental control of its expression, and its chromosomal environment. In summary, the alpha-globin gene cluster is expressed in an open chromosomal environment; HS-40, the 5'-flanking sequence, the transcribed region, and the 3'-flanking sequence interact to fully regulate its expression. PMID:12512836
Psychosocial explanations in research articles in Psychology: the Portuguese case and comments to Torres & Neves Explicações psicossociais em artigos de Psicologia: o caso português e comentários a Torres e Neves
Joaquim Pires Valentim
Full Text Available In the present paper we present a commentary on the talk given by Torres and Neves regarding the themes of research in Social Psychology in Brazil. This commentary focuses on issues of intercultural analyses referred to by these authors and their importance in the development of Social Psychology. We also aim to feed this debate with an illustration of the Portuguese scenario. Therefore, we present an analysis of the concepts, explanations and/or psychosocial analyses present in articles published between 2006 and 2012 in three Portuguese journals of Psychology (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica. The results show a high predominance of the "systems external to individuals", especially the ones related to systems of categorization and/or social identities in groups of different social status (Doise, 2012. These results are discussed, synthetically, in articulation with the defence of "cultural translation" as proposed by Torres and Neves.Apresenta-se aqui um comentário à intervenção de Torres e Neves sobre os temas de pesquisa em psicologia social no Brasil. Este comentário foca-se nas questões de análise intercultural referidas por aqueles autores e da sua importância no desenvolvimento da psicologia social. Procura também alimentar este debate com uma ilustração do que se passa no cenário português. Assim, apresenta-se uma análise aos conceitos, explicações ou análises psicossociais presentes nos artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2012 em três revistas portuguesas (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica. Os resultados mostram uma grande predominância dos "sistemas externos aos indivíduos", em especial daqueles que se relacionam com sistemas de categorizações e/ou de identidades sociais de grupos com diferente estatuto social (Doise, 2012. Estes dados são discutidos, de forma sintética, em articulação com a defesa da "tradução cultural" que Torres e Neves fazem.
Psychosocial explanations in research articles in Psychology: the Portuguese case and comments to Torres & Neves / Explicações psicossociais em artigos de Psicologia: o caso português e comentários a Torres e Neves
Joaquim Pires, Valentim; Teresa, Forte; Ana, Figueiredo.
Full Text Available Apresenta-se aqui um comentário à intervenção de Torres e Neves sobre os temas de pesquisa em psicologia social no Brasil. Este comentário foca-se nas questões de análise intercultural referidas por aqueles autores e da sua importância no desenvolvimento da psicologia social. Procura também alimenta [...] r este debate com uma ilustração do que se passa no cenário português. Assim, apresenta-se uma análise aos conceitos, explicações ou análises psicossociais presentes nos artigos publicados entre 2006 e 2012 em três revistas portuguesas (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). Os resultados mostram uma grande predominância dos "sistemas externos aos indivíduos", em especial daqueles que se relacionam com sistemas de categorizações e/ou de identidades sociais de grupos com diferente estatuto social (Doise, 2012). Estes dados são discutidos, de forma sintética, em articulação com a defesa da "tradução cultural" que Torres e Neves fazem. Abstract in english In the present paper we present a commentary on the talk given by Torres and Neves regarding the themes of research in Social Psychology in Brazil. This commentary focuses on issues of intercultural analyses referred to by these authors and their importance in the development of Social Psychology. W [...] e also aim to feed this debate with an illustration of the Portuguese scenario. Therefore, we present an analysis of the concepts, explanations and/or psychosocial analyses present in articles published between 2006 and 2012 in three Portuguese journals of Psychology (Análise Psicológica, Psicologia e Psychologica). The results show a high predominance of the "systems external to individuals", especially the ones related to systems of categorization and/or social identities in groups of different social status (Doise, 2012). These results are discussed, synthetically, in articulation with the defence of "cultural translation" as proposed by Torres and Neves.
Full Text Available For overproduction of recombinant proteins both eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems are used. Choosing the right system depends, among other things, on the growth rate and culture of host cells, level of the target gene expression and posttranslational processing of the synthesized protein. Regardless of the type of expression system, its basic elements are the vector and the expression host.The most widely used system for protein overproduction, both on a laboratory and industrial scale, is the prokaryotic system. This system is based primarily on the bacteria E. coli, although increasingly often Bacillus species are used. The prokaryotic system allows one to obtain large quantities of recombinant proteins in a short time. A simple and inexpensive bacterial cell culture and well-known mechanisms of transcription and translation facilitate the use of these microorganisms. The simplicity of genetic modifications and the availability of many bacterial mutants are additional advantages of the prokaryotic system. In this article we characterize the structural elements of prokaryotic expression vectors. Also strategies for preparation of the target protein gene that increase productivity, facilitate detection and purification of recombinant protein and provide its activity are discussed. Bacterial strains often used as host cells in expression systems as well as the potential location of heterologous proteins are characterized.Knowledge of the basic elements of the prokaryotic expression system allows for production of biologically active proteins in a short time and in satisfactory quantities.
This website from Permaculture Magazine offers a selection of gratis online articles. According to the site, this section "has sample articles from previous issues of Permaculture Magazine. These have been chosen primarily to give an idea of the broad range of subjects covered by the magazine" back to issue number nine. Topics include ecofarming, bird management, earthen huts, and pollution control.
Hossain, Dewan Mahboob
This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...
Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy
Full Text Available A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial expression database and Japanese Female Facial Expression database. The results show the effectiveness of proposed method.
Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani
A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâ??s facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facia...
Petit, Sandrine; Mougenot, Catherine; Fleury, Philippe
This article deals with a group of researchers involved in Participatory Action Research projects on biodiversity and who volunteered to take part in a "storytelling" experiment. Their "stories" were used to describe this new type of research collective comprising various partners, including researchers and managers, focused on obtaining directly…
Rasmussen, Lucinda A.
This paper presents the author's comments on the Michigan sex offender registration article "Family Experiences of Young Adult Sex Offender Registration" (Comartin, Kernsmith, & Miles, 2010). The article is an important piece of research that addresses a much neglected and almost invisible population in the annals of research: the families of…
Charles Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) is a very different kind of work from On the Origin of Species (1859). This "otherness" is most extreme in the character of the explanations that Darwin offers in the Expression. Far from promoting his theory of natural selection, the Expression barely mentions that theory, instead drawing on explanatory principles which recall less Darwinian than Lamarckian and structuralist biological theorizing. Over the years, historians have offered a range of solutions to the puzzle of why the Expression is so "non-Darwinian". Close examination shows that none of these meets the case. However, recent research on Darwin's lifelong engagement with the controversies in his day over the unity of the human races makes possible a promising new solution. For Darwin, emotional expression served the cause of defending human unity precisely to the extent that natural selection theory did not apply. PMID:20338535
This article analyzes the role of children’s social environment in shaping children’s emotional expressions. It is based on the findings of an ongoing research study interrogating childrearing practices in two rural populations representing two contrasting ecological contexts in Argentina: Mbya Guarani indigenous communities located in the northeast rainforest (Misiones Province) and creole communities from Molinos (Salta Province), in the highlands and semiarid areas of Argentinean north...
Full Text Available The article „An interactive algorithm for large scale multiple objective programming problems with fuzzy parameters through TOPSIS approach“, by authors Mahmoud A.ABO-SINNA, Tarek. H.M.ABOU-EL-ENIEN, published in YUJOR, Vol 21, No 2, 2011, was retracted at the request of the editors because the authors infringed professional codes by submitting the above article to YUJOR after their substantialy the same article, with the same title „An interactive algorithm for large scale multiple objective programming problems with fuzzy parameters through TOPSIS approach“, was accepted for publication and published in another journal, Applied Mathematics and Computation,Volume 177, Issue 2, 15 June 2006, Pages 515–527. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/YJOR1102253A
Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman
ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels. PMID:25257728
Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z
This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.
Bernecky, Robert; Herhut, Stephan; Scholz, Sven-Bodo
We introduce symbiotic expressions, a method for algebraic simplification within a compiler, in lieu of an SMT solver, such as Yices or the Omega Calculator. Symbiotic expressions are compiler-generated expressions, temporarily injected into a program's abstract syntax tree (AST). The compiler's normal optimizations interpret and simplify those expressions, making their results available for the compiler to use as a basis for decisions about further optimization of the source program. The expressions are symbiotic, in the sense that both parties benefit: an optimization benefits, by using the compiler itself to simplify expressions that have been attached, lamprey-like, to the AST by the optimization; the program being compiled benefits, from improved run-time in both serial and parallel environments.
Purpose: To evaluate the development status, character and trends of medical imaging. Methods: The articles published on >, > and > from 1983 to 1996 were analyzed by bibliometrics and compared with the articles published on > and > of USA. Results: total numbers of the published articles were increasing gradually in these years. But, the rate of increase was not equal among different research fields. For example, the number of research articles of CT, MR and Interventional Radiography were increasing more quickly than that of X ray. It was also found that the development status and trends of medical imaging were different between China and America. Most research articles published in the journals of America in 1996 were about MR, whereas CT ranked first in china in the same year. Conclusion: Medical imaging develops very quickly in recent years. The emphasis of research and development has switched over from traditional X ray to new fields or techniques, such as Ct, MR and interventional radiology
A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications
Alhija, Fadia Nasser-Abu; Levy, Adi
Effect size (ES) reporting practices in a sample of 10 educational research journals are examined in this study. Five of these journals explicitly require reporting ES and the other 5 have no such policy. Data were obtained from 99 articles published in the years 2003 and 2004, in which 183 statistical analyses were conducted. Findings indicate no…
This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…
A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B2O3, and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid
This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…
Van Velzen, Joke H.
In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about…
Collection of articles of the scientific research institute for economics of fuel and power engineering in 1978. Sbornik trudov anuchno-issledovatel'skogo instituta ekonomiki topliva energetiki za 1978
This collection contains 11 articles devoted to problems of the developmental electric power engineering and coal recovery in Czechloslovakia, particularly at great depths. Methods of analyzing capital outlays, problems of a system of standards, the utilization of computer engineering to organize and manage enterprises of the Czechloslovakian minstry of fuel and power are also considered.
As for the influences of Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake on Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, we can conclude that 'the safety function of the nuclear power station, that is, 'Shutdown', 'Cooling down' and 'Isolating' functioned as per designed even against an earthquake beyond assumption, and fundamental nuclear safety could assured'. Nevertheless, it is said that one of the causes that harmful rumor had spread was due to mass communication media. In the press reports on some nuclear power station when affected by an earthquake and on trouble in the nuclear power station in the future, we will propose that the publication should be really useful for habitants and citizens and be promoted in the positive and expected direction, in order not to make the same mistake as this time. JSME should aim at implement the above-mentioned proposal under cooperation with other academic societies and organizations. (author)
The article presents researcher’s attempts, methodological problems and queries in embodiment research during a Grounded Theory Methodology based study on social world of ballroom dancers. The research has been conducted among ballroom dancers, flamenco dancers, belly dancers, dance instructors, choreographers and judges. One of the aspects of the research is social construction of embodiment. In the article I will present techniques and methods of research such as auto...
This article aims to discuss, firstly, the substantiation of a new discipline within the applied onomastics with a short excursion into the historical domain, its relationship to other sub-disciplines, then its difference from toponymics, and finally to give an example of contemporary works at the intersection of geography, linguistics, onomastics, cartography, map semantics and others.
A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is one of many that provided data contributing to the design of the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.
This article describes the process of preparing a research article for publication in a nursing journal. It is aimed at nurses who wish to share their research results with other health professionals and is designed to help the researcher who is new to publishing. In writing a research article, the author describes what he or she has learned. This may enable others to replicate or develop the research, or improve their clinical practice. Published research should represent the research clearly and accurately, present the findings or results, and provide reasoned conclusions about what has been discovered. PMID:25563128
Full Text Available Abstract: The research subject is the first key element of the three key elements in the research design. An appropriate selection of research subjects is crucial to the success of the research. This article summarizes the general principles for the selection of research subjects, the types and numbers of research subjects and the common mistakes that researchers tend to make in the selection of the research subjects. This article also provides the methodology suggestions for the selection of research subjects.
Microarrays have had a significant impact on many areas of biology. However, there are still many fertile research areas that would benefit from microarray analysis but are limited by the amount of biological material that can be obtained (e.g. samples obtained by small biopsy, f...
Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives
Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)
Teresa K. NAAB
Full Text Available The article outlines arguments for the relevance of people’s attitudes towards freedom of expression: It is a fundamental principle of democracy that if a virtue does not receive support from the population, it will not be anchored in law and its foundation is endangered in the medium term. People’s support for free speech is becoming even more influential because authoritative control of internet communication is faced with difficulties. Furthermore, with the development of social media users gain new opportunities to publicly express their opinions attaching even more importance to normative self-regulation. As a matter of fact, these increased opportunities of self-regulation may either enhance or decrease the exercise of expression rights. Thus, citizen’s endorsement of free expression is a valuable indicator of the status of freedom of expression in a country. To approach to the subject empirically, the paper systematizes findings on people’s attitudes towards free speech: Most people believe in freedom of expression in the abstract. Willingness to apply the right to opposing groups, however, is lower. Perceived threats, confidence in democratic principles, mode of communication, and personality variables influence tolerance of expressions. Finally, a research agenda is put forward to examine appreciation of free expression, its antecedence, and implications.
Klanova, Magdalena; Soukup, Tomas; Jaksa, Radek; Molinsky, Jan; Lateckova, Lucie; Maswabi, Bokang C L; Prukova, Dana; Brezinova, Jana; Michalova, Kyra; Vockova, Petra; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Kulvait, Vojtech; Zivny, Jan; Vokurka, Martin; Necas, Emanuel; Trneny, Marek; Klener, Pavel
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with poor prognosis. Animal models of MCL are scarce. We established and characterized various in vivo models of metastatic human MCL by tail vein injection of either primary cells isolated from patients with MCL or established MCL cell lines (Jeko-1, Mino, Rec-1, Hbl-2, and Granta-519) into immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ mice. MCL infiltration was assessed with immunohistochemistry (tissues) and flow cytometry (peripheral blood). Engraftment of primary MCL cells was observed in 7 out of 12 patient samples. The pattern of engraftment of primary MCL cells varied from isolated involvement of the spleen to multiorgan infiltration. On the other hand, tumor engraftment was achieved in all five MCL cell lines used and lymphoma involvement of murine bone marrow, spleen, liver, and brain was observed. Overall survival of xenografted mice ranged from 22 ± 1 to 54 ± 3 days depending on the cell line used. Subsequently, we compared the gene expression profile (GEP) and phenotype of the engrafted MCL cells compared with the original in vitro growing cell lines (controls). We demonstrated that engrafted MCL cells displayed complex changes of GEP, protein expression, and sensitivity to cytotoxic agents when compared with controls. We further demonstrated that our MCL mouse models could be used to test the therapeutic activity of systemic chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, or angiogenesis inhibitors. The characterization of MCL murine models is likely to aid in improving our knowledge in the disease biology and to assist scientists in the preclinical and clinical development of novel agents in relapsed/refractory MCL patients. PMID:24862967
El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali
This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.
Experiencia del Comité de Ética de Investigación en Seres Humanos de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile y los desafíos que impone la nueva legislación chilena en la investigación médica / Experience of a research Ethics Committee and the challenges of the new Chilean legislation on research in human beings
Manuel, Oyarzún G; María Eugenia, Pinto C; Gina G, Raineri B; Hugo, Amigo; Lucía, Cifuentes O; María Julieta, González; Nina, Horwitz; Claudia, Marshall F; Gricel, Orellana V.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The welfare of research participants must be guaranteed by international ethical standards. This article communicates the procedures of the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, University of Chile (CEISH). The new Chilean legislation on research in human beings is also discussed. Law [...] 20.120: "On scientific research in human beings, its genome and forbidding human cloning" establishes the ethical principles that must be accomplished in every research involving human beings. Article 28 of the Law 20.584 "Regulation of the rights and duties of health care users", forbids the participation of handicapped people who cannot express their will in scientific research. Article 13 states that people not related directly with patient care cannot have access to his clinical records (with the exception of people with notarial authorization by the patient). CEISH proposes that, in case of people with intellectual deficiency, the decision to approve a scientific research should be analyzed on an individual basis. If the person is capable of expressing his or her will or has stated his or her consent beforehand, the research can be authorized. If the person cannot express his or her will, the scientific research cannot take place. In prospective studies, a consent from the patient and an authorization of the health authority should be required to access clinical records. In retrospective studies, consent should be obtained from the patient when personal information is going to be used. If the information is nameless, the consent can be disregarded.
Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Sunyoung
The purpose of this study is to examine key research themes in human performance technology (HPT) through content analysis of the 20 most influential articles identified in Cho, Jo, Park, Kang, and Chen (2011). Three questions guiding this inquiry are: (1) What are the key themes of the 20 most influential articles in "PIQ", (2) What information…
Gelling, Leslie; Engward, Hilary
The planning stage of any research project is one of the most important stages in the research process. This article offers insight into the important issues a researcher needs to consider when planning his or her research, including how to develop a research protocol, obtaining research funding, seeking academic, peer and social support, gaining research ethics and governance approval and planning a research schedule. Careful planning ensures that the research project is achievable and can be completed on time, with the funding available. PMID:25758518
This document has been prepared by the French public organizations on charge of the researches about the management of radioactive wastes in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991. It was presented at the national commission of evaluation on March 6, 2002. It comprises 6 chapters dealing with: 1 - the methodology, structuration and implementation of researches: main goals; products of the back-end of the fuel cycle and evaluation of fluxes; technical structuration of programs; researches consistency, complementarity and priority; criteria of appreciation of researches relevance; 2 - the main results after 10 years of researches in the framework of the 1991 law: abatement of wastes noxiousness; wastes conditioning; long-term storage; studies on geological disposal; 3 - the main steps towards 2006: separation and transmutation; underground disposal; conditioning and long-term behaviour; 4 - presentation and analysis of research programs: separation-transmutation; feasibility of a deep geologic disposal (clay, granite); conditioning and storage (containers, storage and long-term behaviour); 5 - coordination: authorities, share of data, research programs; 6 - international collaborations; appendixes. (J.S.)
One of the things that many post-secondary graphic-design schools look for in student portfolios is one or two typography projects with hand-rendered type. At Merivale High School, junior graphic-design classes work with traditional media, and every year they receive an assignment that encourages them to play with letter forms. In this article,…
Abstract: The research subject is the first key element of the three key elements in the research design. An appropriate selection of research subjects is crucial to the success of the research. This article summarizes the general principles for the selection of research subjects, the types and numbers of research subjects and the common mistakes that researchers tend to make in the selection of the research subjects. This article also provides the methodology suggestions for the selection of...
Abstract The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic for the field. All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through the work with form and space – drawings, models and completed works. Probably all good design is informed by some kind of research – research based design. But can research arise from design?
La difusión de las investigaciones y el formato IMRYD: Una pesquisa a propósito de la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos The dissemination of research and the IMRYD format: a screennig apropos of the critical reading of the scientific articles
Julio García del Junco
Full Text Available Se estudia la importancia del formato IMRYD -Introducción, Métodos, Resultados y Discusión- para la organización del artículo científico entre los investigadores y profesores de mercadeo y organización de empresas. Con vistas a identificar qué aspectos consideran más importantes en esta estructura, se interrogó a 143 catedráticos de las áreas referidas. Una vez informatizados los datos recogidos, se aplicó el modelo de Rasch para determinar los aspectos considerados como los más importantes por el grupo de expertos consultados. Los especialistas consultados señalaron un total de 20 aspectos como los más relevantes para evaluar la calidad de un artículo científico. Finalmente, a partir de lo indicado por los expertos consultados, se conformó una guía para la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos en las áreas del mercadeo y la organización empresarial.The importance of the format IMRYD -Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion- for the organization of the scientific article among the investigators and professors of marketing and businesses organization is studied. 143 professors of the referred areas were interviewed in order to know which are the aspects considered by them as the most important in this structure. Once the collected data were computerized, Rasch's model was applied to determine the aspects chosen as the most significant by the group of experts consulted. These specialists indicated a total of 20 aspects as the most relevant to evaluate the quality of a scientific article. Finally, from the aspects mentioned by the experts consulted, a guide for the critical reading of the scientific articles in the areas of marketing and business organization was made.
La difusión de las investigaciones y el formato IMRYD: Una pesquisa a propósito de la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos / The dissemination of research and the IMRYD format: a screennig apropos of the critical reading of the scientific articles
Julio, García del Junco; Mario, Castellanos Verdugo.
Full Text Available Se estudia la importancia del formato IMRYD -Introducción, Métodos, Resultados y Discusión- para la organización del artículo científico entre los investigadores y profesores de mercadeo y organización de empresas. Con vistas a identificar qué aspectos consideran más importantes en esta estructura, [...] se interrogó a 143 catedráticos de las áreas referidas. Una vez informatizados los datos recogidos, se aplicó el modelo de Rasch para determinar los aspectos considerados como los más importantes por el grupo de expertos consultados. Los especialistas consultados señalaron un total de 20 aspectos como los más relevantes para evaluar la calidad de un artículo científico. Finalmente, a partir de lo indicado por los expertos consultados, se conformó una guía para la lectura crítica de los artículos científicos en las áreas del mercadeo y la organización empresarial. Abstract in english The importance of the format IMRYD -Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion- for the organization of the scientific article among the investigators and professors of marketing and businesses organization is studied. 143 professors of the referred areas were interviewed in order to know which a [...] re the aspects considered by them as the most important in this structure. Once the collected data were computerized, Rasch's model was applied to determine the aspects chosen as the most significant by the group of experts consulted. These specialists indicated a total of 20 aspects as the most relevant to evaluate the quality of a scientific article. Finally, from the aspects mentioned by the experts consulted, a guide for the critical reading of the scientific articles in the areas of marketing and business organization was made.
THIS ARTICLE REPLACES THAT PUBLISHED IN BULLETIN 27/2003, PAGE 8. "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition. The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund. Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at http://www.rainbowseedfund.com." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via ...
Huang, Mei; Chen, Tong; Chan, ZhuLong
With 1383 tandem mass spectra derived from 120 individual protein spots separated by the two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis of protein samples from three different species, comparative analyses were performed by searching the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database (DB) and the NCBI non-redundant (nr) DB of green plants, respectively, which uses the Mascot search engine to establish a statistical basis. It was confirmed that the former could identify more peptides manually validated by de novo sequencing (DNS) from fewer species in more closely phylogenetic relationships than the latter in a statistically significant manner. Our data demonstrated that correct peptide identifications were given low Mascot scores (e.g. 6-14) and incorrect peptide identifications were given high Mascot scores (e.g. 68-83). Our data also showed that the current evaluation approaches to protein assignments are unsatisfactory because a few 'false-positive' proteins are recognized and several 'false-negative' proteins are rescued by manual validation. PMID:16941525
This report is made of two parts: the first part is a status report which highlights the main achievements of all research activities conducted in 2001 in the global context of national and international efforts on nuclear waste management (partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations, conditioning and storage, national and international collaborations, report no 7 of the national review board (CNE), the Global 201 conference and the year 2001 highlights). The second part is the executive summary of the 2002 edition of the 'Research strategy and programmes' document. The new edition has ben reorganized according to previous editions in an effort to make it more concise, clearer and more comprehensive. Chapter 1 now focusses entirely on the methodology followed by all research partners and stakeholders in structuring and implementing research programmes. Chapter 2 is new and provides a summary of the major research results 10 years after the 1991 law became effective. Chapter 3 is also new and highlights the major milestones yet ahead and identified in terms of both objectives to be attained and key steps leading up to 2006. Chapter 4 contains a detailed description and analysis of the programmes envisaged and the last 2 chapters discuss very broadly the coordination of research activities and the way they are being implemented both at national (chapter 5) and international (chapter 6) levels. (J.S.)
A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface
This article focuses on the elaboration of institutional research practice, which is an important element of any research university. The study addresses three questions. First, how did institutional research arise, and what is its raison d'etre in a research university? Second, how can institutional research contribute to the improvement of…
We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn2+ or Cd2+. We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully
Dolby, Nadine; Rahman, Aliya
Until recently, international education has existed at the margins of educational research. However, in the current context of globalization, international education has moved closer to the center of educational research throughout the world. In this article, the authors identify, describe, and analyze six distinct research approaches to…
Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.
Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nocturnal insects such as moths are ideal models to study the molecular bases of olfaction that they use, among examples, for the detection of mating partners and host plants. Knowing how an odour generates a neuronal signal in insect antennae is crucial for understanding the physiological bases of olfaction, and also could lead to the identification of original targets for the development of olfactory-based control strategies against herbivorous moth pests. Here, we describe an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project to characterize the antennal transcriptome of the noctuid pest model, Spodoptera littoralis, and to identify candidate genes involved in odour/pheromone detection. Results By targeting cDNAs from male antennae, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in male olfaction, including pheromone reception. A total of 20760 ESTs were obtained from a normalized library and were assembled in 9033 unigenes. 6530 were annotated based on BLAST analyses and gene prediction software identified 6738 ORFs. The unigenes were compared to the Bombyx mori proteome and to ESTs derived from Lepidoptera transcriptome projects. We identified a large number of candidate genes involved in odour and pheromone detection and turnover, including 31 candidate chemosensory receptor genes, but also genes potentially involved in olfactory modulation. Conclusions Our project has generated a large collection of antennal transcripts from a Lepidoptera. The normalization process, allowing enrichment in low abundant genes, proved to be particularly relevant to identify chemosensory receptors in a species for which no genomic data are available. Our results also suggest that olfactory modulation can take place at the level of the antennae itself. These EST resources will be invaluable for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction and pheromone detection in S. littoralis, and for ultimately identifying original targets to fight against moth herbivorous pests.
A neutron absorbing article is described which comprises boron carbide particles and an irreversibly-cured phenol aldehyde condensation polymer cured to a continuous matrix about the boron carbide particles. Such an article may be used in spent fuel storage racks. It can be manufactured by mixing together a curable phenolic resin with boron carbide particles, compacting the mixture to an article of desired shape, curing the resin at an elevated temperature, impregnating the cured article with curable phenolic resin in liquid state, and curing the article again
Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…
Nano Research is a peer-reviewed, international and interdisciplinary research journal that focuses on all aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Submissions are solicited in all topical areas, ranging from basic aspects of the science of nanoscale materials to practical applications of such materials. Nano Research is an open-access journal, making all research results freely available online.Nano Research offers readers an attractive mix of authoritative and comprehensive Reviews, original cutting-edge research in Communication and Full Paper formats. Rapid review to ensure quick publication is a key feature of Nano Research.Articles in Nano Research are accessible free of charge in 2008 and 2009.
Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bu?lthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian
The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include on...
Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia
Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…
Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)
Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientists and experts in science policy have become increasingly interested in strengthening translational research. Efforts to understand the nature of translational research and monitor policy interventions face an obstacle: how can translational research be defined in order to facilitate analysis of it? We describe methods of scientometric analysis that can do this. Methods We downloaded bibliographic and citation data from all articles published in 2009 in the 75 leading journals in cancer and in cardiovascular medicine (roughly 15,000 articles for each field. We calculated citation relationships between journals and between articles and we extracted the most prevalent natural language concepts. Results Network analysis and mapping revealed polarization between basic and clinical research, but with translational links between these poles. The structure of the translational research in cancer and cardiac medicine is, however, quite different. In the cancer literature the translational interface is composed of different techniques (e.g., gene expression analysis that are used across the various subspecialties (e.g., specific tumor types within cancer research and medicine. In the cardiac literature, the clinical problems are more disparate (i.e., from congenital anomalies to coronary artery disease; although no distinctive translational interface links these fields, translational research does occur in certain subdomains, especially in research on atherosclerosis and hypertension. Conclusions These techniques can be used to monitor the continuing evolution of translational research in medicine and the impact of interventions designed to enhance it.
Cox, Rebecca D.
Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.
This video discusses some methods for achieving good communication. Suggested techniques include using the listener's frame of reference, acknowledging the listener's reactions, and adjusting the style of presentation. The goal of true communication is facilitating a real exchange between people, providing an arena for the expression of ideas and an opportunity to create a positive perception of one's self in the minds of others.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.
Discussions related to ethical practices in social science research are presented in this article. The discussions emanate from the two-day ethics conference in social science research at Georgetown University, funded by the National Science Foundation. (SA)
Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008): 150-4.
Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS) publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” ...
Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.
A process is disclosed for producing an article with improved ceramic surface properties including providing an article having a ceramic surface, and placing the article onto a conductive substrate holder in a hermetic enclosure. Thereafter a low pressure ambient is provided in the hermetic enclosure. A plasma including ions of solid materials is produced the ceramic surface of the article being at least partially immersed in a macroparticle free region of the plasma. While the article is immersed in the macroparticle free region, a bias of the substrate holder is biased between a low voltage at which material from the plasma condenses on the surface of the article and a high negative voltage at which ions from the plasma are implanted into the article. 15 figs.
Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / research and development of a reverse engineering system for local industrial articles (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium bun`ya / chiiki kogeihin muke reverse engineering system no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho
The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the research on the application of local industrial article use reverse engineering (RE, it had been regarded as imitation and reproduction technology, but has recently been as a part of the production information integration). With the actual local industrial article as standard, which has features in design and was added with local traditionality, such as glass having 3D free-form surface, 3D shape information modeling technology RE is developed, and a system for direct automatic metal mold processing is established, aiming at shortening of delivery date, cost reduction and higher grade. The target of the research is Okinawa prefecture. In fiscal 1997, study was made of the speeding-up of the non-contact 3D shape information inputting (multi-point simultaneous inputting by CCD of the laser reflected light of the actual model) and the data storage technology. Cast iron was selected as molding materials, judging from reactivity/machinability with heat resistant glass. Also studied was the blend of glass materials suitable for press forming. Further, studies were proceeded with of development of intellectual cutting tools into which sensor function is integrated and of virtual reality for facilitating/accelerating the design up to metal mold manufacturing. 39 refs., 88 figs., 21 tabs.
Weiner, Bryan J.; Amick, Halle R.; Lund, Jennifer L.; Lee, Shoou-yih Daniel; Hoff, Timothy J.
Over the past 10 years, the field of health services and management research has seen renewed interest in the use of qualitative research methods. This article examines the volume and characteristics of qualitative research articles published in nine major health services and management journals between 1998 and 2008. Qualitative research articles comprise 9% of research articles published in these journals. Although the publication rate of qualitative research articles has not kept pace with...
Al Kohlani, Fatima A.
The present study examines the function of discourse markers in Arabic newspaper opinion articles. In this study, discourse markers are not only connecting- words that contribute to the cohesion of text, but they are also crucial tools for achieving communicative act in the text. These expressions that come from different grammatical classes and…
Grachten, Maarten; Arcos, Josep Ll; Lopez Mantaras, Ramon
The research described in this paper focuses on global tempo transformations of monophonic audio recordings of saxophone jazz performances. More concretely, we have investigated the problem of how a performance played at a particular tempo can be automatically rendered at another tempo while preserving its expressivity. To do so we have developed a case-based reasoning system called TempoExpress. The results we have obtained have been extensively compared against a sta...
Broekens, Joost; Qu, Chao; Brinkman, Willem-paul
Facial emotion expression for virtual characters is used in a wide variety of areas. Often, the primary reason to use emotion expression is not to study emotion expression generation per se, but to use emotion expression in an application or research project. What is then needed is an easy to use and flexible, but also validated mechanism to do so. In this report we present such a mechanism. It enables developers to build virtual characters with dynamic affective facial expr...
Sumathi, C. P.; Santhanam, T.; Mahadevi, M.
The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparam...
Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…
Kim, Walter S.
This report selectively summarizes NASA Glenn Research Center s research and technology accomplishments for fiscal year 2002. It comprises 166 short articles submitted by the staff scientists and engineers. The report is organized into five major sections: Aeronautics, Research and Technology, Space, Engineering and Technical Services, and Commercial Technology. A table of contents and author index have been developed to assist readers in finding articles of special interest. This report is not intended to be a comprehensive summary of all the research and technology work done over the past fiscal year. Most of the work is reported in Glenn-published technical reports, journal articles, and presentations prepared by Glenn staff and contractors. In addition, university grants have enabled faculty members and graduate students to engage in sponsored research that is reported at technical meetings or in journal articles. For each article in this report, a Glenn contact person has been identified, and where possible, a reference document is listed so that additional information can be easily obtained. The diversity of topics attests to the breadth of research and technology being pursued and to the skill mix of the staff that makes it possible. For more information about research at Glenn, visit us on the World Wide Web (http://www.grc.nasa.gov). This document is available online (http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/RT). For publicly available reports, visit the Glenn Technical Report Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/GLTRS/).
Estrategias académicas de inserción científica: una propuesta metodológica para el estudio de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en los artículos de investigación / Stratégies Universitaires d'Insertion Scientifique: Une Proposition Méthodologique pour l'étude des Revendications épistémiques dans les Articles de Recherche / Academic Strategies for Scientific Insertion: A Methodological Proposal to Study Epistemic Claims Found in Research Articles / Estratégias acadêmicas de inserção científica: uma proposta metodológica para o estudio das reivindicações epistêmicas nos artígos de pesquisas
Álvaro, Pina-Stranger; Omar, Sabaj Meruane; Paulina, Toro Tengrove; Ken, Matsuda Oteíza.
Full Text Available As reivindicações epistêmicas são atos graças aos que os responsáveis encaminham socialmente o saber ora ativado. No mundo acadêmico, as reivindicações epistêmicas associam-se com conteúdos específicos que um autor desfralda após escrever um artigo de investigação. Se bem existem métodos diversos pa [...] ra analisar a construção coletiva do conhecimento, não existem propostas específicas que permitam uma descrição do modo como essas reivindicações são socialmente inseridas numa comunidade científica. é nesse âmbito que este artigo apresenta um método interdisciplinar para estudar a forma em que os autores de artigos científicos incluem, utilizando citações, as suas reivindicações epistêmicas na comunidade científica. Apresentaremos uma tipologia das reivindicações epistêmicas, onde diferenciamos em função do tipo de conteúdo que as mesmas promovem as reivindicações teóricas, metodológicas e performativas. Os resultados mostram que o tipo de reivindicação epistêmica associa-se à estratégia de citação. O método que oferecemos contribui ao estudo da construção coletiva do conhecimento, já que permite diferenciar as estratégias acadêmicas que os autores ativam e o tipo de conhecimento reivindicado. Abstract in spanish Las reivindicaciones epistémicas son actos a través de los cuales los actores sitúan socialmente el saber que movilizan. En el mundo académico, las reivindicaciones epistémicas se asocian a los contenidos específicos que un autor despliega al escribir un artículo de investigación. Si bien existen mé [...] todos diversos para analizar la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, no existen propuestas específicas que permitan describir el modo en que estas reivindicaciones se insertan socialmente en una comunidad científica. En este contexto, este artículo presenta un método interdisciplinario para estudiar la manera en que los autores de artículos científicos inscriben, a través del uso de las citaciones, sus reivindicaciones epistémicas en una comunidad científica. Proponemos una tipología de las reivindicaciones epistémicas en la que distinguimos, en función del tipo de contenido que éstas promueven, las reivindicaciones teóricas, metodológicas y performativas. Los resultados muestran que el tipo de reivindicación epistémica está asociado a la estrategia de citación. El método que proponemos contribuye al estudio de la construcción colectiva del conocimiento, pues permite diferenciar las estrategias académicas que los autores movilizan y el tipo de conocimiento reivindicado. Abstract in english Epistemic claims are actions in which the actors apply their knowledge socially. In the academic world, epistemic claims are associated with specific contents that an author makes when writing a research article. While there are diverse methods for analyzing the collective construction of knowledge, [...] there are no specific proposals to describe how these claims are socially inserted in the scientific community. In this context, the article presents an interdisciplinary method for studying how authors of scientific articles use their epistemic claims in order to insert themselves into a scientific community. We propose a typology of epistemic claims in which, based on the type of content they promote, we distinguish the theoretical and performance claims. The results show that the type of epistemic claim is associated with the citation strategy. The method that we propose contributes to the study of collective construction of knowledge, in that it makes it possible to differentiate the academic strategies used by authors and the type of knowledge claimed.
This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.
Full Text Available The present paper analyses different approaches of religiosity in the psychological researches. We intend to explain the concept of religiosity, the distinction in the psychology field between religiosity and spirituality, religiosity dimensions and the main issues to be taken into account in measuring religiosity. In the analysis of the religiosity dimensions we refer to the hierarchical model of religiosity organization (Tsang and McCullough, 2003, which argues that religiosity is manifested at two levels: the dispositional level, reflecting the interindividual differences on religious features and the operational level, which refers to the interindividual diversity in the expression of religiosity. Regarding the measurement of religiosity, we analyze the conceptual clarity of the measured dimensions, the psychometric aspects of the religiosity measurement instruments, the sample representativeness and the cultural sensitivity of the instruments measuring religiosity. Throughout the article we present the results of some researches on the implications of the religiosity dimensions on the personal and family mental health
Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M
Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708
Davidson, Michael W.
Welcome to the Molecular Expressions website featuring acclaimed photo galleries that explore the fascinating world of optical microscopy. The site goes where no microscope has gone before by offering one of the Web's largest collections of color photographs taken through an optical microscope (commonly referred to as "photo-micro-graphs"). Visit the Photo Gallery for an introductory selection of images covering just about everything from beer and ice cream to integrated circuits and ceramic superconductors. These photographs are available for licensing to commercial, private, and non-profit institutions.
Bond, F; Uchino, H; Bond, Francis; Ogura, Kentaro; Uchino, Hajime
This paper describes in outline a method for translating Japanese temporal expressions into English. We argue that temporal expressions form a special subset of language that is best handled as a special module in machine translation. The paper deals with problems of lexical idiosyncrasy as well as the choice of articles and prepositions within temporal expressions. In addition temporal expressions are considered as parts of larger structures, and the question of whether to translate them as noun phrases or adverbials is addressed.
Large-scale policy research on topics of concern to teachers may assist in changing educational theory, policy and practice, as may educational action research. This article discusses different traditions of action research in relation to their views about the connection of research and social movement, touching on the so-called "macro-micro" problem which bedevils conceptualizations of this relationship.
Composed and maintained by the Free Expression Network (FEN), which is dedicated to protecting the right of free expression and opposing governmental efforts to suppress this constitutionally protected right, this Web site is primarily designed to provide an array of information on First Amendment issues to the Internet community. Providing valuable information for First Amendment advocates and researchers, this site contains up-to-date news stories on First Amendment issues from around the nation, as well as court and congressional hearings dating back from 1998 to the present. The site also contains news stories on censorship issues, violations, and lawsuits in the fields of art, printed media, music, television, and video games. Although the site is user-friendly, viewers should be aware that hyperlinks from the home page take a few moments to access.
Kroffe, Kerry; McCann, G.
XML-based production of journal articles, combined with real-time transformations, now make it possible to develop new enhancements to the reading experience and to the content of the article itself. Papers from AAS journals are now available in ‘Article Evolution’ HTML format, providing both familiar and new functionality that improves the reading experience. This poster will outline the roadmap for the development of ‘Article Evolution’ functionality and ask for input to help shape future enhancements that meet the needs of the astronomy community. Two of the ongoing developments described are ’semantic enrichment’ of articles and adoption of ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID). Both of these have exciting possibilities at an article level within ‘Article Evolution’ but will also impact widely on third party services, such as linking and discovery of research papers.
Carrington, Jane M; Tiase, Victoria L; Estrada, Nicolette; Shea, Kimberly D
This article reflects the work done in the third year of the Nursing Informatics Year in Review project. This project seeks to search and analyze articles written by nurses as first author on the subject of nursing informatics, published August 2013-August 2014. Each year we also seek recommended articles from our American Medical Informatics Association-Nursing Informatics Work Group (AMIA-NIWG) members that meet the same criteria as the search and most influenced their thinking and scholarship. Twenty-seven articles emerged from the literature review, and our AMIA-NIWG members recommended 32 articles. We analyzed the articles by journal of publication, country of first author, source of funding, research method, research setting, and area of focus. The purpose of this article was to present the results of this project for 2014. PMID:25714959
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsalable articles. 35.35 Section 35.35 Public...AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.35 Unsalable articles. Articles having no commercial...
Moore, S.; Bowden, R.
Research into facial expression recognition has predominantly been based upon near frontal view data. However, a recent 3D facial expression database (BU-3DFE database) has allowed empirical investigation of facial expression recognition across pose. In this paper, we investigate the effects of pose from frontal to profile view on facial expression recognition. Experiments are carried out on 100 subjects with 5 yaw angles over 6 prototypical expressions. Expressions have 4 leve...
Feilzer, Martina Yvonne
This article explores the practical relevance of pragmatism as a research paradigm through the example of a piece of pragmatic research that not only used both quantitative and qualitative research methods but also exploited the inherent duality of the data analyzed. Thus, the article aims to make the case that pragmatism as a research paradigm…
Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterize the Finance journals available in CAPES’s Basis and to know the most important authors in this Area. After eliminating the publications that did not meet the proposed criterion, a total of 72 journals that contained the expression finance and financial in their titles have been analyzed. Main findings are: Journal of Finance has the highest impact factor (2,549; the great majority of journals are North-American (70,83% and published four times a year; 51% of them charge a submission fee that varies from US$ 40 to US$ 450; most part takes around six months to publish a paper once it gets accepted; Research in International Business and Finance has the most internationalized editorial board; the most cited article has been published in the Journal of Finance in the year of 1997; and Andrei Shleifer is the author of the three most cited papers in Scopus.
Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy
Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…
Widjajanto, Wahju Agung; Lund, Michael; Schelhowe, Heidi
In our web-based platform “Wayang Authoring” children with different cultural backgrounds can create and share stories, and make experiences in culturally different storytelling. The idea of Wayang Authoring is based on the Indonesian ancient art form Wayang. The research question focuses on if and how the design of our system can support children to enhance understanding of story grammar, creative storytelling and self-expression as well as help to share cultural diversity. In this article the Wayang Authoring platform and its background is presented.
The mock research paper combines creative writing with academic writing and, in the process, breaks down that binary. This article describes a writing assignment that offers an introduction to the college research paper genre. This assignment helps students focus on crafting an argument and learning genre conventions while postponing until the…
PURPOSE: The objective was to determine a link between the number of non-English language references in the bibliographies of publications in international pharmaceutical journals and the geographic origin of these publications. METHODS: A systematic prospective analysis of 7 international pharmaceutical journals in 2005-2006. All research articles whom corresponding author was a pharmacist were included. For each article, were recorded: - the geographic origin of the corresponding author (cl...
Social interaction is important for human beings and has been subject for research in different forms. Due to technological developments the last decade, social media have occurred and show social interaction in new forms. With the background in social media and the key concept of interaction, these articles offer a behavior analytic view of understanding interaction in social media. The first article presents Web 2.0 and interaction viewed from traditional approach and functional approach. T...
At the Hanford Technical Library, high-tech methods are providing researchers and managers with better journal article delivery. New technologies include the ProQuest Business Periodicals OnDisc system, which stores images of journals on CD-ROM; optically scanned and faxed images from CURL UnCover2; and fax communications with a commercial document delivery service. Overall successes and small setbacks in implementing these services will show the possibilities of rapid article retrieval in the 1990s.
Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Finkler, Mirelle; Gonçalves, Evelise Ribeiro; Caetano, João Carlos
This study investigated the ethics of qualitative research by using bibliographic research. Data were collected in scientific articles from a Brazilian journal of collective health and the access to the sources was electronic. It were analyzed 117 articles of qualitative research which corresponded to 23.49% of the total production of the journal from 01/1998 to 03/2007. The information collected was organized considering the identification, themes/object, theoretical referential, methodology and ethical aspects involved. The analysis proposed a discussion based on what the researchers express about ethics on their qualitative studies when it comes to two different kinds of relation: between the researchers and their research-subject and with their co-workers. The conclusions brought up many issues to be discussed on the daily routine of the research activity and that demands exposition and openness to criticism. There is also an urge to think what the "said" and the "unsaid" can reveal underneath the obedience to the rules, launching to the process of maturing and to the theoretical consistence of the researchers, especially in the ethical dimension of the researching activity. A huge part of those challenges are of direct responsibility of the institutions which are in charge of the researcher's formation. PMID:20640329
Billings, Christopher; Nielsen, P. Lynne; Snyder, Aaron; Sorensen, Alec; West, Richard E.
In this study, the authors examined the "Journal of Research on Technology in Education (JRTE)" to discover trends from 2001-2010 in the topics covered in the articles, article types (including research methods used), authorship, and citation frequency. Articles from the journal dealt mostly with PK-12 settings and focused on technology…
Li, Yun; Hao, Pei; Zheng, Siyuan; Tu, Kang; Fan, Haiwei; Zhu, Ruixin; Ding, Guohui; Dong, Changzheng; Wang, Chuan; Li, Xuan; Thiesen, H. -j; Chen, Y. Eugene; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Li, Yixue
Investigation of biological processes using selective chemical interventions is generally applied in biomedical research and drug discovery. Many studies of this kind make use of gene expression experiments to explore cellular responses to chemical interventions. Recently, some research groups constructed libraries of chemical related expression profiles, and introduced similarity comparison into chemical induced transcriptome analysis. Resembling sequence similarity alignment, expression pat...
Field, Sherry L.; Castro, Antonio J.
The authors review an eight-year collection of journal articles from "Theory and Research in Social Education," "The Social Studies," "Social Education," and "Social Studies and the Young Learner". Their research yielded 37 articles, of which 20 were published in "Social Studies and the Young Learner" from 2000 to 2008. The authors describe three…
White, Emma L.; Morgan, Michelle F.
My name is Emma I am 28 years old and I have Down syndrome. This is an article about my story about becoming a researcher. This article has lots of photographs of me doing research. It has information about the things I did with research. It has examples of some of my research work. This article lets me share my story with other people. This…
Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…
Ray, Dee C.; Hull, Darrell M.; Thacker, Andi J.; Pace, Laura S.; Swan, Karrie L.; Carlson, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Jeffrey M.
This study reviewed 4,457 articles from 1998 to 2007 in American Counseling Association division-affiliated journals to identify research articles published in counseling; 1,139 articles (25.6%) were quantitatively research based. The authors provide details related to quantitative research publications, including individual journal contribution…
Diener, Marc J; Mesrie, Vicky
Substantial theoretical and empirical focus has been placed on detailing the processes that therapists use in psychotherapy. Relatively limited investigation, however, has been conducted into the utility of the various techniques and processes that supervisors use in facilitating the development of trainee competence to conduct psychotherapy. The present article explores 2 sets of supervisory techniques/processes that can be used to assist novice therapists in the development of clinical skills from a supportive-expressive (Luborsky, 1984) relational (Greenberg & Mitchell, 1983) psychodynamic approach: (a) providing systematic and structured training in interpretation, and (b) facilitating trainee use of countertransference. We detail the theoretical underpinnings and research findings for each supervisory process, followed by presentation of vignettes illustrating supervisor-supervisee interactions that demonstrate the use of these processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365152
Chandrasekhar, T; Elayaraja, E
Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. Identification of co-expressed genes and coherent patterns is the central goal in microarray or gene expression data analysis and is an important task in Bioinformatics research. In this paper, K-Means algorithm hybridised with Cluster Centre Initialization Algorithm (CCIA) is proposed Gene Expression Data. The proposed algorithm overcomes the drawbacks of specifying the number of clusters in the K-Means methods. Experimental analysis shows that the proposed method performs well on gene Expression Data when compare with the traditional K- Means clustering and Silhouette Coefficients cluster measure.
Scott Pochron, R.
The complexity of life in 21st century society requires new models for leadingand managing change. With that in mind, this paper revisits the model for AdvancedChange Theory (ACT) as presented by Quinn, Spreitzer, and Brown in their article,“Changing Others Through Changing Ourselves: The Transformation of HumanSystems” (2000). The authors present ACT as a potential model for facilitating change incomplex organizations. This paper presents a critique of the article and summarizesopportuni...
Dawn E. Pollon
Full Text Available Research assistantships have long been viewed as an extension of the formal education process, a form of apprenticeship, and a pathway into the professional practice of research in institutional settings. However, there are other contexts in which researchers practice research. This self-study documents the formative role research assistantships played in the authors’ development as professional research consultants. Four professional research consultants who held research assistant positions during their master’s and doctoral studies describe the contributions of their research assistantship experiences to the advancement of their knowledge, skills, and passion for research and subsequently to their career decisions. Professional research consulting is identified as a natural extension of research assistant roles and a potential career path. The article enhances current understandings about the ways research assistantships contribute to the development of researchers, and specifically to the development of professional research consultants. The analysis will be of interest to students contemplating entering into research assistantships, current research assistants, current research assistant supervisors, academic staff looking to improve their research productivity, and department chairs.
Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Wallraven, Christian
The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions. PMID:22438875
Farber, Nancy K.
This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…
Sponsored by the Social Sciences Research Network (for more information, see the November 29, 1999 Scout Report), the Economics Research Network offers abstracts and full-text papers and articles from over 25 economics journals. The journals are searchable through the Social Sciences Research Network's electronic library. ERN lists the economic journals offered in the electronic library, complete with a pithy description of the journal and advisory board members. The site also includes job listings and announcements.
The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is aware of the importance of thermonuclear energy and the need for plasma research. It is also aware of the important part that nuclear fusion could play in the solving of the energy crisis. South Africa has already built its first tokamak device for nuclear fusion and plasma research. This article deals with the necessity of plasma research
The purpose of this research work is to evaluate the effects which some factors could have on articles publication regarding survey interviewer characteristics. For this, the author studied the existing literature from the various fields in which articles on survey interviewer characteristics has been published and which can be found in online articles database. The analysis was performed on 243 articles achieved by researchers in the time period 1949-2012. Using statistical software R and ap...
This essay discusses the effectiveness of a graduate course for physics students, with a course goal to write a publishable article on a modern research topic (graphene). I analyze the tools used to this end, which included Web 2.0 methods, in-class discussions and presentation, as well as extensive peer-review. In addition to producing a published article, this course led students to not only advance their mastery of a modern research topic but also to significantly improve their writing, discussion and presentation skills.
Narrow bandwidth networks have provided limited capabilities for the transmission of expressive communication that is present in face-to-face communication, e.g., facial expressions and gestures, as well as affective information that is present in audio/visual media, e.g., animated graphics and stereophonic music. An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audio/visual media can inform the development of new multi-media applications in broadband networks. At the same time, a review of existing knowledge suggests that there is a need for considerable research if the rich potential of expressive communication in these new settings is to be fully developed.
The Electronic Commerce Research Center, created by CIO magazine, "examines the current state and future directions of conducting commerce on the Net." The report consists of full-text articles dealing with aspects of ecommerce from the pages of CIO magazine. Dating from 1995 to the present, articles are annotated and indexed by subjects such as Case Studies, Business to Business, and Electronic Data Interchange. Also included are links to online resources that also deal with the same subjects.
Full Text Available Citation counts and more recently usage statistics provide valuable information about the attention and research impact associated with scholarly publications. The open access publisher Public Library of Science (PLOS has pioneered the concept of article-level metrics, where these metrics are collected on a per article and not a per journal basis and are complemented by real-time data from the social web or altmetrics: blog posts, social bookmarks, social media and other.
Findikakis, A. N.
A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered especially useful. Conferences and special symposia offer the opportunity to practicing professionals to find out what is the latest in different subject areas, but many view such meetings as having either a practical or a research character, and expressed the desire for more meetings that would bring together the practitioners and the researchers. Commercialization is another path for bringing research results to the practice, but is limited to areas where the size of the market for the commercial application of research findings makes it economically viable. The extent of the adoption of research findings in the practice varies across subjects. The results of research in subjects driven by pressing practical needs, such as remediation of contaminated groundwater or hydraulic testing have been passed quickly to the practice. Using the results of research in subjects such as fracture flow and stochastic hydrogeology seems more elusive.
Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.
This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…
Beck, Cheryl Tatano
The ability to critique research is a valuable skill that is fundamental to a perioperative nurse's ability to base his or her clinical practice on evidence derived from research. Criteria differ for critiquing a quantitative versus a qualitative study (ie, statistics are evaluated in a quantitative study, but not in a qualitative study). This article provides on guidelines for assessing qualitative research. Excerpts from a published qualitative research report are summarized and then critiqued. Questions are provided that help evaluate different sections of a research study (eg, sample, data collection methods, data analysis). PMID:19801006
Full Text Available Electronic journal continues to spread rapidly among academic researchers. Citation count shown of an article in academic journals plays an important role in academia. It helps academic researchers in choosing suitable and reliable references for their research. It is unfortunate that recently published papers tend to be unapparent, since it has less citation count than other former works. This research proposes a new way to predict future citation count of an article using regression analysis by machine learning. As a result, citation count prediction of article is delivered using the new proposed method.
Schepmann, Hala G.; Hughes, Laura A.
A research writing course was developed to prepare chemistry majors to conduct and report on their capstone research projects. The course guides students through a multistep process of preparing a literature review and research proposal. Students learn how to identify and avoid plagiarism, critically read and summarize a scientific article,…
Studio-based research is rich with possibilities for contributing to the body of knowledge concerning creative processes, primarily because it has at its core the "making" disciplines. Nonetheless, for those who teach graduate research courses, this relative new mode of research can be challenging. In this article, the author discusses the…
Apolloni, Andrea; Rouquier, Jean-Baptiste; Jensen, Pablo
Spatial scientometrics studies how geography influences knowledge creation. In the recent years there has been a surge in this kind of studies, due to the increase of international collaborations. Most of the work in this field has been focused on the geographical distribution of researchers, whilst few have considered how proximity between coauthors influences research quality. In this work we leverage a dataset of geolocalized articles to assess the effect of geographical distance on article impact. More precisely, the dataset, provided by the Observatory of Science and Technology (O.S.T.), consists of roughly 106 scientific articles, gathering all European articles written in 2000 and 2007, spanning 9 disciplines. We evaluate under which geographical extent coauthorships have higher probability of resulting in high impact articles ("high impact" is here approximated by "being in the top 10% most cited articles of its discipline"). We also describe spatial distribution of coauthorship, delineating geographical areas where the production is proportionally higher. The distribution is evaluated both in term of km (as the crow flies), and in terms of administrative partitions (authors' cities, regions, countries).
Rabiu, Habibu; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Mashohor, Syamsiah; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce
In recent years, facial expression recognition (FER) has become an attractive research area, which besides the fundamental challenges, it poses, finds application in areas, such as human-computer interaction, clinical psychology, lie detection, pain assessment, and neurology. Generally the approaches to FER consist of three main steps: face detection, feature extraction and expression recognition. The recognition accuracy of FER hinges immensely on the relevance of the selected features in representing the target expressions. In this article, we present a person and gender independent 3D facial expression recognition method, using maximum relevance minimum redundancy geometrical features. The aim is to detect a compact set of features that sufficiently represents the most discriminative features between the target classes. Multi-class one-against-one SVM classifier was employed to recognize the seven facial expressions; neutral, happy, sad, angry, fear, disgust, and surprise. The average recognition accuracy of 92.2% was recorded. Furthermore, inter database homogeneity was investigated between two independent databases the BU-3DFE and UPM-3DFE the results showed a strong homogeneity between the two databases.
La formulación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación científica en cuatro disciplinas: historia, lingüística, literatura y biología / Formulation of objectives of research articles in four disciplines: history, linguistics, literature and biology / A formulação dos objetivos de artigos de pesquisa em quatro disciplinas: história, linguística, literatura e biologia
Cristian, González Arias.
Full Text Available Analisar propriedades estruturais e funcionais dos produtos textuais da atividade científica ajuda a compreender o papel da linguagem na construção e na divulgação do conhecimento. Este artigo relata um estudo sobre a formulação de objetivos de artigos de investigação científica (AIC) em quatro disc [...] iplinas: História, Linguística, Literatura e Biologia. O objetivo maior deste estudo foi identificar padrões de formulação dos objetivos, das seções onde são apresentados e verificar se há diferenças entre as disciplinas estudadas. Um corpus constituído de 40 artigos foi analisado, distribuídos igualmente para cada uma das disciplinas estudadas. Obteve-se como resultado a identificação de cinco padrões na formulação de objetivos, que são apresentados, preferivelmente, no resumo e na introdução. Não obstante, trata-se, igualmente, das diferenças existentes entre o AIC das quatro disciplinas. Igualmente, há certas ambiguidades entre apresentar o objetivo da investigação e o objetivo do artigo, o que ressalta o caráter metonímico e performativo do AIC. Abstract in spanish Analizar las propiedades estructurales y funcionales de los productos textuales de la actividad científica ayuda a comprender el rol del lenguaje en la construcción y difusión del conocimiento. En el presente artículo se analiza la formulación de los objetivos en artículos de investigación científic [...] a (AIC) en cuatro disciplinas: Historia, Lingüística, Literatura y Biología. El propósito fue identificar patrones de formulación de los objetivos, los apartados donde son presentados y si existen diferencias entre las disciplinas estudiadas. Se analizaron 40 artículos, diez de cada una de las disciplinas. Como resultado, identificamos cinco patrones en la formulación de objetivos, los que son presentados indistintamente en el resumen y en la introducción. Sin embargo, se aprecian diferencias notables entre los AIC de las disciplinas estudiadas. Asimismo, con frecuencia se produce una ambigüedad entre presentar el objetivo de la investigación y el objetivo del artículo, resaltando el carácter metonímicoy realizativo del AIC. Abstract in english The analysis of the structural and functional properties of scientific activity textual products aids understanding the role of language in the construction and diffusion of scientific knowledge. Thus, the present article is based on a study of the formulation of objectives of research articles (RA) [...] in four disciplines: History, Linguistics, Literature, and Biology. The goal was to identify patterns in the formulation of objectives, the sections where they are presented, and potential differences among the disciplines. 40 articles were analyzed, ten from each discipline. The results show five patterns in the formulation of objectives, which are presented indistinctively within the abstract and the introduction. Nevertheless, some interesting differences have been found among the RA of the disciplines studied. Likewise, some ambiguity is found between the presentation of the research objective and the article objective, stressing the metonymic and performative character of the RA.
Robinson, Jennifer L.; Demaree, Heath A.
Emotional well-being depends in part on affect modulation. The present study extends research on emotion regulation by assessing the physiological and cognitive effects of a novel response-focused regulation strategy, termed "expressive dissonance." Expressive dissonance refers to the incongruence between an emotional state (e.g., sadness) and a…
Sayfan, Liat; Mitchell, Emilie B.; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian
Objective: Our goal was to examine children's expressed emotions when they disclose maltreatment. Little scientific research exists on this topic, and yet children's emotional expressions at disclosure may inform psychological theory and play a crucial role in legal determinations. Method: One hundred and twenty-four videotaped forensic interviews…
Full Text Available This article presents a description of culinary terms in Russian and Norwegian, and deals with the contrastive study of metaphorical expressions containing such terms, making a special point of their origin, thematic variety and linguistic properties. The author argues that the universal character of metaphorical changes makes itself evident in a large number of expressions containing either verbs connected with cooking or naming products and dishes used as characteristics of a human being or human actions, great number of them being used pejoratively. The author argues that the study of the structure and semantics of these phraseological units can also be of great help in getting a better command of the culture and history of the country and its language.
Zeng, Yong; Wang, Gang; Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Cai, James J
Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating complex traits and conditions. PMID:25617623
Seita, Lori Perkins
Recent findings in brain research suggest the implementation of contemporary instructional practices is in order for base practices. Incorporating best practice research is critical for students to be competitive in a global market. This article provides a brief overview of educational philosophy, recent findings on brain research and language…
Automatic annotation of temporal expressions is a research challenge of great interest in the field of information extraction. In this report, I describe a novel rule-based architecture, built on top of a pre-existing system, which is able to normalise temporal expressions detected in English texts. Gold standard temporally-annotated resources are limited in size and this makes research difficult. The proposed system outperforms the state-of-the-art systems with respect to T...
William C. S. Cho
Full Text Available Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed.
Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.
Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. Method: In "Research Ethics III", they review the RCR domains of publication…
This article presents a compilation of top researches conducted during the past 2 decades by the Contraceptive Technology Update. The following lists offer a brief insight into the breadth of research available to family planners: 1) the multicenter study of the lactational amenorrhea method to test its acceptability and efficacy as an introductory postpartum method; 2) the multinational study of breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) confirmed the decrease in risk of having breast cancer among women who are using DMPA; 3) several investigations on family planning particularly the new guidelines for family planning methods, contraceptive failure, and probability of conception after the 6th day of contraceptive cessation were studied; 4) researches were also made on the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia among young and homosexual men, and other opportunistic infections secondary to AIDS/HIV infection, and the efficacy of zidovudine in the prevention of HIV vertical transmission; 5) trials have been conducted on the mechanism of IUDs, its relation to pelvic inflammatory disease, and the negligible result of prophylactic antibiotics in the risk of having upper genital tract infection after IUD insertion; and 6) reports from researches have indicated the relationship between hormonal contraception use and breast cancer; and between ovarian cancer, stroke, acne vulgaris and oral contraceptive use. Lastly, studies on tubal sterilization have proven their efficacy in the prevention of pregnancies. PMID:12295509
Jørgensen, H L; Praetorius, L; Ingwersen, P
The paper analyses the development of the total number of journal articles indexed in the Medline database published by authors affiliated to Denmark 1989-1998 in medicine compared to the development in the European Union during the same period. The publication analysis is then compared to the citation impact of articles published in the central journals indexed in Science Citation Index (ISI) 1987-1996 through use of the National Science Indicators (NIS, ISI) database. The total number of Danish journal articles has remained relatively constant compared to a 50% increase in the EU as a whole. The number of Danish articles published in central journals, however, has increased by 20% (compared to 27% for the EU) and the number of citations obtained by these articles by 58% (compared to 66% for the EU) in the 1987-1996 period. By population, Denmark ranked third in total number of articles in 1998. In conclusion, Denmark is very active in medical research but neither the quantity nor the quality of Danish medical research has increased at the same rate as the EU average. PMID:10611832
Williams, Linda M.
This article relies on literature from the field and on research conducted by the National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center to describe the difficulties encountered in collaborations between researchers and advocates working on the prevention of violence against women. The article summarizes guidelines for collaboration that have…
The article addresses the widespread claim to make educational research more relevant for practitioners, policy makers, potential users and stakeholders, and proposes a problematisation of the notion of "useful knowledge". The article illustrates the conceptual, instrumental and legitimative relevance of knowledge and highlights empirically the…
Blakemore, Connie L.
This article is a follow-up to an article by the author published in the November/December 2003 issue of JOPERD, that examined the research supporting the idea that movement enhances cognitive learning. In this follow-up article the author shows how physical educators can apply this information, in a variety of ways. The following outlines some of…
Martin A. Hubbe
Full Text Available Articles published in scholarly journals, such as this one, tend to be mainly addressed to researchers at universities. Industrial follow-up and implementation of results from a scholarly article appears to be the exception, rather than the rule. Research grant specifications, as well as university policies, favor the generation of new knowledge, rather than the implementation of good ideas. But without patent protection, corporations have low motivation to expend the considerable effort to reduce ideas to practice after they have been openly published. The author speculates that the situation could be much more dynamic if there were a system of priority of implementation. According to such a system, the first company to successfully implement an idea that first appears in a peer-reviewed journal article, as validated by its debut in the marketplace, would have a grace period during which competitors would have to pay them a fee to sell a generic version of the same thing.
In this article, I aim to further the discussion of engaged research in anthropology and education by examining the unique changes promoted by participatory research in contrast to policy-oriented activist research models. Drawing on my work with Latina immigrant mothers in a school reform movement, I argue for a Latina feminist view of…
Snow, Grace E; Haaland, Benjamin; Ooi, Eng Eong; Gubler, Duane J
Much of the basic clinical information about dengue infection comes from experimental human studies conducted in the 1920s and 1940s. Albert Sabin's original laboratory records from one such study were bequeathed to Duane J. Gubler. These records were reviewed and 150 experiments were included in our analyses. Persons were inoculated with dengue virus 1 (DENV-1) and DENV-2. Median fever duration was shorter in primary DENV-2 infections compared with DENV-1, although maximum temperature and severity of illness were comparable. At 1.5-9 months after primary infection, 20 persons were inoculated with the heterologous serotype. Only one person inoculated with a heterologous serotype at < 8 weeks showed development of a clinical infection with a maximum temperature of 38°C, and 7 (88%) of 8 persons inoculated with a heterologous serotype at 4-9 months post-primary infection showed development of fever. On average, persons had a shorter incubation period in secondary infection compared with primary infection. PMID:25311700
Anitha, B.K., N. Manivannan, P. Vindhiya varman, C. Gopalakrishnan and K. Ganesamurthy
Full Text Available Fourteen Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR markers were used to estimate the molecular genetic diversityamong 10 sesame varieties cultivated in Tamil Nadu. The 14 ISSR primers in 10 sesame genotypes yielded 66reproducible amplified bands. The number of amplified bands varied from 1 to 7. Out of 66 bands, 65 werepolymorphic (98.5%. Average number of bands and polymorphic bands per primer were 4.7 and 4.6 respectively.The polymorphic information content (PIC value ranged between 0.50 and 0.85. NTSYS-pc (ver 2.02software was used to calculate the Jaccard’s similarity coefficients. The maximum similarity was observedbetween VRI 1 and VRI 2 followed by Paiyur 1 and TMV 6 and less similarity between VRI 1 and SVPR 1.Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the 10 genotypesin to five groups at 0.60 similarity coefficient. Varieties CO 1, SVPR 1 and TMV 7 were clustered in to threeseparate clusters indicating most divergent among the released varieties of Tamil Nadu.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) Chemical Sciences Website maintains this series of select, online articles in the Chemical Sciences. Featured articles represent current cutting-edge research in physical, analytical, biophysical, materials, and surface chemistry. At present, 21 articles are available, covering "Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy" and "Improved energy transfer in electrophosphorescent devices," among other topics. Online articles are selected from five peer-reviewed journals: The Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of Applied Physics, Applied Physics Letters, Review of Scientific Instruments, and Chaos. All articles are available in .pdf format only and may be downloaded for browsing or printing.
This article presents a model for research supervision.
Hierdie artikel stel 'n model vir navorsingsbegeleiding voor. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Smith, Carl R., Ed.
The lead article by H. Drummond examines the cultural context of psychosis and concludes that madness is deeply rooted in social and sexual inequality. The author, a psychiatrist, supports his argument with case studies, reports on the use of drugs with the psychotic, research on efforts to demonstrate that schizophrenia is a biological illness,…
This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…
The fact that English non-count abstract nouns such as knowledge are compatible with the indefinite article a/an is not only perplexing for second language (L2) learners of English but also troublesome for both native and non-native English teachers. This paper does research on this curious phenomenon of English grammar to clarify its mechanism…
Presents some examples of differences of meaning, as well as "secondary effects," in noun phrases using or omitting the articles, definite and indefinite, in German, e.g.: "Die Kinder machen Krach,""Die Kinder machen den Krach," and "Die Kinder machen einen Krach!" The question is seen as needing much more research. (WGA)
Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M
Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770
Alan Rose (University of California Davis; Molecular and Cellular Biology REV)
Whereas many important biological discoveries have been made using plants, subsequent progress in some areas of plant research has fallen behind that in other organisms for which funding and in vitro assays are more readily available. Gene expression is one such field in which importance continues to grow because many potential plant biotechnology–based solutions to global problems depend on regulating the expression of specific genes. Previous limitations to exploring gene expression in plants have been partially mitigated by recent advances in genomics, genetics, and transformation techniques. The book Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants: The Role of Transcript Structure and Processing, edited by Carole L. Bassett, summarizes our current understanding of plant gene expression, with an emphasis on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. The topics covered in six chapters include differences in messenger RNA (mRNA) structure caused by variations in transcription start and polyadenylation sites, alternative splicing, regulation by small RNAs, and mRNA transport and degradation. The chapters vary in depth, quality, and the degree to which the emphasis is placed on plants rather than eukaryotes in general. However, this slim volume is a useful review of gene expression in plants. The question of whether or not all differences in mRNA structure have functional importance remains open.
Full Text Available This study analyses the research on disdrometers based on published studies. To do so, a wide data base of bibliographic references has been used: the Web of Science (published by Thomson Reuters. The search was carried out for all of the articles whose "TOPIC" was disdrometer. The more than 300 articles found were analysed according to various criteria: countries with research using disdrometers; publication dates; evolution of the number of articles; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the more than 60 journals where these articles have been published. Since 1963, there has been an increase in the number of articles published on disdrometers, which in the last 20 yr has been more than ten times higher than the increase in the number of articles on meteorology.
Halkia, Krystallia; Mantzouridis, Dimitris
The present research was designed to investigate the reaction of secondary school students to the communication code that the press uses in science articles: it attempts to trace which communication techniques can be of potential use in science education. The sample of the research consists of 351 secondary school students. The research instrument is a questionnaire, which attempts to trace students’ preferences regarding newspaper science articles, to explore students’ attitudes towards the science articles published in the press and to investigate students’ reactions towards four newspaper science articles. These articles deal with different aspects of science and reflect different communication strategies. The results of the research reveal that secondary school students view the communication codes used in press science articles as being more interesting and comprehensible than those of their science textbooks. Predominantly, they do not select science articles that present their data in a scientific way (diagrams and abstract graphs). On the contrary, they do select science articles and passages in them, which use an emotional/‘poetic’ language with a lot of metaphors and analogies to introduce complex science concepts. It also seems that the narrative elements found in popularized science articles attract students’ interest and motivate them towards further reading.
Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III
The following article is a brief history of "The Journal of Social Studies Research." As well, this article provides readers with an index of all articles published in "JSSR" from 1977-2009. The index is arranged by year. Within each year, the articles are listed alphabetically by the first author's last name. The index includes all bibliographic…
Brainerd, C. J.
"Developmental Review" is a journal of literature reviews and theoretical analyses for developmental scientists. During its first quarter-century of publication, the quality of those articles resulted in a journal whose level of impact on the scientific literature is extremely high, currently in the top 10% of all journals indexed by "Social…
Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A
Despite the salience of health disparities in media and policy discourse, little previous research has investigated if imagery associating an illness with a certain racial group influences public perceptions. This study evaluated the influence of the media's presentation of the causes of type 2 diabetes and its implicit racial associations on attitudes toward people with diabetes and preferences toward research spending. Survey participants who viewed an article on genetic causation or social determinants of diabetes were more likely to support increased government spending on research than those viewing an article with no causal language, while participants viewing an article on behavioral choices were more likely to attribute negative stereotypes to people with diabetes. Participants who viewed a photo of a black woman accompanying the article were less likely to endorse negative stereotypes than those viewing a photo of a white woman, but those who viewed a photo of a glucose-testing device expressed the lowest negative stereotypes. The effect of social determinants language was significantly different for blacks and whites, lowering stereotypes only among blacks. Emphasizing the behavioral causes of diabetes, as is common in media coverage, may perpetuate negative stereotypes. While drawing attention to the social determinants that shape these behaviors could mitigate stereotypes, this strategy is unlikely to influence the public uniformly. PMID:21451158
Strategy and research programs on the long life high activity radioactive wastes management (concerning the article L542 of the environment code, of the law of the 30 December 1991). Knowledge and perspectives; Strategie et programmes des recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue (au titre de l'article L542 du code de l'environnement, issu de la loi du 30 decembre 1991). Acquis et perspectives
Describing the research strategy and the programs around the three axis, separation and transmutation - deep underground storage - conditioning and long time disposal, this document is a reference concerning the research programs of the law of the 30 December 1991. This 2004 edition presents the historical approach and the main context, the objectives, the methods and criteria followed, the research program organization and implemented coordination structures. It provides also the results of the last ten years. (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available Scientists frequently communicate the results of their work in research reports. When writing scientific articles, authors must follow instructions and requirements of standard article format. A scientific paper should have in proper order, a Title, Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Literature. A title should be the fewest possible words that accurately describe the content of the paper. It should attract researchers' attention in order to be included in their investigation. An abstract is a short summary of the article. It concisely summarizes results and conclusion so that essential details of the paper can be understood in 100 - 250 words. The most commonly used are structured abstracts. Key words are provided below the abstract and describe the medical concepts characteristic for the whole article. Assign at least one and an average of 5 to 10 key words. Indexing in biomedicine means using the Thesaurus of the American National Library of Medicine: Medical Subject Headings. It provides easy and fast access to precise information using key words assigned to each document. Reference citation is obligatory and integral part of scientific articles. It provides communication among the authors and binds scientific papers as well as whole scientific knowledge in certain fields.
Schei, Tiri Bergesen; Espeland, Magne; Stige, Brynjulf
The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...
Does there exist only one, universally valid, research ethic? Are informed consent and ethical committees the best means to ensure the moral correctness of research? Again, what consequences ensue from the introduction of these instruments for the freedom of research and the quality of its results? This article addresses these issues by first recounting an ethnography conducted by its author in the oncology department of a large Italian hospital. To carry out his research the author initially...
This article discusses the research approach in "Pathways through Childhood", a small qualitative study drawing on memories of childhood. The research explores how wider social arrangements and social change influence children's everyday lives. The article discusses the way that the concepts of social memory, space and time have been drawn on to…
This article discusses the impact of second-wave feminism on educational research with a focus on developments in the USA. It expands on the themes raised in the other articles in this issue of "Discourse" by considering the political nature of feminist educational research questions beginning in the 1970s and continuing to the contemporary world.…
This article examines the levels of analysis adopted in higher education research, using a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals internationally during 2010. Level of analysis is a relatively overlooked issue in this field of research, when compared with methodology, theory and/or topic--to which it is, of…
This article investigates the extent to which researchers are currently engaged in a shared research program that offers systematic evidence of the classroom impact of organized venues (preservice as well as inservice) for teacher professional learning. The article stems from concern about policies rooted in suspicion that teacher education is…
Using the Thomson Reuters' Web of Knowledge bibliometric tool enables the analysis of citation patterns for the articles published in FSI: Genetics since it was launched. This brief survey identifies the most cited articles published by the journal since its inception and amongst these, the most impactful original research articles: those showing the highest citation rates per year since their publication. PMID:24631269
Full Text Available One of the final goals of high school education is to prepare students to be able to master independently written form of expression. Therefore, during all four years of schooling, they are introduced to the contents required for independent research work.In this process, school librarian has an important role. With the curriculum of library and information skills (LIS, the school library participates in different phases of the research process from first year of high school on, helping students and mentors find themes for their research, retrieve, select, use and evaluate information sources, as well as with citing, bibliography and presentation. The librarian as the expert for retrieving and organization is a co-mentor of research work, together with teachers who are professionals in their respective professional fields. Because of special information needs, the librarian cooperates with other libraries, takes care of interlibrary loan and organizes a local collection of graduate and other research works making them freely accesible.The article presents different forms of research work of students on the case of Maribor High School II, some of them regular and obligatory in the education process and some of them chosen freely, and the role of librarian as an intermediate element in this process.The article also presents the opinions of teachers on research work in school and the role of schoollibrary and schoollibrarians in this process.
Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph
Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin  was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists . Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.
Lynch, Mary Jo; St. Lifer, Evan; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee; Miller, Marilyn L.; Shontz, Marilyn L.
These nine articles discuss research and statistics on libraries and librarianship, including libraries in the United States, Canada, and Mexico; acquisition expenditures in public, academic, special, and government libraries; price indexes; state rankings of public library data; library buildings; expenditures in school library media centers; and…
Dietterich, Thomas G.
Machine-learning research has been making great progress in many directions. This article summarizes four of these directions and discusses some current open problems. The four directions are (1) the improvement of classification accuracy by learning ensembles of classifiers, (2) methods for scaling up supervised learning algorithms, (3) reinforcement learning, and (4) the learning of complex stochastic models.
Uso de movidas retóricas y patrones léxico-gramaticales en artículos de investigación en español: Implicancias para la enseñanza de la escritura científica / THE USE OF RHETORICAL MOVES AND LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL PATTERNS IN RESEARCH ARTICLES WRITTEN IN CHILEAN SPANISH: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING
Omar, Sabaj Meruane.
Full Text Available A partir de una revisión crítica de distintos enfoques que se centran en la descripción de las estructuras retóricas y de sus rasgos lingüísticos en artículos de investigación, en el presente trabajo proponemos un nuevo método para describir este fenómeno en artículos de investigación en español. Pa [...] ra ello, se etiquetó, con movidas retóricas, un corpus de 162 artículos que es representativo de la producción científica chilena entre los años 2000 y 2008. A los 11.000 o más registros derivados del análisis, se aplicó técnicas estadísticas que permiten dar cuenta de cuáles son las movidas retóricas (MR) prototípicas y describir los patrones léxico-gramaticales asociados a ellas en este tipo de textos especializados. Los resultados muestran, en primer lugar, cuáles son las MR prototípicas en este tipo de textos y, en segundo lugar, que a ellas se asocian patrones léxico-gramaticales específicos. Los resultados de esta investigación se constituyen en valiosa evidencia empírica tanto para los interesados en el análisis del discurso científico como para aquellos enfocados en el ámbito de la didáctica y el aprendizaje de la escritura científica. Abstract in english In this paper, we propose a new method for the description of rhetorical structures and their corresponding linguistic features in research articles in Spanish. The method is based on a critical review of different approaches focusing on this phenomenon. To this effect, we labelled a 162-research-ar [...] ticle corpus using rhetorical moves. The corpus is representative of Chilean scientific production between 2000 and 2008. We applied statistical techniques to over the 11,000 records to account for the prototypical rhetorical moves and describe the lexico-grammatical patterns associated to them in this type of specialist texts. The results of the study demonstrate the operation of particular 'prototypical' rhetorical moves in such texts as well as the lexico-grammatical patterns which formalize the former. The research done provides valuable empirical evidence both for those aiming at the analysis of scientific discourse and those focusing on the teaching and learning of scientific writing.
Padronização da terminologia dos centros médicos universitários e de pesquisa biomédica, no idioma inglês, para envio de artigo de revista / Standardization of the terminology of the academic medical centers and biomedical research centers, in the English language, for journal article sending
Bernardo, Hochman; Rafael Fagionato, Locali; Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Ricardo Leão de, Oliveira; Saul, Goldenberg; Lydia Masako, Ferreira.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Propor uma padronização, no idioma inglês, na formatação da citação da sede da pesquisa. MÉTODOS: A partir das três publicações mais recentes dos 20 primeiros periódicos disponíveis no Portal Brasileiro de Informação Científica - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior [...] (CAPES), com maior fator de impacto durante a ano de 2004, segundo levantamento na base de dados ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports no biênio 2004-2005, extraíram-se os formatos das citações das sedes de pesquisa. Realizou-se uma analogia ao escalonamento hierárquico institucional da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), e os formatos mais freqüentes, no idioma inglês, foram adotados como padrão a ser sugerido para citar as sedes de pesquisa ao envio dos artigos. RESULTADOS: Em relação à citação "Departamento", padronizou-se "Department of ..." (sendo "..." o nome em inglês do Departamento), à citação "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group", "Setor" "Section of ...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit" "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." e "Grupo" "Group of ...". Abstract in english PURPOSE: To suggest a standardization, in the English language, the formatting of the citation of the research centers. METHODS: From three more recent publications of the first 20 journals available in Brazilian Portal of Scientific Information - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível S [...] uperior (CAPES), with bigger factor of impact during the year of 2004, according of information in ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports database in biennium 2004-2005, had extracted the formats of citations of the research centers. An analogy to the institutional hierarchie step of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) was carried out, and the formats most frequent, in the English language, had been adopted as standard to be suggested to cite the research centers for sending articles. RESULTS: In relation to the citation "Departamento", was standardized "Department of ..." (being "..." the name in English of the Department), to the citation "Programa de Pós-Graduação" "... Program", "Disciplina" "Division of ...", "Órgãos, Grupos e Associações" "... Group ", "Setor" "Section of...", "Centro" "Center for ...", "Unidade" "... Unit ", "Instituto" "Institute of ...", "Laboratório" "Laboratory of ..." and "Grupo" "Group of ...".
Nielsen, Anne Maj
In art and drawing children can visually articulate pre-reflexive phenomena such as feelings, emotions, experiences, intentions and engagement. Research can include children’s art and drawings to study such phenomena and how they can be articulated and thematized in non-verbal/visual articulation. The researcher’s pre-reflexive sensory and aesthetic experiences often contribute to the immediate interpretations of such data, but the studies often lack any reflection on how drawings aesthetically affect the researcher’s awareness or interest that could otherwise creatively provide material for the study. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the construct ‘aesthetic object’ may offer researchers an approach to non-verbal/visual articulation that can explicitly and creatively include the researcher’s sensory and aesthetic experiences in the knowledge production. Examples from studies that incorporate phenomenological and cultural psychological approaches and include children’s art are part of the article.
Milnthorpe, Andrew T.; Soloviev, Mikhail
EST expression profiling provides an attractive tool for studying differential gene expression, but cDNA libraries' origins and EST data quality are not always known or reported. Libraries may originate from pooled or mixed tissues; EST clustering, EST counts, library annotations and analysis algorithms may contain errors. Traditional data analysis methods, including research into tissue-specific gene expression, assume EST counts to be correct and libraries to be correctly annotated, which i...
Spree, Ulrike; Lewandowski, Dirk
This paper aims to review the fiercely discussed question of whether the ranking of Wikipedia articles in search engines is justified by the quality of the articles. After an overview of current research on information quality in Wikipedia, a summary of the extended discussion on the quality of encyclopedic entries in general is given. On this basis, a heuristic method for evaluating Wikipedia entries is developed and applied to Wikipedia articles that scored highly in a sea...
Wang, Xianwen; Fang, Zhichao; Yang, Yang
It is time to make changes to the current research evaluation system, which is built on the journal selection. In this study, we propose the idea of continuous, dynamic and comprehensive article-level-evaluation based on article-level-metrics. Different kinds of metrics are integrated into a comprehensive indicator, which could quantify both the academic and societal impact of the article. At different phases after the publication, the weights of different metrics are dynami...
Lew D Betty
Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle cells play a key role in remodeling that contributes to airway hyperreactivity. Airway smooth muscle remodeling includes hypertrophy and hyperplasia. It has been previously shown that the expression of CD23 on ASMC in rabbits can be induced by the IgE component of the atopic serum. We examined if other components of atopic serum are capable of inducing CD23 expression independent of IgE. Methods Serum starved huASMC were stimulated with either IL-4, GM-CSF, IL-13, IL-5, PGD2, LTD4, tryptase or a combination of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 each with GM-CSF for a period of 24 h. CD23 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence. Results The CD23 protein expression was upregulated in huASMC in response to IL-4, GM-CSF, and IL-4/GM-CSF. The percentage of cells with increased fluorescence intensity above the control was 25.1 ± 4.2% (IL-4, 15.6 ± 2.7% (GM-CSF and 32.9 ± 13.9% (IL-4/GMCSF combination(n = 3. The protein content of IL-4/GMCSF stimulated cells was significantly elevated. Expression of CD23 in response to IL-4, GM-CSF, IL-4/GM-CSF was accompanied by changes in cell morphology including depolymerization of isoactin fibers, cell spreading, and membrane ruffling. Western blot revealed abundant expression of the IL-4R? and a low level expression of IL-2R?c in huASMC. Stimulation with IL-4 resulted in the phosphorylation of STAT-6 and an increase in the expression of the IL-2R?c. Conclusion CD23 on huASMC is upregulated by IL-4, GM-CSF, and IL-4/GM-CSF. The expression of CD23 is accompanied by an increase in cell volume and an increase in protein content per cell, suggesting hypertrophy. Upregulation of CD23 by IL-4/GM-CSF results in phenotypic changes in huASMC that could play a role in cell migration or a change in the synthetic function of the cells. Upregulation of CD23 in huASMC by IL-4 and GM-CSF can contribute to changes in huASMC and may provide an avenue for new therapeutic options in asthma targeting ASMC.
Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in [...] detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.
Uwe Matzat; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
These days there is a lot of misunderstanding of scientometrics and we often see a confusion of the research with its indicators. Science ministries and university administrators try to push their country's or institution's "research impact" by telling researchers to increase numeric figures that were invented as proxies for later assessment. In obvious juxtaposition to common sense this even leads to direct orders to postdocs "to only publish in high impact journals" and not to engage in oth...
Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.
The seventieth anniversary of the beginning of World War II is being commemorated across the world this year, and a number of media organizations are drawing on their own historic archives to offer a bit of perspective on that moment in world history. The Telegraph is one such organization, and they have created this fine collection of essays, video clips, photo galleries, and original articles from the fall of 1939. In the "As It Happened" area, visitors can view the original articles from the Telegraph and offer their own comments on these events. On the right-hand side of the page, a video player offers clips from newsreels of the day which document subjects like air raids and the movement of important cultural items away from potential bombing sites. The homepage also contains a "WW2 In Focus" area which features commentaries from former soldiers, evacuees, and reporters revisiting key sites around Europe for a bit of perspective on these events.
This rather useful website was created via the TechCast forecasting system, which was developed by Professor William E. Halal and his associates at George Washington University and George Mason University. They were interested in forecasting which technologies were expanding, and they used their system to identify these technologies by reviewing the academic literature and other publications. Visitors to the site can find a list of all the articles arranged chronologically and they include links to the TechCast radio program. Some of the more recent pieces include "The Virtual Assistant Arrives", "The Mystery and Power of Light", and "Can a Green Economy Save the Earth?" Visitors can also create their own profile to save articles of note for future reference and they can also offer their own feedback on different aspects of the site.
Ritchie, Matthew E.; Dunning, Mark J.; Smith, Mike L.; Shi, Wei; Lynch, Andy G.
Illumina whole-genome expression BeadArrays are a popular choice in gene profiling studies. Aside from the vendor-provided software tools for analyzing BeadArray expression data (GenomeStudio/BeadStudio), there exists a comprehensive set of open-source analysis tools in the Bioconductor project, many of which have been tailored to exploit the unique properties of this platform. In this article, we explore a number of these software packages and demonstrate how to perform a complete analysis o...
Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)
A molded magnetic article and fabrication method are provided. Particles of ferromagnetic material embedded in a polymer binder are molded under heat and pressure into a geometric shape. Each particle is an oblate spheroid having a radius-to-thickness aspect ratio approximately in the range of 15-30. Each oblate spheroid has flattened poles that are substantially in perpendicular alignment to a direction of the molding pressure throughout the geometric shape.
A concept of a possible Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Bendix Corporation for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This Mobility Test Article (MTA) is being inspected by a Bendix technician. The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the LRV, developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.
This Mobility Test Article (MTA) was a concept of a possible dual mode Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) built by the Grumman Industries for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The data provided by the MTA helped in designing the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), developed under the direction of MSFC. The LRV was designed to allow Apollo astronauts a greater range of mobility during lunar exploration missions.
Yang, H; He, J; Xu, X L; Jiang, J; He, C Q; Ma, H M
A recent study indicated that the JAZF1 gene was related to lipid metabolism by regulating the level of gene expression in humans and mice. In order to investigate whether JAZF1 gene expression was associated with fat deposition in pig, we cloned the full-coding region of the JAZF1 gene (GenBank accession No. KF307636) from porcine longissimus dorsi. Results showed that the open reading frame of JAZF1 covered 732 bp and encoded 243 amino acids. Multiple alignment of isoform sequences revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of JAZF1 had a high degree of sequence similarity to other vertebrates, indicating that it was highly conserved during evolution. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that pig JAZF1 contained 23 phosphorylation sites and 19 glycosyl sites. JAZF1 was predicted to have 3 ZnF-C2H2 and 2 low-complexity domains. The JAZF1 mRNA expression pattern indicated that JAZF1 mRNA expression level in the liver was significantly different in 2 divergent breeds (P < 0.05). This article perhaps provided an important experimental basis for further research on the mechanisms of lipid metabolism and fat deposition in pigs. PMID:25729990
Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a chall [...] enging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.
Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.
Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices. PMID:19653539
Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva
The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation. Influenced by these currents we use the expression 'Design:Lab' as a shorthand description of open collaborations between many stakeholders sharing a mutual interest in design research in a particular field. Many have reacted to the term 'laboratory' or 'lab' as foreign and awkward to design, and we as well as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform for collaborative inquiries and knowledge production based on design experiments. Udgivelsesdato: June
Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes in liver and muscle of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: V. B. Fedorov, Inst. of Arctic Biology, Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. The article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.
Fedorov, Vadim B.; Goropashnaya, Anna V.; Tøien, Øivind; Stewart, Nathan C.; Gracey, Andrew Y.; Chang, Celia; Qin, Shizhen; Pertea, Geo; Quackenbush, John; Showe, Louise C.; Showe, Michael K.; Boyer, Bert B.; Barnes, Brian M.
We conducted a large-scale gene expression screen using the 3,200 cDNA probe microarray developed specifically for Ursus americanus to detect expression differences in liver and skeletal muscle that occur during winter hibernation compared with animals sampled during summer. The expression of 12 genes, including RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3), that are mostly involved in protein biosynthesis, was induced during hibernation in both liver and muscle. The Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichmen...
This article examines the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and presents a critique of the research that went into the theory. Topics discussed include the allegation that the bilinguals and second language learners in the original article are primarily students in an academic setting, Amaral…
Chodorow, Martin; Gamon, Michael; Tetreault, Joel
In this paper, we describe and evaluate two state-of-the-art systems for identifying and correcting writing errors involving English articles and prepositions. Criterion[superscript SM], developed by Educational Testing Service, and "ESL Assistant", developed by Microsoft Research, both use machine learning techniques to build models of article…
Ali Sorayyaei Azar
Full Text Available The classes, purposes and characteristics associated with the review article in the field of applied linguistics were analyzed. The data were collected from a randomly selected corpus of thirty two review articles from a discipline-related key journal in applied linguistics. The findings revealed that different sub-genres can be identified within the applied linguistic review article genre. Three main types of review articles were therefore identified based on the analysis of linguistic devices often used by the authors, their communicative purposes, and the specialist informants’ feedback: (1 the bibliographic review article which gives readers a comprehensive and descriptive record of annual works and it encompasses the literature-oriented approach, (2 the critical evaluative review article which encompasses subject-oriented approach, that is to say it identifies an idea or raises a research problem, then gives its solution by analyzing and evaluating the selective works done before in the related field, and finally it suggests a new direction, and (3 the mixed-mode review article which has the twin roles and encompasses both literature-oriented and subject-oriented approaches. A possible colony of review genre was suggested and this study further examined some of the characteristics and purposes associated with the review articles. The classification continuum, purposes, characteristics, and linguistic devices of the review articles proposed thus provide useful guidance for graduate EFL (English as a Foreign Language students and novice writers how to monitor and make use of the review articles during their research writing.
Kent Pandolf (United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine)
This article reviews the history, evolution, and transition of the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr.
Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris
Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…
In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…
This article, the second in a three-part series on research, explores quantitative research. Quantitative research aims to focus on objectivity, and therefore searches for answers that can be generalised to other situations. Quantitative researchers believe that it is possible to focus on objective reality within the world. PMID:16869219
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…
Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.; Lynch, Martin F.; Mackie, Karen L.
The increased use of action research in counseling training and professional publications provides an opportunity to bridge the research-practitioner gap that has plagued the profession for decades. In this article, action research is defined, and special considerations that counselor researchers need to address when designing, conducting, and…
How does brain research support the recommendations from Breaking Ranks? There was a great deal of information about specific schools that have implemented recommendations from Breaking Ranks. Although many of the articles described specific types of data used to inform decisions, none was available on how brain based research was used or how it…
The Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC) is an international organization made up of partnerships with universities and research organizations all working to "stimulate national and international debate; deepen understanding of the causes of chronic poverty; and provide research, analysis and policy guidance." The CPRC's website has more than 400 publications that visitors can download. There are "Working Papers Series" for India, Bangladesh and West Africa, which address everything from child laborers, spatial inequality in social progress, and technological change in food production. There are also "Policy Briefs" and "Journal Articles" visitors can download. The "Toolbox" is an excellent and unique resource for researchers, donor agencies, and students to learn how to use a mix of methodological approaches to better reflect the multi-dimensionality and complexity of poverty. Visitors will find such areas of guidance as "Designing Research," "Collecting Data," "Dissemination," and "Impact Assessment" that can aid in producing relevant and rigorous research.
By writing scientific articles we communicate science among colleagues and peers. By doing this, it is our responsibility to adhere to some basic principles like transparency and accuracy. Authors, journal editors and reviewers need to be concerned about the quality of the work submitted for publication and ensure that only studies which have been designed, conducted and reported in a transparent way, honestly and without any deviation from the truth get to be published. Any such trend or deviation from the truth in data collection, analysis, interpretation and publication is called bias. Bias in research can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. Bias causes false conclusions and is potentially misleading. Therefore, it is immoral and unethical to conduct biased research. Every scientist should thus be aware of all potential sources of bias and undertake all possible actions to reduce or minimize the deviation from the truth. This article describes some basic issues related to bias in research. PMID:23457761
Dressen-hammouda, Dacia; M Swales, John
There has been considerable interest over the past 15 years in the scientific research article, its schematic structure and how it responds to discourse community expectations. While these features have been widely investigated in numerous disciplines, relatively scant attention has been paid to the important discipline of geology. Moreover, within the sub-discipline of petrology, we find a sub-section as yet unrecognized in the extensive literature on the research article. The 'Geological Se...
The qualitative educational research literature is increasingly advocating the use of literary/artistic techniques. This article describes and evaluates educational action researches by three art teachers, and questions why they have not capitalised methodologically on their artistic expertise. Analysis of commonalities in practitioner-based…
Parsell, Mitch; Ambler, Trudy; Jacenyik-Trawoger, Christa
Many educational researchers have experienced challenges in obtaining ethics approval. This article explores some of the reasons why this is the case, looking specifically at the participatory action research methodology. The authors' experience of seeking ethics approval for a project intended to introduce peer review as an enhancement…
Strawn, George O.
As Yogi Berra said, "Predictions are hard, especially about the future." In this article, the author offers a few forward-looking observations about the emerging impact of information technology on scientific research. Scientific research refers to a particular method for acquiring knowledge about natural phenomena. This method has two dimensions:…
McCutcheon, Gail; Jung, Burga
Action research can take on different characteristics because underlying it are differing epistemological assumptions, which in turn shape methodological choices as well as how problems are formulated. This article examines three perspectives, and their accompanying methodologies, common to action research: positivism, interpretivism, and critical…
Davison, Kevin G.
This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…
McKee, Heidi A.; Porter, James E.
What are the key ethical issues involved in conducting archival research? Based on examination of cases and interviews with leading archival researchers in composition, this article discusses several ethical questions and offers a heuristic to guide ethical decision making. Key to this process is recognizing the person-ness of archival materials.…